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Publications of Scott N. Compton    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds339604,
   Author = {Bushnell, GA and Gaynes, BN and Compton, SN and Dusetzina, SB and Brookhart, MA and Stürmer, T},
   Title = {Incidence of mental health hospitalizations, treated
             self-harm, and emergency room visits following new anxiety
             disorder diagnoses in privately insured U.S.
             children.},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-189},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22849},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Anxiety disorders are one of the most common
             mental illnesses in children and associated with high
             healthcare utilization. We aimed to estimate 2-year
             cumulative incidence of mental health-related
             hospitalizations, treated self-harm, and emergency room (ER)
             visits in children newly diagnosed with anxiety disorders
             and, for context, in children without anxiety disorders.
             METHODS:We identified commercially insured treatment naïve
             children (3-17 years) with a new office-based anxiety
             disorder diagnosis (ICD-9-CM) from 2005-2014 in the
             MarketScan claims database. We followed children for up to 2
             years after diagnosis for the first of each event: mental
             health-related hospitalization, inpatient, treated
             self-harm, and ER visits (any, anxiety-related,
             injury-related). Children without anxiety diagnoses were
             included as comparators, matched on age, sex, date, and
             region. We estimated cumulative incidence of each event
             using Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS:From 2005-2014, we
             identified 198,450 children with a new anxiety diagnosis.
             One-year after anxiety diagnosis, 2.0% of children had a
             mental health-related hospitalization, 0.08% inpatient,
             treated self-harm, 1.4% anxiety-related ER visit, and 20%
             any ER visit; incidence was highest in older children with
             baseline comorbid depression. One-year cumulative incidence
             of each event was lower in the comparison cohort without
             anxiety (e.g., mental health-related hospitalizations = 0.5%,
             treated self-harm = 0.01%, and ER visits = 13%).
             CONCLUSIONS:Given the prevalence of anxiety disorders,
             2-year incidence estimates translate to a significant number
             of children experiencing each event. Our findings offer
             caregivers, providers, and patients information to better
             understand the burden of anxiety disorders and can help
             anticipate healthcare utilization and inform efforts to
             prevent these serious events.},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.22849},
   Key = {fds339604}
}

@article{fds340611,
   Author = {Carpenter, KLH and Baranek, GT and Copeland, WE and Compton, S and Zucker, N and Dawson, G and Egger, HL},
   Title = {Sensory Over-Responsivity: An Early Risk Factor for Anxiety
             and Behavioral Challenges in Young Children.},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0502-y},
   Abstract = {Anxiety disorders are prevalent and significantly impact
             young children and their families. One hypothesized risk
             factor for anxiety is heightened responses to sensory input.
             Few studies have explored this hypothesis prospectively.
             This study had two goals: (1) examine whether sensory
             over-responsivity is predictive of the development of
             anxiety in a large prospective sample of children, and (2)
             identify whether anxiety mediates the relationship between
             sensory over-responsivity and behavioral challenges.
             Children's sensory and anxiety symptoms were assessed in a
             community sample of 917 at 2-5 and again in 191 of these
             children at 6 years old. Parents also reported on a number
             of additional behavioral challenges previously found to be
             associated with both sensory over-responsivity and anxiety
             separately: irritability, food selectivity, sleep problems,
             and gastrointestinal problems. Forty three percent of
             preschool children with sensory over-responsivity also had a
             concurrent impairing anxiety disorder. Preschool sensory
             over-responsivity symptoms significantly and positively
             predicted anxiety symptoms at age six. This relationship was
             both specific and unidirectional. Finally, school-age
             anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between preschool
             sensory over-responsivity symptoms and both irritability and
             sleep problems at school-age. These results suggest sensory
             over-responsivity is a risk factor for anxiety disorders.
             Furthermore, children who have symptoms of sensory
             over-responsivity as preschoolers have higher levels of
             anxiety symptoms at school-age, which in turn is associated
             with increased levels of school-age behavioral
             challenges.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10802-018-0502-y},
   Key = {fds340611}
}

@article{fds339514,
   Author = {Gonzalez, A and Rozenman, M and Langley, AK and Kendall, PC and Ginsburg, GS and Compton, S and Walkup, JT and Birmaher, B and Albano,
             AM and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Correction to: Social Interpretation Bias in Children and
             Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination
             of the Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth
             (SASSY) Scale (Child & Youth Care Forum, (2017), 46, 3,
             (395-412), 10.1007/s10566-016-9381-y)},
   Journal = {Child & Youth Care Forum},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {769-770},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature America, Inc},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-018-9466-x},
   Abstract = {© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of
             Springer Nature. The original version of this article
             unfortunately contains the following errors. This has been
             corrected with this erratum.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10566-018-9466-x},
   Key = {fds339514}
}

@article{fds337698,
   Author = {Swan, AJ and Kendall, PC and Olino, T and Ginsburg, G and Keeton, C and Compton, S and Piacentini, J and Peris, T and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher,
             B and Albano, AM},
   Title = {Results from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Longitudinal Study (CAMELS): Functional outcomes.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {738-750},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000334},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To report functional outcomes from the multisite
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-term Study
             (CAMELS), which examined the impact of youth anxiety
             treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT], coping cat;
             Sertraline, SRT; COMB [CBT + SRT]; pill placebo) on (a)
             global and (b) domain-specific functioning assessed an
             average of 3.1 times, 3- to 12-years postrandomization
             (first assessment = mean 6.5 years postrandomization).
             METHOD:Three-hundred and 19 of 488 families from the
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS; Walkup et
             al., 2008) participated. Growth curve modeling examined the
             impact of treatment condition and acute treatment outcomes
             (i.e., response, remission) on global functioning, global
             and domain-specific impairment, and life satisfaction across
             follow-up visits. Logistic regressions explored the impact
             of treatment remission and condition on low frequency events
             (arrests/convictions) and education. RESULTS:Treatment
             responders and remitters demonstrated better global
             functioning, decreased overall impairment, and increased
             life satisfaction at follow-up. Treatment remission, but not
             response, predicted decreased domain-specific impairment
             (social relationships, self-care/independence, academic
             functioning), and maintenance of increased life satisfaction
             across follow-ups. Participants in the CBT condition,
             compared with pill placebo, demonstrated improved
             trajectories pertaining to life satisfaction, overall
             impairment, and impairment in academic functioning.
             Randomization to CBT or COMB treatment was associated with
             increasing employment rates. Trajectories for participants
             randomized to SRT was not significantly different from
             placebo. Treatment outcome and condition did not predict
             legal outcomes, school/work variables, or family life.
             CONCLUSION:Positive early intervention outcomes are
             associated with improved overall functioning, life
             satisfaction, and functioning within specific domains 6.5
             years posttreatment. Treatment type differentially predicted
             trajectories of functioning. Findings support the positive
             impact of pediatric anxiety treatment into adolescence and
             early adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/ccp0000334},
   Key = {fds337698}
}

