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Publications of Redford B. Williams    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds341568,
   Author = {Fanaroff, AC and Prather, K and Brucker, A and Wojdyla, D and Davidson-Ray, L and Mark, DB and Williams, RB and Barefoot, J and Weisz,
             G and Ben-Yehuda, O and Stone, GW and Ohman, EM and Alexander,
             KP},
   Title = {Relationship Between Optimism and Outcomes in Patients With
             Chronic Angina Pectoris.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.036},
   Abstract = {Greater optimism regarding recovery from chronic illness is
             associated with improved quality of life and clinical
             outcomes. We performed a post-hoc analysis on the
             association between optimism and outcomes in Ranolazine in
             Patients with Incomplete Revascularization after
             Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (RIVER-PCI), a randomized
             trial in patients with chronic angina pectoris who had
             incomplete revascularization following percutaneous coronary
             intervention. At baseline, patients answered how much they
             agreed with the phrase, "I am optimistic about my future and
             returning to a normal lifestyle." We evaluated the
             association between baseline optimism and time to
             ischemia-driven hospitalization or revascularization using a
             Cox model, and the association between baseline optimism and
             change in frequency of angina pectoris using a mixed
             measures model. Of 2,389 patients, 782 (33.2%) were very
             optimistic ("strongly agree"), 1,000 (42.4%) were optimistic
             ("agree"), 451 (19.1%) were neutral ("undecided"), and 123
             (5.2%) were not optimistic ("disagree" or "strongly
             disagree"). Very optimistic patients had a lower prevalence
             of co-morbidities and less severe angina at baseline than
             less optimistic patients. The rate of ischemia-driven
             revascularization or hospitalization was higher in neutral
             and not optimistic patients compared with very optimistic
             patients; this finding persisted after adjustment for
             co-morbidities and baseline angina frequency (hazard ratio
             1.42, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.77 for neutral vs
             very optimistic; hazard ratio 1.38, 95% confidence interval
             0.98 to 1.94 for not optimistic vs very optimistic). Neutral
             and not optimistic patients also had less improvement in
             angina than very optimistic patients. In conclusion, in
             patients with angina, those with more self-reported optimism
             had better health status outcomes. Whether structured
             interventions targeting optimism improve outcomes in these
             patients warrants further study.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.01.036},
   Key = {fds341568}
}

@article{fds339435,
   Author = {Do, EK and Haberstick, BC and Williams, RB and Lessem, JM and Smolen, A and Siegler, IC and Fuemmeler, BF},
   Title = {The role of genetic and environmental influences on the
             association between childhood ADHD symptoms and
             BMI.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Obesity (2005)},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33-42},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0236-5},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Although childhood attention deficit
             hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been previously associated
             with concurrent and later obesity in adulthood, the etiology
             of this association remains unclear. The objective of this
             study is to determine the shared genetic effects of ADHD
             symptoms and BMI in a large sample of sibling pairs,
             consider how these shared effects may vary over time, and
             examine potential sex differences. SUBJECT/METHODS:Sibling
             pair data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study
             of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health); childhood ADHD
             symptoms were reported retrospectively during young
             adulthood, while three prospective measurements of BMI were
             available from young adulthood to later adulthood. Cholesky
             decomposition models were fit to this data using Mx and
             maximum-likelihood estimation. The twin and sibling sample
             for these analyses included: 221 monozygotic (MZ) pairs (92
             male-male, 139 female-female), 228 dizygotic (DZ) pairs (123
             male-male, 105 female-female), 471 full-sibling (FS) pairs
             (289 male-male, 182 female-female), 106 male-female DZ twin
             pairs, and 234 male-female FS pairs. RESULTS:The magnitude
             of the association between childhood ADHD symptoms and BMI
             changed over time and by sex. The etiological relationship
             between childhood ADHD symptoms and the three prospective
             measurements of BMI differed for males and females, such
             that unique or non-shared environmental influences
             contributed to the relationship within males and genetic
             factors contributed to the relationship within females.
             Specifically, among females, genetic influences on childhood
             ADHD symptoms were partially shared with those effecting BMI
             and increased from adolescence to later adulthood (genetic
             correlation = 0.20 (95% CI: 0.07-0.36) in adolescence
             and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.41) in adulthood).
             CONCLUSION:Genetic influences on ADHD symptoms in childhood
             are partially shared with those effecting obesity. However,
             future research is needed to determine why this association
             is limited to females.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41366-018-0236-5},
   Key = {fds339435}
}

@article{fds338216,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Brummett, BH and Kuhn, CM and Barefoot, JC and Siegler,
             IC and Williams, RB and Georgiades, A},
   Title = {The Effects of Tryptophan Enhancement and Depletion on
             Plasma Catecholamine Levels in Healthy Individuals.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {34-40},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/psy.0000000000000637},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:Central nervous system (CNS) serotonin (5-HT)
             exerts both excitatory and inhibitory effects on the
             sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in animals. In this study,
             we examine the effects of tryptophan enhancement and
             depletion on plasma catecholamine levels in humans.
             METHODS:The total sample consisted of 164 healthy men and
             women who were tested for 2 days. Seventy-nine participants
             were randomized to a tryptophan enhancement condition and 85
             to a tryptophan depletion condition. Both protocols
             consisted of a "sham day," followed by an "active day."
             Blood samples for assessment of plasma norepinephrine and
             epinephrine levels were collected before and after
             tryptophan enhancement/depletion. Data were analyzed using
             general linear models. Separate analyses were conducted for
             each study arm and for each measure. RESULTS:In the
             depletion condition, both epinephrine (F(5,330) = 2.69, p =
             .021) and norepinephrine (F(5,335) = 2.79, p = .018) showed
             small increases on active versus "sham" depletion days.
             There were also significant day by time interactions for
             epinephrine (F(3,171) = 39.32, p < .0001) and norepinephrine
             (F(3,195) = 31.09, p < .0001) levels in the enhancement arm.
             Tryptophan infusion resulted in a marked increase in
             epinephrine (Premean = 23.92 (12.23) versus Postmean = 81.57
             (62.36)) and decrease in norepinephrine (Premean = 257.2
             (106.11) versus Postmean = 177.04 (87.15)), whereas levels
             of both catecholamines were stable on the "sham day."
             CONCLUSIONS:CNS 5-HT exerts both inhibitory and excitatory
             effects on SNS activity in humans, potentially due to
             stimulation of CNS 5-HT receptors that have shown to have
             inhibitory (5-HT1A) and excitatory (5-HT1A and/or 5-HT2) SNS
             effects in animal models.},
   Doi = {10.1097/psy.0000000000000637},
   Key = {fds338216}
}

@article{fds339436,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Kwee, L and Shah, SH and Singh, A and Babyak, MA and Brummett,
             BH and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Hauser, ER},
   Title = {Understanding of DNA methylation in the biological basis of
             stress related cardiovascular disease},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {708-708},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds339436}
}

@article{fds339437,
   Author = {Singh, A and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Kraus, WE and Siegler, IC and Hauser, ER and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Harmonizing psychosocial stress and CVD-risk variables for
             developing robust estimates of GxE analyses},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {731-731},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds339437}
}

@article{fds338217,
   Author = {Clemow, LP and Pickering, TG and Davidson, KW and Schwartz, JE and Williams, VP and Shaffer, JA and Williams, RB and Gerin,
             W},
   Title = {Stress management in the workplace for employees with
             hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {Translational Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {761-770},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/iby018},
   Abstract = {While behavioral interventions can improve blood pressure
             (BP) in individuals with hypertension, getting such services
             to people who could benefit remains difficult. Workplace
             programs have potential as dissemination vehicles. The
             objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a standardized
             stress management program delivered in groups at the
             workplace for reducing BP compared with enhanced usual care.
             This randomized controlled trial studied 92 urban medical
             center employees with hypertension randomized into two
             groups. The intervention was a 10-week group workshop on
             cognitive-behavioral coping skills. Enhanced usual care
             included self-help materials for BP reduction and physician
             referral. Intervention group participants' systolic BP (SBP)
             decreased 7.5 mm Hg over controls between baseline and
             follow-up, from 149.1 (95% CI: 146.0-152.1) to 140.0 (95%
             CI: 134.7-145.2), p < .001. The differential change between
             intervention and enhanced usual care groups (Group × Time
             interaction) was 7.5 mm Hg (t = -2.05; p = .04). Diastolic
             BP reductions were not significantly different. Scores on
             measures of emotional exhaustion and depressive rumination
             showed significant improvements and correlated with
             reductions in SBP. There was no significant change in the
             usual care group. A standardized worksite group intervention
             produced clinically meaningful reductions in SBP in
             participants with hypertension.},
   Doi = {10.1093/tbm/iby018},
   Key = {fds338217}
}

@article{fds336098,
   Author = {Singh, A and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Kraus, WE and Siegler, IC and Hauser, ER and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Developing a synthetic psychosocial stress measure and
             harmonizing CVD-risk data: a way forward to GxE meta- and
             mega-analyses.},
   Journal = {Bmc Research Notes},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {504},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3595-z},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Among many challenges in cardiovascular disease
             (CVD) risk prediction are interactions of genes with stress,
             race, and/or sex and developing robust estimates of these
             interactions. Improved power with larger sample size
             contributed by the accumulation of epidemiological data
             could be helpful, but integration of these datasets is
             difficult due the absence of standardized phenotypic
             measures. In this paper, we describe the details of our
             undertaking to harmonize a dozen datasets and provide a
             detailed account of a number of decisions made in the
             process. RESULTS:We harmonized candidate genetic variants
             and CVD-risk variables related to demography, adiposity,
             hypertension, lipodystrophy, hypertriglyceridemia,
             hyperglycemia, depressive symptom, and chronic psychosocial
             stress from a dozen studies. Using our synthetic stress
             algorithm, we constructed a synthetic chronic psychosocial
             stress measure in nine out of twelve studies where a formal
             self-rated stress measure was not available. The
             mega-analytic partial correlation between the stress measure
             and depressive symptoms while controlling for the effect of
             study variable in the combined dataset was significant
             (Rho = 0.27, p < 0.0001). This evidence of the
             validity and the detailed account of our data harmonization
             approaches demonstrated that it is possible to overcome the
             inconsistencies in the collection and measurement of human
             health risk variables.},
   Doi = {10.1186/s13104-018-3595-z},
   Key = {fds336098}
}

@article{fds336099,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Surwit, RS and Lane, JD and Siegler, IC and Kuhn, CM and Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Babyak, MA and Costa, P and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {REDUCED ADRENAL MEDULLARY ACTIVITY MAY BE IMPORTANT FOR THE
             MAINTENANCE OF NORMAL GLUCOSE REGULATION IN THE OBESE
             STATE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A65-A65},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds336099}
}

@article{fds339438,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Singh, A and Hauser, ER and Jiang, R and Huffman, KM and Kraus, WE and Shah, SH and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Lack of Association of a Functional Polymorphism in the
             Serotonin Receptor Gene With Body Mass Index and Depressive
             Symptoms in a Large Meta-Analysis of Population Based
             Studies.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Genetics},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {423},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00423},
   Abstract = {The serotonin receptor 5-HTR2C is thought to be involved in
             the function of multiple brain structures. Consequently, the
             HTR2C gene has been studied extensively with respect to its
             association with a variety of phenotypes. One coding variant
             in the HTR2C gene, Cys23Ser (rs6318), has been associated
             with depressive symptoms. and adiposity; however, these
             findings have been inconsistent. The reasons for this mixed
             picture may be due to low statistical power or due to other
             factors such as failure to account for possible interacting
             environmental factors, such as psychosocial stress. Further,
             the literature around this polymorphism is marked by limited
             inclusion of persons of African ancestry. The present study
             sought to overcome these limitations and definitively
             determine the relationship of this polymorphism with
             depressive and obesity phenotypes in a large sample
             meta-analysis. Thus, we harmonized individual level data
             from 10 studies including the Women's Health Initiative,
             CARDIA, ARIC, Framingham Offspring, and the Jackson Heart
             Study, resulting in a sample of 27,161 individuals (10,457
             Black women, 2,819 Black men, 7,419 White women, and 6,466
             White men). We conducted a random effects meta-analysis
             using individual level data to examine whether the Cys23Ser
             variant-either directly, or conditionally depending on the
             level of psychosocial stress-was associated with depressive
             symptoms and body mass index (BMI). We found that
             psychosocial stress was associated with both depression and
             BMI, but that Cys23Ser was not directly associated with, nor
             did it modify the associations of psychosocial stress with
             depression or BMI. Thus, in the largest study of this
             polymorphism, we have determined that rs6318 is not
             associated with depression, or BMI.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fgene.2018.00423},
   Key = {fds339438}
}

@article{fds330191,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Hauser, ER and Haberstick,
             BC and Smolen, A and Siegler, IC and Harris, KM and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Gender Differences in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
             (BDNF) Val66Met Variants and Stressful Life Events on
             Psychological and Metabolic Phenotypes},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {665-665},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds330191}
}

@article{fds330190,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Hauser, ER and Singh, A and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The effect of Brain- Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)
             Val66Met Variants on the Path from Psychosocial Stress to
             Depression, Body Mass Index and Pre-Clinical
             Atherosclerosis},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {665-666},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds330190}
}

@article{fds326787,
   Author = {Proeschold-Bell, RJ and Turner, EL and Bennett, GG and Yao, J and Li,
             X-F and Eagle, DE and Meyer, RA and Williams, RB and Swift, RY and Moore,
             HE and Kolkin, MA and Weisner, CC and Rugani, KM and Hough, HJ and Williams, VP and Toole, DC},
   Title = {A 2-Year Holistic Health and Stress Intervention: Results of
             an RCT in Clergy.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {290-299},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.009},
   Abstract = {This study sought to determine the effect of a 2-year,
             multicomponent health intervention (Spirited Life) targeting
             metabolic syndrome and stress simultaneously.An RCT using a
             three-cohort multiple baseline design was conducted in
             2010-2014.Participants were United Methodist clergy in North
             Carolina, U.S., in 2010, invited based on occupational
             status. Of invited 1,745 clergy, 1,114 consented, provided
             baseline data, and were randomly assigned to immediate
             intervention (n=395), 1-year waitlist (n=283), or 2-year
             waitlist (n=436) cohorts for a 48-month trial duration.The
             2-year intervention consisted of personal goal setting and
             encouragement to engage in monthly health coaching, an
             online weight loss intervention, a small grant, and three
             workshops delivering stress management and theological
             content supporting healthy behaviors. Participants were not
             blinded to intervention.Trial outcomes were metabolic
             syndrome (primary) and self-reported stress and depressive
             symptoms (secondary). Intervention effects were estimated in
             2016 in an intention-to-treat framework using generalized
             estimating equations with adjustment for baseline level of
             the outcome and follow-up time points. Log-link Poisson
             generalized estimating equations with robust SEs was used to
             estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for binary outcomes; mean
             differences were used for continuous/score outcomes.Baseline
             prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.9% and depression
             was 11.4%. The 12-month intervention effect showed a benefit
             for metabolic syndrome (PR=0.86, 95% CI=0.79, 0.94,
             p<0.001). This benefit was sustained at 24 months of
             intervention (PR=0.88; 95% CI=0.78, 1.00, p=0.04). There was
             no significant effect on depression or stress scores.The
             Spirited Life intervention improved metabolic syndrome
             prevalence in a population of U.S. Christian clergy and
             sustained improvements during 24 months of intervention.
             These findings offer support for long-duration behavior
             change interventions and population-level interventions that
             allow participants to set their own health goals.This study
             is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT01564719.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.009},
   Key = {fds326787}
}

@article{fds327309,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Hauser, ER and Shah, SH and Becker, RC and Siegler, IC and Singh, A and Haynes, C and Chryst-Ladd,
             M and Craig, DM and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor rs6265 (Val66Met)
             polymorphism is associated with disease severity and
             incidence of cardiovascular events in a patient
             cohort.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {190},
   Pages = {40-45},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.05.002},
   Abstract = {The rs6265 (Val66Met) single-nucleotide polymorphism in the
             BDNF gene has been related to a number of endophenotypes
             that have in turn been shown to confer risk for
             atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). To date,
             however, very few studies have examined the association of
             the Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism with CVD
             clinical outcomes.In a cohort of 5,510 Caucasian patients
             enrolled in the CATHeterization GENetics (CATHGEN) study at
             Duke University Hospital between 2001 and 2011, we
             determined the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) and
             CVD event incidence through up to 11.8years of follow-up. We
             examined the association of Val66Met genotype with
             time-to-death or myocardial infarction, adjusting for age,
             sex, CAD risk variables, and CAD severity measures.The
             Val/Val genotype was associated with a higher risk than Met
             carriers for clinical CVD events (P=.034, hazard ratio 1.12,
             95% CI 1.01-1.24). In addition, compared with Met carriers,
             individuals with the Val/Val genotype had a greater odds of
             having more diseased vessels (odds ratio 1.17, 95% CI
             1.06-1.30, P=.002), and lower left ventricular ejection
             fraction (β=-0.72, 95% CI, -1.42 to -0.02, P=.044).The
             Val/Val genotype was associated with greater severity of CAD
             and incidence of CVD-related clinical events in a patient
             sample. If these findings are confirmed in further research,
             intervention studies in clinical groups with the Val/Val
             genotype could be undertaken to prevent disease and improve
             prognosis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2017.05.002},
   Key = {fds327309}
}

@article{fds326041,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Kuhn, CM and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met
             polymorphism interacts with gender to influence cortisol
             responses to mental stress.},
   Journal = {Psychoneuroendocrinology},
   Volume = {79},
   Pages = {13-19},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.02.005},
   Abstract = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met
             polymorphism has been associated with cortisol responses to
             stress with gender differences reported, although the
             findings are not entirely consistent. To evaluate the role
             of Val66Met genotype and gender on cortisol responses to
             stress, we conducted a 45-min mental stress protocol
             including four tasks and four rest periods. Blood cortisol
             was collected for assay immediately before and after each
             task and rest period. A significant two-way interaction of
             Val66Met genotype×gender (P=0.022) was observed on the
             total area under the curve (AUC), a total cortisol response
             over time, such that the Val/Val genotype was associated
             with a larger cortisol response to stress as compared to the
             Met group in women but not in men. Further contrast analyses
             between the Val/Val and Met group for each stress task
             showed a similar increased cortisol pattern among women
             Val/Val genotype but not among men. The present findings
             indicate the gender differences in the effect of Val66Met
             genotype on the cortisol responses to stress protocol, and
             extend the evidence for the importance of gender and the
             role of Val66Met in the modulation of stress reactivity and
             subsequent depression prevalence. Further studies and the
             underlying mechanism need to be investigated, which may
             provide an insight for prevention, intervention, and
             treatment strategies that target those at high
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.02.005},
   Key = {fds326041}
}

@article{fds323972,
   Author = {Sun, JL and Boyle, SH and Samad, Z and Babyak, MA and Wilson, JL and Kuhn,
             C and Becker, RC and Ortel, TL and Williams, RB and Rogers, JG and O'Connor, CM and Velazquez, EJ and Jiang, W},
   Title = {Mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction and
             adverse outcome in ischemic heart disease
             patients.},
   Journal = {European Journal of Preventive Cardiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {591-599},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487316686435},
   Abstract = {Aims Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI)
             occurs in up to 70% of patients with clinically stable
             ischemic heart disease and is associated with increased risk
             of adverse prognosis. We aimed to examine the prognostic
             value of indices of MSIMI and exercise stress-induced
             myocardial ischemia (ESIMI) in a population of ischemic
             heart disease patients that was not confined by having a
             recent positive physical stress test. Methods and results
             The Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia
             to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) study enrolled 310
             subjects who underwent mental and exercise stress testing
             and were followed annually for a median of four years. Study
             endpoints included time to first and total rate of major
             adverse cardiovascular events, defined as all-cause
             mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular causes.
             Cox and negative binomial regression adjusting for age, sex,
             resting left ventricular ejection fraction, and heart
             failure status were used to examine associations of indices
             of MSIMI and ESIMI with study endpoints. The continuous
             variable of mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection
             fraction change was significantly associated with both
             endpoints (all p values < 0.05). For every reduction of
             5% in left ventricular ejection fraction induced by mental
             stress, patients had a 5% increase in the probability of a
             major adverse cardiovascular event at the median follow-up
             time and a 20% increase in the number of major adverse
             cardiovascular events endured over the follow-up period of
             six years. Indices of ESIMI did not predict endpoints (
             ps > 0.05). Conclusion In patients with stable ischemic
             heart disease, mental, but not exercise, stress-induced left
             ventricular ejection fraction change significantly predicts
             risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.},
   Doi = {10.1177/2047487316686435},
   Key = {fds323972}
}

@article{fds324877,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Bishop, GD and Haberstick, BC and Smolen, A and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Babyak, MA and Zhang, X and Tai, ES and Lee, JJ-M and Tan, M and Teo, YY and Cai, S and Chan, E and Halpern, CT and Whitsel, EA and Bauldry, S and Harris, KM},
   Title = {Population differences in associations of serotonin
             transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) di- and
             triallelic genotypes with blood pressure and hypertension
             prevalence.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {185},
   Pages = {110-122},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2016.12.013},
   Abstract = {Based on prior research finding the 5HTTLPR L allele
             associated with increased cardiovascular reactivity to
             laboratory stressors and increased risk of myocardial
             infarction, we hypothesized that the 5HTTLPR L allele will
             be associated with increased blood pressure (BP) and
             increased hypertension prevalence in 2 large nationally
             representative samples in the United States and
             Singapore.Logistic regression and linear models tested
             associations between triallelic (L'S', based on rs25531)
             5HTTLPR genotypes and hypertension severity and mean
             systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP)
             collected during the Wave IV survey of the National
             Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add
             Health, N=11,815) in 2008-09 and during 2004-07 in 4196
             Singaporeans.In US Whites, L' allele carriers had higher SBP
             (0.9 mm Hg, 95% CI=0.26-1.56) and greater odds (OR=1.23, 95%
             CI=1.10-1.38) of more severe hypertension than those with
             S'S' genotypes. In African Americans, L' carriers had lower
             mean SBP (-1.27mm Hg, 95% CI=-2.53 to -0.01) and lower odds
             (OR = 0.78, 95% CI=0.65-0.94) of more severe hypertension
             than those with the S'S' genotype. In African Americans,
             those with L'L' genotypes had lower DBP (-1.13mm Hg, 95%
             CI=-2.09 to -0.16) than S' carriers. In Native Americans, L'
             carriers had lower SBP (-6.05mm Hg, 95% CI=-9.59 to -2.51)
             and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.34, 95% CI=0.13-0.89)
             than those with the S'S' genotype. In Asian/Pacific
             Islanders those carrying the L' allele had lower DBP
             (-1.77mm Hg, 95% CI=-3.16 to -0.38) and lower odds of
             hypertension (OR = 0.68, 95% CI=0.48-0.96) than those with
             S'S'. In the Singapore sample S' carriers had higher SBP
             (3.02mm Hg, 95% CI=0.54-5.51) and DBP (1.90mm Hg, 95%
             CI=0.49-3.31) than those with the L'L' genotype.These
             findings suggest that Whites carrying the L' allele, African
             Americans and Native Americans with the S'S' genotype, and
             Asians carrying the S' allele will be found to be at higher
             risk of developing cardiovascular disease and may benefit
             from preventive measures.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2016.12.013},
   Key = {fds324877}
}

@article{fds323971,
   Author = {Feigal, JP and Boyle, SH and Samad, Z and Velazquez, EJ and Wilson, JL and Becker, RC and Williams, RB and Kuhn, CM and Ortel, TL and Rogers, JG and O'Connor, CM and Jiang, W},
   Title = {Associations between positive emotional well-being and
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia: Well-being scores
             predict exercise-induced ischemia.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {93},
   Pages = {14-18},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.11.012},
   Abstract = {Depressive symptoms have been associated with myocardial
             ischemia induced by mental (MSIMI) and exercise (ESIMI)
             stress in clinically stable ischemic heart disease (IHD)
             patients, but the association between positive emotions and
             inducible ischemia is less well characterized. The objective
             of this study was to examine the associations between
             ratings of well-being and stress-induced ischemia.Subjects
             were adult patients with documented IHD underwent mental and
             exercise stress testing for the Responses of Myocardial
             Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) trial. The
             General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS), with higher scores
             reflecting greater subjective well-being, and the Center for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were obtained
             from the REMIT participants. Echocardiography was used to
             measure ischemic responses to mental stress and Bruce
             protocol treadmill exercise testing. Data were analyzed
             using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, resting
             left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and resting wall
             motion score index, as well as health-related behaviors.GWBS
             scores were obtained for 210 individuals, with MSIMI present
             in 92 (43.8%) and ESIMI present in 64 (30.5%). There was a
             significant inverse correlation between GWBS-PE (Positive
             Emotion subscale) scores and probability of ESIMI (OR=0.55
             (95%CI 0.36-0.83), p=0.005). This association persisted
             after additional control for CESD subscales measuring
             negative and positive emotions and for variables reflecting
             health-related behaviors. A similar inverse correlation
             between GWBS-PE and MSIMI was observed, but did not reach
             statistical significance (OR=0.81 (95%CI 0.54-1.20),
             p=0.28).This is, to our knowledge, the first study
             demonstrating that greater levels of self-reported positive
             emotions are associated with a lower likelihood of ESIMI
             among patients with known IHD. Our results highlight the
             important interface functions of the central nervous and
             cardiovascular systems and underscore areas for future
             investigation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.11.012},
   Key = {fds323971}
}

@article{fds322776,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Loneliness and social isolation and increased risk of
             coronary heart disease and stroke: clinical
             implications.},
   Journal = {Heart},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {2016},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2016-310073},
   Doi = {10.1136/heartjnl-2016-310073},
   Key = {fds322776}
}

@article{fds320372,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Hauser, ER and Singh, A and Siegler, IC and Shah, SH and Haynes, C and Chryst-Ladd, M and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Variants (RS6265)
             are Associated with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) Outcomes in
             a Patient Sample},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {643-643},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds320372}
}

@article{fds320373,
   Author = {Singh, A and Hauser, ER and Johnson, JL and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Jiang, R and Slentz, CA and Huffman, KM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB and Kraus, WE},
   Title = {Follow-up of GxE Interactions: EBF1 GxE Association,
             Synthetic Chronic Psychosocial Stress, and Dropout from a
             Structured Exercise Program},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {662-663},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds320373}
}

@article{fds314987,
   Author = {Haberstick, BC and Boardman, JD and Wagner, B and Smolen, A and Hewitt,
             JK and Killeya-Jones, LA and Tabor, J and Halpern, CT and Brummett, BH and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC and Hopfer, CJ and Mullan Harris,
             K},
   Title = {Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of
             Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the
             National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health
             (Add Health).},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {e0148373},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148373},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele
             of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been
             implicated to moderate the relationship between the
             experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression.
             Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation,
             results remain inconclusive. METHODS:We examined this
             relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and
             females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724)
             participating in the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up
             information every six years since 1995. RESULTS:Linear and
             logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing,
             indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were
             more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and
             at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved
             in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression
             was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher
             numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to
             replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did
             find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and
             5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females.
             There were no effects of childhood maltreatment.
             DISCUSSION:Our results provide partial support for the
             original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with
             the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of
             depression during young adulthood. However, even with this
             large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis
             plan, the results were still not definitive. For the
             purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other
             large data sets with extensive environmental and depression
             measures is needed.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0148373},
   Key = {fds314987}
}

@article{fds277153,
   Author = {Singh, A and Babyak, MA and Brummett, BH and Jiang, R and Watkins, LL and Barefoot, JC and Kraus, WE and Shah, SH and Siegler, IC and Hauser, ER and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Computing a Synthetic Chronic Psychosocial Stress
             Measurement in Multiple Datasets and its Application in the
             Replication of G × E Interactions of the EBF1
             Gene.},
   Journal = {Genetic Epidemiology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {489-497},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0741-0395},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.21910},
   Abstract = {Chronic psychosocial stress adversely affects health and is
             associated with the development of disease [Williams, 2008].
             Systematic epidemiological and genetic studies are needed to
             uncover genetic variants that interact with stress to modify
             metabolic responses across the life cycle that are the
             proximal contributors to the development of cardiovascular
             disease and precipitation of acute clinical events. Among
             the central challenges in the field are to perform and
             replicate gene-by-environment (G × E) studies. The
             challenge of measurement of individual experience of
             psychosocial stress is magnified in this context. Although
             many research datasets exist that contain genotyping and
             disease-related data, measures of psychosocial stress are
             often either absent or vary substantially across studies. In
             this paper, we provide an algorithm to create a synthetic
             measure of chronic psychosocial stress across multiple
             datasets, applying a consistent criterion that uses proxy
             indicators of stress components. We validated the computed
             scores of chronic psychosocial stress by observing
             moderately strong and significant correlations with the
             self-rated chronic psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic
             Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort (Rho = 0.23, P < 0.0001) and
             with the measures of depressive symptoms in five datasets
             (Rho = 0.15-0.42, Ps = 0.005 to <0.0001) and by comparing
             the distributions of the self-rated and computed measures.
             Finally, we demonstrate the utility of this computed chronic
             psychosocial stress variable by providing three additional
             replications of our previous finding of gene-by-stress
             interaction with central obesity traits [Singh et al.,
             2015].},
   Doi = {10.1002/gepi.21910},
   Key = {fds277153}
}

@article{fds277154,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Matson, WR and Velazquez, EJ and Samad, Z and Williams,
             RB and Sharma, S and Thomas, B and Wilson, JL and O'Connor, C and Jiang,
             W},
   Title = {Metabolomics analysis reveals insights into biochemical
             mechanisms of mental stress-induced left ventricular
             dysfunction.},
   Journal = {Metabolomics : Official Journal of the Metabolomic
             Society},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {571-582},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1573-3882},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-014-0718-y},
   Abstract = {Mental stress induced left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) has
             been associated with a greater risk of adverse events in
             coronary heart disease (CHD) patients independent of
             conventional risk indicators. The underlying biochemical
             mechanisms of this cardiovascular condition are poorly
             understood. Our objective was to use metabolomics technology
             to identify biochemical changes that co-occur with mental
             stress-induced LVD in patients with clinically stable CHD.
             Participants were adult CHD patients who were recruited for
             mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia screening. For
             this study, we randomly selected 30 patients representing
             the extremes of the mental stress-induced left ventricular
             ejection fraction (LVEF) change distribution; 15 who showed
             LVD (i.e. LVEF reduction ≥5) and 15 who showed a normal
             left ventricular response (NLVR; i.e. a LVEF increase of
             ≥5) to three mental stressors. An electrochemistry based
             metabolomics platform was used to profile pre- and
             post-stress serum samples yielding data for 22 known
             compounds, primarily within the tyrosine, tryptophan, purine
             and methionine pathways. There were significant
             stress-induced changes in several compounds. A comparison
             between the NLVR and LVD groups showed significant effects
             for kynurenine (p = .036, N-acetylserotonin (p = .054), uric
             acid (p = .015), tyrosine (p = .019) and a trend for
             methionine (p = .065); the NLVR group showed a significantly
             greater stress-induced reduction in all of those compounds
             compared to the LVD group. Many of these biochemicals have
             been implicated in other stress-related phenomena and are
             plausible candidates for mechanisms underlying LVD in
             response to mental stress.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11306-014-0718-y},
   Key = {fds277154}
}

@article{fds277156,
   Author = {Haberstick, BC and Smolen, A and Williams, RB and Bishop, GD and Foshee,
             VA and Thornberry, TP and Conger, R and Siegler, IC and Zhang, X and Boardman, JD and Frajzyngier, Z and Stallings, MC and Brent
             Donnellan, M and Halpern, CT and Harris, KM},
   Title = {Population frequencies of the Triallelic 5HTTLPR in six
             Ethnicially diverse samples from North America, Southeast
             Asia, and Africa.},
   Journal = {Behavior Genetics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {255-261},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0001-8244},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9703-5},
   Abstract = {Genetic differences between populations are potentially an
             important contributor to health disparities around the
             globe. As differences in gene frequencies influence study
             design, it is important to have a thorough understanding of
             the natural variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest.
             Along these lines, we characterized the variation of the
             5HTTLPR and rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North
             America, Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ
             in their racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype
             frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results
             indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among
             Black and African populations as compared with White,
             Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a
             greater number of 'extra-long' ('XL') 5HTTLPR alleles than
             have previously been reported. Extra-long alleles occurred
             almost entirely among Asian, Black and Non-White Hispanic
             populations as compared with White and Native American
             populations where they were completely absent. Lastly, when
             considered jointly, we observed between sample differences
             in the genotype frequencies within racial and ethnic
             populations. Taken together, these data underscore the
             importance of characterizing the L-G allele to avoid
             misclassification of participants by genotype and for
             further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the
             transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10519-014-9703-5},
   Key = {fds277156}
}

@article{fds277162,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Georgiades, A and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Siegler, IC and Matson, WR and Kuhn, CM and Grichnik, K and Stafford-Smith, M and Williams, RB and Kaddurah-Daouk, R and Surwit,
             RS},
   Title = {Associations between central nervous system serotonin,
             fasting glucose, and hostility in African American
             females.},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-57},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-014-9626-7},
   Abstract = {Previous research has shown an association between hostility
             and fasting glucose in African American women. Central
             nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in
             metabolic processes and in hostility related traits.The
             purpose of this study is to determine whether central
             nervous system serotonin influences the association between
             hostility and fasting glucose in African American women.The
             study consisted of 119 healthy volunteers (36 African
             American women, 27 White women, 21 White males, and 35
             African American males, mean age 34 ± 8.5 years).
             Serotonin related compounds were measured in cerebrospinal
             fluid. Hostility was measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility
             Scale.Hostility was associated with fasting glucose and
             central nervous system serotonin related compounds in
             African American women only. Controlling for the serotonin
             related compounds significantly reduced the association of
             hostility to glucose.The positive correlation between
             hostility and fasting glucose in African American women can
             partly be explained by central nervous system serotonin
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-014-9626-7},
   Key = {fds277162}
}

@article{fds277155,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Boyle, SH and Ortel, TL and Samad, Z and Velazquez, EJ and Harrison, RW and Wilson, J and Kuhn, C and Williams, RB and O'Connor,
             CM and Becker, RC},
   Title = {Platelet aggregation and mental stress induced myocardial
             ischemia: Results from the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia
             to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) study},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {496-507.e1},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.12.002},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier Inc. Background Mental stress-induced
             myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) is common in patients with
             ischemic heart disease (IHD) and associated with a poorer
             cardiovascular prognosis. Platelet hyperactivity is an
             important factor in acute coronary syndrome. This study
             examined associations between MSIMI and resting and mental
             stress-induced platelet activity. Methods Eligible patients
             with clinically stable IHD underwent a battery of 3 mental
             stress tests during the recruitment phase of REMIT study.
             MSIMI was assessed by echocardiography and
             electrocardiography. Ex vivo platelet aggregation in
             response to ADP, epinephrine, collagen, serotonin, and
             combinations of serotonin plus ADP, epinephrine, and
             collagen were evaluated as was platelet serotonin
             transporter expression. Results Of the 270 participants who
             completed mental stress testing, and had both resting and
             post-stress platelet aggregation evaluation, 43.33% (n =
             117) met criteria for MSIMI and 18.15% (n = 49) had normal
             left ventricular response to stress (NLVR). The MSIMI group,
             relative to the NLVR groups, demonstrated heightened mental
             stress-induced aggregation responses, as measured by area
             under the curve, to collagen 10 μM (6.95[5.54] vs.
             -14.23[8.75].; P = 0.045), epinephrine 10 μM (12.84[4.84]
             vs. -6.40[7.61].; P = 0.037) and to serotonin 10 μM plus
             ADP 1 μM (6.64[5.29] vs. -27.34[8.34]; P <.001). The
             resting platelet aggregation and serotonin transporter
             expression, however, were not different between the two
             groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that the dynamic
             change of platelet aggregation caused by mental stress may
             underlie MSIMI. While the importance of these findings
             requires additional investigation, they raise concern given
             the recognized relationship between mental stress-induced
             platelet hyperactivity and cardiovascular events in patients
             with IHD.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2014.12.002},
   Key = {fds277155}
}

@article{fds277160,
   Author = {Singh, A and Babyak, MA and Nolan, DK and Brummett, BH and Jiang, R and Siegler, IC and Kraus, WE and Shah, SH and Williams, RB and Hauser,
             ER},
   Title = {Gene by stress genome-wide interaction analysis and path
             analysis identify EBF1 as a cardiovascular and metabolic
             risk gene},
   Journal = {European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {854-862},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1018-4813},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2014.189},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
             We performed gene-environment interaction genome-wide
             association analysis (G × E GWAS) to identify SNPs whose
             effects on metabolic traits are modified by chronic
             psychosocial stress in the Multi-Ethnic Study of
             Atherosclerosis (MESA). In Whites, the G × E GWAS for hip
             circumference identified five SNPs within the Early B-cell
             Factor 1 (EBF1) gene, all of which were in strong linkage
             disequilibrium. The gene-by-stress interaction (SNP ×
             STRESS) term P-values were genome-wide significant
             (Ps=7.14E-09 to 2.33E-08, uncorrected; Ps=1.99E-07 to
             5.18E-07, corrected for genomic control). The SNP-only
             (without interaction) model P-values (Ps=0.011-0.022) were
             not significant at the conventional genome-wide significance
             level. Further analysis of related phenotypes identified
             gene-by-stress interaction effects for waist circumference,
             body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, type II diabetes
             status, and common carotid intimal-medial thickness (CCIMT),
             supporting a proposed model of gene-by-stress interaction
             that connects cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor
             endophenotypes such as central obesity and increased blood
             glucose or diabetes to CVD itself. Structural equation path
             analysis suggested that the path from chronic psychosocial
             stress to CCIMT via hip circumference and fasting glucose
             was larger (estimate=0.26, P=0.033, 95% CI=0.02-0.49) in the
             EBF1 rs4704963 CT/CC genotypes group than the same path in
             the TT group (estimate=0.004, P=0.34, 95% CI=-0.004-0.012).
             We replicated the association of the EBF1 SNPs and hip
             circumference in the Framingham Offspring Cohort
             (gene-by-stress term P-values=0.007-0.012) as well as
             identified similar path relationships. This observed and
             replicated interaction between psychosocial stress and
             variation in the EBF1 gene may provide a biological
             hypothesis for the complex relationship between psychosocial
             stress, central obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ejhg.2014.189},
   Key = {fds277160}
}

@article{fds314234,
   Author = {Haberstick, BC and Smolen, A and Williams, RB and Bishop, GD and Foshee,
             VA and Thornberry, TP and Conger, R and Siegler, IC and Zhang, X and Boardman, JD and Frajzyngier, Z and Stallings, MC and Brent
             Donnellan, M and Halpern, CT and Harris, KM},
   Title = {Population Frequencies of the Triallelic 5HTTLPR in Six
             Ethnicially Diverse Samples from North America, Southeast
             Asia, and Africa},
   Journal = {Calcified Tissue International},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {255-261},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0171-967X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10519-014-9703-5},
   Abstract = {© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.Genetic
             differences between populations are potentially an important
             contributor to health disparities around the globe. As
             differences in gene frequencies influence study design, it
             is important to have a thorough understanding of the natural
             variation of the genetic variant(s) of interest. Along these
             lines, we characterized the variation of the 5HTTLPR and
             rs25531 polymorphisms in six samples from North America,
             Southeast Asia, and Africa (Cameroon) that differ in their
             racial and ethnic composition. Allele and genotype
             frequencies were determined for 24,066 participants. Results
             indicated higher frequencies of the rs25531 G-allele among
             Black and African populations as compared with White,
             Hispanic and Asian populations. Further, we observed a
             greater number of ‘extra-long’ (‘XL’) 5HTTLPR
             alleles than have previously been reported. Extra-long
             alleles occurred almost entirely among Asian, Black and
             Non-White Hispanic populations as compared with White and
             Native American populations where they were completely
             absent. Lastly, when considered jointly, we observed between
             sample differences in the genotype frequencies within racial
             and ethnic populations. Taken together, these data
             underscore the importance of characterizing the L-G allele
             to avoid misclassification of participants by genotype and
             for further studies of the impact XL alleles may have on the
             transcriptional efficiency of SLC6A4.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10519-014-9703-5},
   Key = {fds314234}
}

@article{fds314990,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Anger and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia:
             mechanisms and clinical implications.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4-5},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2014.09.003},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2014.09.003},
   Key = {fds314990}
}

@article{fds277151,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Georgiades, A and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Siegler, IC and Matson, WR and Kuhn, CM and Grichnik, K and Stafford-Smith, M and Williams, RB and Kaddurah-Daouk, R and Surwit,
             RS},
   Title = {Associations between Central Nervous System Serotonin,
             Fasting Glucose, and Hostility in African American
             Females},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-57},
   Year = {2015},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-014-9626-7},
   Abstract = {© 2014, The Society of Behavioral Medicine.Background:
             Previous research has shown an association between hostility
             and fasting glucose in African American women. Central
             nervous system serotonin activity is implicated both in
             metabolic processes and in hostility related traits.
             Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine whether
             central nervous system serotonin influences the association
             between hostility and fasting glucose in African American
             women. Methods: The study consisted of 119 healthy
             volunteers (36 African American women, 27 White women, 21
             White males, and 35 African American males, mean age 34 ±
             8.5 years). Serotonin related compounds were measured in
             cerebrospinal fluid. Hostility was measured by the
             Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Results: Hostility was
             associated with fasting glucose and central nervous system
             serotonin related compounds in African American women only.
             Controlling for the serotonin related compounds
             significantly reduced the association of hostility to
             glucose. Conclusions: The positive correlation between
             hostility and fasting glucose in African American women can
             partly be explained by central nervous system serotonin
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-014-9626-7},
   Key = {fds277151}
}

@article{fds277159,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {A functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene associated with
             stress responses: a validation study.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {103},
   Pages = {317-321},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0301-0511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.10.006},
   Abstract = {Previously we have shown that a functional nonsynonymous
             single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs6318 on the HTR2C
             gene located on the X-chromosome, is associated with
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a laboratory
             stress recall task. The present paper reports a validation
             of the cortisol response to stress in a second, independent
             sample. The study population consisted of 60 adult
             participants (73.3% males). Consistent with our prior
             findings, compared to Cys23 G allele carriers, persons
             homozygous for the Ser23C allele had a significantly greater
             average cortisol response (p=0.007) and area under the curve
             (p=0.021) over the course of an emotional stress recall
             protocol. Also parallel to our prior report, the change in
             cortisol from baseline to the average during the stress
             protocol was roughly twice as large among Ser23C homozygotes
             than among persons with Cys23 G. These findings validate our
             initial observation of association between rs6318 and
             cortisol response to an acute stressor, and extend the
             results to include females.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.10.006},
   Key = {fds277159}
}

@article{fds277158,
   Author = {Samad, Z and Boyle, S and Ersboll, M and Vora, AN and Zhang, Y and Becker,
             RC and Williams, R and Kuhn, C and Ortel, TL and Rogers, JG and O'Connor,
             CM and Velazquez, EJ and Jiang, W and REMIT Investigators},
   Title = {Sex differences in platelet reactivity and cardiovascular
             and psychological response to mental stress in patients with
             stable ischemic heart disease: insights from the REMIT
             study.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {1669-1678},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0735-1097},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.087},
   Abstract = {Although emotional stress is associated with ischemic heart
             disease (IHD) and related clinical events, sex-specific
             differences in the psychobiological response to mental
             stress have not been clearly identified.We aimed to study
             the differential psychological and cardiovascular responses
             to mental stress between male and female patients with
             stable IHD.Patients with stable IHD enrolled in the REMIT
             (Responses of Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia to
             Escitalopram) study underwent psychometric assessments,
             transthoracic echocardiography, and platelet aggregation
             studies at baseline and after 3 mental stress tasks. Mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) was defined as
             the development or worsening of regional wall motion
             abnormality, reduction of left ventricular ejection fraction
             (LVEF) ≥8% by transthoracic echocardiography, and/or
             ischemic ST-segment change on electrocardiogram during 1 or
             more of the 3 mental stress tasks.In the 310 participants
             with known IHD (18% women, 82% men), most baseline
             characteristics were similar between women and men
             (including heart rate, blood pressure, and LVEF), although
             women were more likely to be nonwhite, living alone (p <
             0.001), and unmarried (p < 0.001); they also had higher
             baseline depression and anxiety (p < 0.05). At rest, women
             had heightened platelet aggregation responses to serotonin
             (p = 0.007) and epinephrine (p = 0.004) compared with men.
             Following mental stress, women had more MSIMI (57% vs. 41%;
             p < 0.04), expressed more negative (p = 0.02) and less
             positive emotion (p < 0.001), and demonstrated higher
             collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation responses (p =
             0.04) than men. Men were more likely than women to show
             changes in traditional physiological measures, such as blood
             pressure (p < 0.05) and double product.In this exploratory
             analysis, we identified clear, measurable, and differential
             responses to mental stress in women and men. Further studies
             should test the association of sex differences in
             cardiovascular and platelet reactivity in response to mental
             stress and long-term outcomes. (Responses of Myocardial
             Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT];
             NCT00574847).},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.087},
   Key = {fds277158}
}

@article{fds277157,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Williams, RB and Harris, KM and Jiang,
             R and Kraus, WE and Singh, A and Costa, PT and Georgiades, A and Siegler,
             IC},
   Title = {A putatively functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene is
             associated with depressive symptoms in white females
             reporting significant life stress.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {e114451},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114451},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively
             associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol
             response to stress may be one of a number of biological
             mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive
             symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains
             unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor
             has also been shown to be associated with depression and
             with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We
             recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide
             polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys), is
             associated with different cortisol release and short-term
             changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in
             the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to
             examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association
             between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive
             symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data
             from a large population-based sample of young adult White
             men (N = 2,366) and White women (N = 2,712) in the
             United States to test this moderation hypothesis.
             Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between
             self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms
             would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and
             hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In
             separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress
             interaction was observed for women (p = .022) but not
             for men (p = .471). Homozygous Ser23 C women who
             reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom
             scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than
             female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels.
             In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive
             symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of
             stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a
             functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased
             risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history
             of significant life stress.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0114451},
   Key = {fds277157}
}

@article{fds277163,
   Author = {Proeschold-Bell, RJ and Swift, R and Moore, HE and Bennett, G and Li,
             XF and Blouin, R and Williams, VP and Williams, RB and Toole,
             D},
   Title = {Corrigendum to Use of a randomized multiple baseline design:
             Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic health
             intervention study [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013)
             138-152]},
   Journal = {Contemporary Clinical Trials},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {165},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1551-7144},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.013},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.013},
   Key = {fds277163}
}

@article{fds277168,
   Author = {Haberstick, BC and Lessem, JM and Hewitt, JK and Smolen, A and Hopfer,
             CJ and Halpern, CT and Killeya-Jones, LA and Boardman, JD and Tabor, J and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Mullan Harris,
             K},
   Title = {MAOA genotype, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction
             in the etiology of adult antisocial behaviors},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-30},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.028},
   Abstract = {Background Maltreatment by an adult or caregiver during
             childhood is a prevalent and important predictor of
             antisocial behaviors in adulthood. A functional promoter
             polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been
             implicated as a moderating factor in the relationship
             between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behaviors.
             Although there have been numerous attempts at replicating
             this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We
             examined this gene-environment interaction hypothesis in a
             sample of 3356 white and 960 black men (aged 24-34)
             participating in the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent Health. Results Primary analysis indicated that
             childhood maltreatment was a significant risk factor for
             later behaviors that violate rules and the rights of others
             (p <.05), there were no main effects of MAOA genotype, and
             MAOA genotype was not a significant moderator of the
             relationship between maltreatment and antisocial behaviors
             in our white sample. Post hoc analyses identified a similar
             pattern of results among our black sample in which
             maltreatment was not a significant predictor of antisocial
             behavior. Post hoc analyses also revealed a main effect of
             MAOA genotype on having a disposition toward violence in
             both samples and for violent convictions among our black
             sample. None of these post hoc findings, however, survived
             correction for multiple testing (p >.05). Power analyses
             indicated that these results were not due to insufficient
             statistical power. Conclusions We could not confirm the
             hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the relationship
             between childhood maltreatment and adult antisocial
             behaviors. © 2014 Society of Biological
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.028},
   Key = {fds277168}
}