@article{fds337699,
   Author = {Villabø, MA and Narayanan, M and Compton, SN and Kendall, PC and Neumer, S-P},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety: An
             effectiveness evaluation in community practice.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {751-764},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000326},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To compare the effectiveness of individual
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) and group CBT (GCBT) for
             referred children with anxiety disorders within community
             mental health clinics. METHOD:Children (N = 165; ages 7-13
             years) referred to 5 clinics in Norway because of primary
             separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social anxiety disorder
             (SOC), or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) based on
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th
             ed., text rev.) criteria participated in a randomized
             clinical trial. Participants were randomized to ICBT, GCBT,
             or wait list (WL). WL participants were randomized to 1 of
             the 2 active treatment conditions following the wait period.
             Primary outcome was loss of principal anxiety disorder over
             12 weeks and 2-year follow-up. RESULTS:Both ICBT and GCBT
             were superior to WL on all outcomes. In the intent-to-treat
             analysis, 52% in ICBT, 65% in GCBT, and 14% in WL were
             treatment responders. Planned pairwise comparisons found no
             significant differences between ICBT and GCBT. GCBT was
             superior to ICBT for children diagnosed with SOC.
             Improvement continued during 2-year follow-up with no
             significant between-groups differences. CONCLUSIONS:Among
             anxiety disordered children, both individual and group CBT
             can be effectively delivered in community clinics. Response
             rates were similar to those reported in efficacy trials.
             Although GCBT was more effective than ICBT for children with
             SOC following treatment, both treatments were comparable at
             2-year follow-up. Dropout rates were lower in GCBT than in
             ICBT, suggesting that GCBT may be better tolerated. Response
             rates continued to improve over the follow-up period, with
             low rates of relapse. (PsycINFO Database
             Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/ccp0000326},
   Key = {fds337699}
}

@article{fds336055,
   Author = {Ginsburg, GS and Becker-Haimes, EM and Keeton, C and Kendall, PC and Iyengar, S and Sakolsky, D and Albano, AM and Peris, T and Compton, SN and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Results From the Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Extended Long-Term Study (CAMELS): Primary
             Anxiety Outcomes.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {471-480},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.017},
   Abstract = {To report anxiety outcomes from the multisite
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-term Study
             (CAMELS). Rates of stable anxiety remission (defined
             rigorously as the absence of all DSM-IV TR anxiety disorders
             across all follow-up years) and predictors of anxiety
             remission across a 4-year period, beginning 4 to 12 years
             after randomization to 12 weeks of medication,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination, or
             pill placebo were examined. Examined predictors of remission
             included acute treatment response, treatment assignment,
             baseline child and family variables, and interim negative
             life events.Data were from 319 youths (age range 10.9-25.2
             years; mean age 17.12 years) originally diagnosed with
             separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorders and
             enrolled in the multi-site Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study (CAMS). Participants were assessed annually
             by independent evaluators using the age-appropriate version
             of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule and completed
             questionnaires (eg, about family functioning, life events,
             and mental health service use).Almost 22% of youth were in
             stable remission, 30% were chronically ill, and 48% were
             relapsers. Acute treatment responders were less likely to be
             in the chronically ill group (odds ratio = 2.73; confidence
             interval = 1.14-6.54; p < .02); treatment type was not
             associated with remission status across the follow-up.
             Several variables (eg, male gender) predicted stable
             remission from anxiety disorders.Findings suggest that acute
             positive response to anxiety treatment may reduce risk for
             chronic anxiety disability; identified predictors can help
             tailor treatments to youth at greatest risk for chronic
             illness.Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders (CAMS).
             http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00052078.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.017},
   Key = {fds336055}
}

@article{fds336056,
   Author = {Kiff, CJ and Ernestus, S and Gonzalez, A and Kendall, PC and Albano, AM and Compton, SN and Birmaher, B and Ginsburg, GS and Rynn, M and Walkup, JT and McCracken, J and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {The Interplay of Familial and Individual Risk in Predicting
             Clinical Improvements in Pediatric Anxiety
             Disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Pages = {1-13},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2018.1460848},
   Abstract = {Bioecological models of developmental psychopathology
             underscore the role of familial experiences of adversity and
             children's individual-level characteristics in heightening
             risk for pediatric anxiety through direct, combined, and
             interactive effects. To date, much of the existing research
             dedicated to pediatric anxiety disorders has largely been
             examined in bioecological models of diathesis-stress using
             community samples. This study extends our understanding of
             children's differential responsiveness to familial adversity
             by examining the diathesis-stress interaction of cumulative
             risk and children's individual-level vulnerabilities
             (negative affectivity and coping efficacy) within a
             clinic-referred treatment study for pediatric anxiety
             disorders. A cumulative risk index assessing exposure to
             familial adversity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], parent
             psychiatric illness) and self-reported measures of
             children's negative affectivity and coping efficacy were
             each measured at the intake of a randomized controlled
             clinical trial for the treatment of pediatric anxiety
             disorders (N = 488; 7-17 years of age). Trajectories of
             interviewer-rated anxiety symptoms were assessed across 12
             weeks of treatment at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and
             12 weeks. Consistent with models of temperamental risk for
             mental health problems, negative affectivity predicted
             higher anxiety symptoms at intake. A significant
             diathesis-stress interaction between cumulative risk and
             coping efficacy emerged, as high risk and perceptions of
             lower coping efficacy attenuated declines in anxiety across
             12 weeks. These patterns did not differ across treatment
             conditions. The results indicate that for youth experiencing
             high levels of stress, additional treatment efforts
             targeting familial stressors and coping efficacy may be
             important in maximizing treatment outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2018.1460848},
   Key = {fds336056}
}

@article{fds336057,
   Author = {Bushnell, GA and Brookhart, MA and Gaynes, BN and Compton, SN and Dusetzina, SB and Stürmer, T},
   Title = {Examining Parental Medication Adherence as a Predictor of
             Child Medication Adherence in Pediatric Anxiety
             Disorders.},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {510-519},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/mlr.0000000000000911},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
             are the recommended first-line pharmacotherapy for pediatric
             anxiety disorders but adherence remains difficult to
             predict. OBJECTIVES:To estimate SSRI adherence in children
             with anxiety disorders and determine if prior parental
             medication adherence is predictive of child high SSRI
             adherence. METHODS:We identified children (3-17 y)
             initiating SSRI treatment after an anxiety disorder
             diagnosis in a commercial claims database (2005-2014). We
             evaluated parent SSRI, statin, and antihypertensive
             adherence [6-mo proportion days covered (PDC), high
             adherence=PDC≥0.80] in the year before child SSRI
             initiation. We estimated risk differences (RD) of child high
             SSRI adherence (6-mo PDC) stratified by parent adherence and
             multivariable risk ratios using modified Poisson regression.
             We estimated change in c-statistic and risk reclassification
             when adding parent-level covariates with child-level
             covariates to predict child adherence. RESULTS:In 70,979
             children with an anxiety disorder (59%=female, 14=median
             age), the mean 6-month SSRI PDC was 0.72, with variation by
             anxiety disorder. Overall 64% of children had high adherence
             if their parent had high SSRI adherence versus 53% of
             children with parents with low SSRI adherence (RD, 12%;
             multivariable risk ratios, 1.17; 95% confidence interval,
             1.14-1.20). Findings were similar for parent statin (RD=10%)
             and antihypertensive adherence (RD=8%) and when stratified
             by child age and parent sex. There was minor improvement in
             risk reclassification and the c-statistic after adding
             parent adherence and parent-level covariates.
             CONCLUSIONS:Parental medication adherence could help
             providers identify children at risk of nonadherence to
             inform the treatment decision, reduce unnecessary medication
             switches, and lead to broader effective interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1097/mlr.0000000000000911},
   Key = {fds336057}
}

@article{fds336058,
   Author = {Palitz, SA and Caporino, NE and McGuire, JF and Piacentini, J and Albano, AM and Birmaher, B and Walkup, JT and Compton, SN and Ginsburg,
             GS and Kendall, PC},
   Title = {Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Youth Anxiety:
             A Signal Detection Analysis With the Multidimensional
             Anxiety Scale for Children.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {418-427},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.013},
   Abstract = {To determine the percent reduction cutoffs on the
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) that
             optimally predict treatment response and remission in youth
             with anxiety disorders.Youths and their parents completed
             the MASC-C/P before and after treatment, and the Anxiety
             Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV-Child and Parent
             Versions (ADIS-IV-C/P) and the Clinical Global
             Impression-Improvement Scale (CGI-I) were administered by
             independent evaluators. Treatment response and remission
             were defined by post-treatment ratings on the CGI-I and the
             ADIS-IV-C/P, respectively. Quality receiver operating
             characteristic methods determined the optimal cutoff on the
             MASC-P for predicting overall remission (loss of all study
             entry diagnoses) and optimal percent reductions on the
             MASC-P for predicting treatment response and remission of
             separation anxiety, social anxiety, and generalized
             anxiety.A post-treatment raw score of 42 optimally predicted
             remission. A reduction of 35% on the total MASC-P predicted
             treatment response. A reduction of 30% on the Separation
             Anxiety/Panic subscale of the MASC-P predicted separation
             anxiety remission. A reduction of 35% on the Social Anxiety
             subscale of the MASC-P predicted social anxiety remission.
             The MASC did not evidence a cutoff for remission of
             generalized anxiety disorder.MASC cutoffs can facilitate
             comparison across studies and guide practice, aiding
             clinicians in assessing progress and informing treatment
             plans.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2018.03.013},
   Key = {fds336058}
}

@article{fds328085,
   Author = {Selles, RR and Franklin, M and Sapyta, J and Compton, SN and Tommet, D and Jones, RN and Garcia, A and Freeman, J},
   Title = {Children's and Parents' Ability to Tolerate Child Distress:
             Impact on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric
             Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {308-316},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-017-0748-6},
   Abstract = {The present study explored the concept of tolerance for
             child distress in 46 children (ages 5-8), along with their
             mothers and fathers, who received family-based CBT for OCD.
             The study sought to describe baseline tolerance, changes in
             tolerance with treatment, and the predictive impact of
             tolerance on symptom improvement. Tolerance was rated by
             clinicians on a single item and the CY-BOCS was used to
             measure OCD severity. Descriptive results suggested that all
             participants had some difficulty tolerating the child's
             distress at baseline while paired t tests indicated large
             improvements were made over treatment (d = 1.2-2.0).
             Fathers' initial tolerance was significantly related to
             symptom improvement in a multivariate regression as were
             fathers' and children's changes in distress tolerance over
             the course of treatment. Overall, results provide support
             for examining tolerance of child distress including its
             predictive impact and potential as a supplemental
             intervention target.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-017-0748-6},
   Key = {fds328085}
}

@article{fds336059,
   Author = {Bushnell, GA and Compton, SN and Dusetzina, SB and Gaynes, BN and Brookhart, MA and Walkup, JT and Rynn, MA and Stürmer,
             T},
   Title = {Treating Pediatric Anxiety: Initial Use of SSRIs and Other
             Antianxiety Prescription Medications.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.16m11415},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:Multiple pharmacotherapies for treating anxiety
             disorders exist, including selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitors (SSRIs), the recommended first-line
             pharmacotherapy for pediatric anxiety. We sought to describe
             initial antianxiety medication use in children and estimate
             how long antianxiety medications were continued. METHODS:In
             a large commercial claims database, we identified children
             (3-17 years) initiating prescription antianxiety medication
             from 2004 to 2014 with a recent anxiety diagnosis (ICD-9-CM
             = 293.84, 300.0x, 300.2x, 300.3x, 309.21, 309.81, 313.23).
             We estimated the proportion of children initiating each
             medication class across the study period and used
             multivariable regression to evaluate factors associated with
             initiation with an SSRI. We evaluated treatment length for
             each initial medication class. RESULTS:Of 84,500 children
             initiating antianxiety medication, 70% initiated with an
             SSRI (63% [95% CI, 62%-63%] SSRI alone, 7% [95% CI, 7%-7%]
             SSRI + another antianxiety medication). Non-SSRI medications
             initiated included benzodiazepines (8%), non-SSRI
             antidepressants (7%), hydroxyzine (4%), and atypical
             antipsychotics (3%). Anxiety disorder, age, provider type,
             and comorbid diagnoses were associated with initial
             medication class. The proportion of children refilling their
             initial medication ranged from 19% (95% CI, 18%-20%) of
             hydroxyzine initiators and 25% (95% CI, 24%-26%) of
             benzodiazepine initiators to 81% (95% CI, 80%-81%) of SSRI
             initiators. Over half (55%, 95% CI, 55%-56%) of SSRI
             initiators continued SSRI treatment for 6 months.
             CONCLUSIONS:SSRIs are the most commonly used first-line
             medication for pediatric anxiety disorders, with about half
             of SSRI initiators continuing treatment for 6 months. Still,
             a third began therapy on a non-SSRI medication, for which
             there is limited evidence of effectiveness for pediatric
             anxiety, and a notable proportion of children initiated with
             2 antianxiety medication classes.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.16m11415},
   Key = {fds336059}
}