@article{fds277170,
   Author = {Proeschold-Bell, RJ and Swift, R and Moore, HE and Bennett, G and Li,
             X-F and Blouin, R and Williams, VP and Williams, RB and Toole,
             D},
   Title = {Corrigendum to “Use of a randomized multiple baseline
             design: Rationale and design of the Spirited Life holistic
             health intervention study” [Contemp Clin Trials 35 (2013)
             138–152]},
   Journal = {Contemporary Clinical Trials},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {165-165},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1551-7144},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.013},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2013.09.013},
   Key = {fds277170}
}

@article{fds277172,
   Author = {Haberstick, BC and Lessem, JM and Hewitt, JK and Smolen, A and Hopfer,
             CJ and Halpern, CT and Killeya-Jones, LA and Boardman, JD and Tabor, J and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Mullan Harris,
             K},
   Title = {MAOA genotype, childhood maltreatment, and their interaction
             in the etiology of adult antisocial behaviors.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-30},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23726513},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Maltreatment by an adult or caregiver during
             childhood is a prevalent and important predictor of
             antisocial behaviors in adulthood. A functional promoter
             polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been
             implicated as a moderating factor in the relationship
             between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behaviors.
             Although there have been numerous attempts at replicating
             this observation, results remain inconclusive. METHODS: We
             examined this gene-environment interaction hypothesis in a
             sample of 3356 white and 960 black men (aged 24-34)
             participating in the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent Health. RESULTS: Primary analysis indicated that
             childhood maltreatment was a significant risk factor for
             later behaviors that violate rules and the rights of others
             (p < .05), there were no main effects of MAOA genotype, and
             MAOA genotype was not a significant moderator of the
             relationship between maltreatment and antisocial behaviors
             in our white sample. Post hoc analyses identified a similar
             pattern of results among our black sample in which
             maltreatment was not a significant predictor of antisocial
             behavior. Post hoc analyses also revealed a main effect of
             MAOA genotype on having a disposition toward violence in
             both samples and for violent convictions among our black
             sample. None of these post hoc findings, however, survived
             correction for multiple testing (p > .05). Power analyses
             indicated that these results were not due to insufficient
             statistical power. CONCLUSIONS: We could not confirm the
             hypothesis that MAOA genotype moderates the relationship
             between childhood maltreatment and adult antisocial
             behaviors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.03.028},
   Key = {fds277172}
}

@article{fds314985,
   Author = {Samad, Z and Boyle, S and Vora, AN and Becker, RC and Ortel, TL and Kuhn,
             C and Williams, RB and Rogers, JG and O'Connor, C and Velazquez, EJ and Jiang, W},
   Title = {Sex Differences in Platelet Reactivity, Cardiovascular and
             Psychological Response to Mental Stress in Patients With
             Known Coronary Artery Disease: Data From the Responses of
             Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram
             Treatment Study},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {128},
   Number = {22},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000332162907153&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314985}
}

@article{fds277171,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Singh, A and Jiang, R and Williams, RB and Harris, KM and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Socioeconomic indices as independent correlates of
             C-reactive protein in the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent Health.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {882-893},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24163384},
   Abstract = {To examine the association between socioeconomic status
             (SES) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to understand how SES may
             increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and thus
             identify targets for prevention measures.Path models were
             used to examine direct and indirect associations of four
             indices of SES (objective early life built environment
             ratings, parental and participant education, and income)
             with CRP measured during early adulthood using data from the
             National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Study (n = 11,371;
             mean age = 29 years, range = 24-32 years; 53.8% women, 28.0%
             black participants). The present study examined potential
             mediation of the association of SES with CRP by way of body
             mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol consumption within
             white and black men and women.BMI was a mediator of the
             relation between parent education and CRP for white men
             (path coefficient [γ] = -0.05, p < .001) and women (γ =
             -0.05, p < .001). Smoking mediated the income-CRP (γ =
             -0.01, p < .01) and the education-CRP (γ = -0.07, p < .001)
             relation for white men. BMI mediated the relation between
             all measures of SES and CRP for white women (γ values
             between -0.02 and -0.05; p values < .01). None of the risk
             factors mediated the SES-CRP relation in black
             participants.These findings indicate that the association of
             SES with CRP is influenced by both the timing and type of
             SES measure examined. In addition, race and sex play a role
             in how potential mediators are involved with the SES-CRP
             relationship, such that BMI and smoking were mediators in
             white men, whereas BMI was the sole mediator in white
             women.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000005},
   Key = {fds277171}
}

@article{fds277164,
   Author = {Harris, KM and Halpern, CT and Hussey, J and Whitsel, EA and Killeya-Jones, L and Tabor, J and Elder, G and Hewitt, J and Shanahan,
             M and Williams, R and Siegler, I and Smolen, A},
   Title = {Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence
             into adulthood.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {103 Suppl 1},
   Number = {SUPPL.1},
   Pages = {S25-S32},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.301181},
   Abstract = {The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is
             conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical
             environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We
             encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative
             approaches to understanding these contributions to health,
             and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health
             is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in
             1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews
             and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to
             sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social
             and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated
             behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing
             genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate
             approaches to understanding health through investigation of
             the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical,
             contextual, or cultural experiences.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2012.301181},
   Key = {fds277164}
}

@article{fds277173,
   Author = {Proeschold-Bell, RJ and Swift, R and Moore, HE and Bennett, G and Li,
             X-F and Blouin, R and Williams, VP and Williams, RB and Toole,
             D},
   Title = {Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: rationale and
             design of the spirited life holistic health intervention
             study.},
   Journal = {Contemp Clin Trials},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {138-152},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23685205},
   Abstract = {Clergy suffer from high rates of obesity, chronic disease,
             and depression, and simultaneously underestimate the toll
             these take on their daily functioning. Health interventions
             are needed for clergy and may be tailored to their
             occupational context and theological beliefs. Few studies
             have sought to improve clergy health. No prior studies have
             utilized a randomized design. Spirited Life is a randomized,
             multiple baseline study that offered enrollment to nearly
             all United Methodist Church clergy in North Carolina in fall
             2010. A total of 1114 clergy (response rate = 64%) enrolled.
             Using a multiple baseline design, we randomized participants
             to three cohorts. Each cohort began the health intervention
             in one of three consecutive years. The third cohort served
             as a randomized waitlist control cohort, allowing
             comparisons between the first and third cohorts. The
             two-year Spirited Life intervention consists of: 1) a
             theological underpinning for health stewardship based on
             incarnation, grace, and response and delivered during
             workshops; 2) the stress management program Williams
             LifeSkills; 3) Naturally Slim, an online weight loss
             program; 4) phone contact with a Wellness Advocate; and 5)
             $500 small grants for health goals. Metabolic syndrome is
             the primary endpoint. Stress and depressive severity are
             secondary endpoints. We measured each construct before,
             twice during, and at the end of the two-year intervention.
             Study outcomes, to be published after follow-up data are
             gathered, will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the
             combined intervention components of Spirited Life. If
             successful, the intervention may be considered for use with
             other clergy and faith populations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2013.05.005},
   Key = {fds277173}
}

@article{fds277174,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Velazquez, EJ and Kuchibhatla, M and Samad, Z and Boyle,
             SH and Kuhn, C and Becker, RC and Ortel, TL and Williams, RB and Rogers,
             JG and O'Connor, C},
   Title = {Effect of escitalopram on mental stress-induced myocardial
             ischemia: results of the REMIT trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {309},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {2139-2149},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695483},
   Abstract = {Mental stress can induce myocardial ischemia and also has
             been implicated in triggering cardiac events. However,
             pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) have not been
             well studied.To examine the effects of 6 weeks of
             escitalopram treatment vs placebo on MSIMI and other
             psychological stress-related biophysiological and emotional
             parameters.The REMIT (Responses of Mental Stress Induced
             Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment) study, a
             randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of
             patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease and
             laboratory-diagnosed MSIMI. Enrollment occurred from July
             24, 2007, through August 24, 2011, at a tertiary medical
             center.Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive
             escitalopram (dose began at 5 mg/d, with titration to 20
             mg/d in 3 weeks) or placebo over 6 weeks.Occurrence of
             MSIMI, defined as development or worsening of regional wall
             motion abnormality; left ventricular ejection fraction
             reduction of 8% or more; and/or horizontal or down-sloping
             ST-segment depression of 1 mm or more in 2 or more leads,
             lasting for 3 or more consecutive beats, during 1 or more of
             3 mental stressor tasks.Of 127 participants randomized to
             receive escitalopram (n = 64) or placebo (n = 63), 112
             (88.2%) completed end point assessments (n = 56 in each
             group). At the end of 6 weeks, more patients taking
             escitalopram (34.2% [95% CI, 25.4%-43.0%]) had absence of
             MSIMI during the 3 mental stressor tasks compared with
             patients taking placebo (17.5% [95% CI, 10.4%-24.5%]), based
             on the unadjusted multiple imputation model for
             intention-to-treat analysis. A significant difference
             favoring escitalopram was observed (odds ratio, 2.62 [95%
             CI, 1.06-6.44]). Rates of exercise-induced ischemia were
             slightly lower at 6 weeks in the escitalopram group (45.8%
             [95% CI, 36.6%-55.0%]) than in patients receiving placebo
             (52.5% [95% CI, 43.3%-61.8%]), but this difference was not
             statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio; 1.24 [95%
             CI, 0.60-2.58]; P = .56).Among patients with stable coronary
             heart disease and baseline MSIMI, 6 weeks of escitalopram,
             compared with placebo, resulted in a lower rate of MSIMI.
             There was no statistically significant difference in
             exercise-induced ischemia. Replication of these results in
             multicenter settings and investigations of other medications
             for reducing MSIMI are needed.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00574847.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2013.5566},
   Key = {fds277174}
}

@article{fds277177,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Brummett, BH and Hauser, ER and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Singh, A and Astrup, A and Pedersen, O and Hansen, T and Holst, C and Sørensen, TIA and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Chronic family stress moderates the association between a
             TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent
             Caucasian samples.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {184-189},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23435269},
   Abstract = {TOMM40 SNP rs157580 has been associated with triglyceride
             levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Chronic
             caregiving stress moderates the association between
             triglyceride levels and a nearby SNP rs439401 that is
             associated with triglyceride levels in GWAS. Here, we report
             data from two independent Caucasian samples (242 U.S. women
             and men; 466 Danish men) testing the hypothesis that chronic
             family stress also moderates the association between
             rs157580 and triglyceride levels. The interaction of
             rs157580 and family stress in predicting triglyceride levels
             was statistically significant in the U.S. sample (p=0.004)
             and marginally significant (p=0.075) in the Danish sample.
             The G allele of rs157580 was associated with increased
             triglyceride levels among family stressed cases in both
             samples compared with A/A cases, but not among controls.
             Chronic family stress moderates the association of rs157580
             variants with triglyceride levels and should be taken into
             account for disease risk assessment and potential
             intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.02.006},
   Key = {fds277177}
}

@article{fds314993,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Surwit, RS and Kuhn,
             C and Grichnik, K and Stafford-Smith, M and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {EFFECT OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SEROTONIN FUNCTION ON
             INFLAMMATION, ADIPOSITY AND INSULIN SENSITIVITY},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A69-A69},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400220&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314993}
}

@article{fds314992,
   Author = {Babyak, MA and Becker, RC and Helms, MJ and Jiang, R and Singh, A and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Ashley-Koch, A and Ortel, T and Williams, RB},
   Title = {ADRENERGIC GENE VARIANTS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH PLATELET
             AGGREGATION TO EPINEPHRINE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A87-A87},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400276&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314992}
}

@article{fds314983,
   Author = {Lane, JD and Kuhn, CM and Surwit, RS and Siegler, IC and Brummett, BH and Williams, RB},
   Title = {BLOOD PRESSURE 'NON-DIPPING' STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH
             GREATER OVERNIGHT EPINEPHRINE EXCRETION},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A31-A31},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400104&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314983}
}

@article{fds314991,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Bishop, GD and Haberstick, BC and Smolen, A and Helms,
             MJ and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Babyak, MA and Zhang, X and Tai,
             ES and Lee, JM and Tan, M and Teo, Y-Y and Cai, S and Chan, E and Halpern, CT and Whitsel, EA and Shanahan, MJ and Bauldry, S and Harris,
             KM},
   Title = {POPULATION DIFFERENCES IN ASSOCIATIONS OF SEROTONIN
             TRANSPORTER PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM (5HTTLPR) DI- AND
             TRIALLELIC GENOTYPES WITH BLOOD PRESSURE AND HYPERTENSION
             PREVALENCE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A64-A64},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400206&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314991}
}

@article{fds314981,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Jiang, R and Singh, A and Williams, RB and Harris, KM and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {BIOBEHAVIORAL MEDIATORS OF SES EFFECTS ON CRP IN A
             NATIONALLY REPRESENTATIVE US SAMPLE},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {A70-A71},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000330467400226&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314981}
}

@article{fds277176,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Samad, Z and Boyle, S and Becker, RC and Williams, R and Kuhn,
             C and Ortel, TL and Rogers, J and Kuchibhatla, M and O'Connor, C and Velazquez, EJ},
   Title = {Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary
             heart disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American College of Cardiology},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {714-722},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23410543},
   Abstract = {The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and
             clinical characteristics of mental stress-induced myocardial
             ischemia.Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia is
             prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients
             with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied
             patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia.Eligible
             patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease,
             regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a
             battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill
             test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography
             and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or
             worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left
             ventricular ejection fraction reduction ≥ 8%; and/or 3)
             horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ≥ 1 mm in
             2 or more leads lasting for ≥ 3 consecutive beats during
             at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test.Mental
             stress-induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas
             exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of
             the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]:
             1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and
             patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have
             mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate
             analysis showed that compared with married men or men living
             with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women
             (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR:
             2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental
             stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05).Mental stress-induced
             ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in
             patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease.
             Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at
             higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses
             of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT];
             NCT00574847).},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jacc.2012.11.037},
   Key = {fds277176}
}

@article{fds277366,
   Author = {Jiang, R and Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met and
             adulthood chronic stress interact to affect depressive
             symptoms.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {233-239},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23140671},
   Abstract = {BDNF Val66Met by chronic stress interaction has been studied
             using childhood stress as a moderator, but has not been
             widely studied using chronic stress in adulthood.Two
             independent samples were used: Duke-CG (238 Caucasians) and
             MESA (5524 Caucasians, African Americans and Hispanics).
             Chronic stress in Duke-CG was operationalized as having
             primary caregiving responsibility for a spouse or relative
             with diagnosed Alzheimer's disease or other major dementia;
             chronic stress in MESA was defined using chronic burden
             score constructed from self-reported problems of health
             (self and someone close), job, finance and relationships.
             CES-D scale was the measure of depression in both samples.
             The BDNF Val66Met by adulthood chronic stress interaction
             predicting CES-D was examined using linear regression,
             adjusted for covariates.The main effect of BDNF Val66Met
             genotype on CES-D scores was non-significant (ps > 0.607)
             but the adulthood chronic stress indicator was significant
             (ps < 0.001) in both samples. The BDNF Val66Met genotype by
             adulthood chronic stress interaction was also significant
             (ps < 0.039) in both samples. The impact of chronic stress
             in adulthood on CES-D scores was significantly larger in
             Val/Val genotype individuals than Met carriers.We found in
             two independent samples that depression levels increased
             significantly more as a function of adulthood chronic stress
             Val/Val genotype carriers than Met carriers. Individuals
             with the Val/Val genotype and chronic stress exposure could
             be targeted for interventions designed to reduce risk of
             depression if this finding is confirmed in future
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.10.009},
   Key = {fds277366}
}

@article{fds277165,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Samad, Z and Becker, RC and Williams, R and Kuhn, C and Ortel, TL and Kuchibhatla, M and Prybol, K and Rogers, J and O'Connor,
             C and Velazquez, EJ and Jiang, W},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial
             ischemia in patients with coronary heart
             disease},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {822-831},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182a893ae},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the
             associations between depressive symptoms and mental
             stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) in patients with
             coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS: Adult patients with
             documented CHD were recruited for baseline mental stress and
             exercise stress screening testing as a part of the
             enrollment process of the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia
             to Escitalopram Treatment trial. Patients were administered
             the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Center for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. After a 24-48-hour
             β-blocker withdrawal, participants completed three mental
             stress tests followed by a treadmill exercise test. Ischemia
             was defined as a) any development or worsening of any wall
             motion abnormality and b) reduction of left ventricular
             ejection fraction at least 8% by transthoracic
             echocardiography and/or ischemic ST-segment change by
             electrocardiography during stress testing. MSIMI was
             considered present when ischemia occurred in at least one
             mental test. Data were analyzed using logistic regression
             adjusting for age, sex, and resting left ventricular
             ejection fraction. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-five (44.2%)
             of 283 patients were found to have MSIMI, and 93 (32.9%) had
             ESIMI. Unadjusted analysis showed that Beck Depression
             Inventory II scores were positively associated with the
             probability of MSIMI (odds ratio = 0.1.30: 95% confidence
             interval = 1.06-1.60, p = .013) and number of MSIMI-positive
             tasks (all p < .005). These associations were still
             significant after adjustment for covariates (p values <.05).
             CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CHD, depressive symptoms were
             associated with a higher probability of MSIMI. These
             observations may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms
             contributing to the association of depressive symptoms to
             future cardiovascular events. TRIAL REGISTRATION:
             Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00574847. Copyright ©
             2013 by the American Psychosomatic Society.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182a893ae},
   Key = {fds277165}
}

@article{fds277166,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Jiang, R and Shah, SH and Becker, RC and Haynes, C and Chryst-Ladd, M and Craig, DM and Hauser, ER and Siegler,
             IC and Kuhn, CM and Singh, A and Williams, RB},
   Title = {A functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C gene associated with
             stress responses also predicts incident cardiovascular
             events.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {e82781},
   Editor = {Ahuja, SK},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/8293 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Previously we have shown that a functional nonsynonymous
             single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6318) of the 5HTR2C gene
             located on the X-chromosome is associated with
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to a stress
             recall task, and with endophenotypes associated with
             cardiovascular disease (CVD). These findings suggest that
             individuals carrying the rs6318 Ser23 C allele will be at
             higher risk for CVD compared to Cys23 G allele carriers. The
             present study examined allelic variation in rs6318 as a
             predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and a
             composite endpoint of all-cause mortality or myocardial
             infarction (MI) among Caucasian participants consecutively
             recruited through the cardiac catheterization laboratory at
             Duke University Hospital (Durham, NC) as part of the CATHGEN
             biorepository. Study population consisted of 6,126 Caucasian
             participants (4,036 [65.9%] males and 2,090 [34.1%]
             females). A total of 1,769 events occurred (1,544 deaths and
             225 MIs; median follow-up time = 5.3 years, interquartile
             range = 3.3-8.2). Unadjusted Cox time-to-event regression
             models showed, compared to Cys23 G carriers, males
             hemizygous for Ser23 C and females homozygous for Ser23C
             were at increased risk for the composite endpoint of
             all-cause death or MI: Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.47, 95%
             confidence interval (CI) = 1.17, 1.84, p = .0008. Adjusting
             for age, rs6318 genotype was not related to body mass index,
             diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking history,
             number of diseased coronary arteries, or left ventricular
             ejection fraction in either males or females. After
             adjustment for these covariates the estimate for the two
             Ser23 C groups was modestly attenuated, but remained
             statistically significant: HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.73, p
             = .005. These findings suggest that this functional
             polymorphism of the 5HTR2C gene is associated with increased
             risk for CVD mortality and morbidity, but this association
             is apparently not explained by the association of rs6318
             with traditional risk factors or conventional markers of
             atherosclerotic disease.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0082781},
   Key = {fds277166}
}

@article{fds277169,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Singh, A and Jiang, R and Williams, RB and Harris, KM and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Socioeconomic indices as independent correlates of
             C-reactive protein in the national longitudinal study of
             adolescent health},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {882-893},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000005},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between socioeconomic
             status (SES) and C-reactive protein (CRP) to understand how
             SES may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and thus
             identify targets for prevention measures. METHODS: Path
             models were used to examine direct and indirect associations
             of four indices of SES (objective early life built
             environment ratings, parental and participant education, and
             income) with CRP measured during early adulthood using data
             from the National Longitudinal Adolescent Health Study (n =
             11,371; mean age = 29 years, range = 24-32 years; 53.8%
             women, 28.0% black participants). The present study examined
             potential mediation of the association of SES with CRP by
             way of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol
             consumption within white and black men and women. RESULTS:
             BMI was a mediator of the relation between parent education
             and CRP for white men (path coefficient [γ] = -0.05, p <
             .001) and women (γ = -0.05, p < .001). Smoking mediated the
             income-CRP (γ = -0.01, p < .01) and the education-CRP (γ =
             -0.07, p < .001) relation for white men. BMI mediated the
             relation between all measures of SES and CRP for white women
             (γ values between -0.02 and -0.05; p values < .01). None of
             the risk factors mediated the SES-CRP relation in black
             participants. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the
             association of SES with CRP is influenced by both the timing
             and type of SES measure examined. In addition, race and sex
             play a role in how potential mediators are involved with the
             SES-CRP relationship, such that BMI and smoking were
             mediators in white men, whereas BMI was the sole mediator in
             white women. Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychosomatic
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0000000000000005},
   Key = {fds277169}
}

@article{fds277175,
   Author = {Berger, JS and Becker, RC and Kuhn, C and Helms, MJ and Ortel, TL and Williams, R},
   Title = {Hyperreactive platelet phenotypes: relationship to altered
             serotonin transporter number, transport kinetics and
             intrinsic response to adrenergic co-stimulation.},
   Journal = {Thrombosis and Haemostasis},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-92},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0340-6245},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23223800},
   Abstract = {The mechanism underlying a hyperreactive platelet phenotype
             remains unknown. Since serotonin has been shown to influence
             platelet biology and atherothrombosis, we sought to
             investigate the association of platelet serotonin
             transporter number, binding affinity, and uptake kinetics
             with platelet aggregation. A total of 542 healthy volunteers
             had light transmittance platelet aggregometry measured in
             response to varying concentrations of epinephrine,
             serotonin, epinephrine plus serotonin, ADP and collagen.
             Transporter-dependent serotonin uptake rate was determined
             (Vmax), as were serotonin transporter number (Bmax) and
             binding affinity (Kd) using 3H paroxetine binding in a
             homologous displacement assay, nonlinear regression and
             validated algorithms for kinetic modelling. Stimulation with
             submaximal (2μM) epinephrine concentration elicited a
             distinct, bimodal pattern of platelet aggregation in this
             population. In contrast, subjects exhibited minimal
             aggregation in response to serotonin alone. Co-stimulation
             with submaximal epinephrine and serotonin induced platelet
             aggregation to a level beyond that observed with either
             agonist alone and maintained a bimodal response
             distribution. Subjects with heightened (>60%) platelet
             aggregation to both epinephrine alone and epinephrine plus
             serotonin exhibited increased platelet serotonin uptake, and
             transporter number and affinity. In a population of healthy
             subjects, co-stimulation with submaximal concentrations of
             epinephrine and serotonin identifies a subset of individuals
             with a hyperreactive platelet aggregation profile that is
             associated with changes in platelet serotonin
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1160/TH12-03-0202},
   Key = {fds277175}
}

@article{fds326259,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Austin, SB and Welsh-Bohmer, KA and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Long-Term Impact of Caregiving and Metabolic Syndrome with
             Perceived Decline in Cognitive Function 8 Years Later: A
             Pilot Study Suggesting Important Avenues for Future
             Research.},
   Journal = {Open Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-28},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojmp.2013.21005},
   Abstract = {The chronic stress of caregiving has been associated with
             increased risk for cognitive decline and dementia. One
             theoretical model suggests that a group of risk factors
             known as the metabolic syndrome MET_SYN (e.g. hypertension,
             poor glucose regulation, central obesity, and high
             triglyceride levels) that have demonstrated associations
             with both stress and cognitive decline, may mediate the
             association between caregiver stress and cognitive decline.
             It is also possible that caregiving may moderate the
             association between MET_SYN and cognitive decline. The
             present study examined these two potential models. The study
             sample consisted of 53 caregivers for a relative with
             dementia and 24 participants who did not have caregiving
             responsibilities at baseline. We examined associations among
             caregiving history (yes/no), self-reported decline in
             cognitive function (the AD8) at follow-up, and a MET_SYN
             factor comprised of increased systolic blood pressure (SBP),
             glycosylated hemoglobin concentration (HbA1c), waist
             circumference, and triglyceride levels at baseline when
             caregiving was assessed. MET_SYN was associated with AD8 (p
             = 0.010). Caregiving history was not directly associated
             with AD8 ratings, however, caregiving did moderate the
             association between MET_SYN and AD8 (p = 0.043) assessed 8
             years later. In caregivers MET_SYN scores reflecting higher
             risk were associated with scores on the AD8 indicting
             decline, whereas, in controls MET_SYN was unrelated to AD8
             assessment. Thus, it can be concluded that caregiver stress
             may increase the association between metabolic risk factors
             and decline in cognitive functioning up to 8 years
             later.},
   Doi = {10.4236/ojmp.2013.21005},
   Key = {fds326259}
}

@article{fds277242,
   Author = {Barnes, VA and Johnson, MH and Williams, RB and Williams,
             VP},
   Title = {IMPACT OF WILLIAMS LIFESKILLS® TRAINING ON ANGER, ANXIETY
             AND AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE IN ADOLESCENTS.},
   Journal = {Translational Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {401-410},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1869-6716},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-012-0162-3},
   Abstract = {The Williams LifeSkills® (WLS) anger and stress management
             workshop provides training in strategies to cope with
             stressful situations and build supportive relationships.The
             purpose of this study was to determine the impact of
             school-based Williams LifeSkills training on anger, anxiety
             and blood pressure in adolescents.159 adolescents (mean
             age±SD=15.7±1.4 years) were randomized to WLS (n=86) or
             control (CTL, n=73) groups. The WLS group engaged in twelve
             50-min WLS training sessions conducted by teachers at
             school.Anger-in and anxiety scores decreased and anger
             control scores increased in the WLS group across the
             six-month follow-up period compared to the CTL group (group
             x visit, ps<0.05). Daytime diastolic BP was lower across the
             follow-up in the WLS group (p=0.08). DBP was significantly
             lower across the follow-up period in the WLS group among
             those with higher SBP at baseline (p=0.04).These findings
             demonstrate beneficial impact of WLS upon self-reported
             anger-in, anger-control, anxiety levels and ambulatory DBP
             in the natural environment in healthy normotensive
             youth.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13142-012-0162-3},
   Key = {fds277242}
}

@article{fds277378,
   Author = {Jonassaint, CR and Ashley-Koch, A and Whitfield, KE and Hoyle, RH and Richman, LS and Siegler, IC and Royal, CD and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR)
             moderates the effect of adolescent environmental conditions
             on self-esteem in young adulthood: a structural equation
             modeling approach.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-119},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659377},
   Abstract = {Here we examine the effects of both self-reported and
             independent observer-reported environmental risk indices,
             the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR)
             polymorphism, and their interaction on self-esteem. This
             trait was assessed during early and mid adolescence (mean
             age=14 and 16.5, respectively) and young adulthood (mean
             age=21.8) in a prospective cohort of 1214 unrelated
             participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
             (Add Health). Using structural equation modeling we
             identified a gene-environment (G×E) interaction using
             observer-report but not self-report measures of
             environmental stress exposure during adolescence: 5HTTLPR
             genotype and observer-reports of home and neighborhood
             quality (HNQ) during adolescence interacted to predict
             self-esteem levels in young adulthood (p<.004). Carriers of
             the s allele who lived in poor HNQ conditions during
             adolescence reported lower self-esteem in young adulthood
             than those with a good HNQ during adolescence. In contrast,
             among individuals with the l/l genotype, adolescent HNQ did
             not predict adulthood self-esteem. Genes may moderate the
             effect of adolescent environmental conditions on adulthood
             self-esteem.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.05.004},
   Key = {fds277378}
}

@article{fds277418,
   Author = {Fuemmeler, BF and Yang, C and Costanzo, P and Hoyle, RH and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Ostbye, T},
   Title = {Parenting styles and body mass index trajectories from
             adolescence to adulthood.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {441-449},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22545979},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Parenting styles such as authoritarian,
             disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with
             greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style.
             This study assessed the relationship between parenting
             styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence
             to young adulthood. METHOD: The study included self-reported
             data from adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent Health. Factor mixture modeling, a data-driven
             approach, was used to classify participants into parenting
             style groups based on measures of acceptance and control.
             Latent growth modeling (LGM) identified patterns of
             developmental changes in BMI. After a number of potential
             confounders were controlled for, parenting style variables
             were entered as predictors of BMI trajectories. Analyses
             were also conducted for male and female individuals of 3
             racial-ethnic groups (Hispanic, black, white) to assess
             whether parenting styles were differentially associated with
             BMI trajectories in these 6 groups. RESULTS: Parenting
             styles were classified into 4 groups: authoritarian,
             disengaged, permissive, and balanced. Compared with the
             balanced parenting style, authoritarian and disengaged
             parenting styles were associated with a less steep average
             BMI increase (linear slope) over time, but also less
             leveling off (quadratic) of BMI over time. Differences in
             BMI trajectories were observed for various genders and
             races, but the differences did not reach statistical
             significance. CONCLUSION: Adolescents who reported having
             parents with authoritarian or disengaged parenting styles
             had greater increases in BMI as they transitioned to young
             adulthood despite having a lower BMI trajectory through
             adolescence.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0027927},
   Key = {fds277418}
}

@article{fds277326,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Dilworth-Anderson,
             P},
   Title = {Associations of Social Support and 8-Year Follow-Up
             Depressive Symptoms: Differences in African American and
             White Caregivers.},
   Journal = {Clinical Gerontologist},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {289-302},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0731-7115},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23144529},
   Abstract = {The present study used data from the Alzheimer's Study of
             Emotions in Caregivers (ASEC) to evaluate perceptions of
             social support assessed at baseline, as well as changes in
             social support assessed at a follow-up eight-years later, as
             predictors of symptoms of change in depression, with a focus
             on race as a potential moderator of these relationships.
             Specifically, multiple regression analyses adjusted for age,
             sex, income, education, race, living arrangement of care
             recipient at baseline, death of care recipient, the cultural
             justification for caregiving scale (CJCS), and baseline
             depressive symptoms were conducted to assess baseline social
             support ratings, as well as the change in social support
             over time as a predictor of depression at follow-up-with a
             focus on moderation by race. Baseline social support
             (F(1,77) = 7.60, p=.008) was associated with fewer
             depressive symptoms at follow-up for all participants. The
             change in social support over time was also related to
             depressive symptoms, with effects moderated by race (F(1,77)
             = 7.97, p = .007), such that when support decreased over
             time depressive symptoms at follow-up were higher for
             Whites, as compared with African Americans, whereas, when
             social support increased over time depressive symptoms
             tended to be similar for both groups. These findings
             indicate that research designed to plan interventions in
             caregivers must not ignore potential racial differences with
             regard to the effects of caregiving on mental
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1080/07317115.2012.678569},
   Key = {fds277326}
}

@article{fds314988,
   Author = {Babyak, MA and Schwartz, S and Jiang, R and Brummett, B and Kauwe, JS and Corcoran, C and Munger, R and Welsh-Bohmer, K and Williams, RB and Norton, M},
   Title = {PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS IN MIDLIFE MAY MODERATE EFFECTS OF
             APOE-TOMM40 RS157580 ON METABOLIC TRAITS IN LATE
             LIFE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S180-S180},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302092400697&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314988}
}

@article{fds314984,
   Author = {Surwit, RS and Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Boyle, SH and Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Kuhn, CM and Gerogiades,
             A},
   Title = {EPINEPHRINE, TRUNK FAT AND FASTING GLUCOSE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S155-S155},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302092400600&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314984}
}

@article{fds314980,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Helms, M and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {ASSOCIATIONS OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS WITH A
             FUNCTIONAL POLYMORPHISM IN THE 5HTR2C GENE},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {43},
   Pages = {S227-S227},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000302092400884&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314980}
}

@article{fds277365,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MB and Siegler, IC and Surwit, R and Georgiades, A and Boyle, SH and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Systolic blood pressure and adiposity: examination by race
             and gender in a nationally representative sample of young
             adults.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {140-144},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21976277},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Adiposity, or more specifically, underlying body
             fat distribution, has been associated with systolic blood
             pressure (SBP), and it has been suggested that these
             associations vary between whites and blacks, as well as by
             gender. METHODS: Here, we use data from the National
             Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a US
             study of over 15,000 participants (median age 29.0 years),
             to characterize the associations between measures of body
             fat distribution-waist circumference (WC) and WC adjusted
             for body mass index (BMI) (WC(-bmi))-with SBP within white
             and black race and gender subgroups. RESULTS: Our findings
             suggest that, at lower levels of WC(-bmi), white women have
             significantly higher SBP as compared to black women, whereas
             black men have higher SBP than white men. Black women with
             WC(-bmi) >90 cm have higher SBP compared to white women with
             similar WC(-bmi), whereas among black and white men the
             associations are essentially similar across the full range
             of WC(-bmi). CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that
             associations among anthropometric measures of adiposity and
             blood pressure are nonlinear, and importantly, vary for
             whites and blacks by gender. In black women, SBP increased
             more as WC increased from low- to mid-range levels, whereas
             it was only at higher WC levels that black men exhibited
             higher SBP than white men.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ajh.2011.177},
   Key = {fds277365}
}

@article{fds277377,
   Author = {Bidwell, LC and Garrett, ME and McClernon, FJ and Fuemmeler, BF and Williams, RB and Ashley-Koch, AE and Kollins, SH},
   Title = {A preliminary analysis of interactions between genotype,
             retrospective ADHD symptoms, and initial reactions to
             smoking in a sample of young adults.},
   Journal = {Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the
             Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {229-233},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21778150},
   Abstract = {Initial reactions to cigarettes predict later regular
             smoking. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD) have also been shown to increase smoking
             risk and may moderate the relationship between genotype and
             smoking. We conducted an exploratory study to assess whether
             ADHD symptoms interact with genetic variation to predict
             self-reported initial reactions to smoking.Participants were
             a subsample of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype
             data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of
             Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative
             sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. Linear
             regression was used to examine relationships among
             self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and self-reported
             initial reactions to cigarettes (index scores reflecting
             pleasant and unpleasant reactions).Polymorphisms in the DRD2
             gene, SLC6A4 gene, and among males, the MAOA gene interacted
             with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting
             pleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. Polymorphisms in
             the CYP2A6 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted
             with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting
             unpleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. No main effect
             for any of these polymorphisms was observed nor were any
             interactions with DRD4 and DAT genes.These findings suggest
             that genotypes associated with monoamine neurotransmission
             interact with ADHD symptoms to influence initial reactions
             to cigarette smoking. Given that an initial pleasant
             reaction to cigarettes increases risk for lifetime smoking,
             these results add to a growing body of literature that
             suggests that ADHD symptoms increase risk for smoking and
             should be accounted for in genetic studies of
             smoking.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ntr/ntr125},
   Key = {fds277377}
}

@article{fds277354,
   Author = {Jiang, W and Velazquez, EJ and Samad, Z and Kuchibhatla, M and Martsberger, C and Rogers, J and Williams, R and Kuhn, C and Ortel, TL and Becker, RC and Pristera, N and Krishnan, R and O'Connor,
             CM},
   Title = {Responses of mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia to
             escitalopram treatment: background, design, and method for
             the Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia
             to Escitalopram Treatment trial.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {20-26},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22172432},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia
             (MSIMI) is common in patients with clinically stable
             coronary heart disease (CHD) and is associated with poor
             outcomes. Depression is a risk factor of MSIMI. The REMIT
             trial investigates whether selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor (SSRI) treatment can improve MSIMI. The rationale
             and outline of the study are described. METHOD: In this
             single-center randomized clinical trial, adult patients with
             clinically stable CHD are recruited for baseline mental and
             exercise stress testing assessed by echocardiography. In
             addition, psychometric questionnaires are administered, and
             blood samples are collected for platelet activity analysis.
             Patients who demonstrate MSIMI, defined by new abnormal wall
             motion, ejection fraction reduction ≥8%, and/or
             development of ischemic ST change in electrocardiogram
             during mental stress testing, are randomized at a 1:1 ratio
             to escitalopram or placebo for 6 weeks. Approximately 120
             patients with MSIMI are enrolled in the trial. The stress
             testing, platelet activity assessment, and psychometric
             questionnaires are repeated at the end of the 6-week
             intervention. The hypothesis of the study is that SSRI
             treatment improves MSIMI via mood regulation and
             modification of platelet activity. CONCLUSION: The REMIT
             study examines the effect of SSRI on MSIMI in vulnerable
             patients with CHD and probes some potential underlying
             mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2011.09.018},
   Key = {fds277354}
}

@article{fds277363,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Kuhn, CM and Boyle, SH and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Cortisol responses to emotional stress in men: association
             with a functional polymorphism in the 5HTR2C
             gene.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {94-98},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21967853},
   Abstract = {The serotonin 5HTR2C receptor has been shown to mediate HPA
             axis activation during stress. We hypothesized that a
             functional polymorphism (rs6318) of the 5HTR2C gene would be
             associated with HPA axis response to a laboratory stress
             protocol. The present sample consisted of 41 men (22 African
             Americans, 19 Caucasians). We found that at rest men with
             the more active rs6318 Ser23 C allele had similar cortisol
             values compared to those with the less active Cys23 G
             allele. During laboratory stress, however, men with the
             Ser23 C allele exhibited the predicted significantly higher
             cortisol levels (p<0.001), as well as larger increases in
             anger (p=0.08) and depressive mood (p=0.006) ratings,
             compared to the Cys23 G carriers. The increase in cortisol
             was significantly related to the increases in ratings of
             anger and depression assessed before and after the emotion
             induction, and these correlations became nonsignificant when
             rs6318 genotype was covaried. We conclude that genetic
             variation in 5HTR2C may be associated with HPA axis
             activation and stimulated by emotional stress, and also with
             both psychological and physiological endophenotypes that
             increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2
             diabetes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.09.013},
   Key = {fds277363}
}

@article{fds314982,
   Author = {Bidwell, LC and Garrett, ME and McClernon, FJ and Fuemmeler, BF and Williams, RB and Ashley-Koch, AE and Kollins, SH},
   Title = {Genotype and ADHD symptoms interact to predict adolescents'
             early smoking experiences in an epidemiological
             sample},
   Journal = {Behavior Genetics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {893-893},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0001-8244},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000295326600022&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314982}
}

@article{fds326788,
   Author = {Surwit, RS and Williams, RB and Georgiades, A},
   Title = {Adrenal Medullary Function, Adiposity and Fasting
             Glucose},
   Journal = {Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {S92-S92},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds326788}
}

@article{fds277364,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Shanahan, M and Harris,
             KM and Elder, GH and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Systolic blood pressure, socioeconomic status, and
             biobehavioral risk factors in a nationally representative US
             young adult sample.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {161-166},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21730296},
   Abstract = {In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a
             US longitudinal study of >15 000 young adults, we examined
             the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to
             systolic blood pressure (SBP) and whether biobehavioral risk
             factors mediate the association. More than 62% of the
             participants had SBP >120 mm Hg and 12% had SBP >140 mm Hg.
             More than 66% were classified as at least overweight (body
             mass index >25 kg/m(2)), with >36% meeting criteria for at
             least class I obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)).
             Multivariate models showed that higher household income and
             being married were independently associated with lower SBP.
             Higher body mass index, greater waist circumference,
             smoking, and higher alcohol intake were each independently
             associated with higher SBP. Meditational analyses suggested
             that higher education level was associated with lower SBP by
             way of lower body mass, smaller waist circumference, and
             lower resting heart rate. When these indirect effects were
             accounted for, education was not significantly associated
             with SBP. In contrast, household income remained associated
             with SBP even with control for all of the covariates.
             Results reinforce current public health concerns about rates
             of obesity and high blood pressure among young adults and
             suggest that disparities in education level and household
             income may play an important role in the observed decrements
             in health. Identifying modifiable mechanisms that link
             socioeconomic status to SBP using data from a large
             representative sample may improve risk stratification and
             guide the development of effective interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.171272},
   Key = {fds277364}
}

@article{fds277241,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Cardiology Patient Page. Depression after heart attack: why
             should I be concerned about depression after a heart
             attack?},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {e639-e640},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21709066},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.017285},
   Key = {fds277241}
}

@article{fds277325,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Brummett, BH and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC and Helms, MJ and Boyle, SH and Clapp-Channing, NE and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Recovery expectations and long-term prognosis of patients
             with coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {171},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {929-935},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21357800},
   Abstract = {Expectations of patients regarding their prospects for
             recovery have been shown to predict subsequent physical and
             social functioning. Evidence regarding the impact of
             expectations on clinical outcomes is limited.At the
             inpatient service of a tertiary care hospital, we evaluated
             beliefs of patients undergoing coronary angiography about
             their prognosis as predictors of long-term survival and
             1-year functional status. Baseline assessments, including a
             measure of expectations for recovery, were obtained during
             hospitalization with mortality follow-up for approximately
             15 years. Patients with significant obstructive coronary
             artery disease were interviewed while in the hospital and
             enrolled in follow-up. Functional status was assessed at
             baseline and 1 year later with questionnaires reflecting
             physical capabilities. Analyses controlled for age, sex,
             disease severity, comorbidities, treatments, demographics,
             depressive symptoms, social support, and functional status.
             There were 1637 total deaths, 885 from cardiovascular
             causes, in the 2818 patients in these analyses. The outcomes
             were total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and 1-year
             functional status.Expectations were positively associated
             with survival after controlling for background and clinical
             disease indicators. For a difference equivalent to an
             interquartile range of expectations, the hazard ratio (HR)
             for total mortality was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI],
             0.71-0.82) and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83) for cardiovascular
             mortality. The HRs were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) and 0.79
             (95% CI, 0.70-0.89) with further adjustments for demographic
             and psychosocial covariates. Similar associations (P < .001)
             were observed for functional status.Recovery expectations at
             baseline were positively associated with long-term survival
             and functioning in patients with coronary artery
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinternmed.2011.41},
   Key = {fds277325}
}

@article{fds277376,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Ashley-Koch, A and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Effects of 5HTTLPR on cardiovascular response to an
             emotional stressor.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {318-322},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21364197},
   Abstract = {To replicate a prior main effect of the serotonin
             transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR) genotype on
             cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) and explore caregiver stress
             as a potential moderator of 5HTTLPR effects on CVR. On the
             basis of prior findings, we hypothesized that the more
             transcriptionally active allele variants would be associated
             with increased CVR.Expression of the serotonin transporter
             is affected by the genotype of the 5HTTLPR (S-short and
             L-long forms) as well as the genotype of the SNP rs25531
             within this region. Based on the combined genotypes for
             these polymorphisms, we designated each allele as a Hi or Lo
             expressing allele according to expression levels-resulting
             in HiHi, HiLo, and LoLo groups. We examined the relationship
             between 5HTTLPR genotype and CVR in 164 caregivers and 158
             noncaregivers. Main effects of 5HTTLPR on baseline adjusted
             blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressures) and
             heart rate (HR) reactivity were examined, along with
             moderation by caregiving.The 5HTTLPR × Caregiver Stress
             interaction moderated both systolic blood pressure (p < .02)
             and HR (p < .02) reactivity. In controls, the Hi activity
             allelic variants were associated with greater systolic blood
             pressure and HR reactivity as compared with the Lo activity
             variants. In caregivers, 5HTTLPR genotype was not associated
             with CVR.Replication in this study's control group of our
             prior finding that 5HTTLPR alleles associated with Hi
             activity are associated with increased CVR to an emotion
             recall stressor strengthens the case that this association
             is real and could be partially responsible for the increased
             cardiovascular disease observed in persons carrying the
             5HTTLPR L allele.},
   Doi = {10.1097/psy.0b013e3182118c16},
   Key = {fds277376}
}

@article{fds277296,
   Author = {Jonassaint, CR and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Edwards, CL and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Low life course socioeconomic status (SES) is associated
             with negative NEO PI-R personality patterns.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {13-21},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012811},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated
             with poor health. One potential pathway accounting for this
             relationship may be an association between low SES and
             personality characteristics that affect health. METHODS:
             Associations among parent's education, current SES
             (education and income), and personality were examined among
             233 African Americans and Caucasian, male and female
             community volunteers. RESULTS: Using multivariate analysis
             of variance (MANOVA) to model neuroticism, extraversion,
             openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
             simultaneously, participant's education, household income,
             and father's and mother's education each had significant
             main effects on personality. When examining the life
             course--the combination of both current and childhood
             SES--distinctive patterns emerged for each domain, depending
             upon whether mother's or father's education was used to
             index childhood SES. When using mother's education as a
             childhood SES index, a high life course SES (high
             participant's SES/high mother's education) was associated
             with high extraversion and openness. Using father's
             education as a childhood SES index, a low life course SES
             (low participant's SES/low father's education) was
             associated with disproportionately high neuroticism and low
             conscientiousness. These effects did not differ by race or
             sex. CONCLUSION: The implications of these findings for the
             role of personality in the SES-health relationship are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12529-009-9069-x},
   Key = {fds277296}
}

@article{fds277324,
   Author = {Iqbal Kring and SI and Barefoot, J and Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Toubro, S and Hansen, T and Astrup, A and Pedersen, O and Williams, RB and Sørensen, TIA},
   Title = {Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and
             the impact of psychological stress.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e15745},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21283811},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, we observed that
             associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were
             moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of
             stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether
             associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic
             quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to
             T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress. METHODS:
             Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2)) and a
             randomly selected control group (n = 709) identified from a
             population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys
             (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years) where
             anthropometric and biochemical measures were available.
             Psychological stress factors were assessed by a
             self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the
             possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed
             familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses
             constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized
             into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression
             analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to
             assess odds ratios (OR) of the associations between APOE
             rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits.
             RESULTS: The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively
             with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17]), waist circumference (OR =
             1.09 [1.02; 1.17]) in stressed men at S-46. Positive
             associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR =
             1.42 [1.07; 1.87]), serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05;
             1.91]) and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05;
             2.08]) in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also
             associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin
             resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41]) and inversely
             with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82;
             0.99], BIGTT-S(I); OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85]) in stressed men.
             No significant associations were observed in non-stressed
             men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends
             as in stressed men. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest
             that the APOE rs439401 TT-genotype is associated with an
             adverse metabolic profile in a population of psychologically
             stressed Danish men.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0015745},
   Key = {fds277324}
}

@article{fds277240,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Williams, VP},
   Title = {Adaptation and implementation of an evidence-based
             behavioral medicine program in diverse global settings: The
             Williams LifeSkills experience},
   Journal = {Translational Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {303-312},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1869-6716},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-011-0030-6},
   Abstract = {Epidemiological research has documented the health-damaging
             effects of psychosocial factors like hostility, depression,
             anxiety, job stress, social isolation and low socioeconomic
             status. Several studies suggest that behavioral
             interventions can reduce levels of these psychosocial
             factors. Herein we describe the translational process
             whereby the Williams LifeSkills® (WLS ®) program and
             products for reducing psychosocial risk factors have been
             developed and tested in clinical trials in the U. S. and
             Canada and then adapted for other cultures and tested in
             clinical trials in other countries around the world.
             Evidence from published controlled and observational trials
             of WLS ® products in the U. S. and elsewhere shows that
             persons receiving coping skills training using WLS ®
             products have consistently reported reduced levels of
             psychosocial risk factors. In two controlled trials, one for
             caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.
             S. and one for coronary bypass surgery patients in
             Singapore, WLS ® training also produced clinically
             significant blood pressure reductions. In conclusion, WLS ®
             products have been shown in controlled and observational
             trials to produce reduced levels of both psychosocial and
             cardiovascular stress indices. Ongoing research has the
             potential to show that WLS ® products can be an effective
             vehicle for the delivery of stress reduction and mental
             health services in developing countries. © 2011 Society of
             Behavioral Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13142-011-0030-6},
   Key = {fds277240}
}

@article{fds277239,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Myocardial infarction and risk of suicide: another reason to
             develop and test ways to reduce distress in
             postmyocardial-infarction patients?},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {2356-2358},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.990382},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.990382},
   Key = {fds277239}
}

@article{fds277293,
   Author = {Williams, VP and Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L and Lane, JD and Gwyther, LP and Ballard, EL and Vendittelli, AP and Hutchins, TC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Video-based coping skills to reduce health risk and improve
             psychological and physical well-being in Alzheimer's disease
             family caregivers.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {897-904},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978227},
   Abstract = {To determine whether video-based coping skills (VCS)
             training with telephone coaching reduces psychosocial and
             biological markers of distress in primary caregivers of a
             relative with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia
             (ADRD).A controlled clinical trial was conducted with 116
             ADRD caregivers who were assigned, alternately as they
             qualified for the study, to a Wait List control condition or
             the VCS training arm in which they viewed two modules/week
             of a version of the Williams LifeSkills Video adapted for
             ADRD family care contexts, did the exercises and homework
             for each module presented in an accompanying Workbook, and
             received one telephone coaching call per week for 5 weeks on
             each week's two modules. Questionnaire-assessed depressive
             symptoms, state and trait anger and anxiety, perceived
             stress, hostility, caregiver self-efficacy, salivary
             cortisol across the day and before and after a stress
             protocol, and blood pressure and heart rate during a stress
             protocol were assessed before VCS training, 7 weeks after
             training was completed, and at 3 months' and 6 months'
             follow-up.Compared with controls, participants who received
             VCS training plus telephone coaching showed significantly
             greater improvements in depressive symptoms, trait anxiety,
             perceived stress, and average systolic and diastolic blood
             pressures that were maintained over the 6-month follow-up
             period.VCS training augmented by telephone coaching reduced
             psychosocial and biological indicators of distress in ADRD
             caregivers. Future studies should determine the long-term
             benefits to mental and physical health from this
             intervention.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov;
             #NCT00396825.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181fc2d09},
   Key = {fds277293}
}

@article{fds277299,
   Author = {Stanton, MV and Jonassaint, CR and Bartholomew, FB and Edwards, C and Richman, L and DeCastro, L and Williams, R},
   Title = {The association of optimism and perceived discrimination
             with health care utilization in adults with sickle cell
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the National Medical Association},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1056-1063},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1943-4693},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141295},
   Abstract = {We evaluated the effect of perceived discrimination,
             optimism, and their interaction on health care utilization
             among African American adults with sickle cell disease
             (SCD).Measures of optimism and perceived discrimination were
             obtained in 49 African American SCD patients. Multiple
             regression analyses controlling for sex and age tested
             effects of optimism and perceived discrimination on the
             number of emergency department visits (ED) and number and
             duration of hospitalizations over the past year.A perceived
             discrimination-optimism interaction was associated with
             number of emergency departments visits (b = .29, p = .052),
             number of hospitalizations (b = .36, p = .019), and duration
             of hospitalizations (b = .30, p = .045) such that those with
             high perceived discrimination/high optimism had the greatest
             health care utilization.African American SCD patients with
             high perceived discrimination/high optimism had greater
             health care utilization than patients who reported either
             low perceived discrimination or low optimism. This study
             suggests that patient personality and coping styles should
             be considered when evaluating the effects of stress on
             SCD-related outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0027-9684(15)30733-1},
   Key = {fds277299}
}

@article{fds277295,
   Author = {Surwit, RS and Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Feinglos, MN and Kuhn, CM and Georgiades, A},
   Title = {Plasma epinephrine predicts fasting glucose in centrally
             obese African-American women.},
   Journal = {Obesity (Silver Spring)},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1683-1687},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20300086},
   Abstract = {The high prevalence of diabetes in African-American (AA)
             women has been widely assumed to be related to the greater
             prevalence of obesity in this group. Catecholamine release
             acting on central adipose tissue has been proposed to be a
             contributing factor. The aim of this article was to examine
             the interaction of plasma catecholamines and central
             adiposity on fasting and nonfasting glucose levels in two
             separate samples. In both studies, the women were healthy,
             nondiabetic of similar age. In addition, both studies
             assessed plasma epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine
             (NOREPI) levels collected at three time points. In study 1,
             catecholamines were measured during a standardized
             laboratory mental stress task and in study 2, they were
             measured during the initial phase (10 min) of an intravenous
             glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Results from both studies
             revealed significant effects of EPI on fasting glucose in
             the obese women. In study 1, mean EPI levels were
             significantly related to fasting glucose in AA women with
             high trunk fat (beta = 0.60, P < 0.001). Because high BMI
             was associated with high trunk fat in women, we used BMI >30
             as a proxy for high trunk fat (>32%) in study 2. In study 2,
             EPI response to the glucose bolus was a strong predictor of
             fasting glucose in AA women with BMI >30 (beta = 0.75, P <
             0.003). We conclude that the effect of central adiposity on
             fasting glucose may be moderated by plasma EPI. This
             suggests that adrenal medullary activity could play a role
             in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes.},
   Doi = {10.1038/oby.2010.43},
   Key = {fds277295}
}

@article{fds277323,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Brummett, BH and Williams, RB and Haney, TL and Dilworth-Anderson, P},
   Title = {Caregiving, residence, race, and depressive
             symptoms.},
   Journal = {Aging & Mental Health},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {771-778},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20635234},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychological
             responses to caregiving between black and white dementia
             caregivers measured by self-reports of depressive symptoms
             evaluating the impact of sub-components of the Center for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and
             residential arrangements of the caregiving dyad. The method
             included 87 intergenerational family caregivers enrolled in
             the Duke Caregiver Study (50 white and 37 black). Total
             CES-D and the four sub-components were modeled as dependent
             measures in separate linear regressions. Three models were
             examined. The first model tested race, living arrangements,
             and their interaction. The second model adjusted for age,
             gender, education, income, health status, cultural
             justification for caregiving, crime concerns, systolic blood
             pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and glycosylated
             hemoglobin. A third model added adjustment for caregiver
             burden. The results showed that there was a significant race
             by residence interaction for CES-D, somatic symptoms and
             depressive affect such that when the dyads are living
             apart-with the care recipient in their own home or in an
             institutional setting-whites reported more depressive
             symptoms than blacks. When the dyads lived together, this
             was reversed, and blacks reported higher depressive symptoms
             than whites. To conclude, all the parameters such as race,
             living arrangements, and the components of depression need
             to be taken into account to understand the impact of
             caregiving on the emotional health of caregivers.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13607861003713257},
   Key = {fds277323}
}

@article{fds277375,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Surwit, RS and Siegler, IC and Ashley-Koch, AE and Collins, AL and Helms, MJ and Georgiades, A and Boyle, SH and Brummett,
             BH and Barefoot, JC and Grichnik, K and Stafford-Smith, M and Kuhn,
             CM},
   Title = {Central nervous system serotonin and clustering of
             hostility, psychosocial, metabolic, and cardiovascular
             endophenotypes in men.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {601-607},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20595415},
   Abstract = {To use measures of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
             5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and genotype of a
             functional polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase A gene
             promoter (MAOA-uVNTR) to study the role of central nervous
             system (CNS) serotonin in clustering of hostility, other
             psychosocial, metabolic and cardiovascular endophenotypes.In
             86 healthy male volunteers, we evaluated CSF levels of the
             primary serotonin metabolite 5HIAA and MAOA-uVNTR genotype
             for association with a panel of 29 variables assessing
             hostility, other psychosocial, metabolic, and cardiovascular
             endophenotypes.The correlations of 5HIAA with these
             endophenotypes in men with more active MAOA-uVNTR alleles
             were significantly different from those of men with less
             active alleles for 15 of the 29 endophenotypes. MAOA-uVNTR
             genotype and CSF 5HIAA interacted to explain 20% and 22% of
             the variance, respectively, in scores on one factor wherein
             high scores reflected a less healthy psychosocial profile
             and a second factor wherein high score reflected increased
             insulin resistance, body mass index, blood pressure and
             hostility. In men with less active alleles, higher 5HIAA was
             associated with more favorable profiles of hostility, other
             psychosocial, metabolic and cardiovascular endophenotypes;
             in men with more active alleles, higher 5HIAA was associated
             with less favorable profiles.These findings indicate that,
             in men, indices of CNS serotonin function influence the
             expression and clustering of hostility, other psychosocial,
             metabolic and cardiovascular endophenotypes that have been
             shown to increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
             The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that
             increased CNS serotonin is associated with a more favorable
             psychosocial/metabolic/cardiovascular profile, whereas
             decreased CNS serotonin function is associated with a less
             favorable profile.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181eb9d67},
   Key = {fds277375}
}

@article{fds314986,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Rimer, BK and Rubin, DC and Brummett,
             BH and Barefoot, JC and Costa, PT},
   Title = {WHEN I'M 64: FINDINGS FROM THE UNC ALUMNI HEART
             STUDY},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {9-10},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000280088500019&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314986}
}

@article{fds277374,
   Author = {Kring, SII and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, J and Garrett, ME and Ashley-Koch, AE and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Sørensen, TIA and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Impact of psychological stress on the associations between
             apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in
             an American sample of caregivers and controls.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {427-433},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20467002},
   Abstract = {To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE)
             gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma
             glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein
             cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits
             known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a
             population of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal
             obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid
             concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated
             with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that
             gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid
             concentrations.The association between rs769450, rs405509,
             rs439401, and metabolic traits were analyzed in a U.S.
             sample of 126 white caregivers of a relative with
             Alzheimer';s disease or other major dementia and 122 white
             controls. The associations were analyzed, using multivariate
             analysis of variance adjusted for age, sex, and
             medications.Significant multivariate interactions were
             found, using both additive (p = .009) and dominant (p =
             .047) models between rs439401 (C/T) and caregiver stress in
             relation to a profile of metabolic variables. Univariate
             analyses found the TT genotype to be associated with more
             adverse levels of waist circumference (interaction, p =
             .026), triglycerides (interaction, p = .001) and
             high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (interaction, p = .001)
             among caregivers but with a more favorable profile of these
             endophenotypes among controls. There were no significant
             associations or interactions involving the other two single
             nucleotide polymorphisms.The APOE rs439401 TT genotype is
             associated with an adverse metabolic profile among
             chronically stressed individuals compared with individuals
             not similarly stressed in whom a more favorable profile is
             expressed. Confirmation of these results in further research
             would indicate that the TT genotype can be used to identify
             persons at high risk for CVD when subjected to chronic
             stress.},
   Doi = {10.1097/psy.0b013e3181de30ad},
   Key = {fds277374}
}

@article{fds277353,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Ortel, TL and Becker, RC and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Associations of depressive symptoms, trait hostility, and
             gender with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 response
             after emotion recall.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {333-339},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20190126},
   Abstract = {To examine the effects of depressive symptoms and hostility
             on changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin
             (IL)-6 in response to an acute laboratory stressor.
             Depressive symptoms moderate the effect of trait hostility
             on circulating levels of CRP and IL-6.The study included 307
             men and 218 women, affording the opportunity to examine
             moderation by gender. Regression analyses were performed to
             examine depressive symptoms, hostility ratings, gender, and
             their interactions as predictors of CRP and IL-6 response to
             an emotion recall task. Analyses were adjusted for age,
             race, body mass index, and prerecall task levels of either
             CRP or IL-6.The product term for Depressive Symptoms x
             Hostility x Gender was not significantly related to CRP nor
             IL-6 response. However, Depressive Symptoms x Hostility did
             interact to predict CRP response (p = .002); those with the
             combination of high symptoms of depression and hostility had
             the largest CRP response. The Depressive Symptoms x Gender
             interaction was also a predictor of both CRP (p = .001) and
             IL-6 (p = .04) response; for each inflammatory marker,
             depressive symptoms were significantly associated with
             higher CRP response in women, as compared with men.
             Hostility did not moderate depressive symptoms, nor gender
             for IL-6.Our findings extend prior research by suggesting
             that, broadly speaking, depression is related to
             inflammatory markers; however, this relationship seems
             complex. Depression seems to be related to inflammation more
             strongly among hostile individuals and more strongly among
             women than among men.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181d2f104},
   Key = {fds277353}
}

@article{fds277322,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status moderates associations between CNS
             serotonin and expression of beta2-integrins CD11b and
             CD11c.},
   Journal = {J Psychiatr Res},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {373-377},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19800635},
   Abstract = {One of the first steps in the development of atherogenesis
             is adhesion of circulating monocytes to the vascular
             endothelium that is stimulated by beta(2)-integrins. Stress
             has been associated with enhanced expression of
             beta(2)-integrins on monocyte cell surface (Greeson et al.,
             2008). Central nervous system (CNS) serotonin regulates
             aspects of the stress response that can influence
             inflammatory processes that increase risk for
             atherosclerosis. This study examines effects of an
             environmental stressor (indexed by socioeconomic status
             (SES)) and CNS serotonin (indexed by CSF 5HIAA level), on
             the expression of beta(2)-integrins (CD11a, CD11b, and
             CD11c) on circulating monocytes in 131 volunteers.
             Participants completed a protocol consisting of a lumbar
             puncture for assessment of CSF 5HIAA levels (day 1) followed
             by an experimental protocol (day 2). Blood samples for the
             present analyses were obtained at baseline on day 2. The
             interaction of SES x 5HIAA was a significant predictor of
             levels of CD11b and CD11c expression (p=.02, and p=.05,
             respectively); the mean CD11b difference between Hi and Lo
             SES subjects was significant (p=.003) only in those with Lo
             levels of 5HIAA, while SES differences in CD11b among those
             with Mid and Hi levels of 5HIAA did not vary statistically.
             The pattern of findings was similar for CD11c. The present
             results suggest that the combination of high environmental
             stress and low CNS serotonin function could contribute to
             atherogenesis through processes that lead to increased
             expression of the beta(2)-integrins CD11b and CD11c on
             monocyte cell surfaces.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.09.004},
   Key = {fds277322}
}

@article{fds277238,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {How does lower education get inside the body to raise blood
             pressure? What can we do to prevent this?},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {617-618},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146423},
   Doi = {10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.146423},
   Key = {fds277238}
}

@article{fds277292,
   Author = {Stanton, MV and Jonassaint, CR and Williams, RB and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John
             Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {141-147},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100884},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between John Henryism
             (JH) and NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (PI-R)
             personality domains. JH-a strong behavioral predisposition
             to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial
             and economic stressors-has been associated with poor health,
             particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES)
             groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been
             frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have
             yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH.
             METHODS: Hypotheses were examined, using data from a sample
             of 233 community volunteers (mean age, 33 years; 61% black
             and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full
             range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active
             coping (12-item JH scale) measures and covariates were
             derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS: In a multiple
             regression analysis, independent of SES, JH was positively
             associated with Conscientiousness (C) (p < .001) and
             Extraversion (E) (p < .001), whereas the combination of low
             JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N) (p =
             .02) When examining associations between JH and combinations
             of NEO PI-R domains called "styles," high JH was most
             strongly associated with a high E/high C "Go-Getters" style
             of activity, whereas low JH was associated with the low
             E/high Openness (O) "Introspectors" style. In facet level
             data, the most robust associations with JH were found for
             five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS: High JH was
             associated with higher scores on C and E, but the
             combination of low JH and high SES was associated with
             higher scores on N.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181cdc00e},
   Key = {fds277292}
}

@article{fds277237,
   Author = {Stauder, A and Thege, BK and Kovács, ME and Balog, P and Williams, VP and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Worldwide stress: Different problems, similar solutions?
             Cultural adaptation and evaluation of a standardized stress
             management program in Hungary},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-32},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-009-9054-4},
   Abstract = {Background: Chronic stress is an important risk factor for
             morbidity and premature mortality at the individual and
             societal level. Purpose: Our aim was to describe the process
             of adapting and testing the effectiveness of a structured
             stress management skills training program in a culture
             different from the one in which it was first developed.
             Method: We translated an internationally used standardized
             behavioral intervention program into Hungarian and adapted
             it for use in a Hungarian cultural setting. We evaluated the
             changes in stress level and stress-related symptom scores
             among distressed voluntary participants on the basis of
             self-reported questionnaires completed before, immediately
             after, and 4 to 6 months after the 12-h intervention. The
             following measures were included: PSS-10, STAI-T, BDI-S,
             PHQ-15, and WBI-5. For statistical analyses, paired sample t
             test and Cohen's d value for effect size were used. Results:
             In a sample of 107 distressed individuals, after the
             training, stress level, psychological and somatic symptoms
             decreased and well-being increased (p&lt;0.0001). These
             positive changes were maintained at follow-up in a subsample
             of 42 persons tested 4-6 months later. Conclusion: These
             results confirm the long-term positive effects of this
             standardized behavioral intervention in a different cultural
             context and in real-world settings, which encourages further
             dissemination of the program in various community settings.
             © 2009 International Society of Behavioral
             Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12529-009-9054-4},
   Key = {fds277237}
}

@article{fds277300,
   Author = {Jonassaint, CR and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Copeland,
             WE and Williams, R},
   Title = {Personality and inflammation: the protective effect of
             openness to experience.},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & Disease},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11-14},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1049-510X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20178176},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Prior research found reduced mortality in
             coronary heart patients with higher scores on the Openness
             to Experience domain and its facets. Decreased C-reactive
             protein level (CRP) levels may be one mechanism by which
             higher Openness to Experience leads to decreased mortality.
             Thus, the current study aimed to test the association
             between the Openness to Experience domain and its facets, as
             assessed by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and CRP
             in a sample of 165 healthy Black and White, male and female
             community volunteers. METHODS: Blood samples were taken
             before and after a 40-minute mental stress protocol. BMI and
             education were significant predictors of CRP and, in
             addition to age, were included as covariates in all
             analyses. Race and sex were tested as possible moderating
             variables. RESULTS: In a mixed effects model the main effect
             of time (pre/post-stress), Openness to Experience (O) and
             their interaction were not significant predictors of CRP.
             However, results showed a significant race x O effect on CRP
             (P=.03). In Blacks, higher Openness to Experience domain
             (r=-.41, P<.01), aesthetics facet (r=-.30, P=.01), feelings
             facet (r= -.41, P<.01), and ideas facet (r=-.38, P<.01)
             scores were associated with lower mean CRP levels. In
             contrast, among White participants, neither the Openness to
             Experience domain nor its related facets were associated
             with CRP. DISCUSSION: The Openness to Experience domain and
             its facets may be associated with markers of the
             inflammatory process among Blacks but not
             Whites.},
   Key = {fds277300}
}

@article{fds326789,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Boyle, SH and Brummett,
             BH and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Kuhn, CM and Surwit,
             RS},
   Title = {Plasma Epinephrine Levels Determine Fasting and Stress
             Induced Glucose Levels in Women With High Central
             Adiposity},
   Journal = {Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {S54-S54},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds326789}
}

@article{fds277321,
   Author = {Belsky, J and Jonassaint, C and Pluess, M and Stanton, M and Brummett,
             B and Williams, R},
   Title = {Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes?},
   Journal = {Molecular Psychiatry},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {746-754},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1359-4184},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2009.44},
   Abstract = {The classic diathesis-stress framework, which views some
             individuals as particularly vulnerable to adversity, informs
             virtually all psychiatric research on behavior-gene-environment
             (G x E) interaction. An alternative framework of
             'differential susceptibility' is proposed, one which regards
             those most susceptible to adversity because of their genetic
             make up as simultaneously most likely to benefit from
             supportive or enriching experiences-or even just the absence
             of adversity. Recent G x E findings consistent with this
             perspective and involving monoamine oxidase-A, 5-HTTLPR
             (5-hydroxytryptamine-linked polymorphic region polymorphism)
             and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) are reviewed for
             illustrative purposes. Results considered suggest that
             putative 'vulnerability genes' or 'risk alleles' might, at
             times, be more appropriately conceptualized as 'plasticity
             genes', because they seem to make individuals more
             susceptible to environmental influences-for better and for
             worse.},
   Doi = {10.1038/mp.2009.44},
   Key = {fds277321}
}

@article{fds277291,
   Author = {Saab, PG and Bang, H and Williams, RB and Powell, LH and Schneiderman,
             N and Thoresen, C and Burg, M and Keefe, F and ENRICHD
             Investigators},
   Title = {The impact of cognitive behavioral group training on
             event-free survival in patients with myocardial infarction:
             the ENRICHD experience.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {45-56},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.01.015},
   Abstract = {Although the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             (ENRICHD) treatment was designed to include individual
             therapy and cognitive behavioral group training for patients
             with depression and/or low perceived social support, only
             31% of treated participants received group training.
             Secondary analyses classified intervention participants into
             two subgroups, (1) individual therapy only or (2) group
             training (i.e., coping skills training) plus individual
             therapy, to determine whether medical outcomes differed in
             participants who received the combination of group training
             and individual therapy compared to participants who received
             individual therapy only or usual care.Secondary analyses of
             1243 usual care, 781 individual therapy only, and 356 group
             plus individual therapy myocardial infarction (MI) patients
             were performed. Depression was diagnosed using modified
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
             Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria; low perceived social
             support was determined by the ENRICHD Social Support
             Instrument. Psychosocial treatment followed MI, and for
             participants with severe or unremitting depression, was
             supplemented with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.
             Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate
             intervention effects on time to first occurrence of the
             composite end point of death plus nonfatal MI. To control
             for confounding of group participation with survival
             (because individual sessions preceded group), we used risk
             set sampling to match minimal survival time of those
             receiving or not receiving group training.Analyses
             correcting for differential survival among comparison groups
             showed that group plus individual therapy was associated
             with a 33% reduction (hazard ratio=0.67; 95% confidence
             interval, 0.49-0.92, P=.01) in medical outcome compared to
             usual care. No significant effect on event-free survival was
             associated with individual therapy alone. The group training
             benefit was reduced to 23% (hazard ratio=0.77; 95%
             confidence interval: 0.56-1.07, P=.11) in the
             multivariate-adjusted model.Findings suggest that adding
             group training to individual therapy may be associated with
             reduction in the composite end point. A randomized
             controlled trial is warranted to definitively resolve this
             issue.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.01.015},
   Key = {fds277291}
}

@article{fds277319,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Lane, JD and Boyle, SH and Brummett, BH and Barefoot,
             JC and Kuhn, CM and Feinglos, MN and Williams, RB and Merwin, R and Minda,
             S and Siegler, IC and Surwit, RS},
   Title = {Hostility and fasting glucose in African American
             women.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {642-645},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19553288},
   Abstract = {To examine whether the relationship of hostility (HOST) to
             fasting glucose indices is moderated by sex and race. HOST
             has been associated with abnormalities in glucose
             metabolism. Prior studies suggested that this association
             may be more prevalent in women and in African American (AA)
             individuals.A total of 565 healthy AA and white (W) men and
             women (mean age = 33 +/- 6 years) were assessed. HOST was
             measured by the 27-item version of the Cook Medley HOST
             Scale. The moderating effects of sex and race were evaluated
             for the associations of HOST to fasting glucose, insulin,
             and insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR).Analysis showed a
             moderating effect of sex and race on the association of HOST
             to fasting glucose (p = .03), but not for insulin (p = .12).
             Analysis of HOMA-IR revealed a trend (p = .06) for the
             interaction. Stratified analyses by race and sex revealed a
             positive association between HOST and fasting glucose only
             in AA women, which remained significant after controlling
             for age and body mass index.A relationship between HOST and
             fasting glucose was evident in AA women only, a group that
             has twice the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes compared
             with W women. Further studies are needed to elucidate the
             mechanisms by which HOST may affect glucose metabolism in AA
             women.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181acee3a},
   Key = {fds277319}
}

@article{fds277320,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Positive affect is associated with cardiovascular
             reactivity, norepinephrine level, and morning rise in
             salivary cortisol.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {862-869},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19470128},
   Abstract = {Positive affect was examined as a predictor of (1)
             cardiovascular reactivity during a sadness and an anger
             recall task and recovery following the protocol, (2)
             epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NOREPI) reactivity and
             level during the recall protocol, and (3) the diurnal
             pattern of salivary cortisol. Sample was 328 individuals.
             Negative affect, age, race, sex, smoking status, income, and
             BMI were adjusted. During sadness recall, positive affect
             was inversely related to systolic blood pressure (p=.007)
             and diastolic blood pressure (p=.049) reactivity, and
             unrelated to heart rate (p=.226). Positive affect was
             unrelated to reactivity during anger recall (ps>.19), and
             was unrelated to recovery at the end of the recall protocol.
             Positive affect was inversely related to the mean level of
             NOREPI (p=.046), and unrelated to EPI (p=.149). Positive
             affect was inversely related to the increase in cortisol 30
             min post awakening (p=.042), and unrelated to the evening
             decline in cortisol levels (p=.174). Positive emotions may
             be relevant to good health.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00829.x},
   Key = {fds277320}
}

@article{fds277236,
   Author = {Williams, VP and Brenner, SL and Helms, MJ and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Coping skills training to reduce psychosocial risk factors
             for medical disorders: a field trial evaluating
             effectiveness in multiple worksites.},
   Journal = {Journal of Occupational Health},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {437-442},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1341-9145},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1539/joh.o8016},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To determine whether a commercial coping skills
             training program shown to reduce psychosocial risk factors
             in randomized clinical trials of patients with coronary
             heart disease is also effective in achieving similar
             improvements among stressed workers in a real world
             corporate setting. METHODS:Conduct an observational trial to
             evaluate the impact of the Williams LifeSkills Workshop on
             depression, social support, anxiety, and hostility in a
             sample of 110 employees working at multiple U.S. sites of a
             client of Williams LifeSkills, Inc. RESULTS:All psychosocial
             risk factors showed highly significant improvements from
             pre- to post-training. Except for social support, these
             improvements were maintained at six months follow-up.
             CONCLUSIONS:These findings provide support for the
             effectiveness of the Williams LifeSkills Workshop by
             suggesting that its efficacy, as demonstrated in randomized
             clinical trials, generalizes to real world settings like the
             multiple U.S. work sites of a corporate client.},
   Doi = {10.1539/joh.o8016},
   Key = {fds277236}
}

@article{fds277235,
   Author = {Dekker, J and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Heralding the new publisher: Strategic alliance and improved
             service},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-2},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12529-008-9009-1},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12529-008-9009-1},
   Key = {fds277235}
}

@article{fds277318,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Positive affect is associated with cardiovascular
             reactivity, norepinephrine level, and morning rise in
             salivary cortisol.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {862-869},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1540-5958},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00829.x},
   Abstract = {Positive affect was examined as a predictor of (1)
             cardiovascular reactivity during a sadness and an anger
             recall task and recovery following the protocol, (2)
             epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NOREPI) reactivity and
             level during the recall protocol, and (3) the diurnal
             pattern of salivary cortisol. Sample was 328 individuals.
             Negative affect, age, race, sex, smoking status, income, and
             BMI were adjusted. During sadness recall, positive affect
             was inversely related to systolic blood pressure (p=.007)
             and diastolic blood pressure (p=.049) reactivity, and
             unrelated to heart rate (p=.226). Positive affect was
             unrelated to reactivity during anger recall (ps&gt;.19), and
             was unrelated to recovery at the end of the recall protocol.
             Positive affect was inversely related to the mean level of
             NOREPI (p=.046), and unrelated to EPI (p=.149). Positive
             affect was inversely related to the increase in cortisol 30
             min post awakening (p=.042), and unrelated to the evening
             decline in cortisol levels (p=.174). Positive emotions may
             be relevant to good health.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00829.x},
   Key = {fds277318}
}

@article{fds277372,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Kuhn, CM and Surwit, RS and Garrett, ME and Collins, A and Ashley-Koch, A and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {HPA axis function in male caregivers: effect of the
             monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR).},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {250-255},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18639608},
   Abstract = {Caregiving stress is associated with negative health
             outcomes. Neuroendocrine functioning may be a mediator of
             such outcomes. The MAOA gene regulates activity of
             neurotransmitters involved with neuroendocrine responses to
             stress. Differences in polymorphisms of this gene have been
             shown to influence susceptibility to stress. Therefore, we
             examined allelic variation in MAOA-uVNTR, a functional
             polymorphism of MAOA, as a moderator of chronic stress
             effects on urinary cortisol excretion in 74 males enrolled
             in a case/control study of caregivers for relatives with
             dementia. Mixed models analysis of variance were used to
             examine MAOA-uVNTR genotype (3 repeats vs. 3.5/4 repeats) as
             a moderator of the impact of stress (caregiver vs.
             non-caregiver) on the urinary excretion pattern (overnight,
             daytime, evening) of cortisol. Caregivers with MAOA-uVNTR
             alleles associated with less transcriptional activity
             (3-repeats) displayed a pattern of cortisol excretion -- a
             decrease from overnight to daytime -- that was suggestive of
             HPA axis blunting, as compared to non-caregivers and those
             caregivers with the more active alleles (3.5/4 repeats)
             (cortisol p<.043). Individuals with less active MAOA-uVNTR
             alleles who are under chronic stress may be at increased
             risk for exhaustion of the HPA response to such
             stress.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.06.004},
   Key = {fds277372}
}

@article{fds277373,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Muller, CL and Collins, AL and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Ashley-Koch, A},
   Title = {5-HTTLPR and gender moderate changes in negative affect
             responses to tryptophan infusion.},
   Journal = {Behavior Genetics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {476-483},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18661222},
   Abstract = {Expression of the serotonin transporter is affected by the
             genotype of the 5-HTTLPR (short and long forms) as well as
             the genotype of the SNP rs25531 within this region. Based on
             the combined genotypes for these polymorphisms, we
             designated each allele as a high or low expressing allele
             according to established expression levels-resulting in
             HiHi, HiLo, & LoLo genotype groups for analysis. We
             evaluated effects of gender and the promoter genotype on
             induction of negative affect by intravenous infusion of L:
             -tryptophan (TRP). The protocol consisted of a day-1 sham
             saline infusion and a day-2 active TRP infusion. Models
             assessed 5-HTTLPR composite genotype and gender as
             predictors of change in ratings of negative emotion during
             TRP infusion. During sham infusion there were no significant
             changes from baseline in mood ratings. During TRP infusion
             all negative affect ratings increased significantly from
             baseline (P's < .02). The genotype x gender interaction was
             a significant predictor of depression-dejection (P = .013),
             and trended towards predicting anger-hostility (P = .084).
             Males in the HiHi group had greater increases in negative
             affect during infusion, compared to all groups except LoLo
             females, who also showed increased negative
             affect.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10519-008-9219-y},
   Key = {fds277373}
}

@article{fds277167,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Williams, VP},
   Title = {The Prevention and Treatment of Hostility},
   Pages = {259-275},
   Publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470713860.ch12},
   Doi = {10.1002/9780470713860.ch12},
   Key = {fds277167}
}

@article{fds277234,
   Author = {Campo, AE and Williams, V and Williams, RB and Segundo, MA and Lydston,
             D and Weiss, SM},
   Title = {Effects of LifeSkills training on medical students'
             performance in dealing with complex clinical
             cases.},
   Journal = {Academic Psychiatry : the Journal of the American
             Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training
             and the Association for Academic Psychiatry},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {188-193},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1042-9670},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ap.32.3.188},
   Abstract = {Sound clinical judgment is the cornerstone of medical
             practice and begins early during medical education. The
             authors consider the effect of personality characteristics
             (hostility, anger, cynicism) on clinical judgment and
             whether a brief intervention can affect this process.Two
             sophomore medical classes (experimental, comparison) were
             assessed on several personality dimensions and responded to
             a series of clinical vignettes. The experimental group
             received cognitive behavior training to improve stress,
             coping, and interpersonal skills. Participants were
             reassessed within 1 week of the initial assessment.Significant
             associations between hostility and cynicism and maladaptive
             responses to the clinical vignettes were noted. Following
             the intervention, hostility, cynicism, anger, and aggression
             were significantly reduced, with concomitant reductions in
             maladaptive decision-making.The relationship between the
             quality of clinical decision-making and personality
             characteristics was confirmed. The potential to modify this
             relationship using a brief cognitive behavior intervention
             suggests that such interventions should be an essential
             component of medical education.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ap.32.3.188},
   Key = {fds277234}
}

@article{fds277317,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Kuhn, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Associations among central nervous system serotonergic
             function and neuroticism are moderated by
             gender.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychology},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {200-203},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0301-0511},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18417268},
   Abstract = {Serotonergic dysregulation is associated with negative
             affect. Plasma prolactin responses to a tryptophan
             enhancement challenge are used as a measure of central
             nervous system serotonergic activity. We examined prolactin
             responses to a tryptophan challenge as they relate to the
             personality domains of neuroticism, extraversion, openness,
             agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Participants were 67
             volunteers. Regression models assessed peak prolactin
             response to intravenous tryptophan infusion as a predictor
             of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and
             conscientiousness. Prolactinxgender product terms were
             included to examine moderation by gender. Models were
             adjusted for baseline levels of prolactin, age, and race.
             Gender moderated the association between N and prolactin
             level (p<.03). Higher levels of N were associated with
             decreased levels of prolactin responses in females, whereas
             the opposite was true for males. Remaining personality
             domains were not related to prolactin levels. Findings add
             to literature suggesting the serotonin system functions
             differently, in important ways, in males and
             females.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.03.002},
   Key = {fds277317}
}

@article{fds314989,
   Author = {Lechner, SC and Schneiderman, N and Williams, RB and Spiegel, D and Spring, B},
   Title = {Behavioral medicine interventions for persons with chronic
             and life-threatening disease: A look at the past and
             inspiration for the future},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {35},
   Pages = {S88-S88},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000259245500340&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds314989}
}

@article{fds277371,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Zuchner, S and Ashley-Koch, A and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Lipid levels are associated with a regulatory polymorphism
             of the monoamine oxidase-A gene promoter
             (MAOA-uVNTR).},
   Journal = {Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of
             Experimental and Clinical Research},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {CR57-CR61},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1234-1010},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18227761},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA) gene plays a
             vital role in the metabolism of neurotransmitters, e.g,
             serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. A polymorphism in
             the promoter region (MAOA-uVNTR) affects transcriptional
             efficiency. Allelic variation in MAOA-uVNTR has been
             associated with body mass index (BMI). We extended previous
             work by examining relations among this polymorphism and
             serum lipid levels. MATERIAL/METHODS: The sample consisted
             of 74 males enrolled in a study of caregivers for relatives
             with dementia. Regression models, adjusted for age, race,
             group status (caregiver/control), and cholesterol lowering
             medication (yes/no), were used to examine associations
             between high verses low MAOA-uVNTR activity alleles and
             total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, LDL/HDL ratio,
             triglycerides, and BMI. RESULTS: Higher total cholesterol
             (p<0.03), LDL/HDL ratio (p<0.01), triglycerides (p<0.02),
             and VLDL (p<0.02) were associated with low activity
             MAOA-uVNTR alleles. HDL and LDL were modestly related to
             MAOA-uVNTR activity, however, they did not reach the
             conventional significance level (p<0.07 and p<0.10,
             respectively). BMI (p<0.74) was unrelated to MAOA-uVNTR
             transcription. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest
             that MAOA-uVNTR may influence lipid levels and individuals
             with less active alleles are at increased health
             risk.},
   Key = {fds277371}
}

@article{fds277233,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Psychosocial and biobehavioral factors and their interplay
             in coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {349-365},
   Publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1548-5943},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17716037},
   Abstract = {Recent epidemiological research has confirmed that
             psychosocial factors are associated with increased risk of
             developing coronary heart disease (CHD), a major cause of
             death and disability worldwide. This association is probably
             mediated by changes in health risk behaviors and
             neuroendocrine and autonomic functions that affect
             metabolic, hemostatic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular
             functions that are the proximal agents in CHD pathogenesis
             over time as well as the precipitation of acute disease
             events. Recent developments in genomics have now made it
             possible to begin the process of identifying specific
             genetic variants that act either independently or via
             moderation of the impact of exposures to stressful
             environmental situations to increase the expression of these
             health-damaging psychosocial factors and the accompanying
             behavioral and physiological changes that lead to disease.
             It will be possible ultimately to use the knowledge emerging
             from research on gene x environment interactions that affect
             expression of psychosocial risk factors, health risk
             behaviors, and biological changes inside the body to speed
             the development of a new field of prospective medicine-a
             field where instead of spending the majority of health care
             resources on the treatment of chronic diseases at the end of
             life, it will be possible to allocate more resources to
             develop, test, and implement earlier in the disease process
             cost-effective, proactive interventions that target persons
             at high risk.},
   Doi = {10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141237},
   Key = {fds277233}
}

@article{fds277369,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Marchuk, DA and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Helms,
             MJ and Brummett, BH and Surwit, RS and Lane, JD and Kuhn, CM and Gadde, KM and Ashley-Koch, A and Svenson, IK and Schanberg, SM},
   Title = {Childhood socioeconomic status and serotonin transporter
             gene polymorphism enhance cardiovascular reactivity to
             mental stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {32-39},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158371},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that low socioeconomic
             status (SES) and the 5HTTLPR L allele are associated with
             increased cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stress in a
             larger sample and that SES and 5HTTLPR genotypes interact to
             enhance CVR to stress. CVR to mental stress has been
             proposed as one mechanism linking stress to the pathogenesis
             of cardiovascular disease. The more transcriptionally
             efficient long (L) allele of a polymorphism of the serotonin
             transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR) has been found
             associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. We
             found the long allele associated with larger CVR to mental
             stress in a preliminary study of 54 normal volunteers.
             METHODS: Subjects included 165 normal community volunteers
             stratified for race, gender, and SES, who underwent mental
             stress testing. RESULTS: Childhood SES as indexed by
             Father's Education Level was associated with larger systolic
             blood pressure (SBP) (p < .05) and diastolic blood pressure
             (DBP) (p = .01) responses to mental stress. The L allele was
             associated with larger SBP (p = .04), DBP (p < .0001), and
             heart rate (p = .04) responses to mental stress compared
             with the short (S) allele. Subjects with the SS genotype and
             high Father's Education exhibited smaller SBP (5.2 mm Hg)
             and DBP (2.9 mm Hg) responses than subjects with LL genotype
             and low Father's Education (SBP = 13.3 mm Hg, p = .002; DBP
             = 9.7 mm Hg, p < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Both the 5HTTLPR long
             allele and low SES, particularly during childhood, are
             associated with increased CVR to mental stress, which could
             account, at least in part, for the increased cardiovascular
             disease risk associated with these characteristics. If
             confirmed in further research, these characteristics could
             be used to identify persons who might benefit from
             preventive interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31815f66c3},
   Key = {fds277369}
}

@article{fds277370,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Kuhn, CM and Ashley-Koch,
             A and Jonassaint, CR and Züchner, S and Collins, A and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Effects of environmental stress and gender on associations
             among symptoms of depression and the serotonin transporter
             gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR).},
   Journal = {Behavior Genetics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {34-43},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0001-8244},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17955359},
   Abstract = {The short (s) variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)
             gene linked functional polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is
             associated with depression. Stressful life events, gender,
             and race have been shown to moderate this association. We
             examined the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and
             symptoms of depression in two samples. Study 1 = 288
             participants from a study of caregiver stress; and Study 2 =
             142 participants from a study examining psychosocial
             stressors, genetics, and health. Main effects of 5-HTTLPR on
             symptoms of depression were examined, along with moderation
             by stress (caregiving status or low childhood socioeconomic
             status (SES), gender, and race. The 5-HTTLPR x stress group
             x gender interaction was significant in both samples (P <
             0.003, and P < 0.008, respectively). For females, the s
             allele, combined with caregiving stress (Study 1) or low
             childhood SES (Study 2), was associated with higher
             depression scores as compared to participants in the
             non-stressor group and those with the long (l) allele;
             whereas, in males, the l allele, combined with a stressor,
             was associated with higher depression scores as compared to
             those in the non-stressor group and those with the s allele.
             Findings from two independent samples suggest that the
             association of 5-HTTLPR with depression varies according to
             gender and stressful life events.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10519-007-9172-1},
   Key = {fds277370}
}

@article{fds277351,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Bennett, GG and Pek, J and Siegler, I and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Discrimination, dispositions, and cardiovascular responses
             to stress.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {675-683},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020838},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:Recent research suggests that past exposure to
             discrimination may influence perceptions of, and
             physiological responses to, new challenges. The authors
             examined how race and trait levels of hostility and optimism
             interact with past exposure to discrimination to predict
             physiological reactivity and recovery during an anger recall
             task. DESIGN:A community sample of 165 normotensive Black
             and White adults participated in an anger recall task while
             having their cardiovascular function monitored. MAIN OUTCOME
             MEASURES:Blood pressure and heart rate indicators of
             physiological reactivity and recovery. RESULTS AND
             CONCLUSION:Participants had higher reactivity and slower
             recovery to the anger recall task when they had high past
             discrimination, low cynicism, or high optimism. The pattern
             of effects was similar for both racial groups, but Blacks
             had more acute reactivity and slower recovery than Whites.
             These results are consistent with the perspective of
             discrimination as a chronic stressor that is related to
             acute stress responses, particularly for
             Blacks.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.26.6.675},
   Key = {fds277351}
}

@article{fds277316,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Surwit, RS and Georgiades, A and Brummett, BH and Helms,
             MJ and Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms, race, and glucose concentrations: the
             role of cortisol as mediator.},
   Journal = {Diabetes Care},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2484-2488},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17630268},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study examined the associations of
             depressive symptoms with glucose concentrations and morning
             cortisol levels in 665 African-American and 4,216 Caucasian
             Vietnam-era veterans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Glucose
             level was measured as a three-level variable (diabetes,
             impaired glucose, and normal). Depressive symptoms were
             measured by the Obvious Depression Scale (OBD) from the
             Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. RESULTS:
             Regression models showed significant race x OBD interactions
             in relation to glucose concentration (P < 0.0001) and
             cortisol (P < 0.0001). The OBD was positively associated
             with glucose concentration and cortisol in both racial
             groups. However, the magnitude of those associations was
             larger for African Americans. Further analyses suggested
             that cortisol partially mediated the race difference in the
             relation of depressive symptoms to glucose concentrations.
             CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that enhanced
             hypothalamic pituitary adrenal activity plays an important
             role in the relation of depressive symptoms to dysregulated
             glucose metabolism and may partially explain the
             differential effects of depressive symptoms on glucose
             levels in African-American and Caucasian male
             subjects.},
   Doi = {10.2337/dc07-0258},
   Key = {fds277316}
}

@article{fds277368,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Krystal, AD and Ashley-Koch, A and Kuhn, CM and Züchner, S and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Ballard, EL and Gwyther, LP and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Sleep quality varies as a function of 5-HTTLPR genotype and
             stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {621-624},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17766685},
   Abstract = {To test the hypothesis that allelic variation in 5HTT
             gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype was
             associated with sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality
             Index, PSQI) as a main effect and as moderated by the
             chronic stress of caregiving. Serotonin (5HT) is involved in
             sleep regulation and the 5HT transporter (5HTT) regulates
             5HT function. A common 44-base pair deletion (s allele)
             polymorphism in the 5-HTTLPR is associated with reduced 5HTT
             transcription efficiency and 5HT uptake in vitro.Subjects
             were 142 adult primary caregivers for a spouse or parent
             with dementia and 146 noncaregiver controls. Subjects
             underwent genotyping and completed the PSQI.Variation in
             5-HTTLPR genotype was not related to sleep quality as a main
             effect (p > .36). However, there was a caregiver X 5-HTTLPR
             interaction (p < .009), such that the s allele was
             associated with poorer sleep quality in caregivers as
             compared with controls.Findings suggest that the s allele
             may moderate sleep disturbance in response to chronic
             stress.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31814b8de6},
   Key = {fds277368}
}

@article{fds277231,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Lower central nervous system serotonergic function and risk
             of cardiovascular disease: where are we, what's
             next?},
   Journal = {Stroke},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2213-2214},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0039-2499},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/strokeaha.107.494088},
   Doi = {10.1161/strokeaha.107.494088},
   Key = {fds277231}
}

@article{fds277367,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Krystal, AD and Siegler, IC and Kuhn, C and Surwit, RS and Züchner, S and Ashley-Koch, A and Barefoot, JC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Associations of a regulatory polymorphism of monoamine
             oxidase-A gene promoter (MAOA-uVNTR) with symptoms of
             depression and sleep quality.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {396-401},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17585061},
   Abstract = {To examine the relationships among the variable number of
             tandem repeats in the monoamine oxidase-A linked polymorphic
             region allelic variation (MAOA-uVNTR) and the symptoms of
             depression and sleep quality. The monoamine oxidase-A (MAOA)
             gene, which plays a vital role in degradation of
             neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and
             dopamine, contains a polymorphism in its promoter region
             (MAOA-uVNTR) that affects transcriptional efficiency.
             MAOA-uVNTR genotype has been associated with both
             psychological and physical measures.The sample consisted of
             74 males enrolled in a case/control study of caregivers for
             relatives with dementia. Age- and race-adjusted linear
             regression models were used to examine the association
             between low versus high MAOA-uVNTR activity alleles,
             symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies
             of Depression), and sleep quality ratings (Pittsburgh Sleep
             Quality Index).MAOA-uVNTR alleles associated with less
             transcriptional activity were related to increased symptoms
             of depression (p < .04; Cohen's d = 0.52) and poorer sleep
             quality (p < .04; Cohen's d = 0.31).Individuals with less
             active MAOA-uVNTR alleles may be at increased risk for
             depressive symptoms and poor sleep.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e31806d040b},
   Key = {fds277367}
}

@article{fds277263,
   Author = {Jonassaint, CR and Boyle, SH and Williams, RB and Mark, DB and Siegler,
             IC and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Facets of openness predict mortality in patients with
             cardiac disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {319-322},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17510289},
   Abstract = {To examine the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI) Openness
             to Experience (O) domain and its facets as predictors of
             cardiac deaths and all-cause mortality.The NEO PI was
             administered to a sample of 977 coronary catheterization
             patients with significant coronary artery disease. Over an
             average 15-year follow-up period, 266 cardiac deaths and 463
             total deaths occurred. The relationships of O scores to
             mortality were examined with Cox proportional hazard models.
             Each model included age, left ventricular ejection fraction,
             severity of congestive heart failure, and number of diseased
             vessels as covariates.The O domain score was not associated
             with all-cause mortality and only approached significance
             for decreased cardiac deaths (p = .055). However, a higher
             score for Openness to Feelings was associated with a
             decreased risk of cardiac death (p < .01) and all-cause
             mortality (p < .01). High Openness to Actions was also
             associated with decreased cardiac mortality (p < .01) and
             all-cause mortality (p = .03) risk. Higher Openness to
             Aesthetics and Ideas were only associated with decreased
             cardiac death risk (both p values <.04). In contrast,
             Openness to Fantasy and Values were not associated with
             longevity. Previous evidence suggested that educational
             achievement may account for the effects of Openness to
             Experience on mortality; however, controlling for
             educational achievement did not change the results.These
             findings suggest that greater emotional awareness and high
             curiosity, as indicated by the NEO PI Feelings and Actions
             facets, are associated with increased patient longevity
             independently of other risk factors and educational
             achievement.},
   Doi = {10.1097/psy.0b013e318052e27d},
   Key = {fds277263}
}