@article{fds327202,
   Author = {Hale, AE and Ginsburg, GS and Chan, G and Kendall, PC and McCracken, JT and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher, B and Compton, SN and Albano, AM and Walkup,
             JT},
   Title = {Mediators of Treatment Outcomes for Anxious Children and
             Adolescents: The Role of Somatic Symptoms.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {94-104},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1280804},
   Abstract = {Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and selective serotonin
             reuptake inhibitors are effective treatments for pediatric
             anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms of these
             treatments are unknown. Previous research indicated that
             somatic symptoms are reduced following treatment, but it is
             unclear if their reductions are merely a consequence of
             treatment gains. This study examined reductions in somatic
             symptoms as a potential mediator of the relationship between
             treatment and anxiety outcomes. Participants were 488
             anxious youth ages 7-17 (M = 10.7), 50.4% male, 78.9%
             Caucasian, enrolled in Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study, a large randomized control trial comparing 12-week
             treatments of CBT, sertraline, a combination of CBT and
             sertraline, and a pill placebo. Causal mediation models were
             tested in R using data from baseline, 8-, and 12-week
             evaluations. Somatic symptoms were assessed using the
             Panic/Somatic subscale from the Screen for Child Anxiety
             Related Emotional Disorders. Youth outcomes were assessed
             using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale and Children's
             Global Assessment Scale. Reductions in somatic symptoms
             mediated improvement in anxiety symptoms and global
             functioning for those in the sertraline-only condition based
             on parent report. Conditions involving CBT and data based on
             child reported somatic symptoms did not show a mediation
             effect. Findings indicate that reductions in somatic
             symptoms may be a mediator of improvements for treatments
             including pharmacotherapy and not CBT. Although the overall
             efficacy of sertraline and CBT for anxiety may be similar,
             the treatments appear to function via different
             mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2017.1280804},
   Key = {fds327202}
}

@article{fds330474,
   Author = {Peris, TS and Caporino, NE and O'Rourke, S and Kendall, PC and Walkup,
             JT and Albano, AM and Bergman, RL and McCracken, JT and Birmaher, B and Ginsburg, GS and Sakolsky, D and Piacentini, J and Compton,
             SN},
   Title = {Therapist-Reported Features of Exposure Tasks That Predict
             Differential Treatment Outcomes for Youth With
             Anxiety.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1043-1052},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.10.001},
   Abstract = {Exposure tasks are recognized widely as a key component of
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for child and adolescent
             anxiety. However, little research has examined specific
             exposure characteristics that predict outcomes for youth
             with anxiety and that may guide its application in
             therapy.This study draws on a sample of 279 children and
             adolescents (48.4% male; 79.6% white) with a principal
             anxiety disorder who received 14 sessions of CBT, either
             alone or in combination with medication, through the
             Child/adolescent Anxiety Multimodal treatment Study (CAMS).
             The present study examines therapist-reported quantity,
             difficulty level, compliance, and mastery of exposure tasks
             as they related to CBT response (i.e., Clinical Global
             Impressions-Improvement ratings). Secondary treatment
             outcomes included reduction in anxiety symptom severity on
             the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, global impairment
             measured via the Children's Global Assessment Scale, and
             parent-report of anxiety-specific functional impairment on
             the Child Anxiety Impairment Scale.Regression analyses
             indicated a dose-response relationship between
             therapist-reported quantity of exposure and independent
             evaluations of treatment outcome, with more time devoted to
             exposure linked to better outcomes. Similarly, greater time
             spent on more difficult (rather than mild or moderate)
             exposure tasks predicted better outcomes, as did therapist
             ratings of child compliance and mastery.The present findings
             highlight the importance of challenging children and
             adolescents with difficult exposure tasks and of
             collaborating to ensure compliance and mastery.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2017.10.001},
   Key = {fds330474}
}

@article{fds330044,
   Author = {Højgaard, DRMA and Hybel, KA and Ivarsson, T and Skarphedinsson, G and Becker Nissen and J and Weidle, B and Melin, K and Torp, NC and Valderhaug,
             R and Dahl, K and Mortensen, EL and Compton, S and Jensen, S and Lenhard,
             F and Thomsen, PH},
   Title = {One-Year Outcome for Responders of Cognitive-Behavioral
             Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive
             Disorder.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {940-947.e1},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.002},
   Abstract = {This study describes 1-year treatment outcomes from a large
             sample of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) responders,
             investigates age as a possible moderator of these treatment
             outcomes, and evaluates clinical relapse at the 1-year
             follow-up.This study is the planned follow-up to the Nordic
             Long-term OCD [obsessive-compulsive disorder] Treatment
             Study (NordLOTS), which included 177 children and
             adolescents who were rated as treatment responders following
             CBT for OCD. Participants were assessed with the Children's
             Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) at 6- and
             12-month follow-up. Treatment response and remission were
             defined as CY-BOCS total scores ≤15 and ≤10,
             respectively. Linear mixed-effects models were used to
             analyze all outcomes.At 1 year, a total of 155 children and
             adolescents (87.6%) were available for follow-up assessment,
             with 142 of these (91.6%) rated below a total score
             of ≤15 on the CY-BOCS. At 1-year follow-up, 121 (78.1%)
             were in remission. On average, CY-BOCS total scores dropped
             by 1.72 points during the first year after terminating
             treatment (p = .001). A total of 28 participants (15.8%)
             relapsed (CY-BOCS ≥ 16) at either the 6- or 12-month
             assessment; only 2 patients required additional CBT.Results
             suggest that manualized CBT in a community setting for
             pediatric OCD has durable effects for those who respond to
             an initial course of treatment; children and adolescents who
             respond to such treatment can be expected to maintain their
             treatment gains for at least 1 year following acute care.
             Clinical trial registration information- Nordic Long-term
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment Study;
             www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN66385119.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2017.09.002},
   Key = {fds330044}
}