@article{fds277232,
   Author = {Kopp, MS and Skrabski, Á and Székely, A and Stauder, A and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {Chronic stress and social changes: Socioeconomic
             determination of chronic stress},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {1113},
   Pages = {325-338},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0077-8923},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1391.006},
   Abstract = {In the last decades in the transforming societies of Central
             and Eastern Europe, premature mortality increased
             dramatically, especially among men. Increasing disparities
             in socioeconomic conditions have been accompanied by a
             widening socioeconomic gradient in mortality among men.
             Social cohesion and meaning in life may help to
             counterbalance the widening gap in material circumstances.
             Not the difficult social situation in itself, but the
             subjective experience of relative disadvantage, the
             prolonged negative emotional state, that is, chronic stress
             seems to be the most important risk factor. The health
             consequences of a low socioeconomic situation among men
             might be mostly explained by chronic stress caused by work
             and close-partner-related factors, and the toxic components
             of this interaction are depression and hopelessness. In the
             case of women, the broader personal and family relations are
             the most important health-related factors. Weekend workload,
             low social support at work and low control at work accounted
             for a large part of variation in male premature
             cardiovascular mortality rates, whereas job insecurity, high
             weekend workload, and low control at work contribute most
             markedly to variations in premature cardiovascular mortality
             rates among women. There are two general approaches that
             scientists and practitioners might take: train individuals
             and groups to use skills that will enable them to cope
             better with the stressful conditions that are damaging their
             health; and lobby governments to adopt policies that will
             result in decreased chronic stress on the societal level. ©
             2007 New York Academy of Sciences.},
   Doi = {10.1196/annals.1391.006},
   Key = {fds277232}
}

@article{fds277277,
   Author = {Kirby, ED and Williams, VP and Hocking, MC and Lane, JD and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Psychosocial benefits of three formats of a standardized
             behavioral stress management program.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {816-823},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17132834},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Psychosocial factors are associated with
             increased morbidity and mortality in healthy and clinical
             populations. Behavioral interventions are needed to train
             the large number of people in the community setting who are
             affected by stressors to use coping skills that will reduce
             these risk factors. The aim of the current study was to
             evaluate the efficacy of three forms of delivery of a
             standardized, behavioral intervention-the Williams
             LifeSkills program-designed to reduce levels of psychosocial
             risk factors in nonclinical populations. METHODS: One
             hundred ninety-six participants screening positive for
             elevated psychosocial distress were randomized to either a
             waitlist control group or one of three intervention groups:
             the LifeSkills Workshop, the LifeSkills Video, or the
             LifeSkills Video and Workshop combined. Psychosocial risk
             factors were evaluated at baseline and at 10 days, 2 months,
             and 6 months after the training/wait period. RESULTS: At 10
             days follow up, the workshop + video and video-only groups
             showed significant improvements over control subjects in
             trait anxiety and perceived stress. Moreover, the workshop +
             video group maintained benefit over control subjects
             throughout 6 months follow up in both of these measures,
             whereas the video-only group maintained benefit in trait
             anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Because the psychosocial well-being of
             two of the treated groups improved over that of the control
             group, it appears that the Williams LifeSkills program
             accelerates and maintains a normal return to low distress
             after a stressful time. This is the first study to show that
             a commercially available, facilitator- or self-administered
             behavioral training product can have significant beneficial
             effects on psychosocial well-being in a healthy community
             sample.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000238452.81926.d3},
   Key = {fds277277}
}

@article{fds277362,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Costa,
             PT and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {NEO personality domains and gender predict levels and trends
             in body mass index over 14 years during midlife},
   Journal = {Journal of Research in Personality},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {222-236},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0092-6566},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2004.12.002},
   Abstract = {Mixed models were used to examine NEO-PI scores as
             predictors of body mass index (BMI) over a 14 year period
             during midlife. Average BMI levels during midlife were
             positively related to Neuroticism and negatively related to
             Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Relations
             for three domains were modified by gender. Neuroticism was
             significantly related to BMI in females only. Extraversion
             was positively related to BMI in males, whereas, this
             relation was non-significant in females. The relation
             between Conscientiousness and BMI was significant in males
             and females, however, the magnitude of the negative
             association was stronger in females. Conscientiousness also
             predicted change in BMI during midlife such that
             participants who were lower in Conscientiousness tended to
             show larger gains in BMI with age. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jrp.2004.12.002},
   Key = {fds277362}
}

@article{fds326042,
   Author = {Surwit, RS and Kuhn, CM and Helms, MJ and Siegler, IC and Feinglos, MN and Williams, RB},
   Title = {MAO-uVNTR is related to CNS serotonergic function, glucose
             metabolism, BMI, and hostility},
   Journal = {Diabetes},
   Volume = {55},
   Pages = {A431-A431},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds326042}
}

@article{fds277350,
   Author = {Merritt, MM and Bennett, GG and Williams, RB and Edwards, CL and Sollers, JJ},
   Title = {Perceived racism and cardiovascular reactivity and recovery
             to personally relevant stress.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {364-369},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16719608},
   Abstract = {This study evaluated cardiovascular responses (CVR) to an
             active speech task with blatantly discriminatory (BRC)
             versus neutral (NRC) stimuli and an anger recall task in a
             sample of Black men (N = 73; age 18 to 47). Diastolic blood
             pressure scores were higher for NRC versus BRC stimuli
             during anger recall (p = .05). Moreover, persons in the NRC
             group who perceived high levels of racism (vs. no racism or
             BRC group) during active speech showed larger increases in
             blood pressure across postspeech rest, anger recall, and
             subsequent rest (p = .03). The notable elevation in CVR in
             response to an ambiguous event extends current models of
             racism suggesting that subtle racism is a psychosocial
             stressor that erodes health through chronically elevated
             CVR.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.25.3.364},
   Key = {fds277350}
}

@article{fds277361,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Vitaliano, PP and Ballard, EL and Gwyther, LP and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Associations among perceptions of social support, negative
             affect, and quality of sleep in caregivers and
             noncaregivers.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {220-225},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16569114},
   Abstract = {The authors used structural equation modeling to examine
             associations among perceptions of negative affect, social
             support, and quality of sleep in a sample of caregivers (n =
             175) and noncaregiver control participants (n = 169). The
             authors hypothesized that caregiver status would be related
             to sleep quality directly and also indirectly by way of
             negative affect and social support. This hypothesis was
             partially supported in that caregiving was found to be
             indirectly related to sleep quality. However, after
             accounting for the indirect effects of negative affect and
             social support, the direct effect of caregiving on sleep
             quality was no longer statistically significant. The
             structural model accounted for approximately 43% of the
             variance in sleep quality. The present findings may be
             useful in the development of successful sleep interventions
             for caregivers.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.25.2.220},
   Key = {fds277361}
}

@article{fds277230,
   Author = {Schneiderman, N and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The great debate editorial, revisited [1]},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {636-638},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000227691.88628.69},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000227691.88628.69},
   Key = {fds277230}
}

@article{fds277229,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress: A new
             risk factor for coronary disease?},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {329-330},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.0000200688.37802.01},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.HYP.0000200688.37802.01},
   Key = {fds277229}
}

@article{fds326260,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Gainetdinov, RR and Beaulieu, J-M and Sotnikova, TD and Burch, LH and Williams, RB and Schwartz, DA and Krishnan, KRR and Caron,
             MG},
   Title = {Response to Correspondence: Loss-of-Function Mutation in
             Tryptophan Hydroxylase-2 Identified in Unipolar Major
             Depression},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {705-706},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.021},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.021},
   Key = {fds326260}
}

@article{fds277314,
   Author = {Dilworth-Anderson, P and Brummett, BH and Goodwin, P and Williams,
             SW and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Effect of race on cultural justifications for
             caregiving.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {S257-S262},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131626},
   Abstract = {Our objective in this study was to explore the effects of
             caregiver characteristics on cultural reasons given for
             providing care to dependent elderly family members.The
             sample included 48 African American and 121 White
             caregivers. Using multivariate analyses, we used caregiver
             characteristics (e.g., race, gender, education) to predict
             scores on the Cultural Justifications for Caregiving Scale
             (CJCS).Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the CJCS was
             appropriate for both African American and White caregivers.
             African Americans had stronger cultural reasons for
             providing care than Whites, education levels were inversely
             related to CJCS scores, and the influences of gender and age
             on cultural reasons were moderated by race. Compared to
             females, African American males had lower CJCS scores,
             whereas White males had higher CJCS scores. Younger as
             compared to older White caregivers had higher CJCS
             scores.This study supports the long-standing cultural
             tradition of African American families providing care to
             dependent elders. Cultural reasons for caregiving need to be
             interpreted within the context of race and gender
             socialization. Social roles, such as husband or wife, son or
             daughter, can also help determine how individuals within a
             particular cultural group experience cultural expectations
             and obligations. Information from this study can inform
             culturally appropriate caregiving interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/60.5.s257},
   Key = {fds277314}
}

@article{fds277315,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Siegler, IC and Rohe, WM and Barefoot, JC and Vitaliano, PP and Surwit, RS and Feinglos, MN and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Neighborhood characteristics moderate effects of caregiving
             on glucose functioning.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {752-758},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16204434},
   Abstract = {Adverse neighborhood environments and caregiving for a
             relative with dementia are both stressors that have been
             associated with poor health. The present study examined the
             extent to which three self-report measures of neighborhood
             characteristics interact with caregiving status (caregiver
             versus noncaregiver) to modify an important stress related
             health outcome: plasma glucose.The study sample consisted of
             147 community recruited caregivers and 147 participants who
             did not have caregiving responsibilities. We hypothesized
             that negative neighborhood characteristics would magnify
             effects of caregiving on plasma glucose levels. Regression
             analyses were conducted to examine the interaction of three
             neighborhood characteristic measures with caregiving status
             in predicting fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated
             hemoglobin concentration (HbA1c), with control for age,
             race, gender, relation to care recipient (spouse or
             relative), body mass index, income, and education.Of the
             three neighborhood measures, the one reflecting crime
             concerns significantly moderated the effect of caregiving on
             FPG (p < .002) and HbA1c (p < .001). For participants with
             better neighborhood characteristics, caregivers and
             noncaregivers were similar with respect to indicators of
             glucose metabolism; however, for participants with worse
             neighborhood characteristics, caregivers had higher levels
             of FPG and HbA1c, as compared with noncaregivers.Poor health
             outcomes, such as impaired glucose control, may be found
             among caregivers who fear neighborhood crime.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000174171.24930.11},
   Key = {fds277315}
}

@article{fds277313,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Williams, RB and Mark, DB and Brummett, BH and Siegler,
             IC and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Hostility, age, and mortality in a sample of cardiac
             patients.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {64-66},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15979435},
   Abstract = {This study examined hostility as a predictor of survival in
             a sample of 1,328 patients who had documented coronary
             artery disease. After controlling for disease severity,
             there was a significant interaction between age and
             hostility. Hostility was significantly associated with
             poorer survival but only in younger (<61.2 years)
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.02.046},
   Key = {fds277313}
}

@article{fds277312,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Boyle, SH and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Mark,
             DB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Ratings of positive and depressive emotion as predictors of
             mortality in coronary patients.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {213-216},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0167-5273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15823627},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: An extensive body of research has demonstrated
             an association between negative affective states and health
             outcomes. Positive emotions may also influence physical
             health, however, their examination has received far less
             attention. METHODS: Positive and depressive emotion ratings
             were examined as independent and joint predictors of
             survival in a sample of 866 cardiac catheterization
             patients. The mean follow-up was 11.4 years, during which
             415 deaths occurred. The mean age of the sample was 60.3
             years and 74.3% of the sample were males. RESULTS: Both
             positive and depressive ratings were associated with
             survival (hazard ratio=0.80, 95% CI=0.66-0.97, p<0.025 and
             hazard ratio=1.32, 95% CI=1.13-1.54, p<0.001, respectively),
             adjusted for risk factors. Positive emotion ratings were no
             longer significantly related to mortality when the two
             emotion measures were simultaneously included in a survival
             model. CONCLUSION: The current findings are consistent with
             a theory that suggests that the relation between positive
             emotion and mortality may be partly mediated by depressive
             emotion.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijcard.2004.06.016},
   Key = {fds277312}
}

@article{fds277301,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Gainetdinov, RR and Beaulieu, J-M and Sotnikova, TD and Burch, LH and Williams, RB and Schwartz, DA and Krishnan, KRR and Caron,
             MG},
   Title = {Loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2
             identified in unipolar major depression.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11-16},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15629698},
   Abstract = {Dysregulation of central serotonin neurotransmission has
             been widely suspected as an important contributor to major
             depression. Here, we identify a (G1463A) single nucleotide
             polymorphism (SNP) in the rate-limiting enzyme of neuronal
             serotonin synthesis, human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (hTPH2).
             The functional SNP in hTPH2 replaces the highly conserved
             Arg441 with His, which results in approximately 80% loss of
             function in serotonin production when hTPH2 is expressed in
             PC12 cells. Strikingly, SNP analysis in a cohort of 87
             patients with unipolar major depression revealed that nine
             patients carried the mutant (1463A) allele, while among 219
             controls, three subjects carried this mutation. In addition,
             this functional SNP was not found in a cohort of 60 bipolar
             disorder patients. Identification of a loss-of-function
             mutation in hTPH2 suggests that defect in brain serotonin
             synthesis may represent an important risk factor for
             unipolar major depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2004.12.014},
   Key = {fds277301}
}

@article{fds277360,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Mark, DB and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Babyak,
             MA and Clapp-Channing, NE and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Perceived social support as a predictor of mortality in
             coronary patients: effects of smoking, sedentary behavior,
             and depressive symptoms.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {40-45},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15673622},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have shown network assessments of social
             contact predict mortality in patients with coronary artery
             disease (CAD). Fewer studies have demonstrated an
             association between perceived social support and longevity
             in patient samples. It has been suggested that 1 of the
             mechanisms linking social support with elevated risk for
             mortality is the association between social support and
             other risk factors associated with decreased longevity such
             as smoking, failure to exercise, and depressive symptoms.
             The present study examined an assessment of perceived
             support as a predictor of all-cause and CAD mortality and
             examined the hypothesis that smoking, sedentary behavior,
             and depressive symptoms may mediate and/or moderate this
             association.Ratings of social support and the risk factors
             of smoking, sedentary behavior, and depressive symptoms were
             examined as predictors of survival in 2711 patients with
             CAD, and associations between support and these risk factors
             were assessed. Smoking, sedentary behavior, and depressive
             symptoms were examined as mediators and/or moderators of the
             association between social support and mortality.Social
             support, smoking, sedentary behavior, and depressive
             symptoms were predictors of mortality (p's <.01). Results
             also indicated that sedentary behavior, but not smoking
             status or depressive symptoms, may substantially mediate the
             relationship between support and mortality. No evidence for
             moderation was found.The relation between social support and
             longevity may be partially accounted for by the association
             between support and sedentary behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000149257.74854.b7},
   Key = {fds277360}
}

@article{fds277226,
   Author = {Albus, C and Backer, GD and Bages, M and Deter, H-C and Herrmann-Lingen,
             C and Oldenburg, B and Sans, S and Schneiderman, N and Williams, RB and Orth-Gomer, K},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors in coronary heart disease - Scientific
             evidence and recommendations for clinical
             practice},
   Journal = {Gesundheitswesen},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0941-3790},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-813907},
   Abstract = {Psychosocial risk factors like low socio-economic status,
             lack of social support and social isolation, chronic work or
             family stress, as well as negative emotions, e.g. depression
             and hostility, contribute significantly to the development
             and adverse outcome of coronary heart disease (CHD).
             Negative effects of psychosocial risk factors are conveyed
             via behavioural pathways including unhealthy lifestyle, e.
             g. food choice, smoking, sedentary life, inadequate
             utilisation of medical resources, and psychobiological
             mechanisms like disturbed autonomie and hormonal regulation:
             all these factors contribute to metabolic dysfunction and
             inflammatory and haemostatic processes, which are directly
             involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. Interventions to
             improve pychosocial factors are available and have
             demonstrated positive effects on risk factors and - at least
             in part - on CHD morbidity and mortality. The prevention of
             CHD should therefore include screening for psychosocial risk
             factors and adequate interventions. Recommedations for the
             screening of risk factors, behavioural change and further
             management of psychosocial risk factors in clinical practice
             are pointed out.},
   Doi = {10.1055/s-2004-813907},
   Key = {fds277226}
}

@article{fds277227,
   Author = {Orth-Gomér, K and Albus, C and Bagés, N and DeBacker, G and Deter,
             H-C and Herrmann-Lingen, C and Oldenburg, B and Sans, S and Williams,
             RB and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {Psychosocial considerations in the European Guidelines for
             Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Clinical Practice:
             Third Joint Task Force},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {132-141},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327558ijbm1203_2},
   Abstract = {The International Society of Behavioral Medicine (ISBM) was
             one of eight societies that comprised the Third Task Force
             of European and Other Societies on Prevention of
             Cardiovascular Disease in Clinical Practice (2003-2004).
             This task force considered published knowledge from diverse
             fields related to preventive cardiology including behavioral
             medicine to improve risk estimation and risk factor
             management. The scientific evidence supporting the
             guidelines included findings on low socioeconomic status,
             social isolation, psychosocial stress, hostility, depression
             and negative affect, the clustering of psychosocial and
             lifestyle risk factors, and lifestyle psychosocial
             interventions. Recommendations for promoting behavior change
             and management of psychosocial and lifestyle factors in
             clinical practice include strategies for promoting healthy
             lifestyle, improving health care provider-patient
             interactions, implementing multimodal interventions, and
             managing psychosocial risk factors. Copyright © 2005 by
             Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm1203_2},
   Key = {fds277227}
}

@article{fds277228,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Treating depression after myocardial infarction: Can
             selecting patients on the basis of genetic susceptibility
             improve psychiatric and medical outcomes?},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {617-619},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2005.04.028},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ahj.2005.04.028},
   Key = {fds277228}
}

@article{fds277302,
   Author = {Zhou, Z and Peters, EJ and Hamilton, SP and McMahon, F and Thomas, C and McGrath, PJ and Rush, J and Trivedi, MH and Charney, DS and Roy, A and Wisniewski, S and Lipsky, R and Goldman, D and Bogaert, AVD and Zutter,
             SD and Heyrman, L and Mendlewicz, J and Adolfsson, R and Broeckhoven,
             CV and Del-Favero, J and Glatt, CE and Carlson, E and Taylor, TR and Risch,
             N and Reus, VI and Schaefer, CA and Zhang, X and Gainetdinov, RR and Beaulieu, J-M and Sotnikova, TD and Burch, LH and Williams, RB and Schwartz, DA and Krishnan, KRR and Caron, MG},
   Title = {Response to Zhang et al. (2005) loss-of-function mutation in
             tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major
             depression. Neuron 45, 11-16 [2] (multiple
             letters)},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {702-706},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.018},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2005.11.018},
   Key = {fds277302}
}

@article{fds277310,
   Author = {Boyle, SH and Williams, RB and Mark, DB and Brummett, BH and Siegler,
             IC and Helms, MJ and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Hostility as a predictor of survival in patients with
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {629-632},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15385683},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This article presents a reanalysis of an earlier
             study that reported a nonsignificant relation between the
             50-item Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS) and survival in a
             sample of coronary patients. Since publication of those
             results, there have been significant developments in the
             measurement of hostility that suggest that an abbreviated
             scale may be a better predictor of health outcomes. This
             study examined the ability of the total CMHS and an
             abbreviated form of the CMHS (ACM) to predict survival in a
             sample of patients with documented coronary artery disease
             (CAD) with increased statistical power. METHODS: Nine
             hundred thirty-six patients (83% were male; mean age =
             51.48) with CAD who were followed for an average of 14.9
             years. The ACM consisted of the combination of the cynicism,
             hostile attribution, hostile affect, and aggressive
             responding subscales that were identified in an earlier
             study (Barefoot et al. [1989]) by a rational analysis of the
             item content. The relation between hostility and survival
             was examined with Cox proportional hazard models (hazard
             ratios [HRs] based on a two standard deviation difference).
             RESULTS: Controlling for disease severity, the ACM was a
             significant predictor for both CHD mortality (HR = 1.33, p
             <.009) and total mortality (HR = 1.28, p <.02). The total
             CMHS was only a marginally significant predictor of either
             outcome (p values < 0.06). CONCLUSION: The results of this
             study suggest that hostility is associated with poorer
             survival in CAD patients, and it may be possible to refine
             measures of hostility in order to improve prediction of
             health outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000138122.93942.4a},
   Key = {fds277310}
}

@article{fds277225,
   Author = {Schneiderman, N and Saab, PG and Catellier, DJ and Powell, LH and DeBusk, RF and Williams, RB and Carney, RM and Raczynski, JM and Cowan,
             MJ and Berkman, LF and Kaufmann, PG and ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Psychosocial treatment within sex by ethnicity subgroups in
             the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease clinical
             trial.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {475-483},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000133217.96180.e8},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Intervening in depression and/or low perceived
             social support within 28 days after myocardial infarction
             (MI) in the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease
             (ENRICHD) clinical trial did not increase event-free
             survival. The purpose of the present investigation was to
             conduct post hoc analyses on sex and ethnic minority
             subgroups to assess whether any treatment subgroup is at
             reduced or increased risk of greater morbidity/mortality.
             METHODS: The 2481 patients with MI (973 white men, 424
             minority men, 674 white women, 410 minority women) who had
             major or minor depression and/or low perceived social
             support were randomly allocated to usual medical care or
             cognitive behavior therapy. Total mortality or recurrent
             nonfatal MI (ENRICHD primary endpoint) and cardiac mortality
             or recurrent nonfatal MI (secondary endpoint) were analyzed
             as composite endpoints by group for time to first event
             using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: There
             was a trend in the direction of treatment efficacy for white
             men for the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80; 95%
             confidence interval, 0.61-1.05; p =.10) and a significant (p
             <.006, Bonferroni corrected) effect for the secondary
             endpoint (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87; p =.004). In
             contrast, the HRs for each of the other three subgroups were
             nonsignificant. The magnitude of differences in treatment
             effects between white men and the other subgroups remained
             significant for the secondary endpoint (p =.04) after
             adjustment for age, education, living alone, antidepressant
             use, comorbidity score, cardiac catheterization, ejection
             fraction, history of hypertension, and major depression.
             CONCLUSIONS: White men, but not other subgroups, may have
             benefited from the ENRICHD intervention, suggesting that
             future studies need to attend to issues of treatment design
             and delivery that may have prevented benefit among sex and
             ethnic subgroups other than white men.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000133217.96180.e8},
   Key = {fds277225}
}

@article{fds277349,
   Author = {Merritt, MM and Bennett, GG and Williams, RB and Sollers, JJ and Thayer,
             JF},
   Title = {Low educational attainment, John Henryism, and
             cardiovascular reactivity to and recovery from personally
             relevant stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-55},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14747637},
   Abstract = {The John Henryism hypothesis proposes that a high level of
             John Henryism (JH: high-effort coping with psychosocial
             demands) is predictive of hypertension at low but not high
             socioeconomic status (SES). The objectives of the present
             study were to determine whether high JH and low SES
             (education, income, job status, and job strain) were
             associated with increased cardiovascular responses to
             laboratory social stressors.Subjects were 58 normotensive,
             healthy black men age 23 to 47 years. The procedure included
             the completion of psychosocial questionnaires and
             participation in a psychophysiological reactivity protocol.
             The reactivity protocol involved the following experimental
             tasks and associated recovery periods: an active speech task
             and an anger recall task. Measures of systolic blood
             pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate
             (HR), and rate pressure product (RPP) were obtained
             continuously using a Finapres beat-to-beat blood pressure
             monitor throughout the reactivity protocol.At high JH, low
             (compared with high) education level was linked with higher
             DBP during anger recall and final recovery, higher SBP
             during final recovery, and higher HR and RPP during speech
             preparation and final recovery (p <.05). Among subjects with
             low education, high (vs. low) JH was associated with higher
             SBP, HR, and RPP during final recovery (p <.05).John
             Henryism may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease
             among people with low education by increased cardiovascular
             reactivity and prolonged recovery to stress.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.psy.0000107909.74904.3d},
   Key = {fds277349}
}

@article{fds277254,
   Author = {Burroughs, AR and Visscher, WA and Haney, TL and Efland, JR and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Community recruitment process by race, gender, and SES
             gradient: lessons learned from the Community Health and
             Stress Evaluation (CHASE) Study experience.},
   Journal = {Journal of Community Health},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {421-437},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0094-5145},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14620965},
   Abstract = {Recruitment of community participants for clinical research
             studies is a challenging task. When possible,
             community-based recruitment efforts should involve members
             of the targeted community in the planning, community
             preparation, and actual recruitment process. It becomes even
             more difficult to recruit study participants from the
             community when the research involves an invasive procedure,
             or when diverse target groups require that a variety of
             recruitment methods be used. The Community Health and Stress
             Evaluation (CHASE) Study was designed to determine the role
             of psychosocial and biobehavioral factors in the etiology of
             coronary heart disease. It involved both an invasive medical
             procedure (a spinal tap) and the collection of survey and
             medical information from Black and White persons in
             different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Interestingly,
             we experienced the greatest difficulty in recruiting lower
             SES white persons, while groups that typically are
             "difficult to find" (such as Blacks) were actually easiest
             to recruit for the study. This paper describes the
             background of the CHASE study, the community recruitment
             methods used, and the results of the recruitment efforts by
             race, gender and SES gradient. We present an evaluation of
             the community recruitment component, why we think
             differences occurred, and the lessons learned from the
             experiences that may be applied to similar
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1026029723762},
   Key = {fds277254}
}

@article{fds277224,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Invited commentary: socioeconomic status, hostility, and
             health behaviors--does it matter which comes
             first?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {158},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {743-746},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14561663},
   Key = {fds277224}
}

@article{fds277311,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Costa, PT and Brummett, BH and Helms, MJ and Barefoot,
             JC and Williams, RB and Dahlstrom, WG and Kaplan, BH and Vitaliano, PP and Nichaman, MZ and Day, RS and Rimer, BK},
   Title = {Patterns of change in hostility from college to midlife in
             the UNC Alumni Heart Study predict high-risk
             status.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {738-745},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14508014},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine hostility measured in college and
             patterns of change in hostility from college to midlife as
             predictors of high health-related risk later in midlife.
             METHODS: Logistic regression models were used to test
             hostility/risk associations. RESULTS: College hostility
             predicted being a current smoker, consuming more than two
             drinks of alcohol, low social support, achieving less than
             expected in career and in relationships, risk for
             depression, and appraisal of life changing for the worse in
             terms of family events at midlife. Change in hostility did
             not predict smoking and drinking; however, it did
             significantly predict social isolation, lower income (only
             for women), obesity, avoidance of exercise, high-fat diet,
             and negative changes in economic life, work life, and
             physical health events-all risk indicators measured during
             the next decade. Appraisals of social support, lowered
             expectations, risk for depression, and reports of family
             life changing for the worse were predicted at both time
             periods. When change in hostility was modeled with college
             hostility, all risk indicators were significantly predicted
             by college hostility. CONCLUSIONS: High hostility in college
             and change in hostility from college to midlife predicts a
             full range of health risk indicators. When compared with the
             average population decline in hostility, gains in hostility
             at midlife are related to increased risk while declines in
             hostility are related to reduced risk. Higher midlife
             hostility is associated with increased odds of being in the
             higher risk group. Future research should focus on
             developing interventions to reduce hostility.},
   Key = {fds277311}
}

@article{fds277359,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Siegler, IC and Mark, DB and Williams,
             RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Effect of smoking and sedentary behavior on the association
             between depressive symptoms and mortality from coronary
             heart disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {529-532},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12943871},
   Abstract = {It has been suggested that one of the mechanisms linking
             depression with elevated mortality risk is the association
             between depressive symptoms and other established coronary
             artery disease (CAD) risk factors, such as smoking and
             failure to exercise. The present study examined this
             hypothesis using repeated assessments of smoking and
             exercise from patients with CAD in whom depressive symptoms
             had been shown to predict decreased survival. Initially,
             associations between depressive symptoms and the risk
             factors of smoking and sedentary behavior were assessed.
             Next, patterns of smoking and sedentary behavior were
             examined as mediators and/or moderators of the association
             between depressive symptoms and mortality. Depressive
             symptoms were positively related to smoking (p <0.01) and
             sedentary behavior (p <0.01). Depressive symptoms, smoking,
             and sedentary behavior were independent predictors of
             mortality. Results indicated that smoking and/or sedentary
             behavior may partially mediate the relation between
             depressive symptoms and mortality. No evidence for
             moderation was found.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(03)00719-7},
   Key = {fds277359}
}

@article{fds277294,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Marchuk, DA and Gadde, KM and Barefoot, JC and Grichnik, K and Helms, MJ and Kuhn, CM and Lewis, JG and Schanberg, SM and Stafford-Smith, M and Suarez, EC and Clary, GL and Svenson, IK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Serotonin-related gene polymorphisms and central nervous
             system serotonin function.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {533-541},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12629534},
   Abstract = {Central nervous system (CNS) serotonergic function affects a
             wide range of biological and behavioral functions affecting
             health and disease. Our objective in this study was to
             determine whether functional polymorphisms of the genes that
             encode for the serotonin transporter promoter (5HTTLPR) and
             monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) are associated with CNS
             serotonin turnover-indexed by cerebrospinal fluid levels of
             5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)-in a community sample of
             healthy adults. Subjects were 165 community volunteers
             without current medical or psychiatric illness, stratified
             with respect to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status
             who underwent inpatient evaluation in the General Clinical
             Research Center of a university medical center. A
             significant ethnicity x genotype interaction (P=0.008)
             indicated that, compared to the long/long and long/short
             genotypes, the 5HTTLPR short/short genotype was associated
             with higher CSF 5-HIAA levels in African Americans, but with
             lower levels in Caucasians. A gender x genotype interaction
             (P=0.04) indicated that 5HTTLPR short/short genotype was
             associated with higher 5-HIAA levels in women but with lower
             levels in men. MAOA-uVNTR 3.5 and 4 repeat alleles were
             associated with higher 5-HIAA (P=0.03) levels in men, but
             were unrelated to 5-HIAA levels in women. These findings
             suggest that effects of serotonin-related gene polymorphisms
             on CNS serotonergic function vary as a function of both
             ethnicity and gender. Further research will be required to
             determine the mechanism(s) underlying these differential
             effects. In the meanwhile, both ethnicity and gender should
             be taken into account in research evaluating effects of
             these and related polymorphisms on CNS serotonergic
             function, as well as the broad range of biological and
             behavioral functions that are regulated by CNS serotonergic
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1038/sj.npp.1300054},
   Key = {fds277294}
}

@article{fds277221,
   Author = {Brenner, SL and Head, SB and Helms, MJ and Williams, RB and Williams,
             VP},
   Title = {A Videotape Module to Teach Assertion Skills},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1140-1152},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2003.tb01942.x},
   Abstract = {A LifeSkills© video module to teach assertion has been
             developed that uses dramatizations of the effective and
             ineffective ways to respond to a provocation. Normal
             volunteers were randomly assigned to watch the assertion
             video (n = 50) or a control instructional video (n = 53).
             Participants completed pre-/post-assessment batteries that
             tested their knowledge of the steps of assertion and their
             ability to apply this knowledge in response to 3 written
             scenarios. The answers were scored for both the presence of
             aggression and the use of assertion. Participants randomized
             to the assertion video showed larger increases in assertion
             and decreases in aggression compared to controls, indicating
             that a video dramatizing the use of assertion can be a
             practical and effective means of improving assertion skills,
             with decreased aggression a potential added
             benefit.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1559-1816.2003.tb01942.x},
   Key = {fds277221}
}

@article{fds277222,
   Author = {Roy, A and Bissette, G and Williams, R and Berman, J and Gonzalez,
             B},
   Title = {CSF CRH in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {277-280},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1781(03)00040-4},
   Abstract = {Alterations in stress responsivity may be important in the
             vulnerability to become cocaine dependent. Thus, an index of
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function was
             examined in abstinent cocaine-dependent patients.
             Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of corticotropin
             releasing factor (CRH) were determined in 29 abstinent
             cocaine-dependent patients and 66 normal controls. The
             results showed that there was no significant difference
             between the abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and normal
             controls for CSF CRH. Also, CSF CRH concentrations were not
             related to cocaine-craving scores in a cue-elicited
             cocaine-craving procedure. Thus, these data suggest that
             after protracted abstinence from cocaine there is no marked
             dysregulation of CRH systems as measured by CSF CRH
             concentrations. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0165-1781(03)00040-4},
   Key = {fds277222}
}

@article{fds277223,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Schneiderman,
             N},
   Title = {Psychosocial Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: More
             Than One Culprit at Work},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {2190-2192},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.290.16.2190},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.290.16.2190},
   Key = {fds277223}
}

@article{fds277253,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Grønbaek, M and Feaganes, JR and McPherson, RS and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Alcoholic beverage preference, diet, and health habits in
             the UNC Alumni Heart Study.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {466-472},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9165},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145024},
   Abstract = {Moderate alcohol intake is related to better health, and
             additional benefits may be associated with wine. However,
             beverage preference may be confounded by lifestyle factors
             related to health.The goal was to describe the associations
             between alcoholic-beverage preferences and indicators of a
             healthy diet and other health habits.This cross-sectional
             study included data from 2864 men and 1571 women enrolled in
             the UNC Alumni Heart Study. Self-reports of drinking habits
             were used as predictors of health behaviors and of intakes
             of nutrients and food groups.Subjects who preferred wine had
             healthier diets than did those who preferred beer or spirits
             or had no preference. Wine drinkers reported eating more
             servings of fruit and vegetables and fewer servings of red
             or fried meats. The diets of wine drinkers contained less
             cholesterol, saturated fat, and alcohol and more fiber. Wine
             drinkers were less likely to smoke. Compared with all
             drinkers, those who drank no alcohol consumed fewer
             vegetables but more fiber. Nondrinkers were less likely to
             exercise regularly and had a higher mean body mass index.
             Controlling for income and education had little effect on
             these associations.The apparent health benefits of wine
             compared with other alcoholic beverages, as described by
             others, may be a result of confounding by dietary habits and
             other lifestyle factors. Confounding by lifestyle variables
             could also be a factor in the previously observed health
             differences between drinkers and nondrinkers, although the
             evidence for this association is not as strong.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ajcn/76.2.466},
   Key = {fds277253}
}

@article{fds277219,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Schneiderman, N},
   Title = {Resolved: psychosocial interventions can improve clinical
             outcomes in organic disease (pro).},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {552-557},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140342},
   Key = {fds277219}
}

@article{fds277358,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Mark, DC and Williams, RB and Siegler,
             IC and Clapp-Channing, N and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Predictors of smoking cessation in patients with a diagnosis
             of coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {143-147},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0883-9212},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12042680},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine demographic,
             psychosocial, and clinical variables as predictors of
             smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease.
             METHODS: Smoking status and psychosocial variables were
             obtained at baseline. Participants were followed up at 3
             months then annually up to 6 years for smoking status.
             Participants were recruited from the population of patients
             undergoing coronary angiography from 1986 through 1990.
             Patients were included in the study if they reported smoking
             at baseline and had valid data for demographic and clinical
             measures of interest. Depending on the psychosocial measure
             analyzed, sample size ranged from 525 to 303. Age, gender,
             education, marital status, disease severity, cardiac
             procedure, hostility, and four ratings of distress were
             evaluated as predictors of smoking cessation. RESULTS: Of
             the full sample, 40% (n = 210) quit smoking without relapse.
             Education (odds ratio [OR] 0.61; 95% confidence interval
             [CI] 0.44-0.84; P <.003), disease severity (OR 0.58; 95% CI
             0.40-0.84; P <.004), and coronary artery bypass surgery (OR
             0.60; 95% CI 0.43-0.85; P <.004) were associated with a
             lower likelihood of relapse. Higher levels of hostility (OR
             2.36; 95% CI 1.46-3.84; P <.001), concern about health (OR
             1.90; 95% CI 1.33-2.74; P <.001), tension (OR 1.60; 95% CI
             1.12-2.30; P <.012), and depressive feelings (OR 1.60; 95%
             CI 1.12-2.27; P <.010) were associated with a higher risk of
             continuing to smoke. CONCLUSIONS: These findings describe
             demographic, clinical, and psychological mechanisms that
             might underlie successful smoking cessation and also may
             guide the identification of patients in need of special
             intervention.},
   Key = {fds277358}
}

@article{fds277379,
   Author = {Surwit, RS and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC and Lane, JD and Helms, M and Applegate, KL and Zucker, N and Feinglos, MN and McCaskill, CM and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Hostility, race, and glucose metabolism in nondiabetic
             individuals.},
   Journal = {Diabetes Care},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {835-839},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0149-5992},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11978677},
   Abstract = {The present study was designed to determine whether
             hostility is differentially related to measures of glucose
             metabolism in African-Americans and Caucasians.The
             relationship of hostility, as measured by a subset of the
             Cook-Medley hostility scale (CMHOST) inventory items, to
             various parameters of glucose metabolism were examined in a
             young, healthy sample of male and female African-American
             and Caucasian volunteers. Fasting blood samples were
             collected during an inpatient admission, at which time the
             CMHOST was also administered.In the entire sample, the
             CMHOST was found to be significantly correlated with fasting
             glucose and insulin sensitivity, as measured by the
             homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). However, the
             relationship of hostility to these parameters of glucose
             metabolism was different in African-American and Caucasian
             subjects. Hostility was significantly related to fasting
             glucose in African-Americans and to insulin sensitivity and
             fasting insulin in Caucasian subjects. The relationship of
             hostility to insulin sensitivity and fasting insulin was
             partially dependent on BMI in Caucasians, but the
             relationship of hostility to fasting glucose was unrelated
             to BMI in African-Americans.Our data suggest that the
             relationship of hostility to measures of glucose metabolism
             is mediated differently in these two ethnic groups.
             Therefore, hostility seems to be part of a constellation of
             risk-related behaviors related to BMI in Caucasians but
             independently related to fasting glucose in
             African-Americans.},
   Doi = {10.2337/diacare.25.5.835},
   Key = {fds277379}
}

@article{fds277220,
   Author = {Williams, R and Schneiderman, N and Relman, A and Angell,
             M},
   Title = {Resolved: Psychosocial interventions can improve clinical
             outcomes in organic disease - Rebuttals and closing
             arguments},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {564-567},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.PSY.0000023412.02546.CF},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.PSY.0000023412.02546.CF},
   Key = {fds277220}
}

@article{fds277289,
   Author = {Roy, A and Berman, J and Williams, R and Kuhn, C and Gonzalez,
             B},
   Title = {Higher levels of CSF homovanillic acid in recently abstinent
             cocaine-dependent patients},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1053-1055},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.6.1053},
   Abstract = {Objective: The authors examined an index of dopaminergic
             neurotransmission in recently abstinent cocaine-dependent
             patients. Method: CSF concentrations of the dopamine
             metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were determined in 30
             recently abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and 69 healthy
             comparison subjects. Results: The cocaine-dependent patients
             had a significantly higher mean concentration of CSF HVA
             than did the healthy comparison group. Conclusions: Recently
             abstinent cocaine-dependent patients may show dysregulation
             of the central dopaminergic system.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.159.6.1053},
   Key = {fds277289}
}

@article{fds277356,
   Author = {ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study
             intervention: rationale and design.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {747-755},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   Abstract = {Depression and low social support are risk factors for
             medical morbidity and mortality after acute MI. The ENRICHD
             study is a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical
             trial of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for depression and
             low social support in post-MI patients. A total of 2481
             patients were recruited (26% with low social support, 39%
             with depression, and 34% with low social support and
             depression). Our objective is to describe the rationale,
             design, and delivery of the ENRICHD intervention.Key
             features of the intervention include the integration of
             cognitive-behavioral and social learning approaches to the
             treatment of depression and a diverse set of problems that
             can contribute to low social support; rapid initiation of
             treatment after MI; a combination of individual and group
             modalities; adjunctive pharmacotherapy for severe or
             intractable depression; training, certification, and
             supervision of therapists; and quality assurance
             procedures.The trial's psychosocial and medical outcomes
             will be presented in future reports.The ENRICHD protocol
             targets two complex psychosocial risk factors with a
             multifaceted intervention, which is delivered in an
             individualized manner to accommodate a demographically,
             medically, and psychiatrically diverse patient population.
             Additional research will be needed to identify optimal
             matches between patient characteristics and specific
             components of the intervention.},
   Key = {fds277356}
}

@article{fds277357,
   Author = {ENRICHD Investigators},
   Title = {Enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease (ENRICHD):
             baseline characteristics.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {316-322},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9149(01)01652-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(01)01652-6},
   Key = {fds277357}
}

@article{fds277331,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Siegler, IC and Clapp-Channing, NE and Lytle, BL and Bosworth, HB and Williams, RB and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Characteristics of socially isolated patients with coronary
             artery disease who are at elevated risk for
             mortality.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {267-272},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11292274},
   Abstract = {Social isolation has been linked to poor survival in
             patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Few studies
             have closely examined the psychosocial characteristics of
             CAD patients who lack social contact.Social isolation was
             examined as a predictor of mortality in 430 patients with
             significant CAD. More isolated patients were compared with
             their less isolated counterparts on factors that might help
             explain the association between isolation and survival.The
             mortality rate was higher among isolated individuals. Those
             with three or fewer people in their social support network
             had a relative risk of 2.43 (p = .001) for cardiac mortality
             and 2.11 (p = .001) for all-cause mortality, controlling for
             age and disease severity. Adjustments for income, hostility,
             and smoking status did not alter the risk due to social
             isolation. With the exception of lower income, higher
             hostility ratings, and higher smoking rates, isolated
             patients did not differ from nonisolated patients on
             demographic indicators, disease severity, physical
             functioning, or psychological distress. Isolated patients
             reported less social support and were less pleased with the
             way they got along with network members, but they did not
             report less satisfaction with the amount of social contact
             received.Patients with small social networks had an elevated
             risk of mortality, but this greater risk was not
             attributable to confounding with disease severity,
             demographics, or psychological distress. These findings have
             implications for mechanisms linking social isolation to
             mortality and for the application of psychosocial
             interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200103000-00010},
   Key = {fds277331}
}

@article{fds277422,
   Author = {R.B. Williams and Williams, RB and Marchuk, DA and Gadde, KM and Barefoot, JC and Grichnik, K and Helms, MJ and Kuhn, CM and Lewis, JG and Schanberg, SM and Stafford-Smith, M and Suarez, EC and Clary, GL and Svenson, IK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Central nervous system serotonin function and cardiovascular
             responses to stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {300-305},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11292279},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of
             indices of central nervous system (CNS) serotonin function
             on cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress.Lumbar
             puncture was performed on 54 healthy volunteers to obtain
             cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for determination of
             5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels. Genotypes were
             determined with respect to a functional polymorphism of the
             serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5HTTLPR).
             Subjects then underwent mental stress testing.Persons with
             one or two long (l) 5HTTLPR alleles had CSF levels of the
             major serotonin metabolite, 5HIAA, that were 50% higher than
             those of persons with the s/s 5HTTLPR genotype. Persons with
             one or two l alleles or higher CSF 5HIAA levels also
             exhibited greater blood pressure and heart rate responses to
             a mental stress protocol.These findings suggest the 5HTTLPR
             polymorphism affects CNS serotonin function, and they are
             consistent with the general hypothesis that CNS serotonin
             function is involved in the regulation of potentially
             health-damaging biobehavioral characteristics. In
             particular, the l allele could contribute, through its
             association with increased cardiovascular reactivity to
             stress, to increased risk of cardiovascular
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-200103000-00016},
   Key = {fds277422}
}

@article{fds277217,
   Author = {Stiles, PG and Poythress, NG and Hall, A and Falkenbach, D and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {Improving understanding of research consent disclosures
             among persons with mental illness},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {780-785},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.780},
   Abstract = {Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate
             alternative procedures for improving the understanding of
             research consent disclosures by persons who have mental
             illness. Methods: Three groups participated in the study:
             Persons with schizophrenia (N=79), persons with depression
             (N=82), and a healthy control group (N=80). The participants
             were guided through an informed consent process in which two
             factors were manipulated. One was the structure of the
             disclosure form; either a typical disclosure form involving
             standard dense text was used, or a graphically enhanced form
             was used. The other was the interpersonal process: The
             presence or absence of a third-party facilitator, with
             iterative feedback given to participants for whom a
             facilitator was not present. Participants' understanding of
             the disclosure was assessed with the use of recall tests
             that involved paraphrasing and recognition tests that
             involved multiple choice. Results: The mean understanding
             scores did not differ significantly between the depression
             and control groups, and the mean scores of the schizophrenia
             group were significantly lower than those of the other two
             groups. Neither the graphically enhanced consent disclosure
             form nor the presence of a third-party facilitator was
             associated with improved understanding. The use of iterative
             feedback was associated with improvement in comprehension
             scores in all groups. Conclusions: The use of a feedback
             procedure in the consent disclosure process during the
             recruitment of persons who are mentally ill may be a
             valuable safeguard for ensuring adequate understanding and
             appropriate participation in research.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ps.52.6.780},
   Key = {fds277217}
}

@article{fds277218,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility and heart disease: Williams et al.
             (1980).},
   Journal = {Advances in Mind Body Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {52-55},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {1470-3556},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11270067},
   Key = {fds277218}
}

@article{fds277309,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Brummett, BH and Helms, MJ and Mark, DB and Siegler,
             IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and survival of patients with coronary
             artery disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {790-795},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11138998},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Multiple studies have shown that high levels of
             depressive symptoms increase the mortality risk of patients
             with established coronary disease. This investigation
             divided depressive symptoms into groups to assess their
             relative effectiveness in predicting survival. METHODS:
             Questionnaires about the presence of depressive symptoms
             were administered to 1250 patients with significant coronary
             disease while they were hospitalized for diagnostic coronary
             angiography. Follow-up for mortality due to cardiac disease
             was conducted annually for up to 19.4 years. Factor analysis
             was used to divide items on the Zung Self-Rating Depression
             Scale into four groups: Well-Being, Negative Affect,
             Somatic, and Appetite. In addition, responses to a single
             item regarding feelings of hopelessness were available for
             920 patients. RESULTS: Well-Being and Somatic symptoms
             significantly predicted survival (p < or = .01). Negative
             Affect items were also related to survival (p = .0001) and
             interacted with age. A 2-SD difference in the Negative
             Affect term was associated with a relative risk of 1.29 for
             patients >50 years old and 1.70 for younger ones. Only
             Negative Affect remained significant in a model with the
             other symptom groups. Hopelessness also predicted survival
             with a relative risk of 1.5. Both the Hopelessness and
             Negative Affect items remained as independent predictors in
             the same model. All models controlled for severity of
             disease and treatment. With one exception (income and
             Hopelessness), results were essentially unchanged by
             additional controls for age, gender, and income.
             CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms differentially predicted
             survival, with depressive affect and hopelessness being
             particularly important. These effects were independent of
             disease severity and somatic symptoms and may be especially
             important in younger patients.},
   Key = {fds277309}
}