@article{fds336060,
   Author = {Pistorello, J and Jobes, DA and Compton, SN and Locey, NS and Walloch,
             JC and Gallop, R and Au, JS and Noose, SK and Young, M and Johnson, J and Dickens, Y and Chatham, P and Jeffcoat, T and Dalto, G and Goswami,
             S},
   Title = {Developing Adaptive Treatment Strategies to Address Suicidal
             Risk in College Students: A Pilot Sequential, Multiple
             Assignment, Randomized Trial (SMART).},
   Journal = {Archives of Suicide Research : Official Journal of the
             International Academy for Suicide Research},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {644-664},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2017.1392915},
   Abstract = {This pilot study investigated the potential to utilize
             adaptive treatment strategies for treating moderate to
             severe suicidal risk among college students. This article
             will describe the unique study design and report on
             feasibility and acceptability findings. A 2-stage Sequential
             Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) was conducted:
             In Stage 1, 62 suicidal college students were randomized to
             either a suicide-focused or a treatment-as-usual condition
             (4-8 weeks). Those deemed insufficient responders were
             re-randomized to one of two Stage 2 interventions-both
             suicide-focused but one comprehensive and multimodal and the
             other flexible and theoretically agnostic (4-16 additional
             weeks). Recruitment rates were high, treatment dropout
             levels were lower than expected for the setting, study
             dropouts were rare, and counselors were able to deliver
             suicide-focused approaches with fidelity. Treatment
             satisfaction was high among clients and moderately high
             among counselors. Findings from this pilot show that a SMART
             is highly feasible and acceptable to suicidal college
             students, counselors, and campuses.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13811118.2017.1392915},
   Key = {fds336060}
}

@article{fds323540,
   Author = {Caporino, NE and Read, KL and Shiffrin, N and Settipani, C and Kendall,
             PC and Compton, SN and Sherrill, J and Piacentini, J and Walkup, J and Ginsburg, G and Keeton, C and Birmaher, B and Sakolsky, D and Gosch, E and Albano, AM},
   Title = {Sleep-Related Problems and the Effects of Anxiety Treatment
             in Children and Adolescents.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {675-685},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1063429},
   Abstract = {This study examined (a) demographic and clinical
             characteristics associated with sleep-related problems
             (SRPs) among youth with anxiety disorders, and (b) the
             impact of anxiety treatment: cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their
             combination, and pill placebo on SRPs. Youth (N = 488,
             ages 7-17, 50% female, 79% White) with a principal diagnosis
             of generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety
             disorder, or social phobia participated. SRPs were reported
             by parents and youth. Findings differed by informant and by
             type of SRP, with evidence that SRPs are associated with
             age, anxiety severity, externalizing problems, functional
             impairment, and family burden at pretreatment. Anxiety
             treatment reduced SRPs; effect sizes were small to medium.
             Reductions in parent-reported separation-related sleep
             difficulties were significantly greater in active treatment
             than in the placebo condition, with the greatest reductions
             reported by parents of youth whose active treatment was
             multimodal or included sertraline. Youth whose anxiety
             treatment involved CBT reported significantly greater
             decreases in dysregulated sleep (e.g., sleeplessness). Both
             CBT for anxiety and sertraline appear to be somewhat
             effective in reducing SRPs, and multimodal treatment may be
             preferable depending on the symptom presentation. To inform
             practice, future research should examine a broad range of
             SRPs, incorporate objective measures of sleep, and evaluate
             the impact of behavioral strategies that directly target
             SRPs in youth with anxiety disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2015.1063429},
   Key = {fds323540}
}

@article{fds327204,
   Author = {Hoff, AL and Kendall, PC and Langley, A and Ginsburg, G and Keeton, C and Compton, S and Sherrill, J and Walkup, J and Birmaher, B and Albano, AM and Suveg, C and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Developmental Differences in Functioning in Youth With
             Social Phobia.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {686-694},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1079779},
   Abstract = {Social phobia (SoP) in youth may manifest differently across
             development as parent involvement in their social lives
             changes and social and academic expectations increase. This
             cross-sectional study investigated whether self-reported and
             parent-reported functioning in youth with SoP changes with
             age in social, academic, and home/family domains. Baseline
             anxiety impairment data from 488 treatment-seeking
             anxiety-disordered youth (ages 7-17, N = 400 with a SoP
             diagnosis) and their parents were gathered using the Child
             Anxiety Impact Scale and were analyzed using generalized
             estimating equations. According to youth with SoP and their
             parents, overall difficulties, social difficulties, and
             academic difficulties increased with age, even when
             controlling for SoP severity. These effects significantly
             differed for youth with anxiety disorders other than SoP.
             Adolescents may avoid social situations as parental
             involvement in their social lives decreases, and their
             withdrawn behavior may result in increasing difficulty in
             the social domain. Their avoidance of class participation
             and oral presentations may increasingly impact their
             academic performance as school becomes more demanding.
             Implications are discussed for the early detection and
             intervention of SoP to prevent increased impairment over the
             course of development.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2015.1079779},
   Key = {fds327204}
}

@article{fds327200,
   Author = {Strawn, JR and Dobson, ET and Mills, JA and Cornwall, GJ and Sakolsky,
             D and Birmaher, B and Compton, SN and Piacentini, J and McCracken, JT and Ginsburg, GS and Kendall, PC and Walkup, JT and Albano, AM and Rynn,
             MA},
   Title = {Placebo Response in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders: Results
             from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {501-508},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0198},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study is to identify predictors of pill
             placebo response and to characterize the temporal course of
             pill placebo response in anxious youth.Data from
             placebo-treated patients (N = 76) in the
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a
             multisite, randomized controlled trial that examined the
             efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy, sertraline, their
             combination, and placebo for the treatment of separation,
             generalized, and social anxiety disorders, were evaluated.
             Multiple linear regression models identified features
             associated with placebo response and models were confirmed
             with leave-one-out cross-validation. The likelihood of
             improvement in patients receiving pill placebo-over
             time-relative to improvement associated with active
             treatment was determined using probabilistic Bayesian
             analyses.Based on a categorical definition of response
             (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale score ≤2),
             nonresponders (n = 48), and pill placebo responders
             (n = 18) did not differ in age (p = 0.217), sex
             (p = 0.980), race (p = 0.743), or primary diagnosis
             (all ps > 0.659). In terms of change in anxiety symptoms,
             separation anxiety disorder and treatment expectation were
             associated with the degree of pill placebo response. Greater
             probability of placebo-related anxiety symptom improvement
             was observed early in the course of treatment (baseline to
             week 4, p < 0.0001). No significant change in the
             probability of placebo-related improvement was observed
             after week 4 (weeks 4-8, p = 0.07; weeks 8-12,
             p = 0.85), whereas the probability of improvement, in
             general, significantly increased week over week with active
             treatment.Pill placebo-related improvement occurs early in
             the course of treatment and both clinical factors and
             expectation predict this improvement. Additionally,
             probabilistic approaches may refine our understanding and
             prediction of pill placebo response.},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2016.0198},
   Key = {fds327200}
}