@article{fds277308,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Brummett, BH and Clapp-Channing, NE and Siegler, IC and Vitaliano, PP and Williams, RB and Mark, DB},
   Title = {Moderators of the effect of social support on depressive
             symptoms in cardiac patients.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {438-442},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10946039},
   Abstract = {Social support and depression have been shown to affect the
             prognosis of coronary patients, and social support has been
             found to influence depression in community and patient
             samples. We investigated the characteristics of coronary
             patients whose depressive symptomatology was most likely to
             improve with social support. We predicted that social
             support would be most beneficial for the most severely
             depressed, the old, the poor, the most severely ill, and
             those with poor functional status. Patients (n = 590) with
             documented coronary artery disease were assessed for
             depressive symptoms, social support, and functional status
             while in hospital. They were reassessed for depression 1
             month later during a home visit. Depression scores were
             lower at follow-up (p = 0.001), and improvement was more
             marked among those reporting more support (p <0.001). The
             social support effect was strongest among those with high
             levels of depression at baseline (p <0.001) and those with
             lower income (p = 0.01). Unexpectedly, social support was
             more strongly associated with improvement in younger
             patients (p = 0.01). Social support did not interact with
             gender, disease severity, or functional status. These
             findings are partially consistent with the notion that
             social support is most effective for those who are most
             vulnerable and/or have few coping resources. These findings
             also have implications for the design and interpretation of
             psychosocial interventions.},
   Key = {fds277308}
}

@article{fds277288,
   Author = {Bunting, CJ and Tolson, H and Kuhn, C and Suarez, E and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Physiological stress response of the neuroendocrine system
             during outdoor adventure tasks},
   Journal = {Journal of Leisure Research},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {191-207},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0022-2216},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2000.11949913},
   Abstract = {Outdoor adventure tasks involve a composite stress of both
             physical and psychosocial demands. Such compound stressors
             are not often studied, yet this is the type of stress most
             often associated with active leisure experiences. The
             purpose of this study was to describe urinary epinephrine,
             norepinephrine, and cortisol responses to various outdoor
             adventure tasks, and to evaluate the influence of aerobic
             fitness on these responses. Adult participants were
             recruited from individuals who had voluntarily registered
             and paid for a nine-day outdoor adventure program. Urine
             samples were collected from 15 participants following the
             tasks: beginning and advanced rock climbing, beginning and
             advanced whitewater canoeing, ropes course, and backpacking,
             as well as pre and post-course van rides. The advanced rock
             climbing and advanced whitewater canoeing days elicited the
             highest urinary neuroendocrine responses, and lower fit
             participants had higher neuroendocrine levels when compared
             to the higher fit participants.},
   Doi = {10.1080/00222216.2000.11949913},
   Key = {fds277288}
}

@article{fds277330,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Feaganes, JR and Yen, S and Bosworth,
             HB and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Hostility in marital dyads: associations with depressive
             symptoms.},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {95-105},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0160-7715},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10749013},
   Abstract = {We examined the relations of hostility (of self and spouse)
             with self-ratings of depressive symptoms in 898 spouse
             pairs. Self-ratings of hostility were initially examined as
             predictors of depression. Next, spouse self-ratings of
             hostility were added to the model. Finally, the interaction
             of self x spouse hostility was investigated. These relations
             were explored for three components of hostility (Cynicism,
             Aggressive Responding, and Hostile Affect). Age and
             education were controlled in all models and effects were
             examined separately for women and men. Self-ratings of
             Hostile Affect were positively related to depressive
             symptoms for both women and men. Self-ratings of Cynicism
             were also significantly related to depression, but only for
             men. All three components of spouse's hostility were
             positively related to one's own symptoms of depression for
             women. For men, however, spouse's hostility was not related
             to symptoms of depression. These findings highlight the need
             to study psychosocial risk factors in social units and have
             potential implications for intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1005424405056},
   Key = {fds277330}
}

@article{fds277255,
   Author = {McNeilly, M and Musick, M and Efland, JR and Baughman, JT and Toth, PS and Saulter, TD and Sumner, L and Sherwood, A and Weitzman, PF and Levkoff,
             SE and Williams, J and Anderson, NB},
   Title = {Minority populations and psychophysiologic research:
             Challenges in trust building and recruitment},
   Journal = {Journal of Mental Health and Aging},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {91-102},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Minority populations have been historically underrepresented
             in scientific research. Various factors have been cited to
             account for this. In this article we focus on overcoming
             this barrier of distrust of the medical system which can
             influence the participation of older African Americans in
             research. We outline four types of trust that we found
             essential to successful recruitment. We also present the
             relative effectiveness of various methods used to recruit
             older African Americans. Our hope is that the discussion of
             some of the challenges and presentation of strategies used
             to overcome these challenges will be helpful to
             investigators attempting to conduct research with minority
             populations.},
   Key = {fds277255}
}

@article{fds277329,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and Siegler, IC and Olsen, MK and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Clapp-Channing, NE and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Social support and quality of life in patients with coronary
             artery disease.},
   Journal = {Quality of Life Research},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {829-839},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0962-9343},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11297025},
   Abstract = {The relationship between perceived social support and
             domain-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was
             examined in a sample of cardiac catheterization patients
             after considering age, gender, race, education, and coronary
             artery disease (CAD) severity. Data was collected on 4,278
             cardiac catheterization patients (63% males) and included
             1,215 patients with non-significant CAD and 3,063 patients
             who had significant CAD ( > or = 75% stenosis of at least
             one major coronary artery). Among the patients with
             significant CAD, 2,721 were classified as low disease
             severity and 342 were considered high disease severity.
             Regression models indicated that a lack of social support
             was associated with significantly lower levels of HRQOL
             across all eight SF-36 HRQOL domains after considering
             disease severity and other demographic factors. The models
             also indicated that social support and other relevant
             variables interacted across various HRQOL domains. Physical
             function and physical role function were lower with age,
             whereas mental health, emotional role function, and vitality
             were higher with age. Females reported lower HRQOL than
             males across all domains. Minority patients reported lower
             levels of HRQOL than white patients across four domains.
             Increased disease severity was related to lower levels among
             four of the eight HRQOL domains. The observed interactions
             of social support with minority status, disease severity,
             and education suggest that a subset of individuals may
             suffer lower levels of HRQOL. These individuals may
             subsequently require the greatest degree of care and
             potentially benefit most from intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1008960308011},
   Key = {fds277329}
}

@article{fds277216,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Antidepressant use and the risk of myocardial
             infarction},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {87-88},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0002-9343},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00417-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0002-9343(99)00417-9},
   Key = {fds277216}
}

@article{fds277262,
   Author = {Von Dras and DD and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Coronary catherization patient and wife's perceptions of
             social support: effects due to characteristics of recipient,
             provider, and their interaction.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {97-125},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0091-4150},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10791611},
   Abstract = {This investigation explored relationships between coronary
             catherization patient and wife's characteristics and their
             perceptions of social support. Participants were 124 male
             patients undergoing diagnostic catherization to detect
             coronary artery disease (CAD) and their wives. Patients and
             wives' mean ages were fifty-nine and fifty-six years,
             respectively. While visiting the hospital both patient and
             wife independently completed a brief questionnaire that
             assessed psychological and physical health characteristics
             and perceptions of social support. Congruent with the
             interdependent and overlapping contexts, and reciprocal
             relationships assumptions of Revenson's (1994)
             ecological/contextual framework, results suggested
             characteristics of patients and wives (e.g., age, mental
             health, social functioning, hostility, depression, general
             perceived health) to interactively moderate their
             perceptions of social support. Overall, perceptions of
             social support were found to be influenced by
             characteristics of the perceiver, the support provider, and
             their interaction. Concerns for supportive and helpful
             caregiving are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.2190/CU9W-0XKW-R4AN-G1TD},
   Key = {fds277262}
}

@article{fds277328,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and Siegler, IC and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Clapp-Channing, NE and Mark, DB},
   Title = {The association between self-rated health and mortality in a
             well-characterized sample of coronary artery disease
             patients.},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1226-1236},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0025-7079},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10599604},
   Abstract = {The relationship between self-rated health and mortality
             after adjustment for sociodemographic variables,
             physician-rated comorbidities, disease severity,
             health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and psychosocial
             measures (depression, social support, and functional
             ability) was examined in the Mediators of Social Support
             (MOSS) study.The sample consisted of 2,885 individuals (mean
             age, 62.5 years) who had significant heart disease based
             upon heart catheterization. RESULTS. Using Cox proportional
             survival analysis, individuals who rated their health as
             "fair" or "poor" had a significantly greater likelihood of
             all-cause mortality (OR = 2.13; CI = 1.40-3.23; OR = 4.92;
             CI = 3.24-7.46, respectively) across follow-up (mean, 3.5
             years) than those who rated their health as "very good"
             after considering sociodemographic factors. After adjustment
             for comorbidities, disease severity, HRQOL, psychosocial
             factors, and demographic variables, only those who rated
             their health as poor had a significant greater risk of
             mortality (OR = 2.96, CI = 1.80-4.85). A similar pattern was
             observed for coronary artery disease (CAD)-related
             mortality; increased adjustment of variables weakened the
             relationship between self-rated health and mortality.
             Individuals who rated their health as poor had a
             significantly greater risk of CAD-related mortality than did
             those who rated their health as very good (poor vs. very
             good OR = 3.58, CI = 2.13-6.02) after adjustment for all
             available mortality risk factors.This study indicates that
             it is important to include self-rated health when studying
             risk factors for mortality. Not adjusting for relevant
             factors may provide an overestimation of the effects of
             self-rated health on mortality in a sample of CAD
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00005650-199912000-00006},
   Key = {fds277328}
}

@article{fds277327,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and Siegler, IC and Brummett, BH and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Vitaliano, PP and Clapp-Channing, N and Lytle, BL and Mark, DB},
   Title = {The relationship between self-rated health and health status
             among coronary artery patients.},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {565-584},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0898-2643},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10848078},
   Abstract = {This study examined the descriptive relationship of
             self-rated health (SRH) with various psychosocial measures,
             sociodemographic variables, coronary artery disease (CAD)
             diagnostic/clinical measures, and medically abstracted
             comorbidities.The sample was 2,855 individuals from the
             Mediators of Social Support (MOSS) study who had at least
             75% narrowing in more than one vessel, as indicated by a
             cardiac catheterization.After adjusting for sociodemographic
             factors, individuals who rated their health as poor/fair had
             significantly worse performance on all psychosocial measures
             and were more likely to be female, non-White, and of a lower
             socioeconomic status than those who rated their health as
             being good or better. There were few differences on SRH
             across various diagnostic/clinical measures of health.A
             single item measure of SRH may be useful; the
             generalizability of the item must be considered. In this
             sample of CAD patients, SRH was related more to psychosocial
             factors than to clinical and disease indicators.},
   Doi = {10.1177/089826439901100405},
   Key = {fds277327}
}

@article{fds277421,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {A 69-year-old man with anger and angina.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {282},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {763-770},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10463712},
   Key = {fds277421}
}

@article{fds277214,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Social ties and health.},
   Journal = {The Harvard mental health letter / from Harvard Medical
             School},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {4-5},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1057-5022},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10092337},
   Key = {fds277214}
}

@article{fds277215,
   Author = {Williams, R and Kiecolt-Glaser, J and Legato, MJ and Ornish, D and Powell, LH and Syme, SL and Williams, V},
   Title = {The impact of emotions on cardiovascular
             health.},
   Journal = {The journal of gender-specific medicine : JGSM : the
             official journal of the Partnership for Women"s Health at
             Columbia},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {52-58},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {Recent research suggests that the maintenance of emotional
             well-being is critical to cardiovascular health. People who
             feel lonely, depressed, and isolated have been found to be
             significantly more likely to suffer illnesses and to die
             prematurely of cardiovascular diseases than those who have
             adequate social support. Consequently, the development of
             appropriate interventions to improve the emotional health of
             people with certain psychosocial risk factors has become an
             important research goal. It is anticipated that such
             interventions will increase the life expectancy of people at
             risk and that it may also save millions of dollars in
             medical care costs. First, however, researchers in this
             field must identify specific emotional risk factors and must
             agree upon a working definition of "good emotional health."
             Such explicit definitions, as well as additional data, are
             essential to educating physicians and insurers so that
             consideration of emotional health can be integrated into
             basic medical care.},
   Key = {fds277215}
}

@article{fds277355,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Babyak, MA and Barefoot, JC and Bosworth, HB and Clapp-Channing, NE and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Social support and hostility as predictors of depressive
             symptoms in cardiac patients one month after
             hospitalization: a prospective study.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {707-713},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9847029},
   Abstract = {Hospitalization for cardiac disease is associated with an
             increased risk for depression, which itself confers a poorer
             prognosis. Few prospective studies have examined the
             determinants of depression after hospitalization in cardiac
             patients, and even fewer have examined depression within the
             weeks after hospital discharge. The present study assessed
             the prospective relations among perceptions of social
             support and trait hostility in predicting symptoms of
             depressive symptoms at 1 month after hospitalization for a
             diagnostic angiography in 506 coronary artery disease (CAD)
             patients.A series of structural equation models 1) estimated
             the predictive relations of social support, hostility, and
             depressive symptoms while in the hospital to symptoms of
             depression 1 month after hospitalization, and 2) compared
             these relations across gender, predicted risk
             classification, and age.Social support assessed during
             hospitalization was independently negatively associated with
             depressive symptoms 1 month after hospitalization, after
             controlling for baseline symptoms of depression, gender,
             disease severity, and age. Hostility was an indirect
             predictor of postdischarge depressive symptomology by way of
             its negative relation with social support. This pattern of
             relations did not differ across gender, predicted risk
             classification, and age.Our findings suggest that a
             patient's perceived social support during hospitalization is
             a determinant of depressive symptoms 1 month later. The
             relation of social support and hostility to subsequent
             depressive symptoms was similar across a variety of
             populations.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199811000-00008},
   Key = {fds277355}
}

@article{fds277252,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Heitmann, BL and Helms, MJ and Williams, RB and Surwit,
             RS and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Symptoms of depression and changes in body weight from
             adolescence to mid-life.},
   Journal = {Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {688-694},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9705031},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of symptoms of
             depression to weight changes in healthy individuals of
             normal weight across a follow-up of over 20 y. PARTICIPANTS
             AND DESIGN: College students (3885 men and 841 women) were
             administered a self-report depression measure in the
             mid-1960s. Their baseline body mass index (BMI) was
             calculated from their college medical records. Participants
             were contacted by mail in the late 1980s and asked to report
             their current height and weight as well as their smoking and
             exercise habits. Another measure of depressive symptoms was
             obtained from 3560 individuals at follow-up. Multiple
             regression models were used to relate changes in weight to
             depression scores while controlling for background (gender,
             baseline BMI and the gender by BMI interaction) and
             behavioral (exercise and smoking) predictors. RESULTS: The
             relationship between depressive symptoms and body weight
             change took the form of an interaction with baseline BMI (P
             < 0.001). Those with high baseline depression scores gained
             less weight than their nondepressed counterparts if they
             were initially lean, but more if they were initially heavy.
             This trend was especially strong in those with high
             depression scores at both baseline and follow-up.
             CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the hypothesis that
             depression exaggerates pre-existing weight change
             tendencies. This pattern would not have been detected by an
             examination of main effects alone, illustrating the need to
             move toward more complicated interactive models in the study
             of psychological factors and weight.},
   Key = {fds277252}
}

@article{fds277212,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {The mind, the body, health, and disease. What do we know,
             what should we do?},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {172-174},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9610159},
   Key = {fds277212}
}

@article{fds277287,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, SM and Williams, RB and Zimmermann, EA},
   Title = {Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses of
             hostile men: the role of interpersonal challenge.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78-88},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9492244},
   Abstract = {We examined the effects of hostility and harassment on
             neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and emotional responses in
             52 healthy white men.Subjects were preselected on the basis
             of scores in the top and bottom quartiles (above 23 and
             below 15, respectively) on the Cook and Medley Hostility
             (Ho) scale. Subjects participated in a solvable anagram
             task. Thirty subjects were harassed by the technician during
             the task.Harassed subjects with high Ho scores exhibited
             enhanced and prolonged blood pressures, heart rate, forearm
             blood flow, forearm vascular resistance, norepinephrine,
             testosterone, and cortisol responses relative to low-Ho
             subjects in the harassed condition and high and low-Ho
             subjects in the nonharassed condition. Heightened
             physiological reactivity in high-Ho subjects was correlated
             with arousal of negative affects.The findings are consistent
             with the general hypothesis that high hostile men show
             excessive behaviorally-induced cardiovascular and
             neuroendocrine responsivity to interpersonal challenging
             situations. Moreover, in high-Ho men, the stress-induced
             cardiovascular and neuroendocrine hyperreactivity is
             associated with the arousal of negative affects such as
             anger.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199801000-00017},
   Key = {fds277287}
}

@article{fds277307,
   Author = {Brummett, BH and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility and risk for disease},
   Journal = {Current Opinion in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {607-613},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001504-199811000-00003},
   Abstract = {Recent research exploring the association between hostility
             and risk for disease is generally supportive of the previous
             literature that suggests the existence of a link between
             hostility and health. Both past and current findings also
             indicate that there are numerous biobehavioral routes
             through which hostility might have an impact on
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001504-199811000-00003},
   Key = {fds277307}
}

@article{fds277213,
   Author = {Bubb, MR and Kent, RS and Williams, R},
   Title = {Zyban: Two products, two uses-Too confusing? [5] (multiple
             letters)},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {279},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {1701-1702},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.21.1701},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.279.21.1701},
   Key = {fds277213}
}

@article{fds277420,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Lower socioeconomic status and increased mortality: Early
             childhood roots and the potential for successful
             interventions},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {279},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {1745-1746},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.279.21.1745},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.279.21.1745},
   Key = {fds277420}
}

@article{fds336100,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Shiller, AD and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, SM and Williams,
             RB and Zimmermann, EA},
   Title = {The joint effect of social support and hostility on
             beta2-adrenoceptor function.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {134-134},
   Year = {1998},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-199801000-00190},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199801000-00190},
   Key = {fds336100}
}

@article{fds277348,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and O'Connor, C and Hinderliter, A and Fath, K and Hegde,
             SB and Miller, G and Puma, J and Sessions, W and Sheps, D and Zakhary, B and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors and coronary disease. A national
             multicenter clinical trial (ENRICHD) with a North Carolina
             focus.},
   Journal = {North Carolina Medical Journal},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {440-444},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0029-2559},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9392958},
   Abstract = {In addition to traditional risk factors (cigarette smoking,
             high blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol) psychosocial
             factors (depression, social isolation, and low socioeconomic
             status) have an adverse impact on prognosis of patients with
             CAD. Several studies of psychosocial and behavioral
             treatments provide encouraging evidence for the clinical
             efficacy of psychosocial interventions in CAD patients. A
             new, multicenter clinical trial now underway (see sidebar)
             will evaluate the impact of psychosocial interventions
             (compared to usual care) on all-cause mortality and nonfatal
             MI in post-MI patients with depression or perceived low
             levels of social support or both.},
   Key = {fds277348}
}

@article{fds277286,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Shiller, AD and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, S and Williams,
             RB and Zimmermann, EA},
   Title = {The relationship between hostility and beta-adrenergic
             receptor physiology in health young males.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {481-487},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9316180},
   Abstract = {We examined the relationship between hostility and
             mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) beta-adrenergic receptor
             function in a sample of young healthy males.Thirty subjects
             were selected for having scored above 20 (N = 11) and below
             14 (N = 19) on the Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) scale. MNL
             beta-adrenergic receptor function was characterized in terms
             of receptor density (Bmax) and ligand-binding affinity (Kd)
             in homogenized cells, and intracellular cyclic adenosine
             monophosphate (cAMP) responses to saline, isoproterenol, and
             forskolin in whole cells. Subjects also completed the
             Multidimensional Anger Inventory (MAI), which assesses
             dimensions of anger.Relative to men with low Ho scores, men
             with Ho scores above 20 showed lower receptor number and
             greater forskolin-stimulated cAMP. Moreover, high hostile
             men reported a greater frequency of anger, longer duration
             of anger, more frequent brooding, and a hostile
             outlook.These data indicate that adrenergic receptor
             down-regulation is associated with hostility. This
             association may be linked to hostile persons' propensity for
             excessive and prolonged neuroendocrine responses to either
             psychological stressors or the experience of chronic stress
             associated with frequent and prolonged bouts of
             anger.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199709000-00004},
   Key = {fds277286}
}

@article{fds326261,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Higher socio-economic status was associated with fewer
             coronary events and lower case-fatality rates.},
   Journal = {Evidence Based Cardiovascular Medicine},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {63},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1361-2611(97)80051-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1361-2611(97)80051-6},
   Key = {fds326261}
}

@article{fds277347,
   Author = {Luecken, LJ and Suarez, EC and Kuhn, CM and Barefoot, JC and Blumenthal,
             JA and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Stress in employed women: impact of marital status and
             children at home on neurohormone output and home
             strain.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {352-359},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9251153},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biological and psychological
             effects of role overload, we examined the effects of marital
             (or partnership) status and parental status (defined as
             having children at home) on daily excretion of urinary
             catecholamines and cortisol in a sample of 109 employed
             women. Other measures included work and home strain, and
             social support. METHODS: Urine collection was conducted on
             two consecutive workdays in three separate aliquots, a)
             overnight, b) daytime, and c) evening. Repeated-measures
             analysis of covariance with age and caffeine consumption as
             covariates was conducted on levels of epinephrine,
             norepinephrine, and cortisol in the three aliquots averaged
             across the 2 days. RESULTS: We found a significant main
             effect of parental status on 24-hour cortisol excretion, (p
             < .01) such that women with at least one child living at
             home excreted significantly more cortisol, independent of
             marital status or social support. Women with children at
             home also reported higher home strain (p < .001) but not
             work strain. A significant period of day effect for
             catecholamine levels was found (norepinephrine, p < .001;
             epinephrine, p < .0001) with all subjects showing an
             increase during the workday and little or no decline in
             levels during the evening. Catecholamine levels were
             unrelated to marital status, parental status, or social
             support. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that working
             women with children at home, independent of marital status
             or social support, excrete greater amounts of cortisol and
             experience higher levels of home strain than those without
             children at home.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199707000-00003},
   Key = {fds277347}
}

@article{fds277419,
   Author = {R.B. Williams and Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Blumenthal, JA and Helms, MJ and Luecken, L and Pieper, CF and Siegler, IC and Suarez,
             EC},
   Title = {Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of working
             women.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {543-548},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9193195},
   Abstract = {This study identifies potential mediators of job strain
             effects on health by determining whether psychosocial
             factors known to predict an increased risk of cardiovascular
             disease and all-cause mortality are higher among women who
             report high levels of job strain.Measures of job strain and
             other psychosocial risk factors were obtained in a sample of
             152 female employees of a local corporation. Canonical
             correlation and analyses of covariance were used to assess
             relationships between job demands and decision latitude and
             other psychosocial risk factors.A significant (P = .002)
             solution to the canonical correlation analysis showed that
             high job demands and low decision latitude were correlated
             with a pattern of psychosocial factors consisting of (1)
             increased levels of negative emotions like anxiety, anger,
             depression, and hostility; (2) reduced levels of social
             support; and (3) a preponderance of negative compared with
             positive feelings in dealings with coworkers and
             supervisors. This pattern was confirmed by analyses of
             covariance that adjusted for demographic and specific job
             characteristics.The canonical correlation analysis results
             provide empirical support for the job strain construct. The
             most important finding is that health-damaging psychosocial
             factors like job strain, depression, hostility, anxiety, and
             social isolation tend to cluster in certain
             individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830180061007},
   Key = {fds277419}
}

@article{fds277261,
   Author = {Von Dras and DD and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Clapp-Channing, N and Haney, TL and Mark, DB},
   Title = {Surrogate assessment of coronary artery disease patients'
             functional capacity.},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1491-1502},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9160439},
   Abstract = {An investigation of the surrogate assessment of coronary
             artery disease (CAD) patients' functional capacity was
             conducted using 193 patient and surrogate rater dyads. Mean
             age of patients and surrogate raters were 60.4 and 54.4
             years, respectively. Patients and surrogates independently
             completed a brief questionnaire that assessed health and
             psychosocial factors. The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI)
             was contained in the patients' questionnaire, while a
             similar form modified to assess patients' functional
             capacity was imbedded in the surrogates' questionnaire.
             Results indicated similar psychometric characteristics and
             clinical validity for patients' self-report and surrogates'
             ratings, suggesting that the Surrogate Rating Form of the
             Duke Activity Status Index (DASI-SRF) is a reliable and
             valid proxy method of assessing patient's functional
             capacity when this information may not be obtained directly
             from the patient. Further, while there were no effects of
             surrogates' health and psychological characteristics on
             their ratings of patients' functional capacity, in
             comparison with other surrogates, spouses were more likely
             to rate patients higher in functional capacity. Exploration
             of the patient/care provider relationship via concurrent use
             of the DASI and DASI-SRF is discussed.},
   Key = {fds277261}
}

@article{fds277211,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {The role of psychosocial factors in human disease: lessons
             from animal models.},
   Journal = {Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum},
   Volume = {640},
   Pages = {100-102},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0302-2994},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9401617},
   Abstract = {Studies with humans have identified certain psychosocial
             characteristics that are associated with increased risk of
             developing life-threatening illnesses, as well as biological
             and behavioral mechanisms whereby risk is mediated. In this
             paper I review research wherein the use of animal models
             increases our understanding of the mechanisms acting in
             humans, using research on psychosocial risk factors and the
             "SES gradient" as examples.},
   Key = {fds277211}
}

@article{fds277284,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Bartolome, JV and Kuhn, CB and Schanberg, SM and Williams, RB and Zimmermann, EA},
   Title = {The influence of dietary cholesterol on cardiac and hepatic
             Beta-adrenergic receptors in egyptian sand
             rats.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-188},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250738},
   Abstract = {We examined the effects of dietary cholesterol on cardiac
             and hepatic beta-adrenergic receptor functioning.
             Age-matched adult desert rodents (Psammomys obesus) were
             randomized to either a 5% cholesterol diet (CD, n = 20), or
             normal rabbit chow (RC, n = 18). After a 2-month exposure to
             the diets, animals were sacrificed and tissue from both
             heart and liver were retained for radioligand bindings
             studies. In heart tissue, cholesterol fed animals, relative
             to controls, showed an increased production of adenosine
             3,5>-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in response to
             isoproterenol. Cholesterol supplementation was not
             associated with an increase in heart beta-adrenergic
             receptor number. Animals fed the 5% cholesterol diet showed
             significant increases in the number of beta-adrenergic
             receptor sites in hepatic tissue (M = 13.2 vs. 10.4 pmol/mg
             protein, CD and RC, respectively). The increased number of
             receptor sites in the liver was accompanied by a significant
             increase in isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production.
             Results are supportive of the hypothesis that dietary
             cholesterol contributes to an upregulation of
             beta-adrenergic receptor function in cardiac, as well as
             hepatic tissue. These findings may be relevant to the
             observations of excessive stress-induced cardiovascular
             reactivity in persons with high cholesterol
             levels.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm0402_6},
   Key = {fds277284}
}

@article{fds277285,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Sasaki, M and Lewis, JG and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, SM and Suarez, EC and Feaganes, JR and Adams, DO},
   Title = {Differential responsivity of monocyte cytokine and adhesion
             proteins in high- and low-hostile humans.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {264-272},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250732},
   Abstract = {This study tested the general hypothesis that high- and
             low-hostile respondents would show different patterns of
             change in monocyte cytokine and adhesion protein (MCAP)
             expression in response to pharmacologically induced
             alterations in sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and
             parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) balance. On 3 separate
             days, 4 high- and 4 low-hostile respondents received
             isoproterenol infusions after saline, atropine (PNS
             blockade), or neostigmine (PNS stimulation) pre-treatment.
             Dual color flow cytometry with fluorescently labeled
             monoclonal antibodies to CD 14 (monocyte market),
             interleukin-1, leukocyte function activator (LFA-1), Class
             II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II), and tumor
             necrosis factor was used to quantify cytokine and adhesion
             protein expression on monocytes in blood samples drawn
             before and after the combination drug infusions on the 3
             test days in each respondents. Following PNS stimulation and
             istoproterenol infusion there was a decrease (compared to
             saline pretreatment) in MHC II expression in high hostiles
             that was significantly (p<.02) different from an increase in
             low hostiles. A similar trend (p = .08) was seen for LFA-1
             expression, with high hostiles showing an increase and low
             hostiles a decrease. These findings support the broad
             hypothesis that high-and low-hostile respondents will show
             different MCAP responses to pharmacologically induced
             alterations in SNS-PNS balance. Such differences could
             contribute to accelerated atherogenesis among high-hostile
             individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm0403_5},
   Key = {fds277285}
}

@article{fds277345,
   Author = {Szczepanski, R and Napolitano, M and Feaganes, JR and Barefoot, JC and Luecken, L and Swoap, RS and Kuhn, C and Suarez, E and Siegler, IC and Williams, RB and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Relation of mood ratings and neurohormonal responses during
             daily life in employed women.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-16},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1070-5503},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250739},
   Abstract = {Diurnal variations in urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine,
             cortisol, and self-reported mood states were examined in 101
             employed women. Urine was collected on 2 consecutive
             workdays at 3 time periods: (1) overnight, (2) daytime, and
             (3) evening. Self-reports of 14 mood states were combined to
             correspond with the urinary collection periods. Factor
             analyses revealed 3 mood factors: Pressured (rushed, busy,
             stressed, hassled, and tense), Distressed (afraid,
             depressed, bored, and nervous), and Contented (satisfied,
             thoughtful, excited, and calm). The Distressed factor was
             significantly associated with norepinephrine excretion (p
             <.001). The Pressured factor was significantly associated
             with cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine excretion (p
             <.001) independent of age, ethnicity, marital status,
             parental status, department within the company and activity
             level. Secretion of urinary hormones and the Pressured
             factor followed the same diurnal pattern. Specifically, as
             women's self-ratings of feeling pressured initially
             increased and then decreased over the course of the workday,
             urinary hormones also peaked and then dropped. Once time of
             day was statistically controlled, however, the mood factors
             were no longer significantly related to the urinary
             hormones.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327558ijbm0401_1},
   Key = {fds277345}
}

@article{fds277346,
   Author = {Siegler, HC and Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, JC and Peterson, BL and Saunders, WB and Dahlstrom, WG and Costa, PT and Suarez, EC and Helms,
             MJ and Maynard, KE and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Personality factors differentially predict exercise behavior
             in men and women.},
   Journal = {Women's health (Hillsdale, N.J.)},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-70},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1077-2928},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9106371},
   Abstract = {Personality assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI) in college was used to predict
             exercise behavior measured at midlife in 3,630 men and 796
             women enrolled in the University of North Carolina Alumni
             Heart Study. Logistic regression models were fitted for each
             of the MMPI clinical scales to test the predictive effect of
             personality, gender, and their interaction on adult exercise
             behavior. Lower depression, social introversion, and
             psychopathic deviance scores were associated with increased
             probability of exercising in midlife for both men and women.
             Furthermore, better psychological health (indexed by lower
             hypochondriases and psychasthenia) in college was generally
             predictive of increased exercise for men, whereas higher
             scores on these same factors predicted midlife exercise for
             women. There were two other patterns of gender interactions:
             (a) for men, lower scores on hysteria and schizophrenia
             scales were associated with increased probability of
             exercising at midlife, whereas these factors were unrelated
             to exercise for women and (b) for women, lower ego strength
             and higher college scores on paranoia and mania were
             associated with exercise behavior at midlife. These data
             suggest that early adulthood personality predictors of
             exercise behavior at midlife are both gender-neutral and
             gender-specific; that is, where no gender differences exist,
             healthier personality traits predict exercise at midlife,
             and when gender differences do occur, healthier college
             patterns of personality predict exercise behavior for men
             and sedentary behavior for women.},
   Key = {fds277346}
}

@article{fds277344,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Helms, MJ and Mark, DB and Blumenthal, JA and Califf,
             RM and Haney, TL and O'Connor, CM and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Depression and long-term mortality risk in patients with
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {613-617},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8831391},
   Abstract = {Previous research has established that patients with
             coronary artery disease (CAD) have an increased risk of
             death if they are depressed at the time of hospitalization.
             Follow-up periods have been short in these studies;
             therefore, the present investigation examined this
             phenomenon over an extended period of time. Patients with
             established CAD (n = 1,250) were assessed for depression
             with the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and
             followed for subsequent mortality. Follow-up ranged up to
             19.4 years. SDS scores were associated with increased risk
             of subsequent cardiac death (p = 0.002) and total mortality
             (p < 0.001) after controlling for initial disease severity
             and treatment. Patients with moderate to severe depression
             had a 69% greater odds of cardiac death and a 78% greater
             odds of mortality from all causes than nondepressed
             patients. Increased risk was not confined to the initial
             months after hospitalization. Patients with high SDS scores
             at baseline still had a higher risk of cardiac death > 5
             years later (p < 0.005). Compared with the nondepressed,
             patients with moderate to severe depression had an 84%
             greater risk 5 to 10 years later and a 72% greater risk
             after > 10 years. Patients with mild depression had
             intermediate levels of risk in all models. The heightened
             long-term risk of depressed patients suggests that
             depression may be persistent or frequently recurrent in CAD
             patients and is associated with CAD progression, triggering
             of acute events, or both.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(96)00380-3},
   Key = {fds277344}
}

@article{fds277210,
   Author = {Haney, TL and Maynard, KE and Houseworth, SJ and Scherwitz, LW and Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique: description
             and validation against the criterion of coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {386-401},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-3891},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8869579},
   Abstract = {High levels of hostility are associated with adverse health
             outcomes. The Interpersonal Hostility Assessment Technique
             (IHAT; Barefoot, 1992) measures hostility from verbal
             behavior during a standardized interview. Four types of
             behaviors are scored as hostility: evading the question,
             irritation, and indirect and direct challenges to the
             interviewer. The sum of the frequencies of these acts is a
             Hostile Behavior Index (HBI), which is divided into two
             components: verbal, scored with speech content in mind, and
             paraverbal, based on vocal stylistics. This study examined
             characteristics of IHAT assessments in 129 male coronary
             patients. Satisfactory interrater reliabilities were
             obtained. The HBI correlated highly (.58) with coronary
             artery disease severity after controlling for traditional
             risk factors. This relation was not affected by question
             topic or by differential weighting of the four hostile
             behaviors. Both HBI components were significantly correlated
             with disease. Results are discussed in terms of their
             implications for hostility assessment.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327752jpa6602_16},
   Key = {fds277210}
}

@article{fds277209,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Littman, AB},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors: role in cardiac risk and treatment
             strategies.},
   Journal = {Cardiology Clinics},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-104},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0733-8651},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9072294},
   Abstract = {Recent epidemiologic research has identified several
             psychosocial factors that impact unfavorably on prognosis
             among patients with established coronary heart disease
             (CHD). Several biologic and behavioral characteristics have
             been identified in patients with these psychosocial risk
             factors that are biologically plausible mediators of their
             adverse impact on prognosis. Several small-scale clinical
             trials offer encouraging evidence that both behavioral and
             pharmacologic interventions have the potential to ameliorate
             the health-damaging effects of psychosocial risk factors in
             patients with CHD. In this article we review the evidence on
             these points and offer recommendations as to how
             incorporation of this new knowledge into clinical care of
             the patient with CHD can lead to reduced mortality and
             morbidity rates in this population.},
   Key = {fds277209}
}

@article{fds277251,
   Author = {Von Dras and DD and Williams, RB and Kaplan, BH and Siegler,
             IC},
   Title = {Correlates of perceived social support and equality of
             interpersonal relationships at mid-life.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {199-217},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0091-4150},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9031005},
   Abstract = {An investigation into the correlates of perceived social
             support and the equality of interpersonal relationships at
             mid-life was conducted using a sample of 3954 adults from
             the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study
             (UNCAHS). Participants ranged in age from forty to fifty
             years. Results suggested that while the number of family
             roles and social activities are the same for men and women,
             women perceive a greater availability of social support and
             report they give more than they take in relationships with
             family. There was no association found between the perceived
             availability of social support and global indices of
             equality of interpersonal relationships; suggesting an
             independence between these two psychological aspects of
             social support. Further, multiple regression correlational
             analyses indicated gender, level of social activity, and
             self-esteem as significant predictors of perceived social
             support; with self-esteem being the best single predictor.
             Relatedly, gender and number of children were found to be
             significant predictors of the perceived equality of
             relationships with family. These findings suggest
             differences in mid-life men and women's psychological
             perception of the availability of social support, and the
             give and take of relationships with family.},
   Doi = {10.2190/M0GP-7R75-AQJ6-Q17H},
   Key = {fds277251}
}

@article{fds277306,
   Author = {Hlatky, MA and Lam, LC and Lee, KL and Clapp-Channing, NE and Williams,
             RB and Pryor, DB and Califf, RM and Mark, DB},
   Title = {Job strain and the prevalence and outcome of coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {327-333},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7634445},
   Abstract = {It has been hypothesized that jobs that have both high
             psychological demands and low decision latitude ("job
             strain") can lead to coronary disease. The objective of this
             study was to test whether job strain was correlated with the
             presence of coronary disease at angiography or with
             long-term outcome in patients with angiographic coronary
             disease.Employed patients under the age of 65 years
             undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography completed a
             self-administered questionnaire about their job duties and
             work environment. Job strain was measured by the method of
             Karasek. Patients were separated into three groups, based on
             extent of coronary disease: significant disease (> or = 75%
             stenosis), insignificant disease (> 0% but < 75% stenosis),
             and normal coronary arteries. Statistical analyses were
             performed using logistic regression and the Cox proportional
             hazards model. The 1489 patients enrolled had a median age
             of 52 years; 76% were male and 88% were white. By design,
             all patients were employed, 60% in white-collar jobs and
             only 16% in jobs requiring heavy labor. Traditional cardiac
             risk factors were most prevalent in the 922 patients with
             significant coronary artery disease, at intermediate levels
             in the 204 patients with insignificant disease, and least
             prevalent in the 363 patients with normal coronary arteries
             (all P < .01). Job strain was actually more common in
             patients with normal coronary arteries (35%) than in
             patients with insignificant (26%) or significant disease
             (25%, P < .002). In a multivariate analysis, job strain was
             not significantly correlated with the presence of coronary
             disease. Job strain was not correlated with angina frequency
             at the time of angiography. Job strain was not a predictor
             of cardiac events (cardiac death or nonfatal myocardial
             infarction) during follow-up.Job strain was not correlated
             with the prevalence or severity of coronary artery disease
             in a cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography. The
             outcome of patients with angiographically defined coronary
             disease was not affected by the level of job strain as
             measured by the method of Karasek.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.92.3.327},
   Key = {fds277306}
}

@article{fds277208,
   Author = {Thai, SF and Lewis, JG and Williams, RB and Johnson, SP and Adams,
             DO},
   Title = {Effects of oxidized LDL on mononuclear phagocytes:
             inhibition of induction of four inflammatory cytokine gene
             RNAs, release of NO, and cytolysis of tumor
             cells.},
   Journal = {Journal of Leukocyte Biology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {427-433},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0741-5400},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7884314},
   Abstract = {A critical step in development of atherosclerosis is the
             interaction of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) with
             mononuclear phagocytes. Oxidized LDL, as well as acetyl-LDL,
             is rapidly taken up into macrophages via a family of
             scavenger receptors. We report that macrophages treated with
             oxidized LDL have markedly lower levels of mRNA specific for
             the genes MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, and KC as measured
             by Northern blot analyses of lipopolysaccharide
             (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. By contrast, acetyl-LDL does
             not inhibit these genes at the doses at which oxidized-LDL
             is effective. Similar effects are observed whether the LDL
             is oxidized in the presence of Cu2+ or of Fe2+. Such
             inhibition also occurs when maleylated bovine serum albumin
             (BSA), which also clears by one or more scavenger receptors
             on macrophages, is used as the stimulant. Fe2+ or Cu2+
             oxidized LDL inhibits release of nitric oxide when triggered
             by LPS and direct cytolysis of tumor cells when triggered by
             maleylated BSA or LPS. Taken together, the data presented
             indicate that oxidized LDL inhibits induction of several
             important gene RNAs as well as functional markers that
             characterize the development of inflammatory and fully
             activated macrophages.},
   Key = {fds277208}
}

@article{fds277205,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Patterson, JC and Haney, TL and Cayton, TG and Hickman,
             JR and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility in asymptomatic men with angiographically
             confirmed coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {439-442},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8059722},
   Abstract = {The association of hostility and coronary artery disease was
             evaluated in a case-control study of aircrew members who had
             been referred for coronary angiography on the basis of
             noninvasive tests or risk factor status. The asymptomatic
             status of the sample and the structured nature of the
             referral process minimize the methodologic problems normally
             associated with studies of patients undergoing angiography.
             Cases (n = 24) had some angiographic evidence of coronary
             artery disease, whereas controls (n = 25) were found to have
             no evidence of occlusion. An interaction was observed
             between smoking history and a measurement of hostility based
             on observations of the respondent's behavior during a
             standard interview. Among nonsmokers, cases had higher
             hostility scores than did controls (p = 0.004). This
             association was not present among smokers. Self-reported
             hostility did not discriminate cases from controls. These
             findings support the notion that hostility plays a role in
             the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and point to
             the potential importance of interactions between hostility
             and other risk factors.},
   Key = {fds277205}
}

@article{fds277206,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Neurobiology, cellular and molecular biology, and
             psychosomatic medicine.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {308-315},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7972613},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199407000-00006},
   Key = {fds277206}
}

@article{fds277276,
   Author = {Lane, JD and Pieper, CF and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Siegler,
             IC},
   Title = {Caffeine and cholesterol: interactions with
             hostility.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {260-266},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8084973},
   Abstract = {The consumption of caffeinated beverages has been linked to
             elevated serum cholesterol and an increased risk of coronary
             disease, although the relationships are inconsistent across
             studies and remain controversial. The effect of caffeine on
             cholesterol and coronary disease risk may be modulated by
             other factors. Using cohort data from a subsample of the
             University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study, we
             investigated whether the relationships between caffeinated
             beverage consumption and serum lipid and lipoprotein levels
             in middle-aged men and women were modulated by levels of
             trait hostility. After adjustment for other risk factors,
             higher caffeinated beverage intake was associated with
             higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and a
             higher ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein
             cholesterol, both indicative of greater coronary disease
             risk. The interactive effects of hostility and caffeine
             intake were ambiguous, although there were trends for
             caffeine intake to have stronger effects on low-density
             lipoprotein and on total cholesterol in people with less
             hostility. Additional studies of personality characteristics
             and other factors that can modulate the cholesterol-raising
             effects of coffee drinking may be warranted because they
             might clarify the health consequences associated with coffee
             drinking and lead to the identification of individuals who
             would benefit most from changes in their coffee
             drinking.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199405000-00013},
   Key = {fds277276}
}

@article{fds277265,
   Author = {Lipkus, IM and Barefoot, JC and Feaganes, J and Williams, RB and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {A short MMPI scale to identify people likely to begin
             smoking.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {213-222},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-3891},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8189332},
   Abstract = {An item analysis of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
             Inventory (MMPI) was conducted to develop questionnaires
             that best discriminated (a) individuals who ever smoked
             versus those who never smoked and (b) ex-smokers from
             current smokers. The analyses were based on a sample of
             subjects who took the MMPI during 1964-1967 and reported
             their smoking status during 1987. Although no items
             distinguished individuals who quit versus continued to
             smoke, several items discriminated people who ever smoked
             from nonsmokers. These items formed two factors:
             Extraversion and Unconventionalism. These results provide
             support for the importance of extraversion, impulsivity, and
             antisocial tendencies as personality predictors of smoking
             initiation. The utility of this MMPI scale is
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327752jpa6202_4},
   Key = {fds277265}
}

@article{fds277264,
   Author = {Lipkus, IM and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Siegler,
             IC},
   Title = {Personality measures as predictors of smoking initiation and
             cessation in the UNC Alumni Heart Study.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {149-155},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8020458},
   Abstract = {MMPI data collected from a sample of college men and women
             during 1964-1967 were used to predict smoking initiation and
             cessation over a 20-year follow-up period. People who
             subsequently began smoking were more rebellious, impulsive,
             sensation seeking, and hostile; were less likely to present
             a positive self-image; and were socially extraverted while
             in college. People who continued to smoke 20 years later
             were more hostile and sensation seeking. The personality
             variables that predicted smoking initiation and cessation
             were the same for men and women. Discussion centers on the
             potential role of hostility as a predictor of smoking
             cessation.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.13.2.149},
   Key = {fds277264}
}

@article{fds277305,
   Author = {Mark, DB and Lam, LC and Lee, KL and Jones, RH and Pryor, DB and Stack, RS and Williams, RB and Clapp-Channing, NE and Califf, RM and Hlatky,
             MA},
   Title = {Effects of coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass surgery,
             and medical therapy on employment in patients with coronary
             artery disease. A prospective comparison
             study.},
   Journal = {Annals of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {111-117},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-4819},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8256969},
   Abstract = {To compare return-to-work rates after coronary angioplasty,
             coronary bypass surgery, and medical therapy in patients
             with coronary disease.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary care
             referral center.Between March 1986 and June 1990, we
             enrolled 1252 patients who were younger than 65 years, who
             had not had previous coronary revascularization, and who
             were employed. All patients were followed for 1
             year.One-year employment status.After 1 year, 84% of
             patients who had coronary angioplasty were still working
             compared with 79% of patients who had bypass surgery and
             with 76% of patients who received medicine. After adjusting
             for the more favorable baseline characteristics of patients
             who had angioplasty (less severe coronary artery disease,
             better left ventricular function, and less functional
             impairment), however, no significant differences were noted
             in 1-year employment rates among the three groups. These
             adjusted 1-year return-to-work rates were 84% for
             angioplasty, 80% for surgery, and 79% for medicine (P >
             0.05). In a random subset of 72 patients, 23 patients who
             had angioplasty returned to work after a median of 18 days
             (mean, 27 days) compared with 54 days (mean, 67 days) for 24
             patients having bypass surgery and with 14 days (mean, 45
             days) for 25 patients receiving medicine (P =
             0.002).Patients who had coronary angioplasty were able to
             return to work earlier than those who had bypass surgery,
             but by 1 year no significant difference was noted in
             employment rates. Neither revascularization strategy
             improved employment rates when compared with initial
             treatment using medical therapy.},
   Doi = {10.7326/0003-4819-120-2-199401150-00003},
   Key = {fds277305}
}

@article{fds277352,
   Author = {Beckham, JC and Barefoot, JC and Haney, TL and Williams, RB and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Pain coping strategies in patients referred for evaluation
             of angina pectoris},
   Journal = {Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {173-180},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008483-199405010-00005},
   Abstract = {Purpose. This study was conducted to investigate the
             relationship of pain coping strategies to functional status,
             pain, psychological distress, and depression in 72 chronic
             angina patients referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography. Methods. Each subject completed the Coping
             Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), the Duke Activity Status
             Inventory (DASI), chest pain ratings, the Hopkins Symptom
             Checklist (HSCL), and the Center for Epidemiological
             Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Results. Women reported
             lower functional status and greater frequency of pain
             interfering with activity. Regression analyses revealed that
             after controlling for demographic variables (age and gender)
             and disease status (coronary artery occlusion),
             catastrophizing (i.e., assuming the worst possible outcome
             when experiencing pain) was associated with decreased
             functional status, increased psychological distress,
             depression, and avoidance of activity for fear of pain.
             Reinterpreting pain sensations was associated with decreased
             depression. Conclusions. These findings suggest that pain
             coping may be an important aspect of adjustment in angina
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00008483-199405010-00005},
   Key = {fds277352}
}

@article{fds277207,
   Author = {Wei, M and Hornung, CA and Thompson, WG and Tocks, JB and Cleophas, TJM and Frasure-Smith, N and Lesperance, F and Talajic, M and Williams, RB and Chesney, MA},
   Title = {Depression and survival following myocardial infarction
             [5]},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {271},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1080-1082},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds277207}
}

@article{fds277297,
   Author = {Maron, BJ and Brown, RW and McGrew, CA and Mitten, MJ and Caplan, AL and Jr, AMH and Cheitlin, M and Thompson, P and Strong, W and Levine, B and Douglas, P and Garson, A and Williams, R},
   Title = {Ethical, legal, and practical considerations impacting
             medical decision- making in competitive athletes},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {10 SUPPL.},
   Pages = {S230-S237},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds277297}
}

@article{fds277248,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Harlan, E and Peoples, MC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and emotional responses in women: the role of
             hostility and harassment.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {459-468},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0278-6133.12.6.459},
   Abstract = {The relation of hostility and harassment to cardiovascular
             and emotional responses was examined by having 51 women
             (ages 18-26) high and low in hostility complete a task with
             or without harassment. Harassed high hostile Ss showed
             greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) increases during task
             and recovery periods than did harassed low hostile Ss and
             nonharassed Ss. Harassed low hostile Ss evidenced greater
             SBP increases during task and recovery periods than did
             nonharassed Ss. Among high hostile women, cardiovascular
             elevations during the task were associated with
             self-reported levels of negative affect. Antagonistic
             hostility, relative to neurotic hostility, was positively
             associated with harassment-induced SBP changes. These
             results support the hypothesis that hostile people exhibit
             excessive behaviorally induced cardiovascular responses to
             interpersonally challenging tasks that evoke anger-related
             emotional states.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.12.6.459},
   Key = {fds277248}
}

@article{fds277250,
   Author = {Zonderman, AB and Siegler, IC and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Costa, PT},
   Title = {Age and gender differences in the content scales of the
             Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {241-257},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8223825},
   Abstract = {We examined time of measurement, gender, and age differences
             on the nine content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory using data collected by three separate
             studies during the 1950s, 1960s and 1980s. No evidence was
             found for differences in the content scales due to time of
             measurement that also could not have been explained by
             demographic differences. Differences due to gender were
             found on only one of the nine scales, Masculinity-Femininity,
             and age differences were found on the Neuroticism,
             Extraversion, and Agreeableness scales. Younger men and
             women had significantly higher scores on the Neuroticism and
             Extraversion scales, and these differences were consistent
             in both magnitude and direction across sample and gender.
             Our results suggest that it is likely that openness reaches
             its lifetime stable level by the time typical adolescents
             enter college, because we found no significant age
             differences in intellectual interests. Neuroticism,
             extraversion, and agreeableness on the other hand, are
             likely to show instability throughout, and probably after,
             adolescence and early adulthood, because we found
             significant age differences in the content dimensions
             associated with these factors in separate analyses of three
             samples.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610739308253936},
   Key = {fds277250}
}

@article{fds277203,
   Author = {Williams, R and Chesney, M and Cohen, S and Frasure-Smith, N and Kaplan,
             G and Krantz, D and Manuck, S and Muller, J and Powell, L and Schnall, P and Wortman, C},
   Title = {Behavior change and compliance: Keys to improving
             cardiovascular health: Workshop VI},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1406-1407},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds277203}
}

@article{fds277204,
   Author = {Durel, LA and Kus, LA and Anderson, NB and McNeilly, M and Llabre, MM and Spitzer, S and Saab, PG and Efland, J and Williams, R and Schneiderman,
             N},
   Title = {Patterns and stability of cardiovascular responses to
             variations of the cold pressor test},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-46},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {Test-retest reliabilities and patterns of heart rate and
             blood pressure responses were examined using variations in
             the cold pressor test in 113 normotensive white college men.
             Comparisons were made of stimulus site (forehead vs. foot)
             and bodily posture (seated vs. supine) across four separate
             groups of men. The stability of cardiovascular responses was
             examined over a 2-week test-retest interval. Different
             cardiovascular response patterns emerged as a function of
             stimulation site and posture. Systolic and diastolic blood
             pressure increases were accompanied by bradycardia in the
             forehead cold pressor task but by tachycardia in the foot
             cold pressor task. Systolic blood pressure increases were
             larger for foot than for forehead stimulation. Heart rate
             increases were larger for supine than for seated men.
             Effects on response were independent of postural differences
             at baseline, and there were no stimulation site by posture
             interactions. The cardiovascular responses to stimulation
             did not attenuate across sessions in any experimental
             condition but were more reliable for foot than for forehead
             stimulation and for supine than for seated posture. Short-
             term stability for changes to the task approached that for
             baseline and task and was higher than has been reported
             elsewhere.},
   Key = {fds277204}
}

@article{fds277412,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Chesney, MA},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors and prognosis in established coronary
             artery disease: The need for research on
             interventions},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {270},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {1860-1861},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.270.15.1860},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.270.15.1860},
   Key = {fds277412}
}

@article{fds277258,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Peterson, BL and Barefoot, JC and Harvin, SH and Dahlstrom, WG and Kaplan, BH and Costa, PT and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Using college alumni populations in epidemiologic research:
             the UNC Alumni Heart Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Epidemiology},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1243-1250},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0895-4356},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1432005},
   Abstract = {The UNC Alumni Heart Study (UNCAHS) is a prospective study
             of the role of psychosocial factors, in particular
             hostility, in the development of coronary heart disease. The
             target population is composed of persons who completed the
             Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory while attending
             the University of North Carolina in the mid-1960s. Logistic
             regression analyses were used to determine whether
             hostility, demographic and other variables were significant
             determinants of the subjects' locatability and
             participation. It was found that MMPI hostility scores at
             initial testing were unrelated to either potential or actual
             locatability or participation. Thus there is no evidence
             that hostility is the source of selection bias in the
             UNCAHS. Selection into the study was predicted by age, sex,
             degree status and variables concerned with the conditions
             under which the MMPI was administered. It is concluded that
             follow-up studies of college cohorts may have study-specific
             sources of selection bias.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0895-4356(92)90165-j},
   Key = {fds277258}
}

@article{fds277303,
   Author = {Mark, DB and Lam, LC and Lee, KL and Clapp-Channing, NE and Williams,
             RB and Pryor, DB and Califf, RM and Hlatky, MA},
   Title = {Identification of patients with coronary disease at high
             risk for loss of employment. A prospective validation
             study.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1485-1494},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1423962},
   Abstract = {Work disability is common in patients with coronary artery
             disease and adversely affects both economic well-being and
             quality of life. The purpose of this study was to construct
             a model to predict premature departure from the work force
             of patients with coronary disease and to validate this model
             prospectively in an independent cohort of patients.We
             enrolled 1,252 coronary disease patients referred for
             diagnostic cardiac catheterization who were less than age
             65, employed, and without prior coronary angioplasty or
             coronary bypass surgery. Medical, functional, psychological,
             economic, and job-related variables were measured at the
             time of baseline diagnostic cardiac catheterization, and all
             patients were followed for 1 year. Three hundred twelve
             patients underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary
             angioplasty (PTCA) within 60 days of catheterization, and
             449 had coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) within
             60 days of catheterization. The remaining 491 patients were
             treated with initial medical therapy. Logistic regression
             was used to develop a multivariable model for predicting
             1-year work status in the training sample patients (872
             patients enrolled between March 1986 and February 1989).
             This model was then validated in the independent prospective
             test sample (380 patients enrolled between March 1989 and
             June 1990). Eight factors were independent predictors of
             departure from the work force: lower initial functional
             status (as assessed by the Duke Activity Status Index),
             followed by older age, black race, presence of congestive
             heart failure, lower education level, presence of
             extracardiac vascular disease, poorer psychological status,
             and lower job classification. Standard clinical variables
             provided only 20% of the total predictive information
             available from the model about follow-up work outcomes,
             whereas functional measures provided 27%, and demographic
             and socioeconomic measures provided 45%. In the test sample,
             the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve
             for the model predictions was 0.74, compared with 0.80 in
             the training sample, and model predictions agreed well with
             observed prevalences of return to work. After adjustment for
             baseline imbalances, there was no significant difference in
             1-year return-to-work rates among the patients receiving
             initial PTCA or CABG therapy versus initial medical
             therapy.Patients with coronary disease who are at high risk
             for premature departure from the work force can be
             accurately identified from a combination of medical and
             nonmedical risk factors. The model developed in this study
             provides a tool to identify patients at high risk for
             premature loss from the work force. Such patients may
             benefit from special multidimensional intervention programs
             designed to preserve work status. Our data show that
             revascularization with either PTCA or CABG is not, by
             itself, sufficient to accomplish this goal.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.86.5.1485},
   Key = {fds277303}
}

@article{fds277415,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Peterson, BL and Barefoot, JC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Hostility during late adolescence predicts coronary risk
             factors at mid-life.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {136},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {146-154},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1415138},
   Abstract = {Hostility, as measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale of
             the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, has been
             found to predict higher rates of both coronary heart disease
             and all-cause mortality. To evaluate one mechanism whereby
             hostility might contribute to health problems, the authors
             used regression models to determine whether hostility
             measured in college (1964-1966) predicted coronary risk
             factors assessed 21-23 years later (1987-1990) in 4,710 men
             and women. Of this group, 828 had lipids measured
             (1988-1991). Persons with higher hostility scores in college
             were significantly more likely at follow-up to consume more
             caffeine (r = 0.043), to have a larger body mass index (r =
             0.055), to have higher lipid ratios (r = 0.092), and to be
             current smokers (r = 0.069) than those with lower hostility
             scores during college. Cross-sectional analyses found
             significant associations of contemporaneous hostility scores
             with the same four risk factors, as well as with alcohol
             consumption and hypertension (rs ranging from 0.043 to
             0.117). These associations are large enough to have possible
             public health significance. We conclude that hostility may
             contribute to health problems through its influences on
             several coronary risk factors across the adult life
             span.},
   Key = {fds277415}
}

@article{fds314235,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Mark, DB},
   Title = {In Reply},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {268},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {197},
   Publisher = {American Medical Association (AMA)},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490020039018},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.1992.03490020039018},
   Key = {fds314235}
}

@article{fds277283,
   Author = {Fukudo, S and Lane, JD and Anderson, NB and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, SM and McCown, N and Muranaka, M and Suzuki, J and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Accentuated vagal antagonism of beta-adrenergic effects on
             ventricular repolarization. Evidence of weaker antagonism in
             hostile type A men.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2045-2053},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1317272},
   Abstract = {Prior research has suggested a weaker parasympathetic
             antagonism of sympathetic effects on the heart in type A
             (coronary-prone) men. To confirm this phenomenon and extend
             our understanding of it, we investigated the effects of
             prior muscarinic blockade on the electrocardiogram T wave
             and other cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to
             isoproterenol in type A and type B (non-coronary-prone)
             men.Responses to two 5-minute intravenous isoproterenol
             infusions (0.01 micrograms/kg/min and 0.02
             micrograms/kg/min) were evaluated in six type A and six type
             B men after pretreatment with either dextrose placebo or
             atropine (1.2 mg). Atropine significantly potentiated T wave
             attenuation in the recovery period after isoproterenol
             infusion (0.30 +/- 0.07 mV) compared with placebo (0.54 +/-
             0.09 mV, p less than 0.001). Atropine also potentiated the
             heart rate increase to isoproterenol (39 +/- 3 beats per
             minute versus 20 +/- 2 beats per minute after placebo).
             Atropine enhanced decreases in systolic, diastolic, and mean
             arterial pressures as well as pulse pressure to
             isoproterenol. Atropine enhancement of many of these
             responses was increased among subjects with high scores on
             various hostility/anger scales. Isoproterenol alone produced
             greater T wave attenuation in type A than in type B men.
             However, atropine enhancement of T wave attenuation and
             blood pressure falls by isoproterenol was present only in
             type B men.These findings indicate that there is accentuated
             parasympathetic antagonism of T wave attenuation and blood
             pressure responses induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation.
             Relative weakness of this antagonism of sympathetic effects
             on the heart in hostile type A individuals may contribute to
             their higher coronary disease risk.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.85.6.2045},
   Key = {fds277283}
}

@article{fds277414,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Beckham, JC and Peterson, BL and Haney, TL and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Measures of neuroticism and disease status in coronary
             angiography patients.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {127-132},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1556275},
   Abstract = {A high percentage of patients who undergo diagnostic
             angiography because they have chest pain are found to be
             free of significant coronary artery disease. To examine the
             psychological characteristics of these patients, we used
             several Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI;
             Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) measures to assess the
             relationships between different aspects of neuroticism and
             coronary artery disease severity (CADSEV) in a sample of
             1,462 angiography patients. The Conversion V profile was
             inversely and most strongly related to CADSEV. Single high
             scores on hypochondriasis or hysteria were also inversely
             related to CADSEV, but psychasthenia and Taylor Manifest
             Anxiety Scale (TMA; Taylor, 1953) scores were not. Using
             measures derived by a factor analysis of the MMPI, items
             relating somatic complaints were inversely related to
             CADSEV, but a measure of general neuroticism was not. These
             results support the hypothesis that the association between
             neuroticism and angiographic findings may be specific to a
             particular aspect of neuroticism, somatic preoccupation. The
             implications for neuroticism measurement and clinical
             practice are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.60.1.127},
   Key = {fds277414}
}

@article{fds277304,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Califf, RM and Haney, TL and Saunders,
             WB and Pryor, DB and Hlatky, MA and Siegler, IC and Mark,
             DB},
   Title = {Prognostic importance of social and economic resources among
             medically treated patients with angiographically documented
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {267},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {520-524},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1729574},
   Abstract = {To evaluate the hypothesis that diminished social and
             economic resources impact adversely on cardiovascular
             mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.Inception
             cohort study of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization
             from 1974 through 1980 and followed up through 1989.Tertiary
             care university medical center.Consecutive sample of 1965
             medically treated patients with stenosis 75% or greater of
             at least one major coronary artery. Five hundred patients
             were not enrolled due to logistic problems; 33 refused; 64
             had missing data on key medical variables. The final study
             population included 1368 patients, 82% male, with a median
             age of 52 years.Survival time until cardiovascular
             death.Independent of all known baseline invasive and
             noninvasive medical prognostic factors, patients with annual
             household incomes of $40,000 or more had an unadjusted
             5-year survival of 0.91, compared with 0.76 in patients with
             incomes of $10,000 or less (Cox model adjusted hazard ratio,
             1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.57 to 2.32; P = .002).
             Similarly, unmarried patients without a confidant had an
             unadjusted 5-year survival rate of 0.50, compared with 0.82
             in patients who were married, had a confidant, or both
             (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.84
             to 6.20; P less than .0001).Low levels of social and
             economic resources identify an important high-risk group
             among medically treated patients with coronary artery
             disease, independent of important medical prognostic
             factors. Additional study will be required to see if
             interventions to increase these resources improve
             prognosis.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.267.4.520},
   Key = {fds277304}
}

@article{fds277260,
   Author = {Burke, HB and Frasure-Smith, N and Lesperance, F and Hojat, M and Morris, PLP and Robinson, RG and Lux, DP and Case, RB and Moss, AJ and McDermott, M and Eberly, S and Case, N and Williams, RB and Barefoot,
             JC and Mark, DB and Menken, M},
   Title = {Social and economic factors in patients with coronary
             disease [1]},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {268},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {195-197},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.268.2.195},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.268.2.195},
   Key = {fds277260}
}

@article{fds277281,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Suarez, EC and Kuhn, CM and Zimmerman, EA and Schanberg, SM},
   Title = {Biobehavioral basis of coronary-prone behavior in
             middle-aged men. Part I: Evidence for chronic SNS activation
             in Type As.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {517-527},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1661901},
   Abstract = {In previous research using young male subjects, the Type A
             behavior pattern was linked with cardiovascular and
             neurohormonal hyperresponsivity to laboratory stressors. The
             main objective of the present study was to determine whether
             the positive association between the Type A pattern and such
             physiological hyperreactivity is also present among healthy
             middle-aged men. Subjects were 28 middle-aged (35-50 years)
             white males who were classified as Type A (n = 16) or Type B
             (n = 12) on both the Structured Interview and the Jenkins
             Activity Survey. In two laboratory sessions, one week apart,
             subjects participated in either a mental arithmetic task or
             a sensory intake task. Twenty-four-hour urine collection was
             completed on a third day. Results showed that while no A/B
             differences in reactivity to either task were found, Type A
             subjects exhibited chronic elevation of plasma neurohormones
             on both laboratory days. The catecholamine elevations found
             across experimental periods on two laboratory days among
             Type A men generalized to more naturalistic settings, as
             indexed by 24-hr urinary excretion rates. The chronic
             elevations in both sympathetic nervous system and
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function we observed in
             middle-aged Type A men could account for epidemiological
             findings of increased coronary risk in this
             group.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199109000-00003},
   Key = {fds277281}
}

@article{fds277282,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Williams, RB and Kuhn, CM and Zimmerman, EH and Schanberg, SM},
   Title = {Biobehavioral basis of coronary-prone behavior in middle-age
             men. Part II: Serum cholesterol, the Type A behavior
             pattern, and hostility as interactive modulators of
             physiological reactivity.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {528-537},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1758939},
   Abstract = {Prior research suggests that the Type A behavior pattern,
             Cook and Medley Hostility (Ho) scores, and Total Serum
             Cholesterol (TSC) are positively associated with
             physiological changes to behavioral stressors. The objective
             of the present study was to determine whether TSC interacts
             with the Type A behavior pattern and hostility to affect
             cardiovascular and neurohormonal responses to a mental
             arithmetic task (MATH). For Type A individuals, elevated TSC
             was associated with larger catecholamine and cortisol
             responses to MATH. In contrast, for Type B subjects,
             cholesterol was negatively associated with neurohormonal
             responses. The interaction between Ho score and TSC
             predicted a similar pattern of responses whereby, in high
             hostile men only, TSC was positively associated with
             MATH-induced changes in catecholamines and heart rate. While
             the mechanisms responsible for the differences in the
             lipid-reactivity association as a function of coronary-prone
             behavior measures remain to be elucidated, this differential
             association may play a role in the heightened risk of
             coronary disease among hostile Type A men.},
   Key = {fds277282}
}

@article{fds277257,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Peterson, BL and Dahlstrom, WG and Siegler, IC and Anderson, NB and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility patterns and health implications: correlates of
             Cook-Medley Hostility Scale scores in a national
             survey.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {18-24},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2026126},
   Abstract = {Correlated Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (Ho) scores with
             sociodemographic variables in a national survey of 2,536
             adults. Multiple regression models revealed that Ho scores
             were associated with race (p less than .0001), years of
             education (p less than .001), sex (p less than .001),
             occupation (p = .0002), and income (p = .0025). Higher
             scores were found in non-Whites, men, and those of lower
             socioeconomic status. There was a Race x Income interaction
             (p less than .005), such that the greatest Ho score
             differences between the races occurred among those with the
             lowest incomes. Age was related to Ho scores in a
             curvilinear fashion: higher scores in the youngest and
             oldest age groups than in the middle-aged groups (p = .025).
             Marital status was unrelated to Ho scores. These patterns of
             hostility are similar to the patterns of health indicators
             in the population. Because hostility has been found to be
             associated with adverse health outcomes, hostility may
             account for some of the demographic variations in health
             status. However, it is argued that research must first
             establish the generality of the hostility-health
             relationship across subgroups of the population.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.10.1.18},
   Key = {fds277257}
}

@article{fds277202,
   Author = {Hackel, A and Linzer, M and Anderson, N and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to head-up tilt
             in the diagnosis of recurrent unexplained syncope in elderly
             patients},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {663-669},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {To increase understanding of the mechanisms causing syncope
             in patients over the age of 60, hemodynamic and hormonal
             responses to 60 minutes of 60 degree head-up tilt were
             examined in 10 patients with recurrent syncope of unknown
             origin and five controls with no history of syncope. Nine of
             10 patients and all five controls experienced orthostatic
             intolerance on the tilt table. Syncope or pre-syncope
             occurred later in controls than in those syncope patients
             who had exact reproduction of their clinical symptoms
             (median time 52 versus 22 minutes, P = 0.05). Three
             different mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance were
             identified in the 14 subjects: (1) vasovagal syncope, n = 9
             (sudden hypotension ± bradycardia); (2) dysautonomic
             syncope, n = 3 (immediate and gradual parallel declines in
             both systolic and diastolic pressures with blunted increase
             in heart rate); (3) psychogenic or vestibular reaction, n =
             2 (orthostatic intolerance without hemodynamic changes).
             Vasovagal syncope patients showed a significant increase in
             plasma norepinephrine from baseline to maximum level during
             tilt (100 ± 39% increase, P = 0.03) and a subsequent
             decrease at the time of syncope (30 ± 5% decrease, P =
             0.01), while plasma epinephrine increased markedly from
             baseline to the time of syncope (827 ± 154% increase, P =
             0.0003). Dysautonomic syncope patients had lower supine
             levels of norepinephrine compared to vasovagal syncope
             patients (182 ± 30 versus 614 ± 146 pg/mL, P = 0.008) and
             no significant change in norepinephrine over time;
             epinephrine levels increased significantly less than in
             vasovagal patients (net change 38 ± 8 versus 189 ± 56
             pg/mL, P = 0.008). Psychogenic and vestibular reactions were
             distinguished by rising levels of norepinephrine at the time
             of symptoms. The 50% (5 of 10) prevalence of vasovagal
             reactions found in the syncope patients suggests that
             vasovagal syncope may be more common among the elderly than
             previously recognized.},
   Key = {fds277202}
}

@article{fds277201,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Stress and the heart},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {SUPPL. 1},
   Pages = {65},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(90)90089-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3956(90)90089-9},
   Key = {fds277201}
}

@article{fds277249,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and Zonderman, AB and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB and Costa, PT and McCrae, RR},
   Title = {Predicting personality in adulthood from college MMPI
             scores: implications for follow-up studies in psychosomatic
             medicine.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {644-652},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2287703},
   Abstract = {To assess the long-term predictive utility of Minnesota
             Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) content scales,
             1,960 individuals who had completed the MMPI in college in
             1964 or 1965 were administered two measures of adult
             personality, the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) and the
             Cook and Medley MMPI Hostility scale, in 1988. A comparison
             group of 274 men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal
             Study of Aging were given both MMPI and NEO-PI between 1981
             and 1987. Predictive correlations between MMPI scales and
             NEO-PI factors were qualitatively similar to concurrent
             correlations, but approximately half as large in magnitude.
             Theoretically, these correlations were interpreted to mean
             that about half the variance in basic dimensions of
             personality is stable from college age into middle
             adulthood. Practically, the relatively modest correlations
             suggest that predictive studies of medical outcomes probably
             require large samples, and that baseline data from adults
             (e.g., over age 30) may be more useful for future studies.
             The combination of stability and change suggests that the
             decade of the 20s may be a particularly fruitful time to
             conduct research on interventions to alter personality and
             their effects on health outcomes.},
   Key = {fds277249}
}

@article{fds277246,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The relationships between dimensions of hostility and
             cardiovascular reactivity as a function of task
             characteristics.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {558-570},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2247561},
   Abstract = {The present study examined the independent relationships
             between dimensions of hostility and cardiovascular responses
             to a laboratory task with and without harassment.
             Fifty-three males, aged 18 to 26, with a negative parental
             history of cardiovascular disease were selected on the basis
             of their scores on the Cook and Medley Hostility (Ho) scale
             (greater than 24 or less than 14). Factor-analysis of six
             separate measures of hostility/anger resulted in a
             two-factor solution; Factor 1 representing antagonistic
             hostility and Factor 2 representing neurotic hostility.
             Results showed that high factor scores on antagonistic
             hostility were significantly associated with greater
             systolic blood pressure (SBP) and forearm blood flow (FBF)
             changes and poorer SBP recovery to harassment. In addition,
             high factor scores on neurotic hostility significantly
             predicted greater FBF changes to harassment. Additional
             correlational analysis showed that cardiovascular responses
             were positively associated with self-reported negative
             affects but only for subjects with high scores on either
             dimension. These results are in agreement with recent
             evidence suggesting that only antagonistic hostility may be
             related to increased severity of coronary artery disease and
             that the degree of interpersonal conflict moderates the
             association between coronary-prone behaviors and
             cardiovascular responses.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-199009000-00008},
   Key = {fds277246}
}

@article{fds277259,
   Author = {Siegel, WC and Hlatky, MA and Mark, DB and Barefoot, JC and Harrell, FE and Pryor, DB and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Effect of Type A behavior on exercise test outcome in
             coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-182},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2196775},
   Abstract = {The outcome of the diagnostic exercise test depends on such
             patient-related factors as age, maximum exercise heart rate,
             exercise time and severity of the underlying coronary artery
             disease (CAD). This study examined the hypothesis that type
             A behavior would affect the amount of effort expended, as
             indicated by the exercise time and the maximum heart rate
             achieved, thereby resulting in differences in exercise test
             outcome. A total of 1,260 patients with suspected CAD, all
             of whom had coronary angiography, a structured interview to
             assess type A behavior and a treadmill exercise test,
             participated. Of these patients, 818 (65%) had significant
             CAD, and 852 (68%) were type A. There were no differences
             between type A and B patients in either maximum heart rate
             or total exercise time. Among both type A and B subjects,
             36% of treadmill tests were positive. Exercise test
             sensitivity was similar for both groups (69% for type A vs
             72% for type B, p = 0.39). Similarly, specificity was
             similar for both groups (87% for type A vs 80% for type B, p
             = 0.09). Results did not change after using logistic
             regression to control for potential confounding factors.
             Thus, type A behavior does not need to be taken into account
             when interpreting exercise test outcome.},
   Key = {fds277259}
}

@article{fds277380,
   Author = {Lane, JD and Adcock, RA and Williams, RB and Kuhn,
             CM},
   Title = {Caffeine effects on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine
             responses to acute psychosocial stress and their
             relationship to level of habitual caffeine
             consumption.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {320-336},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2195579},
   Abstract = {The effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on cardiovascular
             and neuroendocrine stress reactivity were examined in 25
             healthy male subjects selected as habitual or light
             consumers of caffeine. Measurements were taken under resting
             conditions before and after administration of caffeine (3.5
             mg/kg) or placebo, during a stressful laboratory task, and
             in a post-stress recovery period. Caffeine elevated blood
             pressure and plasma norepinephrine levels at rest, effects
             which added significantly to the effects of stress. Caffeine
             potentiated stress-related increases in plasma epinephrine
             and cortisol stress, more than doubling the responses
             observed in the control condition. These effects were
             present in both habitual and light consumers and level of
             habitual caffeine consumption did not affect their
             magnitude. Results indicate that caffeine can potentiate
             both cardiovascular and neuroendocrine stress reactivity and
             that the habitual use of caffeine is not necessarily
             associated with the development of tolerance to these
             effects.},
   Key = {fds277380}
}

@article{fds277199,
   Author = {Mikat, EM and Weiss, JM and Schanberg, SM and Bartolome, JV and Palmos,
             LE and Hackel, DB and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Development of atherosclerotic-like lesions in the sand rat
             (Psammomys obesus)},
   Journal = {Coronary Artery Disease},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {469-476},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019501-199007000-00009},
   Doi = {10.1097/00019501-199007000-00009},
   Key = {fds277199}
}

@article{fds277343,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Haney, TL and Simpson, SW and Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Depression and the Assessment of Type A Behavior in a
             Clinical Population},
   Journal = {Psychological Assessment},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {483-485},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1040-3590},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.2.4.483},
   Abstract = {The Structured Interview (SI) method of assessing Type A
             behavior (TABP) relies on the subject's voice stylistics,
             whereas the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) relies on response
             content. It was hypothesized that depression would affect SI
             assessments by masking voice stylistics but would have no
             impact on JAS assessments. The SI, JAS, and the Zung
             Depression Scale were administered to 2,066 coronary
             patients. As predicted, there was a negative relationship
             between depression and SI-assessed TABP and a modest
             positive relationship between depression and JAS-assessed
             TABP. Analysis of Type A components revealed that loudness,
             explosive speech, and intensity of hostility differed
             between depressed and nondepressed patients. Affective
             states that influence expressivity appear to produce
             misclassifications using SI assessments, especially in
             clinical samples.},
   Doi = {10.1037/1040-3590.2.4.483},
   Key = {fds277343}
}

@article{fds277198,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Do benzodiazepines have a role in the prevention or
             treatment of coronary heart disease and other major medical
             disorders?},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {24 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {51-56},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0022-3956},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1980699},
   Abstract = {Increased coronary disease rates, as well as increased
             all-cause mortality, in persons with high levels of
             hostility/anger and in persons suffering from panic disorder
             or phobic anxiety suggest that biological concomitants of
             these traits/conditions lead to major medical illnesses.
             Benzodiazepines have effects, e.g. blunting of stress
             hormone responses, that could prevent disease in persons so
             predisposed. It will be necessary to identify subgroups with
             sufficiently high absolute rates of disease risk to justify
             pharmacological interventions, and then to carry out
             controlled prevention trials to document the benefits,
             before such approaches can be recommended for the general
             population. This approach (use of drugs when other measures
             fail) is now standard for more traditional risk factors,
             such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. In contrast to
             primary prevention, a stronger case can be made for the use
             of benzodiazepines in secondary prevention. Research has
             shown benzodiazepine treatment to improve control of angina
             and to reduce "silent ischemia", directly suggesting
             clinical benefits to be gained from the effects of
             benzodiazepines to reduce stress hormone responses. While
             benzodiazepines have long been prescribed for the
             postmyocardial infarction patient, there are no controlled
             clinical trials documenting such benefits. These are now
             clearly in order so that the use of benzodiazepines in
             coronary patients can be advised on a rational
             basis.},
   Key = {fds277198}
}

@article{fds277200,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {The role of the brain in physical disease. Folklore, normal
             science, or paradigm shift?},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {263},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1971-1972},
   Publisher = {American Medical Association (AMA)},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.263.14.1971},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.263.14.1971},
   Key = {fds277200}
}

@article{fds277245,
   Author = {McCubbin, JA and Surwit, RS and Williams, RB and Nemeroff, CB and McNeilly, M},
   Title = {Altered pituitary hormone response to naloxone in
             hypertension development.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {636-644},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2555303},
   Abstract = {Endogenous opioid regulation of blood pressure is altered
             during stress in young adults at risk for hypertension. We
             studied the effects of the opioid antagonist naloxone on the
             secretion of corticotropin and beta-endorphin during
             psychological stress in young adults with mildly elevated
             casual arterial pressures. Naloxone-induced secretion of
             both corticotropin and beta-endorphin was significantly
             diminished in persons at enhanced risk for hypertension
             compared with the low blood pressure control group. Results
             suggest that opioidergic inhibition of anterior pituitary
             function is altered in hypertension development.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.hyp.14.6.636},
   Key = {fds277245}
}

@article{fds277416,
   Author = {Siegel, WC and Mark, DB and Hlatky, MA and Harrell, FE and Pryor, DB and Barefoot, JC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Clinical correlates and prognostic significance of type A
             behavior and silent myocardial ischemia on the
             treadmill.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {1280-1283},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2589193},
   Abstract = {Type A patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) tend to
             ignore or underreport symptoms, especially during
             challenging tasks such as the treadmill exercise test. To
             determine whether type A CAD patients might be more likely
             than type B patients to have silent ischemia during exercise
             and consequently a worse prognosis, 403 patients with stable
             CAD who had significant coronary disease on angiography, a
             positive Bruce protocol treadmill test and a structured
             interview to assess type A behavior were studied. Median
             follow-up time was 6 years. Type A patients were more likely
             to experience silent ischemia during exercise than were type
             B patients (35 vs 25%, p = 0.05). Patients with silent
             ischemia during exercise had a history of fewer anginal
             episodes/week, and type A patients with silent ischemia were
             less likely to have had a history of typical angina.
             However, using the Cox model, there were no significant
             differences in survival between type A patients and B
             patients with silent ischemia (4-year survival 86 vs 79%, p
             = 0.44) and no significant differences in survival between
             type A patients with silent ischemia and type A patients
             with symptomatic ischemia (6-year survival 86 vs 80%, p =
             0.59). Similar results were obtained for infarction-free
             survival. Type A patients are more likely than type B
             patients to have silent ischemia during exercise, but
             long-term survival is not affected.},
   Key = {fds277416}
}

@article{fds277342,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Peterson, BL and Harrell, FE and Hlatky, MA and Pryor,
             DB and Haney, TL and Blumenthal, JA and Siegler, IC and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Type A behavior and survival: a follow-up study of 1,467
             patients with coronary artery disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {427-432},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2773785},
   Abstract = {Patients with documented coronary artery disease, admitted
             to Duke Medical Center between 1974 and 1980, were assessed
             for type A behavior pattern and were followed until 1984.
             The relation of type A behavior to survival was tested using
             data from coronary angiography to control for disease
             severity. Cox model regression analyses demonstrated an
             interaction (p less than 0.01) between type A behavior and
             an index of disease severity in the prediction of
             cardiovascular death. Among those with relatively poor left
             ventricular function, type A patients had better survival
             than type B. This difference was not present among patients
             with better prognoses. Type A behavior did not predict the
             subsequent incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarctions.
             Differential risk modification and differential selection
             into postinfarction status are possible explanations for the
             findings. These results need not conflict with the
             proposition that type A behavior plays a role in the
             pathogenesis of coronary artery disease.},
   Key = {fds277342}
}

@article{fds277247,
   Author = {Suarez, EC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Situational determinants of cardiovascular and emotional
             reactivity in high and low hostile men.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {404-418},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2772105},
   Abstract = {Various epidemiologic studies have found that high scores on
             the Cook and Medley Hostility (Ho) scale are associated with
             increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), severity of
             atherosclerosis, and all-cause mortality. One plausible
             biological mechanism suspected of contributing to increased
             risk of CHD is sympathetic nervous system-mediated
             hyperresponsivity to environmental stressors. The present
             study evaluated cardiovascular reactivity among young men
             with high versus low Ho scores during performance of an
             anagram task with or without harassment. Compared to
             performing the task alone, harassment led to increased
             cardiovascular arousal that was more pronounced for the high
             Ho subjects than the low Ho subjects. Moreover, harassment
             produced increases in self-rated anger, irritation, and
             tension, but it was only among those subjects with high Ho
             scores that increased anger and irritation were associated
             with enhanced cardiovascular arousal. While suggesting a
             role for anger- and irritation-induced cardiovascular
             arousal in pathogenesis of CHD, these findings indicate that
             situation characteristics mediate the relationship between
             Ho scores and cardiovascular reactivity, and that there may
             be a differential biological link between anger/irritation
             and cardiovascular responses in men with high and low Ho
             scores.},
   Key = {fds277247}
}

@article{fds277274,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Lane, JD and Taguchi, F and Williams, RB and Houseworth, SJ},
   Title = {Race, parental history of hypertension, and patterns of
             cardiovascular reactivity in women.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-47},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2922455},
   Abstract = {This study examined the interaction of race and parental
             history of hypertension on patterns of cardiovascular
             responses among women. Two stressors were used that produce
             different patterns of cardiovascular reactivity: mental
             arithmetic, primarily a beta-adrenergic stimulus, and the
             cold face stimulus, which evokes alpha-adrenergic (i.e.
             vascular) activity. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure,
             heart rate, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular
             resistance were assessed before, during, and after
             arithmetic and cold face stimulus. Both tasks produced the
             expected patterns of cardiovascular adjustment, although no
             Black-White differences occurred during arithmetic. However,
             Black subjects did show a slower recovery of diastolic blood
             pressure following arithmetic. The cold face stimulus
             produced significantly greater changes in systolic blood
             pressure in the Black than in the White women. Parental
             history of hypertension did not relate significantly to
             reactivity. The results provide limited support for the idea
             that Black females exhibit a greater pressor response than
             White females to a stimulus that produces primarily vascular
             rather than cardiac changes. These findings are discussed in
             relation to previous findings with males and with respect to
             their implications for the role of reactivity in Black-White
             differences in hypertension prevalence.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.1989.tb03130.x},
   Key = {fds277274}
}

@article{fds277275,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Lane, JD and Taguchi, F and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Patterns of cardiovascular responses to stress as a function
             of race and parental hypertension in men.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {525-540},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2630292},
   Abstract = {This study investigated cardiovascular responses to two
             stressors known to elicit either beta-adrenergic (mental
             arithmetic) or alpha-adrenergic (forehead cold pressor)
             reactivity in Black and White men. Participants in each
             group were selected for presence or absence of parental
             hypertension. Based on previous research, Blacks were
             expected to show smaller cardiovascular responses to the
             beta-adrenergic mental arithmetic task and greater responses
             to the alpha-adrenergic cold pressor relative to the Whites.
             Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure
             (DBP), heart rate, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular
             resistance were assessed during a resting baseline, a
             prestress period, and during and after each experimental
             procedure. Unlike previous findings, no significant racial
             differences in cardiovascular responses were found during
             either task. However, Black participants had significantly
             higher SBP and DBP levels throughout the cold pressor
             periods. Parental history did not significantly influence
             cardiovascular responses in either group. The results are
             discussed in relation to previous research on racial
             differences in stress reactivity and their implications for
             future research.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.8.5.525},
   Key = {fds277275}
}

@article{fds277298,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Dodge, KA and Peterson, BL and Dahlstrom, WG and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The Cook-Medley hostility scale: item content and ability to
             predict survival.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {46-57},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2928460},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have identified the MMPI-based Cook and
             Medley hostility scale (Ho) as a predictor of health
             outcomes. To achieve a better understanding of the construct
             measured by this scale, Ho items were classified on an a
             priori basis. Six subsets were identified: Cynicism, Hostile
             Attributions, Hostile Affect, Aggressive Responding, Social
             Avoidance, and Other. Study 1 examined the correlations of
             these subsets with scales of the NEO Personality Inventory
             in two samples of undergraduates. Good convergent and
             discriminant validity were demonstrated, but there was some
             evidence that items in the Social Avoidance and Other
             categories reflect constructs other than hostility. Study 2
             examined the ability of the Ho scale and the item subsets to
             predict the 1985 survival of 118 lawyers who had completed
             the MMPI in 1956 and 1957. As in previous studies, those
             with high scores had poorer survival (chi 2 = 6.37, p =
             0.012). Unlike previous studies, the relation between Ho
             scores and survival was linear. Cynicism, Hostile Affect,
             and Aggressive Responding subsets were related to survival,
             whereas the other subsets were not. The sum of the three
             predictive subsets, with a chi 2 of 9.45 (p = 0.002), was a
             better predictor than the full Ho scale, suggesting that it
             may be possible to refine the scale and achieve an even more
             effective measure of those aspects of hostility that are
             deleterious to health.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198901000-00005},
   Key = {fds277298}
}

@article{fds277413,
   Author = {McCrae, RR and Costa, PT and Dahlstrom, WG and Barefoot, JC and Siegler,
             IC and Williams, RB},
   Title = {A caution on the use of the MMPI K-correction in research on
             psychosomatic medicine.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {58-65},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2928461},
   Abstract = {The MMPI K scale is widely used to screen for invalid
             responses and to adjust substantive scale scores for
             defensiveness. In a normal volunteer sample, correlations of
             MMPI clinical scales and the Cook-Medley Hostility (HO)
             scale with self-reports and peer ratings on the NEO
             Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) were decreased rather than
             increased by K-correction. Similarly, in a medical sample,
             structured interview-based ratings of Potential for
             Hostility were better predicted by uncorrected HO scores
             than by K-corrected HO scores. Finally, in a prospective
             study of mortality among lawyers, uncorrected HO scores were
             a significant predictor of all-cause mortality; K-corrected
             scores were not. The data suggest that, under some
             circumstances, the K scale may measure substantive traits
             rather than defensiveness, and should be used and
             interpreted with caution. Its use is probably
             contraindicated for most research on psychiatrically normal
             subjects.},
   Key = {fds277413}
}

@article{fds314866,
   Author = {Smith, RH and Dahlstrom, WG and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Personality predictors of smoking behavior in a sample of
             physicians},
   Journal = {Psychology & Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {37-43},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0887-0446},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870448908400364},
   Abstract = {The smoking status of 239 physicians was obtained from a
             mail survey in 1981. MMPI data, which had been obtained from
             these men 25 years earlier, was used to prospectively
             predict smoking status at follow-up. Those who never smoked
             had scores indicative of social conventionality (low scores
             on L, Pd, and Schubert scales; high scores on Ego-control).
             A similar pattern was found among smokers who quit after a
             relatively short smoking history. Compared to ex-smokers,
             those who continued to smoke at the time of follow-up were
             characterized by high scores on the Pd and Ma scales. These
             results were discussed in terms of a multi-stage
             conceptualization of the smoking cessation process. © 1989,
             Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1080/08870448908400364},
   Key = {fds314866}
}

@article{fds277410,
   Author = {Taguchi, F and Suzuki, J and Muranaka, M and Anderson, NB and Jr,
             RBW},
   Title = {Beta and alpha adrenergic reactivity elicitable stress study
             with special reference of electrocardiographic T-wave
             amplitude},
   Journal = {Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine},
   Volume = {157},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-106},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds277410}
}

@article{fds277411,
   Author = {Krantz, DS and Schneiderman, N and Chesney, MA and McCann, BS and Reading, AE and Roskies, E and Stoney, CM and Jr,
             RBW},
   Title = {Biobehavioral research on cardiovascular
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {737-746},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds277411}
}

@article{fds277279,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Kuhn, CM and Knopes, K and Schanberg,
             SM},
   Title = {Effects of propranolol on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine
             responses to mental arithmetic in type A
             men.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {337-340},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3251510},
   Abstract = {beta-Adrenergic hyperreactivity has been proposed as a
             pathogenic mechanism of increased coronary risk in Type A
             individuals. This study compared the effects of propranolol,
             diazepam, and placebo on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine
             responses to a stressful cognitive task in six young Type A
             males. Although diazepam did not differ from placebo,
             propranolol attenuated heart rate and norepinephrine
             responses and enhanced cortisol responses to the task.
             Findings suggest that propranolol has reciprocal effects on
             the norepinephrine and cortisol components of the
             "fight-flight" response. Possible central nervous system
             mechanisms are described.},
   Key = {fds277279}
}

@article{fds277340,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Walsh, MA and Cox, DR and Kuhn, CM and Williams, RB and Williams, RS},
   Title = {Exercise training in healthy type A middle-aged men: effects
             on behavioral and cardiovascular responses.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {418-433},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3413273},
   Abstract = {Thirty-six healthy Type A men (means = 44.4 years) were
             randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise training
             group or a strength and flexibility training group. Subjects
             completed a comprehensive psychological assessment battery
             before and after the exercise programs consisting of
             behavioral, psychometric, and psychophysiological testing.
             The behavioral assessment consisted of repeated Type A
             interviews that were videotaped for subsequent component
             analyses. The psychometric testing included two self-report
             questionnaires to assess Type A behavior. The
             psychophysiological test consisted of a standard behavioral
             challenge, a mental arithmetic task, performed while
             cardiovascular responses were monitored. Aerobic exercise
             (AE) training consisted of 12 weeks of continuous walking or
             jogging at an intensity of at least 70% of subjects' initial
             maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) as determined by an
             initial treadmill test. Strength and flexibility (SF)
             training consisted of 12 weeks of circuit Nautilus training
             with no aerobic exercise. After 12 weeks of exercise, the AE
             group increased their VO2max by 15%, while the SF group did
             not change. Both groups experienced decreases in overt
             behavioral manifestations of the Type A behavior pattern and
             self-reported Type A traits. However, the AE group showed an
             attenuation of heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood
             pressure, and estimated myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2)
             during the task and had lower blood pressure, heart rate,
             and (MVO2) during recovery. In contrast, the SF group showed
             a significant reduction only in DBP during the task, which
             was likely due to habituation. These results support the use
             of aerobic exercise as a method for reducing cardiovascular
             risk among healthy Type A men.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198807000-00009},
   Key = {fds277340}
}

@article{fds277273,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Lane, JD and Monou, H and Williams, RB and Houseworth,
             SJ},
   Title = {Racial differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental
             arithmetic.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal
             of the International Organization of Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {161-164},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0167-8760},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3397318},
   Abstract = {One hypothesized mechanism for the higher rates and greater
             severity of essential hypertension among blacks is that this
             group is particularly susceptible to stress-induced
             beta-adrenergically mediated cardiovascular hyperreactivity.
             In this study, we compared the cardiovascular responses to
             mental arithmetic in 20 white and 17 black, young,
             normotensive males. Contrary to expectations, the black
             subjects exhibited significantly smaller changes in heart
             rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. These
             findings suggest that cardiovascular reactivity to a mental
             stressor known to produce beta-adrenergically mediated
             responses may be lower in some normotensive blacks compared
             to their white counterparts.},
   Key = {fds277273}
}

@article{fds277272,
   Author = {Muranaka, M and Lane, JD and Suarez, EC and Anderson, NB and Suzuki, J and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Stimulus-specific patterns of cardiovascular reactivity in
             type A and B subjects: evidence for enhanced vagal
             reactivity in type B.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {330-338},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3406332},
   Key = {fds277272}
}

@article{fds277341,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC and Haney, TL and Harrell, FE and Blumenthal, JA and Pryor, DB and Peterson, B},
   Title = {Type A behavior and angiographically documented coronary
             atherosclerosis in a sample of 2,289 patients.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {139-152},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3375404},
   Abstract = {To determine the relationship between Type A behavior
             pattern and angiographically documented coronary
             atherosclerosis (CAD), we analyzed risk factor, behavioral,
             and angiographic data collected on 2,289 patients undergoing
             diagnostic coronary angiography at Duke University Medical
             Center between 1974 and 1980. Multivariable analyses using
             ordinal logistic regression techniques showed that Type A
             behavior as assessed by the structured interview (SI) is
             significantly associated with CAD severity after age, sex,
             hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, and their various
             significant interactions were controlled for. This
             relationship, however, is dependent upon age. Among patients
             aged 45 or younger, Type A's had more severe CAD than did
             Type B's; among patients aged 46-54, CAD severity was
             similar between Type A's and B's; and among patients 55 and
             older, there was a trend toward more severe CAD among Type
             B's than among Type A's. These Type A-CAD relationships did
             not appear to be the result of various factors relating to
             the selection of patients for angiography. Type A behavior
             as assessed by the Jenkins Activity Survey was unrelated to
             CAD severity. These findings suggest that SI-determined Type
             A behavior is associated with more severe CAD among younger
             patients referred for diagnostic coronary angiography. The
             reversal of the Type A-CAD relationship among older patients
             may be due to survival effects. Inadequate sample sizes, use
             of assessment tools other than the SI, and failure to
             consider the Type A by age interaction could account for
             failures to find a Type A-CAD relationship in other studies.
             We conclude that the present findings are consistent with
             the hypothesis that Type A behavior is involved in the
             pathogenesis of CAD, but only in younger age groups. The
             Type A effect in the present data is small relative to that
             of both smoking and hyperlipidemia, however, and future
             research should focus more specifically on the hostility and
             anger components of Type A behavior, particularly in younger
             samples.},
   Key = {fds277341}
}