@article{fds326112,
   Author = {Gonzalez, A and Rozenman, M and Langley, AK and Kendall, PC and Ginsburg, GS and Compton, S and Walkup, JT and Birmaher, B and Albano,
             AM and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with
             Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the
             Self-report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY)
             Scale.},
   Journal = {Child & Youth Care Forum},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {395-412},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-016-9381-y},
   Abstract = {Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health
             problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been
             positively linked to anxiety severity, even within
             anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of
             interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with
             certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on cognitive
             bias during intervention.This study examined the factor
             structure, reliability, and validity of the Self-report of
             Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) scale, a
             self-report measure developed to assess interpretation bias
             in youth.Participants (N=488, age 7 to 17) met diagnostic
             criteria for Social Phobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder,
             and/or Separation Anxiety Disorder. An exploratory factor
             analysis was performed on baseline data from youth
             participating in a large randomized clinical
             trial.Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors
             (Accusation/Blame, Social Rejection). The SASSY full scale
             and Social Rejection factor demonstrated adequate internal
             consistency, convergent validity with social anxiety, and
             discriminant validity as evidenced by non-significant
             correlations with measures of non-social anxiety. Further,
             the SASSY Social Rejection factor accurately distinguished
             children and adolescents with Social Phobia from those with
             other anxiety disorders, supporting its criterion validity,
             and revealed sensitivity to changes with treatment. Given
             the relevance to youth with social phobia, pre- and
             post-intervention data were examined for youth social phobia
             to test sensitivity to treatment effects; results suggested
             that SASSY scores reduced for treatment responders.Findings
             suggest the potential utility of the SASSY Social Rejection
             factor as a quick, reliable, and efficient way of assessing
             interpretation bias in anxious youth, particularly as
             related to social concerns, in research and clinical
             settings.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10566-016-9381-y},
   Key = {fds326112}
}

@article{fds326330,
   Author = {Lee, P and Zehgeer, A and Ginsburg, GS and McCracken, J and Keeton, C and Kendall, PC and Birmaher, B and Sakolsky, D and Walkup, J and Peris, T and Albano, AM and Compton, S},
   Title = {Child and Adolescent Adherence With Cognitive Behavioral
             Therapy for Anxiety: Predictors and Associations With
             Outcomes.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1310046},
   Abstract = {Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is
             effective, but nonadherence with treatment may reduce the
             benefits of CBT. This study examined (a) four baseline
             domains (i.e., demographic, youth clinical characteristics,
             therapy related, family/parent factors) as predictors of
             youth adherence with treatment and (b) the associations
             between youth adherence and treatment outcomes. Data were
             from 279 youth (7-17 years of age, 51.6% female; 79.6%
             White, 9% African American), with Diagnostic and Statistical
             Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.) diagnoses of
             separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder,
             and/or social phobia, who participated in CBT in the
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study. Adherence was
             defined in three ways (session attendance, therapist-rated
             compliance, and homework completion). Multiple regressions
             revealed several significant predictors of youth adherence
             with CBT, but predictors varied according to the definition
             of adherence. The most robust predictors of greater
             adherence were living with both parents and fewer youth
             comorbid externalizing disorders. With respect to outcomes,
             therapist ratings of higher youth compliance with CBT
             predicted several indices of favorable outcome: lower
             anxiety severity, higher global functioning, and treatment
             responder status after 12 weeks of CBT. Number of sessions
             attended and homework completion did not predict treatment
             outcomes. Findings provide information about risks for youth
             nonadherence, which can inform treatment and highlight the
             importance of youth compliance with participating in therapy
             activities, rather than just attending sessions or
             completing homework assignments.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2017.1310046},
   Key = {fds326330}
}

@article{fds327201,
   Author = {Alexander, JR and Houghton, DC and Twohig, MP and Franklin, ME and Saunders, SM and Neal-Barnett, AM and Compton, SN and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Clarifying the Relationship between Trichotillomania and
             Anxiety.},
   Journal = {Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related
             Disorders},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {30-34},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2017.02.004},
   Abstract = {Although research has consistently linked unidimensional
             anxiety with Trichotillomania (TTM) severity, the
             relationships between TTM severity and anxiety dimensions
             (i.e., cognitive and somatic anxiety) are unknown. This
             knowledge gap limits current TTM conceptualization and
             treatment. The current study examined these relationships
             with data collected from ninety-one adults who participated
             in a randomized clinical trial for TTM treatment. To examine
             whether the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI; Beck, Epstein,
             Brown, & Steer, 1988) could be used to measure
             multidimensional anxiety in TTM samples, we conducted a
             factor analysis. Results showed four emergent factors,
             including a cognitive factor and three somatic factors
             (neurophysiological, autonomic, and panic). Based on prior
             research, it was hypothesized that TTM severity would be
             related to the cognitive anxiety dimension and that
             psychological inflexibility would mediate the association.
             Hypotheses were not made regarding the relationship between
             TTM severity and somatic anxiety. Regression analyses
             indicated that only cognitive dimensions of anxiety
             predicted TTM severity and that psychological inflexibility
             mediated this relationship. Implications for the
             conceptualization and treatment of TTM are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jocrd.2017.02.004},
   Key = {fds327201}
}

@article{fds327203,
   Author = {Strawn, JR and Compton, SN and Robertson, B and Albano, AM and Hamdani,
             M and Rynn, MA},
   Title = {Extended Release Guanfacine in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders:
             A Pilot, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {29-37},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2016.0132},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:This is a feasibility study evaluating the safety,
             tolerability, and potential anxiolytic efficacy of the α2
             agonist guanfacine extended-release (GXR) in children and
             adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD),
             separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or social phobia/social
             anxiety disorder. METHODS:Youth aged 6-17 years with a
             primary diagnosis of GAD, SAD, and/or social anxiety
             disorder were treated with flexibly dosed GXR (1-6 mg
             daily, n = 62) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks. The
             primary aim of this study was to determine the safety and
             tolerability of GXR in youth with anxiety disorders, which
             involved the analysis of treatment-emergent adverse events
             (TEAEs), the emergence of suicidal ideation and behaviors,
             vital signs, and electrocardiographic/laboratory parameters.
             Exploratory efficacy measures included dimensional anxiety
             scales (Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale [PARS] and Screen for
             Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders [SCARED]), as well
             as the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale.
             As this was an exploratory study, no inferential statistical
             analyses were performed. RESULTS:GXR was safe and well
             tolerated. Treatment-related mean ± standard deviation
             changes in heart rate (GXR: 1.8 ± 12 beats per minute
             [bpm] decrease; placebo: 0.5 ± 11 bpm decrease),
             systolic blood pressure (GXR: 2.3 ± 11 mm Hg
             decrease; placebo: 1.7 ± 11 mm Hg decrease), or
             diastolic blood pressure (GXR: 1.3 ± 9 mm Hg
             decrease; placebo: 0.9 ± 7 mm Hg increase) were
             similar between treatment groups. TEAEs, including headache,
             somnolence/fatigue, abdominal pain, and dizziness, were
             consistent with the known safety profile of GXR. No
             differences were observed between treatment groups for PARS
             and SCARED scores, although at endpoint, a higher proportion
             of subjects receiving GXR versus placebo demonstrated CGI-I
             scores ≤2 (54.2% vs. 31.6%), as rated by the clinician
             investigator. CONCLUSIONS:GXR was well tolerated in
             pediatric subjects with GAD, SAD, and/or social anxiety
             disorder. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT01470469.},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2016.0132},
   Key = {fds327203}
}