@article{fds277244,
   Author = {McCubbin, JA and Surwit, RS and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Opioid dysfunction and risk for hypertension: naloxone and
             blood pressure responses during different types of
             stress.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {8-14},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2830632},
   Abstract = {Opioidergic inhibition of sympathetic nervous system
             responses may be deficient in persons at risk for essential
             hypertension (McCubbin et al: Hypertension 7:808, 1985). The
             opiate antagonist naloxone increases blood pressure
             responses during psychological stress in young adults with
             low causal blood pressure, but has no pressor effect in
             subjects with high casual blood pressure. The purpose of the
             present study was to determine the role of altered
             baroreflex function in the abnormal pressor effect of
             naloxone in persons at risk for hypertension development. We
             tested this by comparison of the effects of naloxone on
             responses to psychological stress with responses to
             orthostatic stress in persons with high and low casual blood
             pressure. The results suggest that abnormal opioidergic
             control of systolic blood pressure responses to
             psychological stress is not likely a result of altered
             baroreflex function. Persons at risk for hypertension show
             evidence of an opioid peptide lesion that can probably be
             localized either at the adrenal medullae or at levels of
             central autonomic control that are parallel with or rostral
             to baroreflex circuits.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198801000-00002},
   Key = {fds277244}
}

@article{fds277271,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Lane, JD and Muranaka, M and Williams, RB and Houseworth, SJ},
   Title = {Racial differences in blood pressure and forearm vascular
             responses to the cold face stimulus.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-63},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3344303},
   Abstract = {The mechanisms responsible for the higher incidence of
             essential hypertension in blacks than in whites are the
             object of much research attention. One hypothesis is that
             the development of hypertension in blacks is associated with
             exaggerated blood pressure reactivity, particularly those
             responses mediated by vasoconstriction. Racial differences
             in blood pressure responses to cold stimulation of the
             forehead, a known alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictive
             stimulus, were examined in health, college-age males.
             Compared to white subjects, black subjects exhibited
             significantly greater increases in systolic and diastolic
             blood pressure, as well as increases in forearm vascular
             resistance, in response to cold stimulation. This
             preliminary evidence of increased peripheral vascular
             reactivity in blacks suggests that known racial differences
             in hypertension prevalence might derive in part from
             physiological differences in sympathetic nervous system
             reactivity.},
   Key = {fds277271}
}

@article{fds277409,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Coronary-prone behavior: The emerging role of the hostility
             complex},
   Journal = {Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {111-126},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds277409}
}

@article{fds277280,
   Author = {Muranaka, M and Monou, H and Suzuki, J and Lane, JD and Anderson, NB and Kuhn, CM and Schanberg, SM and McCown, N and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Physiological responses to catecholamine infusions in type A
             and type B men.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {7 Suppl},
   Pages = {145-163},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2854049},
   Abstract = {To determine whether there are basic biological differences
             between Type A and Type B men, we compared hemodynamic,
             electrophysiologic and neuroendocrine responses to
             equipotent doses of isoproterenol (ISO) and norepinephrine
             (NE) in 10 Type A and 10 Type B men ages 18 to 29. Results
             showed equal hemodynamic and neuroendocrine responses to
             graded ISO doses in Type A and Type B individuals. In
             contrast, Type A men showed a more prolonged decrease in
             electrocardiographic T-wave amplitude (TWA) than did Type B
             men. Post hoc analyses of the correlates of TWA recovery
             during high-dose ISO infusion provide preliminary evidence
             for a more robust parasympathetic antagonism of sympathetic
             nervous system effects in Type B men, especially those with
             low scores on the Cook-Medley Ho scale. These findings
             suggest that, in addition to cognitively mediated increases
             in sympathetic nervous system reactivity, Type As may also
             be placed at increased risk of developing coronary heart
             disease by reduced levels of parasympathetic antagonism of
             sympathetic effects.},
   Key = {fds277280}
}

@article{fds277408,
   Author = {Muranaka, M and Suzuki, J and Jr, RBW},
   Title = {On the difference of autonomic balance in type A and B
             men},
   Journal = {Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {273-281},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds277408}
}

@article{fds277197,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Refining the type A hypothesis: emergence of the hostility
             complex.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {27J-32J},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3321966},
   Abstract = {Recent negative research findings have raised questions
             regarding the robustness of the Type A hypothesis. A growing
             body of evidence suggests that not all aspects of the global
             Type A behavior pattern are pathogenic, but only those
             concerned with hostility and anger. Biologic mechanisms
             responsible for increased risk of coronary disease in
             persons with high levels of hostility and anger appear to
             involve increased cardiovascular and neuroendocrine
             responses to behavioral challenge, and, possibly, inadequate
             parasympathetic antagonism of sympathetic nervous system
             effects. Future research should concentrate on further
             refining our understanding of the hostility complex and its
             pathophysiologic mechanisms.},
   Key = {fds277197}
}

@article{fds340712,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, J and Burg, MM and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Psychological correlates of hostility among patients
             undergoing coronary angiography.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {60 ( Pt 4)},
   Pages = {349-355},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1987.tb02754.x},
   Abstract = {The Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) scale (Cook & Medley, 1954)
             has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart
             disease (CHD). There is relatively little information about
             the psychosocial correlates of the Ho scale in clinical or
             adult populations, however. In this study, 132 patients
             (mean age = 53 years) referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography completed a battery of self-report
             questionnaires including the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI), Hopkins Symptom Check List
             (SCL-90), State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), Type A
             Self-Rating Inventory (TASRI), and Perceived Social Support
             Scale (PSSS). Examination of the pattern of correlations
             among the Ho scale and the psychometric instruments revealed
             that the Ho scale may be viewed as tapping four general
             behavioural dimensions including anger and hostility,
             neuroticism, social maladjustment and ineffective coping
             style. These findings serve to further understanding about
             the psychological dimensions of hostility as measured by the
             Cook-Medley Ho scale.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8341.1987.tb02754.x},
   Key = {fds340712}
}

@article{fds277256,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Siegler, IC and Nowlin, JB and Peterson, BL and Haney,
             TL and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Suspiciousness, health, and mortality: a follow-up study of
             500 older adults.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {450-457},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3671634},
   Abstract = {Scores on Factor L of the 16 PF, a measure of suspiciousness
             that is closely related to the Cook and Medley hostility
             scale, predicted survival in a sample of 500 older men and
             women during a follow-up of approximately 15 years. Those
             individuals with scores indicating higher levels of
             suspiciousness had greater mortality risk. This association
             remained significant after controlling for age, sex,
             physician's ratings of functional health, smoking,
             cholesterol, and alcohol intake. In addition, Factor L was
             associated with physician's ratings of health at the
             initiation of follow-up. These findings add to the weight of
             evidence that implicates a set of negative interpersonal
             attitudes in the domain of hostility, anger, cynicism, and
             mistrust as a prospective marker of individuals at risk for
             adverse health outcomes.},
   Key = {fds277256}
}

@article{fds277338,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Burg, MM and Barefoot, J and Williams, RB and Haney,
             T and Zimet, G},
   Title = {Social support, type A behavior, and coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {331-340},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3615762},
   Abstract = {The interaction of Type A behavior and social support in
             relation to the degree of coronary artery disease (CAD)
             severity was investigated. One hundred thirteen patients
             undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography received the Type
             A structured interview (SI) and completed a battery of
             psychometric tests, including the Perceived Social Support
             Scale (PSSS). Statistical analyses revealed a Type by social
             support interaction, such that the probability of
             significant CAD was inversely related to the level of social
             support for Type As but not Type Bs. Type As with low levels
             of social support had more severe CAD than Type As with high
             levels of social support. On the other hand, this
             relationship was not present for Type Bs. These results are
             consistent with the hypothesis that social support moderates
             the long-term health consequences of the Type A behavior
             pattern.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198707000-00002},
   Key = {fds277338}
}

@article{fds277269,
   Author = {Lane, JD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Cardiovascular effects of caffeine and stress in regular
             coffee drinkers.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-164},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3602267},
   Key = {fds277269}
}

@article{fds277161,
   Author = {Costa, PT and Stone, SV and McCrae, RR and Dembroski, TM and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Hostility, agreeableness-antagonism, and coronary heart
             disease},
   Journal = {Journal of Interprofessional Care},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {161-167},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0884-3988},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561828709043576},
   Abstract = {Although the Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) is widely
             considered to be an important risk factor for CHD, several
             recent studies have failed to find associations between TABP
             and CHD. As a result, investigators using the Structured
             Interview have begun to examine more specific aspects of
             TAPB, and Potential for Hostility has emerged as the
             probable 'toxic component' of the pattern. Other measures of
             cold-blooded or antagonistic hostility have also been
             associated with CHD, and this form of hostility can be
             understood as part of the broader personality domain of
             Agreeableness vs. Antagonism. We suggest that
             agreeableness-antagonism itself as well as related traits
             such as mistrust, manipulativeness, arrogance, and
             aggression should also be examined as promising predictors
             of CHD © 1987 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved:
             reproduction in whole or part not permitted.},
   Doi = {10.3109/13561828709043576},
   Key = {fds277161}
}

@article{fds277339,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Barefoot, J and Burg, MM and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Psychological correlates of hostility among patients
             undergoing coronary angiography},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {349-355},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1987.tb02754.x},
   Abstract = {The Cook‐Medley Hostility (Ho) scale (Cook & Medley, 1954)
             has been associated with increased risk for coronary heart
             disease (CHD). There is relatively little information about
             the psychosocial correlates of the Ho scale in clinical or
             adult populations, however. In this study, 132 patients
             (mean age = 53 years) referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography completed a battery of self‐report
             questionnaires including the Minnesota Multiphasic
             Personality Inventory (MMPI), Hopkins Symptom Check List
             (SCL‐90), State‐Trait Personality Inventory (STPI), Type
             A Self‐Rating Inventory (TASRI), and Perceived Social
             Support Scale (PSSS). Examination of the pattern of
             correlations among the Ho scale and the psychometric
             instruments revealed that the Ho scale may be viewed as
             tapping four general behavioural dimensions including anger
             and hostility, neuroticism, social maladjustment and
             ineffective coping style. These findings serve to further
             understanding about the psychological dimensions of
             hostility as measured by the Cook‐Medley Ho scale. 1987
             The British Psychological Society},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8341.1987.tb02754.x},
   Key = {fds277339}
}

@article{fds277196,
   Author = {Jr, RBW},
   Title = {Psychological factors in coronary artery disease:
             Epidemiologic evidence},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 II SUPPL.},
   Pages = {I-117-I-123},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {This article reviews the epidemiologic evidence linking
             psychological factors and various indexes of coronary heart
             disease (CHD) that has been gathered since the Amelia Island
             Conference in 1978. In general, studies of populations not
             selected according to CHD risk support the conclusion that
             the global type A construct is predictive of increased risk
             of coronary events. In high-risk groups, including patients
             undergoing coronary angiography, the evidence with respect
             to global type A is much less clear. This stems from the
             fact that most of these studies, although generally failing
             to find statistically significant relationships between
             coronary events and type A behavior, are flawed in a number
             of ways, including inadequate statistical power of results,
             use of less than adequate instruments, and failure to take
             an apparent interaction between type A behavior and age into
             account. Nevertheless, taken together, these findings
             suggest that it may be possible to identify measures of
             coronary-prone behavior that are more powerful than the
             global type A measure. Extensive evidence suggests that such
             measures may be found in the domain of hostility and anger.
             Measures of hostility and anger coping styles have been
             found to be associated with coronary atherosclerosis in
             populations in which global type A was not related to
             disease, and measures of hostility have predicted increased
             coronary events and total mortality in prospective
             population samples followed for from 20 to 25 years.
             Preliminary evidence suggests that hostility/anger
             characteristics may account for the increased coronary risk
             associated with global type A behavior. Important goals for
             future research include identification of better measures of
             hostility/anger and related constructs and characterization
             of the biological mechanisms linking such characteristics to
             disease end points.},
   Key = {fds277196}
}

@article{fds277270,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Houseworth, S and Muranaka, M},
   Title = {Parental history of hypertension and cardiovascular
             responses to behavioral stress in young black
             women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {723-729},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2828606},
   Abstract = {Beta-adrenergic sympathetic nervous system (SNS)
             hyperresponsivity to behavioral stress may play a role in
             the onset of sustained high blood pressure--particularly in
             persons with a parental history of hypertension. Although
             hypertension is extremely prevalent among blacks, the
             association between parental history of hypertension and
             cardiovascular hyperresponsivity has not been explored in
             this group. The present study examined the influence of
             parental history of hypertension on cardiovascular stress
             reactivity in a group of young black females. Contrary to
             previous findings with whites, black subjects with a
             parental history of hypertension exhibited significantly
             smaller systolic blood pressure and forearm blood flow
             increases, and moderately smaller diastolic blood pressure
             increases to the task. Parental history subjects also
             exhibited slower heart rates throughout each experimental
             condition. The results suggest that blacks at risk from
             hypertension may not exhibit the beta-adrenergic
             hyperresponsivity to behavioral stress observed in whites.
             These results may suggest that beta-adrenergically mediated
             hyperresponsivity may be less involved in the development of
             hypertension among blacks.},
   Key = {fds277270}
}

@article{fds277185,
   Author = {Hlatky, MA and Haney, T and Barefoot, JC and Califf, RM and Mark, DB and Pryor, DB and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Medical, psychological and social correlates of work
             disability among men with coronary artery
             disease.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Cardiology},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {911-915},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-9149},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3776848},
   Abstract = {This study identifies the medical, psychologic and social
             factors that independently affect employment in patients
             with coronary artery disease (CAD). At coronary angiography,
             extensive clinical, psychological and social profiles were
             collected on 814 men younger than 60 years with documented
             CAD. Clinical factors studied included measures of symptom
             severity, prior myocardial infarction, coronary anatomy and
             left ventricular function. Psychosocial factors studied
             included the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
             (MMPI), Zung Depression and Anxiety Scales, a type A
             structured interview, Jenkins Activity Survey and measures
             of education and social support. Multiple logistic
             regression analyses were used to assess the relative
             strength of the relation between these different factors and
             the patients' employment status. Many single factors
             differed between the 204 men (25%) who were disabled and the
             610 (75%) who were not. Disabled men were less educated but
             no different in age, marital status or number of dependents.
             Disabled men had lower ejection fractions and higher indexes
             of angina, previous myocardial infarction and coexisting
             vascular disease. Disabled men also were more depressed and
             anxious and had lower ego strength and higher
             hypochondriasis scores on the MMPI, but were no different in
             type A behavior. By multivariable analysis, the most
             significant (p less than 0.01) independent predictors of
             work disability were, in decreasing order of importance, low
             education level, history of myocardial infarction, high
             levels of depression and high levels of hypochondriasis. It
             is concluded that psychological and social factors are
             strongly related to work status in patients with CAD, and
             may be more important than medical factors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-9149(86)80009-1},
   Key = {fds277185}
}

@article{fds277182,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Haney, TL and McKinnis, RA and Harrell, FE and Lee, KL and Pryor, DB and Califf, R and Kong, YH and Rosati, RA and Blumenthal,
             JA},
   Title = {Psychosocial and physical predictors of anginal pain relief
             with medical management.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {200-210},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2871582},
   Abstract = {This study was undertaken to identify psychosocial and
             physical characteristics that independently predict anginal
             pain relief. The original study group comprised over 570
             patients in whom the characteristics were identified at the
             time of coronary arteriography and who were followed up
             after 6 months of standard medical therapy. In the subset of
             382 of these patients who were assessed as having NYHA Class
             III or IV angina at the time of angiography, a multivariable
             analysis of 101 baseline descriptors showed that higher
             scores on the MMPI hypochondriasis scale, unemployment, and
             more severe right coronary occlusion were significant
             independent predictors of failure to achieve two-class
             improvement at follow-up. These three characteristics also
             predicted continuing severe angina in a subsequent,
             independent sample of 91 new patients. These findings could
             help physicians select appropriate treatment by
             prospectively identifying patients who are unlikely to
             respond to standard medical treatment of
             angina.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198603000-00005},
   Key = {fds277182}
}

@article{fds277183,
   Author = {Herman, S and Blumenthal, JA and Haney, T and Williams, RB and Barefoot,
             J},
   Title = {Type As who think they are type Bs: discrepancies between
             self-ratings and interview ratings of the type A
             (coronary-prone) behaviour pattern.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Medical Psychology},
   Volume = {59 ( Pt 1)},
   Pages = {83-88},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0007-1129},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3964590},
   Abstract = {The study described here explored discrepancies between
             self-ratings and interview ratings of Type A behaviour. A
             total of 281 patients referred for diagnostic coronary
             angiography underwent a comprehensive psychological
             assessment including the Type A structured interview (SI),
             the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and
             two self-report measures of Type A behaviour, the Jenkins
             Activity Survey (JAS) and the Type A Self-Rating Inventory
             (TASRI). Two subgroups of patients were identified--Type A
             subjects whose Type A self-ratings were consistent with the
             SI classification, and subjects who obtained low self-rating
             scores and yet were classified as Type A by the SI. A
             comparison of the MMPI profiles showed that the discordant
             Type As scored lower on MMPI scales 9 (Ma) and 4 (Pd), and
             higher on scales 0 (Si), 2 (D) and F. The personality
             attributes associated with this MMPI pattern are more
             consistent with individual self-reports of Type A behaviour
             than observer ratings during the SI.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.2044-8341.1986.tb02669.x},
   Key = {fds277183}
}

@article{fds277267,
   Author = {Anderson, NB and Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Haney, T and Simpson, S and Houseworth, SJ},
   Title = {Type A behavior, family history of hypertension, and
             cardiovascular responsivity among black women.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {393-406},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3757989},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of
             Type A behavior and family history of hypertension on
             cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in a group of
             employed black women. Measures of heart rate and of systolic
             blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were
             taken at rest, during a mental arithmetic task, and during
             the Type A Structured Interview (SI). Results indicated that
             the Type A behavior pattern was associated with SBP and DBP
             hyperresponsivity during the SI but not during mental
             arithmetic. Additionally, certain speech components of the
             Type A pattern, as well as features of the
             potential-for-hostility component, were also related to
             cardiovascular responses during the SI. Family history of
             hypertension did not influence the cardiovascular parameters
             either alone or in combination with Type A behavior. The
             results suggest that many of the cardiovascular response
             characteristics of the Type A pattern that have been
             observed in predominantly white samples also hold true for
             blacks. Replication of these findings with other subgroups
             of blacks, such as young females and middle-aged males, will
             help document the generality of these findings within the
             black population.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0278-6133.5.4.393},
   Key = {fds277267}
}

@article{fds277195,
   Author = {Jr, PTC and Zonderman, AB and McCrae, RR and Jr, RBW},
   Title = {Cynicism and paranoid alienation in the Cook and Medley HO
             scale},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {283-285},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   Abstract = {Factor analysis of responses from 1002 men and women were
             used to define two subscales of the Cook and Medley
             Hostility Scale. Both the Cynicism and the Paranoid
             Alienation subscale described attitudes of mistrust and
             alienation, and both were correlated with MMPI factors
             measuring aspects of psychopathology. It was suggested that
             measures of the broader domain of Agreeableness-Antagonism
             be examined as possible predictors of CHD.},
   Key = {fds277195}
}

@article{fds277268,
   Author = {Lane, JD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Caffeine affects cardiovascular responses to
             stress.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {648-655},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4089091},
   Key = {fds277268}
}

@article{fds277243,
   Author = {McCubbin, JA and Surwit, RS and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Endogenous opiate peptides, stress reactivity, and risk for
             hypertension.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {808-811},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4030048},
   Abstract = {Endogenous opiate peptides can regulate neuroendocrine and
             circulatory responses to behavioral stress and may be
             important in the pathogenic effects of sympathoadrenal
             reactivity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the
             effect of the opiate antagonist naloxone on blood pressure
             responses to behavioral stress in young adults with high,
             medium, or low casual blood pressures. Naloxone increased
             mean arterial pressure responses to stress in subjects with
             low casual pressure, but had no significant effect on
             responses in subjects with high casual pressure. These
             results suggest opioidergic inhibition of sympathetic
             nervous system responses may be deficient in persons at risk
             for essential hypertension.},
   Key = {fds277243}
}

@article{fds277191,
   Author = {Dembroski, TM and MacDougall, JM and Williams, RB and Haney, TL and Blumenthal, JA},
   Title = {Components of Type A, hostility, and anger-in: relationship
             to angiographic findings.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {219-233},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4001281},
   Abstract = {Previous research has linked the Type A coronary-prone
             behavior pattern to angiographically documented severity of
             coronary atherosclerosis (CAD). The present study sought
             through component scoring of the Type A Structured Interview
             (SI) to determine what elements of the multidimensional Type
             A pattern are related to coronary disease severity in a
             selected group of patients with minimal or severe CAD.
             Multivariate analyses controlling for the major risk factors
             showed no relationship between global Type A and extent of
             disease. Of all attributes measured, only Potential for
             Hostility and Anger-In were significantly and positively
             associated with the disease severity, including angina
             symptoms and number of myocardial infarctions. Further
             analysis revealed that Potential for Hostility and Anger-In
             were interactive in their association, such that Potential
             for Hostility was associated with disease endpoints only for
             patients who were high on the Anger-In dimension. These
             findings support previous research in suggesting that anger
             and hostility may be the critical aspects of the Type A
             pattern in predisposing individuals to risk of
             CAD.},
   Key = {fds277191}
}

@article{fds277194,
   Author = {Costa, PT and Zonderman, AB and McCrae, RR and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Content and Comprehensiveness in the MMPI. An Item Factor
             Analysis in a Normal Adult Sample},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {925-933},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.48.4.925},
   Abstract = {The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) has
             become the most widely used instrument for personality
             measurement, although it was designed primarily to aid in
             the diagnosis of psychopathology. Several hundred research
             scales have been derived from the MMPI, despite the fact
             that until recently the size of the item pool precluded an
             adequate empirical analysis of its item content. To define
             its psychological content dimensions and evaluate the
             comprehensiveness of its items, we performed a principal
             components analysis of the 550 MMPI items on a sample of
             1,576 male and female patients referred for coronary
             angiography. After an attempt to replicate Johnson, Butcher,
             Null, and Johnson's (1984)21-factor solution failed, nine
             orthogonally rotated components were interpreted. Agreement
             was found between a number of studies on several factors,
             including neuroticism, somatic complaints, cynicism, and
             religious orthodoxy. However, only one of the five
             personality dimensions identified by Norman (1963)was
             adequately represented. The nine factor scales identified in
             this analysis may be useful as an alternative way of scoring
             the test, especially for longitudinal studies with archival
             MMPI data sets. In the future, it would be advisable to
             supplement the MMPI with instruments that measure a broader
             range of normal personality characteristics. © 1985
             American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-3514.48.4.925},
   Key = {fds277194}
}

@article{fds277184,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Herman, S and O'Toole, LC and Haney, TL and Williams,
             RB and Barefoot, JC},
   Title = {Development of a brief self-report measure of the type A
             (coronary prone) behavior pattern.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {265-274},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4032325},
   Abstract = {This study reports the development of a brief self-report
             measure of the Type A behavior pattern based upon a set of
             adjectives derived from the Gough Adjective Checklist (ACL).
             Previous work from our laboratory established a set of
             adjectives identified by experts as being relevant to the
             Type A construct that subsequently was found to successfully
             distinguish Type A individuals from their Type B
             counterparts. In the present study, a Type A self-rating
             scale based on these adjectives was found to be
             significantly related to an established Type A self-report
             instrument, the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS), and to an
             independent behavioral rating based upon a standard
             structured interview (SI). However, no measure of Type A was
             related to the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) as
             documented by coronary angiography. The advantages and
             disadvantages of the various Type A measures are discussed
             in the context of their ability to identify individuals at
             risk for the development of CAD.},
   Key = {fds277184}
}

@article{fds277193,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Benson, H and Follick, MJ},
   Title = {Disease as a reflection of the psyche},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {313},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {1356-1359},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   Key = {fds277193}
}

@article{fds277337,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lane, JD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {The inhibited power motive, type A behavior, and patterns of
             cardiovascular response during the structured interview and
             Thematic Apperception Test.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Stress},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {82-92},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0097-840X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3843112},
   Abstract = {The Type A behavior pattern and the inhibited power motive
             have been implicated in the development of coronary heart
             disease (CHD). Since it is widely believed that enhanced
             cardiovascular responsivity may be one mechanism by which
             individuals develop CHD, the present study examined the
             relationship of Type A behavior and the inhibited power
             motive to different patterns of cardiovascular response
             during two behavioral tasks. Forty-one (24 Type A's, 17 Type
             B's) male undergraduates underwent the Type A structured
             interview (SI) and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
             while a broad range of cardiovascular functions were
             simultaneously recorded. Different patterns of
             cardiovascular response were observed during the SI and TAT,
             and Type A's showed a greater tendency than Type B's to
             exhibit increased heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure
             (SBP), and forearm blood flow (FBF) during the SI and the
             preparatory phase (but not the story-telling phase) of the
             TAT. The inhibited power motive was not related to enhanced
             cardiovascular responsivity during the SI or TAT. The
             implications of these findings for the development of CHD
             are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0097840X.1985.9936743},
   Key = {fds277337}
}

@article{fds277266,
   Author = {Lane, JD and White, AD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Cardiovascular effects of mental arithmetic in Type A and
             Type B females.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-46},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6701243},
   Key = {fds277266}
}

@article{fds277179,
   Author = {WIELGOSZ, AT and FLETCHER, RH and MCCANTS, CB and MCKINNIS, RA and HANEY, TL and WILLIAMS, RB},
   Title = {UNIMPROVED CHEST PAIN IN PATIENTS WITH MINIMAL OR NO
             CORONARY-DISEASE - A BEHAVIORAL PHENOMENON},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-72},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1984SZ53700011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/0002-8703(84)90546-5},
   Key = {fds277179}
}

@article{fds277192,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Help your heart: hostility and heart disease.},
   Journal = {Nebraska nurse},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {8-},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds277192}
}

@article{fds277189,
   Author = {Barefoot, JC and Dahlstrom, WG and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility, CHD incidence, and total mortality: a 25-year
             follow-up study of 255 physicians.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {59-63},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-198303000-00008},
   Abstract = {High levels of hostility as assessed by a MMPI scale (Ho)
             have been found associated with increased levels of
             arteriographically documented coronary atherosclerosis. In
             this study we examined the relationship between hostility
             and subsequent health status in a 25-year follow-up of 255
             medical students who completed the MMPI while in medical
             school. High Ho scores were found to be predictive of both
             clinical coronary disease incidence and total
             mortality.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198303000-00008},
   Key = {fds277189}
}

@article{fds277336,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Lane, JD and Williams, RB and McKee, DC and Haney, T and White, A},
   Title = {Effects of task incentive on cardiovascular response in type
             A and type B individuals.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-70},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6828614},
   Key = {fds277336}
}

@article{fds277190,
   Author = {Matsushima, T and Doba, N and Jr, RBW},
   Title = {Studies on type A behaviour pattern and hostility in
             Japanese male subjects with special reference to
             CHD},
   Journal = {Japanese Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {321-328},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds277190}
}

@article{fds277181,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Wallace, AG and Williams, RB and Needles, TL},
   Title = {Physiological and psychological variables predict compliance
             to prescribed exercise therapy in patients recovering from
             myocardial infarction.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {519-527},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7163455},
   Abstract = {Previous research has documented high rates of noncompliance
             to prescribed medical therapy in patients recovering from
             myocardial infarction (MI). This study was undertaken to
             determine if patients who subsequently drop out of a
             structured cardiac rehabilitation program could be
             prospectively distinguished from those who remain in the
             program based upon their initial baseline characteristics.
             Thirty-five consecutive patients with recent MIs underwent
             comprehensive physical and psychological assessments at
             entry into the program, and were followed for a period of 1
             year. The 14 patients who dropped out of the program could
             be distinguished from the compliers on the basis of their
             reduced left ejection fraction assessed by first pass
             radionuclide angiography at rest and during peak exercise.
             In addition, their psychological profiles assessed by the
             MMPI indicated the dropouts were more depressed,
             hypochondriacal, anxious, and introverted and had lower ego
             strength than those who remained in the program. Statistical
             analysis further indicated that psychological variables were
             associated with noncompliance independently of physical
             status. These findings suggest that MI patients who are
             unlikely to adhere to this form of medical therapy may be
             prospectively identified based upon their initial physical
             and psychological characteristics.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198212000-00003},
   Key = {fds277181}
}

@article{fds277278,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Lane, JD and Kuhn, CM and Melosh, W and White, AD and Schanberg, SM},
   Title = {Type A behavior and elevated physiological and
             neuroendocrine responses to cognitive tasks.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {218},
   Number = {4571},
   Pages = {483-485},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7123248},
   Abstract = {Qualitatively distinct patterns of cardiovascular and
             neuroendocrine responses were observed in male college
             students during mental work and during sensory intake task
             performance. During mental work, Type A (coronary-prone)
             subjects showed greater muscle vasodilatation and more
             enhanced secretion of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and
             cortisol than Type B subjects. During sensory intake, Type A
             hyperresponsivity was found for testosterone and, among
             those subjects with a positive family history of
             hypertension, for cortisol. As a demonstration of combined
             cardiovascular, sympathetic nervous system, and
             neuroendocrine hyperresponsivity to specific cognitive tasks
             in Type A subjects, this study breaks ground in the search
             for mechanisms mediating the increased coronary disease risk
             among Type A persons.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.7123248},
   Key = {fds277278}
}

@article{fds277178,
   Author = {MOHL, PC and WYRICK, LC and CLEVELAND, W and HAWKINS, D and BURDETTE, L and WILLIAMS, RB},
   Title = {CARDIOVASCULAR CORRELATES OF THE PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC
             PROCESS},
   Journal = {Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {65-74},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0033-3190},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982PC42900001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1159/000287555},
   Key = {fds277178}
}

@article{fds277180,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Block, AR and Williams, RB and Surwit,
             RS},
   Title = {Behavioral treatment of chronic low back pain: clinical
             outcome and individual differences in pain
             relief.},
   Journal = {Pain},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {221-231},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0304-3959},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6459557},
   Abstract = {The response of 111 chronic low back pain patients to a
             comprehensive behavioral treatment program emphasizing
             relaxation procedures is examined. Over the course of
             treatment, significant reductions were obtained on measures
             of subjective tension, EMG activity, and pain. Many patients
             also decreased their intake of analgesic/narcotic agents and
             reported an increase in activity level. In order to examine
             individual differences in pain relief, the 28 patients who
             had the greatest decreases in pain were compared to those
             who had the least decreases in pain. Patients who had the
             best outcome in terms of pain relief were significantly more
             likely to show improvements in other outcome measures. In
             addition, these patients rated their pain initially as more
             severe, had continuous pain for fewer years, and were less
             likely to be on disability or to have had multiple surgical
             procedures. These results are discussed in the light of
             recent data from other behavioral treatment studies with
             chronic low back pain patients and implications for
             behavioral assessment and treatment are discussed.},
   Key = {fds277180}
}

@article{fds277335,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and Williams, RB and Haney,
             T},
   Title = {Assessment of conceptual tempo in the type A (coronary
             prone) behavior pattern.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Assessment},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {44-51},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-3891},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7218130},
   Abstract = {Previous research has documented an association between a
             particular behavioral complex termed Type A, and increased
             incidence of coronary heart disease. In an effort to define
             further some of the behavioral characteristics that
             distinguish Type A subjects from their noncoronary-prone
             (Type B) counterparts, subjects were administered a test of
             conceptual impulsivity-reflection. While there were clear
             sex differences in performance, the results of the present
             study offered only qualified support for the notion that
             Type A individuals are more impulsive than Type B
             individuals. One component of Type A, Speed and Impatience,
             was shown to be related to increased impulsivity in women,
             but not in men. The findings suggest the importance of
             considering the interaction of gender with behavioral
             subcomponents of the Type A behavior pattern.},
   Doi = {10.1207/s15327752jpa4501_10},
   Key = {fds277335}
}

@article{fds277290,
   Author = {Keefe, FJ and Schapira, B and Williams, RB},
   Title = {EMG-assisted relaxation training in the management of
             chronic low back pain},
   Journal = {American Journal of Clinical Biofeedback},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {93-103},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This study examines the short and long-term effects of
             EMG-assisted relaxation training in a series of 18 chronic
             low back pain patients. All patients had a minimum of six
             laboratory training sessions and were asked to practice on
             their own what they were learning in the laboratory. The
             results indicated that patients showed significant decreases
             in EMG activity within and across sessions as a function of
             training. Significant decreases in subjective ratings of
             tension were obtained within and across training sessions
             and there was a significant drop in daily ratings of tension
             taken outside of the lab environment over the course of
             treatment. The patients also showed a significant decrease
             in levels of pain within each training session. While there
             was a tendency for daily pain ratings to decrease over the
             course of treatment, this did not reach statistical
             significance. However, by the end of the first six
             laboratory sessions, 15 out of 18 patients reported
             experiencing regular decreases in pain while practicing
             their relaxation skills outside of the lab. At one year
             follow-up, 9 out of 13 patients responding had maintained
             initial therapeutic gains.},
   Key = {fds277290}
}

@article{fds277188,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Tremer, HM and Sobin, SS},
   Title = {Redistribution of canine left ventricular myocardial blood
             flow in unloaded systole},
   Journal = {Circulation Research},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {203-211},
   Year = {1981},
   Abstract = {The left coronary arteries of dogs were cannulated and
             perfused with blood from support dogs. The experimental
             hearts were unloaded by severing the aortas to maximize
             strains and minimize fiber stress. In each heart we compared
             the transmural distribution of blood flow in two states: (1)
             provision of perfusion pressure (40 mm Hg) only during
             systole and then (2) provision of perfusion pressure
             throughout the cardiac cycle. The distribution of flow in
             each of these perfusion states was labeled with a diffusible
             radioisotope (42K or 86Rb, one labeling the first state; the
             other labeling the second). Quantitative, paired
             autoradiography was used to visualize the two flow
             distributions. The differences between the two distributions
             after standardization was plotted as differences between
             activity vs. depth in the myocardium (r = 0.91). This was
             fitted with a line by least squares, the slope of which was
             significantly different from zero at the 0.0005 level. The
             magnitude of the gradient of the systolic flow was
             represented by the ratio of deep to shallow flow. The mean
             of these ratios was 0.54 ± 0.12 (95% confidence interval).
             A graphical analysis shows that the data are consistent with
             a gradient of extravascular compression across the left
             ventricular wall.},
   Key = {fds277188}
}

@article{fds277417,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Haney, TL and Lee, KL and Kong, YH and Blumenthal, JA and Whalen, RE},
   Title = {Type A behavior, hostility, and coronary
             atherosclerosis.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {539-549},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7465739},
   Abstract = {Type A behavior pattern was assessed using the structured
             interview and hostility level was assessed using a subscale
             of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory in 424
             patients who underwent diagnostic coronary arteriography for
             suspected coronary heart disease. In contrast to non-Type A
             patients, a significantly greater proportion of Type A
             patients had at least one artery with a clinically
             significant occlusion of 75% or greater. In addition, only
             48% of those patients with very low scores (less than or
             equal to 10) on the Hostility scale exhibited a significant
             occlusion; in contrast, patients in all groups scoring
             higher than 10 on the Hostility scale showed a 70% rate of
             significant disease. The essential difference between low
             and high scorers on the Hostility scale appears to consist
             of an unwillingness on the part of the low scorers to
             endorse items reflective of the attitude that others are
             bad, selfish, and exploitive. Multivariate analysis showed
             that both Type A behavior pattern and Hostility score are
             independently related to presence of atherosclerosis. In
             this analysis, however, Hostility score emerged as more
             related to presence of atherosclerosis than Type A behavior
             pattern. These findings confirm previous observations of
             increased coronary atherosclerosis among Type A patients.
             They suggest further that an attitudinal set reflective of
             hostility toward people in general is over and above that
             accounted for by Type A behavior pattern. These findings
             also suggest that interventions to reduce the contribution
             of behavioral patterns to coronary disease risk might
             profitably focus especially closely on reduction of anger
             and hostility.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198011000-00002},
   Key = {fds277417}
}

@article{fds319722,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and McKee, DC and Haney, T and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Task Incentives, Type A Behavior Pattern, and Verbal Problem
             Solving Performance1},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Social Psychology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {101-114},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00696.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1559-1816.1980.tb00696.x},
   Key = {fds319722}
}

@article{fds277334,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RS and Williams, RB and Wallace,
             AG},
   Title = {Effects of exercise on the Type A (coronary prone) behavior
             pattern.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-296},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7192871},
   Abstract = {This study presents the initial findings of an attempt to
             reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a group
             of health, middle-aged adults by participation in a
             ten-week, supervised exercise program. Forty-six subjects
             were classified as Type A or Type B based on their scores on
             the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS). Measures of physiologic
             (blood pressure, serum lipids, body weight, plasminogen
             activator release, and treadmill performance) and
             psychologic (scores on the JAS) variables were obtained
             before and after the exercise program. Subjects were able to
             successfully reduce the physiologic cardiovascular risk
             factors. Moreover, Type A subjects lowered their scores on
             the JAS Type A scale after training, while the scores of the
             Type B subjected remained unchanged. It is concluded that a
             supervised program of regular exercise can successfully
             modify the physiological and psychological variables
             associated with increased risk for CHD in a nonclinical
             sample of healthy adults.},
   Key = {fds277334}
}

@article{fds277187,
   Author = {Poon, LW and Peterson, E and Williams, RB and Thompson, LW and Burdette,
             LJ},
   Title = {Relationship between cortical alpha and skeletal muscle
             blood flow in a feedback task},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {617-619},
   Year = {1980},
   ISSN = {0031-9384},
   Abstract = {During operant control of forearm blood flow (FBF) cortical
             alpha was recorded. A significant inverse relationship was
             found between FBF and alpha activity. Decreased FBF was
             associated with increased alpha. One possible reason that
             several investigators found spurious relationships between
             alpha and 2 other cardiovascular parameters, heart rate and
             blood pressure, is that the range of response for HR and BF
             is relatively restricted compared to that of alpha. ©
             1980.},
   Key = {fds277187}
}

@article{fds277333,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Thompson, LW and Williams, RB and Kong,
             Y},
   Title = {Anxiety-proneness and coronary heart disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychosomatic Research},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {17-21},
   Year = {1979},
   ISSN = {0022-3999},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/480276},
   Key = {fds277333}
}

@article{fds277407,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Eichelman, BS and Ng, LKY},
   Title = {The effects of peripheral chemosympathectomy and
             adrenalectomy upon blood pressure responses of the rat to
             footshock under varying conditions: Evidence for behavioral
             effects on patterning of sympathetic nervous system
             responses},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {89-93},
   Year = {1979},
   Abstract = {A significant decrease in blood pressure is observed after
             shock-induced fighting in intact rats. In rats treated with
             intravenous 6-hydroxydopamine, a drug that selectively
             destroys peripheral sympathetic nerve endings when given by
             this route, this blood pressure response is reversed to a
             significant increase. In contrast, adrenalectomy converts a
             slight increase in blood pressure after intact rats are
             shocked alone in the cage into a significant decrease. These
             alterations in blood pressure response suggest that the
             sympathetic response to a stressful stimulus is not an all
             or none response, but, rather, consists of a patterned
             activation depending upon the behavioral response available.
             The current physiological findings are consistent with
             neuroendocrine research in which coping behavior is found
             associated with a predominant norepinephrine release by the
             sympathetic nervous system, and stress without available
             coping responses is associated with release also of
             epinephrine.},
   Key = {fds277407}
}

@article{fds277332,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Williams, RB and Kong, Y and Schanberg, SM and Thompson, LW},
   Title = {Type A behavior pattern and coronary atherosclerosis.},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {634-639},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0009-7322},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/688573},
   Abstract = {Previous research has demonstrated an increased rate of
             clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) events among people
             who exhibit a "coronary prone" (Type A) behavior pattern.
             This study was undertaken to determine whether the
             association between behavior pattern Type A and CHD might be
             extended beyond clinical CHD events to include also the
             coronary atherosclerotic process. In addition to usual
             clinical evaluation, 156 consecutive patients referred for
             diagnostic coronary angiography were independently assessed
             on the basis of a structured interview and assigned a rating
             of Type A, Type B, or Type X (indeterminate). Traditional
             physiologic factors--age, sex, cholesterol and cigarette
             smoking--were found to correlate with atherosclerotic
             disease. Type A patients were found in increasing
             proportions among groups of patients with coronary
             occlusions of moderate to severe degree compared with
             patients with only mild occlusions. This increasing
             proportion of Type A patients with increasing disease
             severity remained significant, even when age, sex, blood
             pressure, serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking
             history were all simultaneously covaried. These findings
             suggest that, independently of traditional risk factors,
             behavior pattern Type A may contribute to the risk of
             clinical CHD events via effects on the atherosclerotic
             process.},
   Doi = {10.1161/01.cir.58.4.634},
   Key = {fds277332}
}

@article{fds277404,
   Author = {Williams, RBRS},
   Title = {Behavior modification in the treatment of
             hypertension},
   Journal = {Practical Cardiology},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {119-124},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {There is evidence that the sympathetic nervous system plays
             an important role in the development of hypertension, and
             this has led to the experimental use of behavioral
             techniques in an attempt to control blood pressure. While
             still experimental, and somewhat controversial, this
             approach has provoked widespread interest. In this article,
             the authors explain the direct and indirect methods of
             behavioral techniques and discuss what has been accomplished
             with this approach.},
   Key = {fds277404}
}

@article{fds277405,
   Author = {Hawkins, D and Wyrick, L and Mohl, P and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {Brief psychotherapy with medical students},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Education},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {62-67},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This study analyzed relationships between psychopathology
             presented by volunteer medical students and success in brief
             psychotherapy. Success in psychotherapy was related to
             inward-directed pathology (neuroses), regardless of
             severity. The findings suggest that when brief psychotherapy
             is offered to medical students, they will avail themselves
             of the opportunity and those with inward-directed pathology
             can achieve significant clinical benefit in a short time.
             Those with outward-directed pathology (character disorders)
             may need to be prepared for entering long-term
             psychotherapy.},
   Key = {fds277405}
}

@article{fds277403,
   Author = {Frederiksen, DW and Hoffnung, JM and Frederiksen, RT and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {The structural proteins of normal and diseased human
             myocardium},
   Journal = {Circulation Research},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {459-466},
   Year = {1978},
   Abstract = {Microanalytical techniques have been developed for the
             quantitative determination of actomyosin and collagen from
             20 to 30-mg (wet mass) samples of myocardium. Actomyosin is
             the major contractile protein complex and is, therefore, an
             index of functional muscle; collagen is the major protein of
             connective and scar tissue and is, therefore, an index of
             fibrosis. These proteins were determined in six myocardial
             samples from each of four normal, four ischemic, and three
             hypertrophied human hearts. As determined by electrophoresis
             in a denaturing medium, the concentration of actomyosin in
             normal myocardium is 69 μg/mg wet tissue; the concentration
             in ischemic myocardium is not significantly different from
             normal, but is approximately 45% higher than normal in
             hearts with left ventricular hypertrophy These observations
             indicate that hypertrophy is not simply an increase in total
             heart mass but, rather, involves an increase in actomyosin
             concentration in myocardial tissue as well. Collagen is
             determined from amino acid analysis of whole tissue for
             4-hydroxyproline, an amino acid characteristic of this
             protein; the concentration of collagen in normal (6.1 μg/mg
             wet tissue) myocardium are not significantly different from
             those in hypertrophied myocardium. In focal regions of
             ischemic hearts, however, collagen in increased 2-to 4-fold.
             The concentration of collagen in myocardial tissue
             correlates well (r=0.947) with the degree of fibrosis
             determined by conventional histoligcal techniques. This work
             represents (1) a more direct biochemical determination of
             contractile protein concentration in whole myocardium and
             (2) a more direct correlation of the biochemical assay for
             collagen with histological data than have been reported
             previously.},
   Key = {fds277403}
}

@article{fds277406,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Richardson, JS and Eichelman, BS},
   Title = {Location of CNS neurons mediating the blood pressure fall
             after shock-induced fighting in the rat},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {177-185},
   Year = {1978},
   Abstract = {Previous research has demonstrated a fall in systolic blood
             pressure in the rat measured 2-5 min following shock-induced
             fighting. This blood pressure fall appears to depend on
             intact CNS catecholamine neurons. The locus coeruleus is
             known to supply noradrenergic neuron terminals to much of
             the brain. In this study, we attempted to identify the
             location of the CNS catecholamine neurons mediating the
             blood pressure response to fighting by studying the blood
             pressure response to shock-induced fighting in locus
             coeruleus-lesioned and sham-lesioned rats. The locus
             coeruleus-lesioned animals showed a blood pressure increase
             after fighting on the average across 2 days of testing,
             while sham-lesioned animals showed a blood pressure decrease
             after fighting. The difference between the blood pressure
             responses of the two groups was highly reliable. Since both
             histofluorescence and biochemical studies indicated that CNS
             norepinephrine levels were decreased in lesioned as compared
             to control animals, the findings are interpreted as showing
             that noradrenergic neurons originating in the locus
             coeruleus play an important role in mediating aspects of the
             relationship between fighting behavior and blood pressure
             response.},
   Key = {fds277406}
}

@article{fds277400,
   Author = {Lamprecht, F and Richardson, JS and Williams, RB and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {The contribution of central noradrenenergic neurons in the
             development of DOCA salt hypertension in
             rats},
   Journal = {Naunyn Schmiedeberg'S Archives of Pharmacology},
   Volume = {297},
   Number = {Sup. 2},
   Pages = {No.-201},
   Year = {1977},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277400}
}

@article{fds277401,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Poon, LW and Burdette, LJ},
   Title = {Locus of control and vasomotor response to sensory
             processing},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-133},
   Year = {1977},
   Abstract = {Heart rate and forearm blood flow responses were measured
             during experimental tasks requiring sensory intake, sensory
             rejection, and a mixture of the 2 behaviors. Subjects were
             29 college students who had been categorized using Rotter's
             locus of control scale. Significant increases in both
             cardiovascular indices were seen in all 3 tasks; the
             responses were smaller, however, during sensory intake.
             Internals showed a differential response of forearm blood
             flow to sensory intake, in the direction of less of an
             increase in forearm blood flow. In contrast, externals
             showed a similar vasodilatation across all tasks. The
             findings indicate that some of the variability in
             cardiovascular response to sensory processing may be
             explained by individual differences in personality
             characteristics related to subjects' preferred level of
             involvement in differing sensory processing
             behaviors.},
   Key = {fds277401}
}

@article{fds277402,
   Author = {Lamprecht, F and Richardson, JS and Williams, RB and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {6-Hydroxydopamine destruction of central adrenergic neurones
             prevents or reverses developing DOCA-salt hypertension in
             rats},
   Journal = {Journal of Neural Transmission (Vienna, Austria :
             1996)},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {149-158},
   Year = {1977},
   ISSN = {0300-9564},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01250565},
   Abstract = {The role of brain catecholaminergic neurones in the
             pathogenesis of DOCA-salt hypertension in the rat was
             investigated by selective depletion of central
             catecholamines using intraventricular or intracisternal
             administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Only the
             intraventricular injections prevented the development of
             hypertension. In addition, intraventricular 6-OHDA reversed
             the hypertension produced by two weeks but not six weeks of
             DOCA-salt treatment. The ability of intraventricular
             injections of 6-OHDA to prevent or reverse DOCA-salt
             hypertension while intracisternal injections do not, appears
             to be related to the greater depletion of brain
             catecholamines produced by the intraventricular injections.
             Only in the spinal cord and in the locus coeruleus were the
             norepinephrine contents depleted equally by either injection
             route. These findings suggest that central catecholaminergic
             neurones other than those originating in the locus coeruleus
             or descending in the spinal cord are important in the
             initiation, but not in the long term maintenance, of
             DOCA-salt hypertension. The influence of the central
             catecholamine neurons involved in the development of
             DOCA-salt hypertension might be mediated neurally via
             nonadrenergic pathways or hormonally via the
             brain-pituitary-endocrine system. © 1977
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01250565},
   Key = {fds277402}
}

@article{fds277399,
   Author = {Gentry, WD and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Psychological aspects of myocardial infarction and coronary
             care},
   Journal = {C.V.Mosby Co., St Louis},
   Volume = {$ 7.30},
   Year = {1975},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The book is designed to serve as a comprehensive yet concise
             summary of available knowledge that is useful in
             understanding the psychological aspects of myocardial
             infarction and coronary care. It is meant to be a practical
             and usable text, one that can be referred to by
             professionals throughout their treatment of patients who
             have experienced a myocardial infarct. The large number of
             references to basic research studies demonstrates the
             scientific basis of the clinical case material. The clinical
             examples provide the reader with a point of reference for
             specific patient concerns that he or she may have. Finally,
             the book is divided into sections that deal separately with
             the psychological aspects of etiology, onset, acute care,
             rehabilitation, and psychological intervention; this enables
             the reader to selectively gain information and insight into
             the psychology pertinent to specific points along the
             illness recovery continuum or in one particular clinical
             setting (for example, the coronary care unit) without
             necessarily reading the entire book. However, reading the
             book in its entirety offers a better understanding of the
             complex network of functional relationships among the
             various behaviors of the patient with an acute myocardial
             infarction from symptom onset through rehabilitation and of
             the changing role of care givers throughout the illness
             recovery sequence.},
   Key = {fds277399}
}

@article{fds277396,
   Author = {Bittker, TE and Buchsbaum, MS and Jr, RBW and Wynne,
             LC},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and nuerophysiologic correlates of sensory
             intake and rejection. II. Interview behavior},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {434-438},
   Year = {1975},
   Abstract = {As part of a 3 task study of the influence of attentional
             style on cardiovascular response, 19 normal volunteers were
             given a 15 min interview during which systolic and diastolic
             blood pressure, digital pulse volume, heart rate, and
             forearm blood flow were recorded. At the same time two
             observers independently assessed 5 elements of the subjects'
             interview behavior; arousal, eye contact with the
             interviewer, self revelation of interview center,
             attentiveness to the interviewer, and overall transactional
             engagement in the interview task. When subjects were divided
             into groups of interview attenders and nonattenders on the
             basis of interviewer ratings, attenders had a mean decrease
             in forearm blood flow and nonattenders a mean increase.
             These group differences extended across a word
             identification (sensory intake) and mental arithmetic
             (sensory rejection) task as well. When subjects were divided
             into groups of forearm blood flow increasers and decreasers,
             increasers displayed less attentiveness to the interviewer,
             less self revelation, greater arousal, and less
             transactional engagement than did decreasers (N = 9).
             Attentiveness to the interviewer and transactional
             engagement were the two most sensitive behavioral
             discriminators in comparing the increaser and decreaser
             groups.},
   Key = {fds277396}
}

@article{fds277397,
   Author = {Hine, FR and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Dimensional diagnosis and the medical student's grasp of
             psychiatry},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {525-528},
   Year = {1975},
   Abstract = {Two problems that interfere with the student's understanding
             and acceptance of psychiatric knowledge result largely from
             the use of a categorical model for psychiatric diagnosis.
             These two problems are: the apparent inapplicability of the
             standard system of psychiatric diagnosis to real patients;
             and the apparent irrelevance for general medical practice of
             psychiatric diagnosis and theory. Both problems may be
             avoided by presenting psychiatry in the framework of a
             multidimensional diagnostic schema that uses familiar terms
             but treats them as dimensions with severe, moderate, and
             mild degrees of impairment rather than as categories of
             mutually exclusive psychiatric diseases. A teaching program
             is described in which detailed review of student interviews
             with psychiatric and especially nonpsychiatric patients is
             employed to demonstrate the usefulness of multidimensional
             psychiatric diagnosis.},
   Key = {fds277397}
}

@article{fds277398,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Bittker, TE and Wynne, MSLCBA},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and neurophysiologic correlates of sensory
             intake and rejection. I. Effect of cognitive
             tasks},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {427-433},
   Year = {1975},
   Abstract = {In this study of the relationship between sensory processing
             and cardiovascular function, 5 cardiovascular parameters
             were monitored during baseline periods and during tasks
             requiring either sensory intake or sensory rejection
             behavior on the part of 19 subjects. Sensory intake behavior
             was associated with a pattern of response similar to that
             seen with activation of peripheral sympathetic nerves,
             vasoconstriction in both the digit (skin) and forearm
             (skeletal muscle). In contrast, sensory rejection behavior
             was associated with vasodilation in the forearm and
             vasoconstriction in the digit. Individual differences in an
             EEG measure of characteristic ways of processing sensory
             information were predictably associated with differences in
             resting cardiovascular function.},
   Key = {fds277398}
}

@article{fds277394,
   Author = {Garson, A and Williams, RB and Reckless, J},
   Title = {Long-term follow-up of patients with tetralogy of Fallot:
             physical health and psychopathology.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Pediatrics},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {429-433},
   Year = {1974},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-3476},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-3476(74)80136-8},
   Abstract = {To assess the possible lasting psychologic sequellae in
             young adults who have recovered physically from congenital
             heart disease, the Cattell 16 PF personality inventory was
             administered to 37 patients (mean age=19.1 years) with
             tetralogy of Fallot at a time when 85% had been asymptomatic
             since their last surgery (mean interval since surgery=6.5
             years). The patients scored significantly more in the
             neurotic range than expected by chance and had psychologic
             scores, suggesting that they are self-indulgent, dependent,
             overprotected, less well informed, lacking ambition, and
             operating more on the basis of feelings than thought. The
             more "neurotic" patients were hospitalized more times, but
             experienced better physical health than the less "neurotic"
             patients. The severity of the psychopathology appears not to
             be related to the severity of the physical symptomatology,
             but rather to a disparity between how the child perceives
             his illness and how others view his disease. © 1974 The
             C.V. Mosby Company.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0022-3476(74)80136-8},
   Key = {fds277394}
}

@article{fds277391,
   Author = {Lamprecht, R and Eichelman, BS and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Serum dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) activity and blood
             pressure response of rat strains to shock induced
             fighting},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {298-303},
   Year = {1974},
   Abstract = {Significant differences are found among rat strains in terms
             of both blood pressure response to shock induced fighting
             and peripheral sympathetic nerve activity, as reflected in
             serum dopamine B hydroxylase (DBH) activity. In addition,
             strains with low levels of serum DBH activity did not
             exhibit significant blood pressure changes after fighting,
             whereas strains with high serum DBH levels showed
             significant falls in blood pressure. Serum DBH levels are a
             useful index of sympathetic nerve function in that they are
             related to hemodynamic responses to stress.},
   Key = {fds277391}
}

@article{fds277393,
   Author = {Gillin, JC and Buchsbaum, MS and Jacobs, LS and Fram, DH and Williams,
             RB and Jr, TBV and Mellon, E and Snyder, F and Wyatt,
             RJ},
   Title = {Partial REM sleep deprivation, schizophrenia and field
             articulation},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {653-662},
   Year = {1974},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   Abstract = {Eight actively ill schizophrenics and 8 nonpsychotic
             controls were deprived of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep by
             the awakening method for 2 nights. Sleep patterns during 5
             postdeprivation nights were analyzed by a variety of
             univariate and multivariate techniques. Data suggest that
             actively ill schizophrenics are less likely than control
             psychiatric patients to exhibit a normal REM rebound. They
             require fewer awakenings than controls to achieve REM
             deprivation. They show little or no change in REM time or
             REM% during recovery as compared with base line, and,
             compared with controls, have significantly less REM time,
             REM%, and change in REM time and REM% on early
             postdeprivation nights. The 2 patient groups also differed
             in their pattern of stages III and IV during recovery.
             Considerable overlap existed in REM compensation between
             actively ill schizophrenics and controls. Additional
             information suggests that REM compensation may be related to
             Rod and Frame testing: the more field independent a subject
             is, the better REM compensator he is.},
   Key = {fds277393}
}

@article{fds277395,
   Author = {Poon, LW and Thompson, LW and Jr, RBW and Marsh, GR},
   Title = {Changes of antero posterior distribution of CNV and late
             positive component as a function of information processing
             demands},
   Journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {660-673},
   Year = {1974},
   Abstract = {The topographic distribution of the amplitudes of the
             contingent negative variation (CNV) recorded along the
             midline of the anterior, central, and posterior regions of
             the human scalp varied as a function of type of information
             processing demanded. A parietal dominant CNV was found when
             active problem solving behavior was required. A central
             dominant CNV was evident in a disjunctive reaction time
             task. The results are interpreted as evidence supporting a
             model of cortical function which predicts shifts in cortical
             involvement as a function of type of task demands. A late
             positive component (LPC) of the average evoked potential was
             also found to vary as a function of stage of learning,
             recording sites, and an attitudinal dimension measured by
             Rotter's internal external locus of control
             scale.},
   Key = {fds277395}
}

@article{fds277386,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Frankel, BL and Gillin, JC and Weiss,
             JL},
   Title = {Cardiovascular response during a word association test and
             an interview},
   Journal = {PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {571-577},
   Year = {1973},
   Abstract = {Previous work has demonstrated a consistent increase in
             diastolic blood pressure during an interview relative to a
             word association test. A consideration of normal
             cardiovascular mechanisms suggests that such increased
             diastolic pressure could be associated with decreased
             forearm blood flow. This expectation is at variance with
             previous studies in which psychological stimuli have been
             associated only with increased forearm blood flow. Forearm
             blood flow and pulse rate were measured during rest periods
             and during a word association test and an interview in 8
             normal volunteers and 8 psychiatric inpatients. Twelve of
             the 16 Ss showed a decrease in forearm blood flow during the
             interview, thus confirming our expectation. That this
             decrease is an active response, rather than a passive fall,
             is suggested by the finding of increased heart rate during
             the interview. The cardiovascular responses of the patient
             group differed in some respects from those of the normal
             group. It is hypothesized that the attentional deficit of
             the schizophrenics in the patient sample may have
             contributed to this difference.},
   Key = {fds277386}
}

@article{fds277387,
   Author = {Lamprecht, F and Kvetnansky, R and Ng, LKY and Williams, RB and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {Effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on
             immobilization-induced changes in rat adrenal medullary
             enzymes},
   Journal = {European Journal of Pharmacology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {249-251},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0014-2999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(73)90235-5},
   Abstract = {The effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on adrenal medullary
             catecholamine-forming enzymes in immobilized and
             non-immobilized control rats was studied. The
             immobilization-induced increase in tyrosine hydroxylase and
             dopamine-β-hydroxylase was markedly enhanced by
             Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; however, neither ethanol alone nor
             ethanol in combination with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol altered
             the levels of the enzymes in non-immobilized control rats.
             © 1973.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0014-2999(73)90235-5},
   Key = {fds277387}
}

@article{fds277388,
   Author = {Eichelman, B and Dejong, W and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Aggressive behavior in hypertensive and normotensive rat
             strains},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {301-304},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0031-9384},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9384(73)90314-4},
   Abstract = {Shock induced fighting, mouse killing, and jump thresholds
             were measured in gentically hypertensive or
             hypertensive-prone rat strains and in normotensive and
             surgically induced (renal) hypertensive rats. Differences in
             levels of shock induced agression and jump thresholds were
             observed, but were not a direct effect of hypertension and
             appeared to be traits genetically separate from the
             susceptibility to hypertension. © 1972.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0031-9384(73)90314-4},
   Key = {fds277388}
}

@article{fds277389,
   Author = {Ng, LKY and Lamprecht, F and Williams, RB and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and ethanol:
             Differential effects on sympathetic activity in differing
             environmental setting},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {180},
   Number = {4093},
   Pages = {1368-1369},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.180.4093.1368},
   Abstract = {Serum dopamine β-hydroxylase activity, a useful biochemical
             index of peripheral sympathetic nervous activity, was
             measured in rats treated with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or
             ethanol or both substances. After 7 days of treatment with
             either substance, serum dopamine β-hydroxylase activity
             decreased significantly. Combined treatment with both agents
             enhanced the effects of each given alone. In rats subjected
             to immobilization stress, treatment with
             Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol appeared to potentiate the
             stress-induced increase in serum enzyme activity. Treatment
             with ethanol, with or without Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol,
             eflectively blocked this increase in enzyme activity. These
             results show that both substances have significant eflects
             on the sympathetic nervous system which are critically
             influenced by environmental setting.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.180.4093.1368},
   Key = {fds277389}
}

@article{fds277390,
   Author = {Lamprecht, F and Williams, RB and Kopin, IJ},
   Title = {Serum dopamine-beta-hydroxylase during development of
             immobilization-induced hypertension.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {953-956},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds277390}
}

@article{fds277392,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Ng, LKY and Lamprecht, F and Roth, K and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: A hypotensive effect in
             rats},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {269-274},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00429307},
   Abstract = {The effects of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol upon rat blood
             pressure were studied in control rats and in rats subjected
             to repeated immobilization stress over seven days. The
             immobilization stress was associated with a significant
             blood pressure increase in animals not receiving δ9-THC.
             δ9-THC resulted in a significant lowering of blood pressure
             in non-immobilized rats and blocked the appearance of
             hypertension in immobilized rats. These data support
             previous suggestions that THC compounds might be useful in
             an approach to the therapy of hypertension. © 1973
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00429307},
   Key = {fds277392}
}

@article{fds277385,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Eichelman, B and Ng, LK},
   Title = {Depletion of brain amines reverses blood pressure response
             to footshock in rat.},
   Journal = {Nature: New Biology},
   Volume = {240},
   Number = {104},
   Pages = {276-277},
   Year = {1972},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/newbio240276a0},
   Doi = {10.1038/newbio240276a0},
   Key = {fds277385}
}

@article{fds277383,
   Author = {Jr, RBW and Kimball, CP and Williard, HN},
   Title = {The influence of interpersonal interaction on diastolic
             blood pressure.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {194-198},
   Year = {1972},
   Key = {fds277383}
}

@article{fds277384,
   Author = {Lamprecht, F and Eichelman, B and Thoa, NB and Williams, RB and Kopin,
             IJ},
   Title = {Rat fighting behavior: Serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase and
             hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {177},
   Number = {4055},
   Pages = {1214-1215},
   Year = {1972},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   Abstract = {Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 weeks of daily
             periods of immobilization stress. One of two experimental
             groups was allowed 1 month of recovery. After 4 weeks of
             stress, there was a significant increase in shock-induced
             fighting, in the activity of serum dopamine-β-hydroxylase,
             and in the activity of hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase.
             The concentration of hypothalamic norepinephrine was not
             decreased. After 4 weeks of recovery, only serum
             dopamine-β-hydroxylase activity returned to normal; it
             therefore appears that long-term stress may increase central
             catecholamine synthesis, possibly resulting in a persistent
             increase in aggressive behavior.},
   Key = {fds277384}
}

@article{fds277382,
   Author = {Williams, RB and Eichelman, B},
   Title = {Social setting: Influence on the physiological response to
             electric shock in the rat},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {4009},
   Pages = {613-614},
   Year = {1971},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   Abstract = {A significant fall in tail blood pressure occurs in paired
             rats after shock-induced aggression. Pressure returns to
             baseline levels within 4 hours after fighting. Conversely,
             single rats subjected to jump threshold measurements or to
             shocks identical to those used in the aggression paradigm
             show significant elevations in tail blood pressure. The size
             of the pressure increase in rats shocked alone appears
             dependent on the intensity of the shocks, while the pressure
             fall in rats shocked in pairs occurs over a broad range of
             shock intensities.},
   Key = {fds277382}
}

@article{fds277381,
   Author = {McKegney, FP and Jr, RBW},
   Title = {Psychological aspects of hypertension. II. The differential
             influence of interview variables on blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1539-1545},
   Year = {1967},
   Key = {fds277381}
}

@article{fds277186,
   Author = {Williams, RB and McKegney, FP},
   Title = {Psychological aspects of hypertension. I. The influence of
             experimental interview variables on blood
             pressure.},
   Journal = {The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {265-272},
   Year = {1965},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277186}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds135170,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. & Williams, V.P. (submitted). Managing
             hostile thoughts, feelings, and actions: The Lifeskills
             approach. IN: Snyder, C.R. (Ed.), COPING AND COPERS:
             ADAPTIVE PROCESSES & PEOPLE. Oxford University
             Press.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135170}
}

@article{fds135171,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. (in press). Social Ties and Health. THE
             HARVARD MENTAL HEALTH LETTER.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135171}
}

@article{fds135172,
   Title = {Tanaka, Y., Williams, R.B., Kuhn, C.M., Surwit, R.S.,
             Muranaka, M., & Tanaka, A. Central nervous system serotonin
             deficiency produces glucose intolerance in rats.
             NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACY (submitted).},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135172}
}

@article{fds135235,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Marchuk, D.A., Gadde, K.M., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Grichnik, K., Helms, M.J., Kuhn, C.M., Lewis, J.G.,
             Schanberg, S.M., Stafford-Smith, M., Suarez, E.C., Clary,
             G.L., Svenson, I.K., & Siegler, I.C. Central nervous system
             serotonin function and cardiovascular responses to stress.
             PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 63, 300-305, 2001.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135235}
}

@article{fds135236,
   Title = {Barefoot, J.C., Gronbaek, M., Feaganes, J.R., McPherson,
             R.S., Williams, R.B., & Siegler, I.C. (in press). Alcoholic
             beverage preference, diet, and health habits in the UNC
             Alumni Heart Study. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL
             NUTRITION.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135236}
}

@article{fds135237,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. (in press). Hostility (and other psychosocial
             risk factors): Effects on health and the potential for
             successful behavioral approaches to prevention and
             treatment. IN: Baum, A., Revenson, T.R., Singer, J.E.
             (Eds.), HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY AND HEALTH. Hillsdale, NJ:
             Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135237}
}

@article{fds135238,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. (submitted). Hostility and heart disease. IN:
             Stansfeld, S. & Marmot, M. (Eds.), STRESS AND HEART DISEASE,
             London: BMJ Books.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135238}
}

@article{fds135239,
   Title = {Bosworth, H.B., Siegler, I.C., Brummett, B., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Williams, R.B., Vitaliano, P.P., Clapp-Channing, N., Lytle,
             B.L., & Mark D.B. (in press). The relationship between
             self-rated health and health status among coronary artery
             patients. JOURNAL OF AGING AND HEALTH.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135239}
}

@article{fds135240,
   Title = {Bosworth, H.B., Siegler, I.C., Brummett, B.H., Barefoot,
             J.C., Haney, T.L., Williams, R.B., Clapp-Channing, N.E., &
             Mark, D.B. The association of age, gender, coronary artery
             disease treatment, and perceived social support with
             health-related quality of life in the Mediators of Social
             Support (MOSS) study. JOURNAL OF GERONTOLOGY: SOCIAL
             SCIENCES (under review).},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135240}
}

@article{fds135241,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Socioeconomic inequalities, health, and
             disease: An integrative theoretical review of potential
             experimental neurobiological, psychosocial, biobehavioral,
             and cellular/molecular mediators. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
             PSYCHIATRY (revise and resubmit).},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135241}
}

@article{fds135163,
   Title = {1. Williams, R.B. The role of psychosocial factors in human
             disease: Lessons from animal models. ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA
             SCANDINAVICA., 161: 100-102, 1997.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135163}
}

@article{fds135164,
   Title = {6. Williams, R.B. The mind, the body, health, and disease.
             What do we know, what should we do? NORTH CAROLINA MEDICAL
             JOURNAL, 59(3): 2-4, 1998},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135164}
}

@article{fds135165,
   Title = {7. Williams, R.B. Lower socioeconomic status and increased
             mortality. Early childhood roots and the potential for
             successful interventions. JAMA, 279: 1745-1746,
             1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135165}
}

@article{fds135166,
   Title = {10. Williams, R.B. (in press). Social Ties and Health. THE
             HARVARD MENTAL HEALTH LETTER.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135166}
}

@article{fds135167,
   Title = {Chapters},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135167}
}

@article{fds135168,
   Title = {1. Williams, V.P. & Williams, R.B. LIFESKILLS: 8 SIMPLE WAYS
             TO BUILD STRONGER RELATIONSHIPS, COMMUNICATE MORE CLEARLY,
             IMPROVE YOUR HEALTH, AND EVEN THE HEALTH OF THOSE AROUND
             YOU. New York: Times Books/Random House, Spring,
             1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135168}
}

@article{fds135169,
   Title = {1/13/99},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135169}
}

@article{fds135226,
   Title = {2. Blumenthal, J.A., O'Connor, C., Hinderliter, A., Fath,
             K., Hegde, S.B., Miller, G., Puma, J., Sessions, W., Sheps,
             D., Zakhary, B., & Williams, R.B. Psychosocial factors and
             coronary disease. A National Multicenter Clinical Trial
             (ENRICHD) with a North Carolina focus. NORTH CAROLINA
             MEDICAL JOURNAL, 58: 802-808, 1997.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135226}
}

@article{fds135227,
   Title = {3. Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M., Williams,
             R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and
             emotional responses of hostile men: The role of
             interpersonal challenge. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 60: 78-88,
             1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135227}
}

@article{fds135228,
   Title = {4. Suarez, E.C., Bartolome, J.V., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg,
             S.M., Williams, R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The influence of
             dietary cholesterol on beta-adrenergic receptors in Egyptian
             Sand Rats. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE,
             4(2): 179-188, 1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135228}
}

@article{fds135229,
   Title = {5. Williams, R.B., Sasaki, M., Lewis, J.G., Kuhn, C.M.,
             Schanberg, S.M., Suarez, E.C., Feaganes, J.R., & Adams, D.O.
             Differential responsivity of monocyte cytokine and adhesion
             proteins in high and low hostile human: A pilot study.
             INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE, 4(3): 264-272,
             1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135229}
}

@article{fds135230,
   Title = {8. Barefoot, J.C., Heitmann, B.L., Helms, M.J., Williams,
             R.B., & Siegler, I.C. Symptoms of depression and changes in
             body weight from adolescence to mid-life. INTERNATIONAL
             JOURNAL OF OBESITY, 22: 688-694, 1998.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135230}
}

@article{fds135231,
   Title = {9. Brummett, B.H., Babyak, M.A., Barefoot, J.C., Bosworth,
             H.B., Clapp-Channing, N.E., Siegler, I.C., Williams, Jr.,
             R.B., & Mark, D.B. (in press). Social support, hostility and
             depressive symptoms in cardiac patients one month following
             hospitalization: A Prospective study. Psychosomatic
             Medicine.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135231}
}

@article{fds135232,
   Title = {11. Williams, R.B. Socioeconomic inequalities, health, and
             disease: An integrative theoretical review of potential
             experimental neurobiological, psychosocial, biobehavioral,
             and cellular/molecular mediators. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
             PSYCHIATRY (revise and resubmit).},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135232}
}

@article{fds135233,
   Title = {12. Tanaka, Y., Williams, R.B., Kuhn, C.M., Surwit, R.S.,
             Muranaka, M., & Tanaka, A. Central nervous system serotonin
             deficiency produces glucose intolerance in rats.
             NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACY (submitted).},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135233}
}

@article{fds135234,
   Title = {1. Williams, R.B. & Williams, V.P. Lifeskills training to
             ameliorate the impact of psychosocial factors on the
             development and course of medical illness. IN Cummings,
             N.A., Cummings, J.L., & Johnson, J. (Eds.), BEHAVIORAL
             HEALTH IN PRIMARY CARE: A GUIDE FOR CLINICAL INTERGRATION.
             (Chapter 11), pp. 205-218. Madison, CT: Psychosocial Press,
             1997.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135234}
}

@article{fds135157,
   Title = {Von Dras, D.D., Siegler, I.C., Williams, Jr., R.B.,
             Clapp-Channing, N., Haney, T., & Mark, D.B. Surrogate
             assessment of coronary artery disease patients' functional
             capacity. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, 44(10): 1491-1502,
             1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135157}
}

@article{fds135158,
   Title = {Luecken, L.J., Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Blumenthal, J.A., Siegler, I.C., & Williams, R.B. Stress and
             employed women. I. Impact of marital status and children at
             home on neurohormone output and home strain. PSYCHOSOMATIC
             MEDICINE, 59: 352-359, 1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135158}
}

@article{fds135159,
   Title = {4. Williams, R.B., Sasaki, M., Lewis, J.G., Kuhn, C.M.,
             Schanberg, S.M., Suarez, E.C., Feaganes, J.R., & Adams, D.O.
             Differential responsivity of monocyte cytokine and adhesion
             proteins in high and low hostile human: A pilot study.
             INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (in
             press).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135159}
}

@article{fds135160,
   Title = {7. Barefoot, J.C., Heitmann, B.L., Helms, M.J., Williams,
             R.B., & Siegler, I.C. Symptoms of depression and changes in
             body weight from adolescence to mid-life. INTERNATIONAL
             JOURNAL OF OBESITY (submitted).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135160}
}

@article{fds135161,
   Title = {Chapters},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135161}
}

@article{fds135162,
   Title = {Williams, V.P. & Williams, R.B. LIFESKILLS. Times
             Books/Random House, in press, Spring 1998.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135162}
}

@article{fds135215,
   Title = {Siegler, I.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Barefoot, J.C., Saunders,
             W.B., Peterson, B.L., Dahlstrom, W.G., Costa Jr., P.T.,
             Suarez, E.C., Helms, M.J., Maynard, K.E., & Williams,
             Redford B. Personality factors differentially predict
             exercise behavior in men and women. WOMEN'S HEALTH: RESEARCH
             ON GENDER, BEHAVIOR, AND POLICY, 3(1): 61-70,
             1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135215}
}

@article{fds135216,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Helms,
             M.J., Luecken, L., Pieper, C.F., Sieler, I.C., & Suarez,
             E.C. Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of
             working women. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY, 54: 543-548.
             1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135216}
}

@article{fds135217,
   Title = {Szczepanski, R., Napolitano, M., Feaganes, J.R., Barefoot,
             J.C., Luecken, L., Swoap, R., Kuhn, C., Suarez, E., Siegler,
             I., Williams, R.B., Blumenthal, J.A. Relation of mood
             ratings and neurohormonal responses during daily life in
             employed women. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL
             MEDICINE, 4: 1-16, 1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135217}
}

@article{fds135218,
   Title = {Shiller, A.M., Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M.,
             Williams, Jr., R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The relationship
             between hostility and beta-adrenergic receptor physiology in
             healthy young males. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 59: 481-487,
             1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135218}
}

@article{fds135219,
   Title = {1. Williams, R.B. The role of psychosocial factors in human
             disease: Lessons from animal models. ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA
             SCANDINAVICA Supplement (in press).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135219}
}

@article{fds135220,
   Title = {2. Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M., Williams,
             R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and
             emotional responses of hostile men: The role of
             interpersonal challenge. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE (in
             press).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135220}
}

@article{fds135221,
   Title = {3. Suarez, E.C., Bartolome, J.V., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg,
             S.M., Williams, R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The effect of
             dietary cholesterol on beta adrenergic receptor functioning
             in cardiac and hepatic tissues. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF
             BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE (in press).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135221}
}

@article{fds135222,
   Title = {5. Williams, R.B. Socioeconomic inequalities, health, and
             disease: An integrative theoretical review of potential
             experimental neurobiological, psychosocial, biobehavioral,
             and cellular/molecular mediators. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
             PSYCHIATRY (revise and resubmit).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135222}
}

@article{fds135223,
   Title = {6. Kussin, P.S., Brown, T.M., Oxley, S.L., & Williams, R. A
             prospective study of premorbid personality and mental status
             in critically ill patients. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135223}
}

@article{fds135224,
   Title = {8. Tanaka, Y., Williams, R.B., Kuhn, C.M., Surwit, R.S.,
             Muranaka, M., & Tanaka, A. Central nervous system serotonin
             deficiency produces glucose intolerance in rats.
             NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACY (submitted).},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135224}
}

@article{fds135225,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. & Williams, V.P. Lifeskills training to
             ameliorate the impact of psychosocial factors on the
             development and course of medical illness. IN Cummings,
             N.A., Cummings, J.L., & Johnson, J. (Eds). BEHAVIORAL HEALTH
             IN PRIMARY CARE: A GUIDE FOR CLINICAL INTERGRATION. (Chapter
             13). Madison, CT: Psychosocial Press, in press,
             1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135225}
}

@article{fds135149,
   Title = {Mark, D.B., Clapp-Channing, N., Lam, L.C., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Siegler, I.C., & Williams, R.B. (1995). Medical Care:
             Access, Utilization and Cost (pp. 133-144). In Report of the
             Conference on Socio-economic Status and Cardiovascular
             Health and Disease. Bethesda, MD. November
             5-6.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135149}
}

@article{fds135150,
   Title = {Chapters:},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135150}
}

@article{fds135151,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., & Littman, A.B. Psychosocial factors: Role
             in cardiac risk and treatment strategies. IN Abrams, J.,
             Pasternak, R.C. (Eds). CARDIOLOGY CLINICS. (pp. 97-104).
             Philadepha: W.B. Saunders Company, 1996.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135151}
}

@article{fds135152,
   Title = {In press},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135152}
}

@article{fds135153,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Helms,
             M.J., Luecken, L., Pieper, C.F., Sieler, I.C., & Suarez,
             E.C. Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of
             working women. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY, in
             press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135153}
}

@article{fds135154,
   Title = {Submitted},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135154}
}

@article{fds135155,
   Title = {Kussin, P.S., Brown, T.M., Oxley, S.L., & Williams, R. A
             prospective study of premorbid personality and mental status
             in critically ill patients. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135155}
}

@article{fds135156,
   Title = {Shiller, A.M., Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M.,
             Williams, Jr., R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The relationship
             between hostility and beta-adrenergic receptor physiology in
             healthy young males. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135156}
}

@article{fds135200,
   Title = {Von Dras DD, Williams RB, Kaplan BH, Siegler IC: Correlates
             of perceived social support and equality of interpersonal
             relationships at midlife. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGING AND
             HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 43 (3): 199-127, 1996.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135200}
}

@article{fds135201,
   Title = {Barefoot, J.C., Helms, M.J., Mark, D.M., Blumenthal, J.A.,
             Califf, R.M., Haney, T.L., O'Connor, C.M., Siegler, I.C.,
             Williams, R.B. Depression and long term mortality risk in
             patients with coronary artery disease. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF
             CARDIOLOGY, 78, 613-617, 1996.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135201}
}

@article{fds135202,
   Title = {Haney, T.L., Maynard, K.E., Houseworth, S.J., Scherwitz,
             L.W., Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C. The Interpersonal
             Hostility Assessment Technique: Description and validation
             against the criterion of coronary artery disease. JOURNAL OF
             PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT, 66(2): 386-401, 1996.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135202}
}

@article{fds135203,
   Title = {Tabrizi, K., Littman, A., & Williams, R.B. Psycopharmacology
             and cardiac disease. IN Allen, R., Scheidt, S. HEART & MIND.
             THE PRACTICE OF CARDIAC PSYCHOLOGY. (pp. 397-419).
             Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135203}
}

@article{fds135204,
   Title = {Von Dras, D.D., Williams, R.B., Kaplan, B.H., & Siegler,
             I.C. Correlates of perceived social support and equality of
             interpersonal relationships at midlife. INTERNATIONAL
             JOURNAL OF AGING AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 43(3), in
             press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135204}
}

@article{fds135205,
   Title = {Szczepanski, R., Napolitano, M., Feaganes, J.R., Kuhn, C.,
             Swoap, R., Suarez, E.C., Barefoot, J.C., Siegler, I.C.,
             Williams, R.B., & Blumenthal, J.A. Relationship of mood
             ratings and neurohormonal responses during daily life in
             employed females, in press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135205}
}

@article{fds135206,
   Title = {Von Dras, D.D., Siegler, I.C., Williams, Jr., R.B.,
             Clapp-Channing, N., Haney, T., & Mark, D.B. Surrogate
             assessment of coronary artery disease patients' functional
             capacity. SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE, in press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135206}
}

@article{fds135207,
   Title = {Luecken, L.J., Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Blumenthal, J.A., Siegler, I.C., & Williams, R.B. Stress and
             employed women. I. Impact of marriage and children on
             perceived stress and neuroendocrine output. PSYCHOSOMATIC
             MEDICINE, in press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135207}
}

@article{fds135208,
   Title = {Siegler, I.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Barefoot, J.C., Saunders,
             W.B., Peterson, B.L., Dahlstrom, W.G., Costa Jr., P.T.,
             Suarez, E.C., Helms, M.J., Maynard, K.E., & Williams,
             Redford B. Personality factors differentially predict
             exercise behavior in men and women. WOMEN'S HEALTH: RESEARCH
             ON GENDER, BEHAVIOR, AND POLICY, in press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135208}
}

@article{fds135209,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Williams, V.P., Suarez, E.C., & Lincoln,
             J.E. Personality and public opinion: Hostility-scores and
             the choice of military active vs. Economic sanction against
             Iraq prior to the Gulf War in January, 1991. JASP
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135209}
}

@article{fds135210,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Socioeconomic inequalities, health, and
             disease: An integrative theoretical review of potential
             experimental neurobiological, psychosocial, biobehavioral,
             and cellular/molecular mediators. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
             PSYCHIATRY (submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135210}
}

@article{fds135211,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M., Williams, R.B., &
             Zimmermann, E.A. Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and
             emotional responses of hostile men: The role of
             interpersonal challenge. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135211}
}

@article{fds135212,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Bartolome, J.V., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M.,
             Williams, R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The effect of dietary
             cholesterol on beta adrenergic receptor functioning in
             cardiac and hepatic tissues. (To be submitted).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135212}
}

@article{fds135213,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M., Williams, Jr.,
             R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. Neuroendocrine, cardiovasuclar, and
             emotional responses of hostile men: The role of
             interpersonal challenge. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE,
             submitted.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135213}
}

@article{fds135214,
   Title = {Barefoot, J.C., Heitmann, B.L., Helms, M.J., Williams, R.B.,
             & Siegler, I.C. Symptoms of depression and changes in body
             weight from adolescence to mid-life. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
             OF OBESITY, submitted.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135214}
}

@article{fds135144,
   Title = {Williams, R. B. A commentary on Pincus and Callahan (1995).
             ADVANCES.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135144}
}

@article{fds135145,
   Title = {Submitted},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135145}
}

@article{fds135146,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Williams, V.P., Suarez, E.C., & Lincoln,
             J.E. Personality and Public Opinion: Hostility scores and
             the choice of military active vs. economic sanctions against
             Iraq prior to the Gulf War in January, 1991. JASP
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135146}
}

@article{fds135147,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M., Williams, R.B., &
             Zimmermann, E.A. Neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, and
             emotional responses of hostile men: The role of
             interpersonal challenge. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE.
             (Submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135147}
}

@article{fds135148,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Bartholome, J.A., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M.,
             Williams, R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The effect of dietary
             cholesterol on beta adrenergic receptor functiong in cardiac
             and hepatic tissue. (To be submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135148}
}

@article{fds135189,
   Title = {Thai, S.F., Lewis, J.G., Williams, R.B., Johnson, S.P., &
             Adams, D.O. Effects of oxidized LDL on mononuclear
             phagocytes: inhibition of induction of four inflammatory
             cytokine gene RNAs, release of NO, and cytolysis of tumor
             cells. JOURNAL OF LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY, 57, 427-433,
             1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135189}
}

@article{fds135190,
   Title = {Hlatky, M.A., Lam L.C., Lee K.L., Clapp-Channing, N.E.,
             Williams, R.B., Pryor, D.B., Califf, R.M., & Mark, D.B. Job
             strain and the prevalence and outcome of coronary artery
             disease. CIRCULATION, 92: 327-333, 1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135190}
}

@article{fds135191,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Somatic Consequences of Stress.
             NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS: FROM
             NORMAL ADAPTATION TO PTSD. Friedman, M.J., Charney, D.S.,
             Deutch, A., (eds.). New York: Raven Press,
             1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135191}
}

@article{fds135192,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Coronary-Prone Behaviors, Hostility, and
             Cardiovascular Health: Implications for Behavioral and
             Pharmacological Interventions. BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
             APPROACHES TO CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION.
             Schneiderman, N., Orth-Gomer, K. (eds). Chapter 11. Lawrence
             Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135192}
}

@article{fds135193,
   Title = {Kussin, P.S., Brown, T.M., Oxley, S.L., & Williams, R. A
             Prospective study of premorbid personality and mental status
             in critically ill patients. CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE,
             (submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135193}
}

@article{fds135194,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Socioeconomic inequalities, health, and
             disease: An integrative theoretical review of potential
             neurobiological, psychosocial, biobehavioral, and
             cellular/molecular mediators. ARCHIVES OF GENERAL
             PSYCHIATRIARY, submitted.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135194}
}

@article{fds135195,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Blumenthal, J.A., Helms,
             M.J., Luecken, L., Pieper, C.F., Siegler, I.C., & Suarez,
             E.C. Psychosocial correlates of job strain in a sample of
             working women. ARCHIVES GENERAL PSYCHIATRY.
             Submitted.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135195}
}

@article{fds135196,
   Title = {Schiller, A.M., Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Schanberg, S.M.,
             Williams, J. R.B., & Zimmermann, E.A. The relationship
             between hostility and beta-adrenergic receptor physiology in
             healthy young males. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE.
             (Submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135196}
}

@article{fds135197,
   Title = {Luecken, L.J. Suarez, E.C., Kuhn, C.M., Barefoot, J.C.,
             Blumenthal, J.A., Siegler, I.C., & Williams, R.B. Stress and
             employed women. I. Impact of marriage and children on
             perceived stress and neuroendocrine output. PSYCHOSOMATIC
             MEDICINE. (Submitted).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135197}
}

@article{fds135198,
   Title = {Von Dras, D.D., Williams, R.B., Kaplan, B.H., & Siegler,
             I.C. (in press). Correlates of perceived social support and
             equality of interpersonal relationships at midlife.
             International Journal of Aging and Human
             Development.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135198}
}

@article{fds135199,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Sasaki, M., Williams, R.B., & Adams, D.O.
             (1995). Stress- induced increase in interleukin-lb
             expression on monocytes is associated with depression in
             women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American
             Heart Association, San Diego, CA.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135199}
}

@article{fds135138,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Neurobiology, cellular and molecular biology,
             and psychosomatic medicine. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 56:
             308-315, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135138}
}

@article{fds135141,
   Title = {Lipkus, I.M., Barefoot, J.C., Feaganes, J., Williams, R.B.,
             & Siegler, I.C. A short MMPI scale to identify people likely
             to begin smoking. JOURNAL OF PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT, 62(2):
             213-222, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135141}
}

@article{fds135142,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Neurobiology, cellular and molecular biology,
             and psychosomatic medicine. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 56:
             308-315, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135142}
}

@article{fds135143,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Psychosocial Factors in Health and Disease:
             What do we know, what can we do? Proceedings of the Danish
             National Symposium on Social Networks and Health.
             Copenhagen, November 24-25, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135143}
}

@article{fds135180,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Chesney, M., Cohen, S., Frasure-Smith, N.,
             Kaplan, G., Krantz, D., Manuck, S., Muller, J., Powell, L.,
             Schnall, P., & Wortman, C. Behavior change and compliance:
             Keys to improving cardiovascular health: Workshop VI:
             Stress. CIRCULATION, 90: 1406-1407, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135180}
}

@article{fds135181,
   Title = {Lane, J.D., Pieper, C.F., Barefoot, J.C., Williams, Jr.,
             R.B., & Siegler, I.C. Caffeine and cholesterol: Interactions
             with hostility. PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 56, 260-266,
             1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135181}
}

@article{fds135182,
   Title = {Lipkus, I.M., Barefoot, J.C., Williams, R.B., & Siegler,
             I.C.: Personality measures as predictors of smoking
             initiation and cessation in the UNC Alumni Heart Study.
             HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY, 13(2): 149-155, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135182}
}

@article{fds135183,
   Title = {Mark D.B., Lam, L.C., Lee, K.L., Jones, R.H., Pryor D.B.,
             Stack, R.S., Williams, R.B., Clapp-Channing, N.E., Califf,
             R.M., & Hlatky, M.A. Effects of coronary angioplasty,
             coronary bypass surgery, and medical therapy on employment
             in patients with coronary artery disease: A prospective
             comparison study. ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, 120: 111-117,
             1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135183}
}

@article{fds135184,
   Title = {Barefoot, J.C., Patterson, J.C., Haney, T.L., Cayton, T.G.,
             Hickman, Jr., J. R., & Williams, R.B. Hostility in
             asymptomatic men with angiographically confirmed coronary
             artery disease. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, 74: 439-442,
             1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135184}
}

@article{fds135185,
   Title = {Beckham, J.C., Barefoot, J.C., Haney, T.L., Williams, R.B.,
             & Mark, D.B.: Pain coping strategies in patients referred
             for evaluation of angina pectoris. JOURNAL OF
             CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION, 14: 1-8,
             1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135185}
}

@article{fds135186,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Jr. Basic biological mechanisms. ANGER,
             HOSTILITY, AND THE HEART. Siegman, L., & Smith, T (eds).
             Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
             1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135186}
}

@article{fds135187,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., & William, V.P. ANGER KILLS: SEVENTEEN
             STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING THE HOSTILITY THAT CAN HARM YOUR
             HEALTH. Trade paperback edition published by
             Harper-Perennial, Spring, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135187}
}

@article{fds135188,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., & William, V.P. ANGER KILLS: SEVENTEEN
             STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING THE HOSTILITY THAT CAN HARM YOUR
             HEALTH. Paperback edition published by Harper-Perennial,
             Spring, 1994.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135188}
}

@article{fds135139,
   Title = {Zonderman, A., Siegler, I.C., Barefoot, J.C., Williams,
             R.B., & Costa, P.T.: Age and gender differences in MMPI
             content scales. EXPERIMENTAL AGING RESEARCH, 19: 241-257,
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135139}
}

@article{fds135140,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., & William, V.p. ANGER KILLS: SEVENTEEN
             STRATEGIES FOR CONTROLLING THE HOSTILITY THAT CAN HARM YOUR
             HEALTH. New York: Times Books, 1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135140}
}

@article{fds135176,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Califf, R.M., Haney, T.L.,
             Saunders, W.B., Pryor, D.B., Hlatky, M.A., Siegler, I.C., &
             Mark, D.B. Importancia pronostica de los recursos economicos
             y sociales entre los pacientes con enfermedad coronaria
             documentada angiograficamente tratadoes medicamente. JOURNAL
             OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION (ED. ESP., 1: 103-110,
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135176}
}

@article{fds135177,
   Title = {Williams, R.B & Chesney, M.A. Psychosocial factors and
             prognosis in established coronary artery disease. The need
             for research on interventions. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN
             MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 270: 1860-1861, (Editorial)
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135177}
}

@article{fds135178,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., Harlan, E.S., Peoples, M.C., & Williams, R.B.
             Cardiovascular and Emotional Responses in Women: The Role of
             Hostility and Harassment. HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY, 12: 459-468,
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135178}
}

@article{fds135179,
   Title = {Suarez, E.C., & Williams, R.B. Interactive models of
             reactivity: The relationship between hostility and
             potentially pathogenic physiological responses to social
             stressors. In N. Schneiderman, P. McCabe, & A. Baum (Eds.).
             STRESS AND DISEASE PROCESSES: PERSPECTIVE IN BEHAVIORAL
             MEDICINE, Hillsdale, NJ: Larence Erlbaum Associates,
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds135179}
}

@article{fds135175,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Barefoot, J.C., Califf, R.M., Haney, T.L.,
             Saunders, W.B., Pryor, D.B., Hlatky, M.A., Siegler, I.C., &
             Mark, D.B. Prognostic importance of social and economic
             resources among medically treated patients with
             angiographically documented coronary artery disease. JOURNAL
             OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 267: 520-524,
             1992.},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds135175}
}

@article{fds135174,
   Title = {Williams, R.B. Psychological factors in coronary artery
             disease: Epidemiologic evidence. CIRCULATION, 76: 117-123,
             1987.},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds135174}
}

@article{fds135173,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Lane, J.D., Kuhn, C.M., Melosh, W., White,
             A.D. & Schanberg, S.M. Type A behavior and elevated
             physiological and neuroendocrine responses to cognitive
             tasks. SCIENCE, 218: 483-485, 1982.},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds135173}
}

@article{fds135137,
   Title = {Williams, R.B., Haney, T.L., Blumenthal, J.A., & Kong, Y.
             Type A behavior, hostility, and coronary atherosclerosis.
             PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE, 42(6): 539-549, 1980.},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds135137}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds291345,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Gene by environment interactions: Impact on women’s
             health},
   Pages = {151-160},
   Booktitle = {Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Women:
             Concepts, Findings, Future Perspectives},
   Publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9783319092409},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09241-6_10},
   Abstract = {© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. There
             is growing appreciation that a particular gene variant can
             have quite different effects on the expression of a
             particular phenotype in persons exposed to varying levels of
             environmental stress. It has been reported, for example,
             that among persons exposed to a large number of stressful
             life events those carrying the short (S) allele of the
             serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5HTTLPR) will
             have higher levels of depressive symptoms than those
             homozygous for the long (L) allele, while in those not so
             exposed depressive symptoms do not vary as a function of
             genotype. In this chapter I review extensive evidence from
             research in my laboratory that shows it is important, at
             least for some gene variants, to consider sex/gender as
             another factor in addition to environmental factors that can
             moderate the impact of a given gene variant on expression of
             phenotypes that can influence the development and course of
             major diseases. We have shown, for example, in two
             independent samples that, among men exposed to chronic
             stress in present day life or childhood, those with the
             5HTTLPR LL genotype have increased depressive symptom
             levels; in contrast, among women exposed to the same
             stressors, it is those with the SS genotype who have higher
             depressive symptom levels. In research aiming to identify
             genetic variants that can be used to identify persons at
             high risk of developing disease it will be important,
             therefore, to evaluate not only environmental exposures but
             also sex/gender as moderators of gene effects on phenotype
             expression.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-09241-6_10},
   Key = {fds291345}
}

@misc{fds277152,
   Author = {Williams, RB},
   Title = {Hostility, Neuroendocrine Changes, and Health
             Outcomes},
   Pages = {160-173},
   Booktitle = {The Link Between Religion and Health: Psychoneuroimmunology
             and the Faith Factor},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISBN = {9780195143607},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143607.003.0010},
   Abstract = {© 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights
             reserved. Research conducted over the past several decades
             has documented a moderately strong association between
             chronic negative emotional states such as hostility and
             anger, and negative health outcomes. The interdisciplinary
             field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) provides a good
             environment for studying the effects of hostility on health
             because of the complex sequelae of events in the central
             nervous system, endocrine system, immune system, blood and
             heart, all of which are set in motion as a consequence of
             chronic negative emotions. This chapter examines the
             relationships between hostility and anger, neuroendocrine
             changes, and health outcome. It explores how anger and
             hostile aggression can have devastating cardiovascular
             effects which shorten survival. The role which religion and
             spirituality play in the mastery and control of negative
             emotions may offer opportunities not only for studying the
             phenomenon of hostility itself but also for understanding
             the ways in which the health-damaging effects of hostility
             might bethwarted.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195143607.003.0010},
   Key = {fds277152}
}


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