@article{fds323535,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Mathew, AS and Twohig, MP and Saunders, SM and Franklin, ME and Compton, SN and Neal-Barnett, AM and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Trauma and trichotillomania: A tenuous relationship},
   Journal = {Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related
             Disorders},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {91-95},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2016.09.003},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Some have argued that hair pulling in
             trichotillomania (TTM) is triggered by traumatic events, but
             reliable evidence linking trauma to TTM is limited. However,
             research has shown that hair pulling is associated with
             emotion regulation, suggesting a connection between negative
             affect and TTM. We investigated the associations between
             trauma, negative affect, and hair pulling in a
             cross-sectional sample of treatment seeking adults with TTM
             (N=85). In the current study, participants’ self-reported
             traumatic experiences were assessed during a structured
             clinical interview, and participants completed several
             measures of hair pulling severity, global TTM severity,
             depression, anxiety, experiential avoidance, and quality of
             life. Those who experienced trauma had more depressive
             symptoms, increased experiential avoidance, and greater
             global TTM severity. Although the presence of a trauma
             history was not related to the severity of hair pulling
             symptoms in the past week, depressive symptoms mediated the
             relationship between traumatic experiences and global TTM
             severity. These findings cast doubt on the notion that TTM
             is directly linked to trauma, but suggest that trauma leads
             to negative affect that individuals cope with through hair
             pulling. Implications for the conceptualization and
             treatment of TTM are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jocrd.2016.09.003},
   Key = {fds323535}
}

@article{fds323534,
   Author = {Alexander, JR and Houghton, DC and Twohig, MP and Franklin, ME and Saunders, SM and Neal-Barnett, AM and Compton, SN and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Factor analysis of the Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of
             Trichotillomania-Adult Version.},
   Journal = {Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related
             Disorders},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {31-38},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2016.08.001},
   Abstract = {The Milwaukee Inventory for Subtypes of Trichotillomania-Adult
             Version (MIST-A; Flessner et al., 2008) measures the degree
             to which hair pulling in Trichotillomania (TTM) can be
             described as "automatic" (i.e., done without awareness and
             unrelated to affective states) and/or "focused" (i.e., done
             with awareness and to regulate affective states). Despite
             preliminary evidence in support of the psychometric
             properties of the MIST-A, emerging research suggests the
             original factor structure may not optimally capture TTM
             phenomenology. Using data from a treatment-seeking TTM
             sample, the current study examined the factor structure of
             the MIST-A via exploratory factor analysis. The resulting
             two factor solution suggested the MIST-A consists of a
             5-item "awareness of pulling" factor that measures the
             degree to which pulling is done with awareness and an 8-item
             "internal-regulated pulling" factor that measures the degree
             to which pulling is done to regulate internal stimuli (e.g.,
             emotions, cognitions, and urges). Correlational analyses
             provided preliminary evidence for the validity of these
             derived factors. Findings from this study challenge the
             notions of "automatic" and "focused" pulling styles and
             suggest that researchers should continue to explore TTM
             subtypes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jocrd.2016.08.001},
   Key = {fds323534}
}

@article{fds323536,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Franklin, MR and Twohig, MP and Franklin, ME and Compton, SN and Neal-Barnett, AM and Saunders, SM and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Photographic Assessment of Change in Trichotillomania:
             Psychometric Properties and Variables Influencing
             Interpretation},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral
             Assessment},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {505-513},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-016-9536-z},
   Abstract = {© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Although
             photographic assessment has been found to be reliable in
             assessing hair loss in Trichotillomania, the validity of
             this method is unclear, particularly for gauging progress in
             treatment. The current study evaluated the psychometric
             properties of photographic assessment of change in
             Trichotillomania. Photographs showing hair loss of adults
             with Trichotillomania were taken before and after
             participating in a clinical trial for the condition.
             Undergraduate college students (N = 211) rated treatment
             response according to the photos, and additional archival
             data on hair pulling severity and psychosocial health were
             retrieved from the clinical trial. Photographic assessment
             of change was found to possess fair reliability (ICC =
             0.53), acceptable criterion validity (r = 0.51), good
             concurrent validity (r = 0.30–0.36), and excellent
             incremental validity (ΔR2 = 8.67, p < 0.01). In addition,
             photographic measures were significantly correlated with
             change in quality of life (r = 0.42), and thus could be
             considered an index of the social validity of
             Trichotillomania treatment. Gender of the photo rater and
             pulling topography affected the criterion validity of
             photographic assessment (partial η2 = 0.05–0.11).
             Recommendations for improving photographic assessment and
             future directions for hair pulling research are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10862-016-9536-z},
   Key = {fds323536}
}

@article{fds323537,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Maas, J and Twohig, MP and Saunders, SM and Compton,
             SN and Neal-Barnett, AM and Franklin, ME and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Comorbidity and quality of life in adults with hair pulling
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {239},
   Pages = {12-19},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.063},
   Abstract = {Hair pulling disorder (HPD; trichotillomania) is thought to
             be associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity and
             functional impairment. However, few methodologically
             rigorous studies of HPD have been conducted, rendering such
             conclusions tenuous. The following study examined
             comorbidity and psychosocial functioning in a
             well-characterized sample of adults with HPD (N=85) who met
             DSM-IV criteria, had at least moderate hair pulling
             severity, and participated in a clinical trial. Results
             revealed that 38.8% of individuals with HPD had another
             current psychiatric diagnosis and 78.8% had another lifetime
             (present and/or past) psychiatric diagnosis. Specifically,
             HPD showed substantial overlap with depressive, anxiety,
             addictive, and other body-focused repetitive behavior
             disorders. The relationships between certain comorbidity
             patterns, hair pulling severity, current mood and anxiety
             symptoms, and quality of life were also examined. Results
             showed that current depressive symptoms were the only
             predictor of quality of life deficits. Implications of these
             findings for the conceptualization and treatment of HPD are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2016.02.063},
   Key = {fds323537}
}

@article{fds323538,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and McFarland, CS and Franklin, ME and Twohig, MP and Compton, SN and Neal-Barnett, AM and Saunders, SM and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {DSM-5 Trichotillomania: Perception of Adults With
             Trichotillomania After Psychosocial Treatment.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {164-169},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00332747.2016.1144438},
   Abstract = {Trichotillomania (TTM) is associated with significant
             embarrassment and is viewed negatively by others. A
             potentially important outcome variable that is often
             overlooked in treatment for TTM is appearance and social
             perception.The present study tested whether participants in
             a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of psychotherapy for TTM
             are viewed more positively by others. All participants in
             the trial were photographed at baseline and posttreatment.
             Three treatment responders and three treatment nonresponders
             were selected randomly for the present study. Several
             healthy controls were also photographed in a similar manner.
             Undergraduate college students (N = 245) assessed whether
             they would reject the person socially, whether the
             individual has a psychological or medical problem, and
             attractiveness.Individuals with TTM were viewed more
             negatively than healthy controls at baseline, but treatment
             responders showed positive improvements on all perceptions
             relative to nonresponders. While treatment responders were
             still perceived more poorly than controls on social
             rejection and perceptions of problems at posttreatment,
             responders where rated no differently than controls on
             attractiveness at posttreatment.The results suggest that
             persons with TTM who respond to treatment are rated by
             others as significantly improved in appearance, but they
             might be still stigmatized or socially rejected.},
   Doi = {10.1080/00332747.2016.1144438},
   Key = {fds323538}
}

@article{fds323539,
   Author = {Kendall, PC and Cummings, CM and Villabø, MA and Narayanan, MK and Treadwell, K and Birmaher, B and Compton, S and Piacentini, J and Sherrill, J and Walkup, J and Gosch, E and Keeton, C and Ginsburg, G and Suveg, C and Albano, AM},
   Title = {Mediators of change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Treatment Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-14},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039773},
   Abstract = {Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious
             self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at
             3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Treatment Study (CAMS).Participants were 488 youth (ages
             7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline),
             their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental
             Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for generalized
             anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety
             disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage
             anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and
             parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious
             self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative
             Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was
             measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed
             by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal
             precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at
             3-month follow-up.Residualized gains in coping efficacy
             mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination
             conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect
             of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not
             associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did
             anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms.The
             findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a
             mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not
             emerge as a mediator.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0039773},
   Key = {fds323539}
}

@article{fds302616,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Capriotti, MR and De Nadai and AS and Compton, SN and Twohig, MP and Neal-Barnett, AM and Saunders, SM and Franklin, ME and Woods, DW},
   Title = {Defining treatment response in trichotillomania: a signal
             detection analysis.},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {44-51},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.09.008},
   Abstract = {The Massachusetts General Hospital Hairpulling Scale
             (MGH-HPS) and the NIMH Trichotillomania Severity Scale
             (NIMH-TSS) are two widely used measures of trichotillomania
             severity. Despite their popular use, currently no
             empirically-supported guidelines exist to determine the
             degrees of change on these scales that best indicate
             treatment response. Determination of such criteria could aid
             in clinical decision-making by defining clinically
             significant treatment response/recovery and producing
             accurate power analyses for use in clinical trials research.
             Adults with trichotillomania (N=69) participated in a
             randomized controlled trial of psychotherapy and were
             assessed before and after treatment. Response status was
             measured via the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement
             Scale, and remission status was measured via the Clinical
             Global Impressions-Severity Scale. For treatment response, a
             45% reduction or 7-point raw score change on the MGH-HPS was
             the best indicator of clinically significant treatment
             response, and on the NIMH-TSS, a 30-40% reduction or 6-point
             raw score difference was most effective cutoff. For disorder
             remission, a 55-60% reduction or 7-point raw score change on
             the MGH-HPS was the best predictor, and on the NIMH-TSS, a
             65% reduction or 6-point raw score change was the best
             indicator of disorder remission. Implications of these
             findings are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.09.008},
   Key = {fds302616}
}

@article{fds302623,
   Author = {Gordon-Hollingsworth, AT and Becker, EM and Ginsburg, GS and Keeton,
             C and Compton, SN and Birmaher, BB and Sakolsky, DJ and Piacentini, J and Albano, AM and Kendall, PC and Suveg, CM and March,
             JS},
   Title = {Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American
             Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics,
             Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment
             Outcomes.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {643-655},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0507-x},
   Abstract = {This study examined racial differences in anxious youth
             using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed
             whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian
             (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical
             characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3)
             treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7-17 and met
             DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social
             phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data,
             as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained
             by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process
             variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no
             racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics.
             However, African American participants attended fewer
             psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated
             by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to
             showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other
             demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a
             significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse.
             Implications of these findings suggest African American and
             Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect
             to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes
             are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance
             and therapist engagement.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-014-0507-x},
   Key = {fds302623}
}

@article{fds327205,
   Author = {Bushnell, GA and Dusetzina, SB and Gaynes, BN and Compton, SN and White,
             AD and Stuermer, T},
   Title = {Initial Prescription Medication for Children with Anxiety:
             Concordance with Evidence},
   Journal = {Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {283-284},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds327205}
}

@article{fds302617,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Balsis, S and Stein, DJ and Compton, SN and Twohig, MP and Saunders, SM and Franklin, ME and Neal-Barnett, AM and Woods,
             DW},
   Title = {Examining DSM criteria for trichotillomania in a dimensional
             framework: implications for DSM-5 and diagnostic
             practice.},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Volume = {60},
   Pages = {9-16},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0010-440X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.04.011},
   Abstract = {Diagnosis of trichotillomania (TTM) requires meeting several
             criteria that aim to embody the core pathology of the
             disorder. These criteria are traditionally interpreted
             monothetically, in that they are all equally necessary for
             diagnosis. Alternatively, a dimensional conceptualization of
             psychopathology allows for examination of the relatedness of
             each criterion to the TTM latent continuum.First, to examine
             the ability of recently removed criteria (B and C) to
             identify the latent dimensions of TTM psychopathology, such
             that they discriminate between individuals with low and high
             degrees of hair pulling severity. Second, to determine the
             impact of removing criteria B and C on the information
             content of remaining diagnostic criteria. Third, to
             determine the psychometric properties of remaining TTM
             diagnostic criteria that remain largely unchanged in DSM-5;
             that is, whether they measure distinct or overlapping levels
             of TTM psychopathology. Fourth, to determine whether
             information content derived from diagnostic criteria aid in
             the prediction of disease trajectory (i.e., can relapse
             propensity be predicted from criteria endorsement
             patterns).Statistics derived from item response theory were
             used to examine diagnostic criteria endorsement in 91 adults
             with TTM who underwent psychotherapy.The removal of two
             criteria in DSM-5 and psychometric validity of remaining
             criteria was supported. Additionally, individual trait
             parameters were used to predict treatment progress,
             uncovering predictive power where none previously
             existed.Diagnostic criteria for TTM should be examined in
             dimensional models, which allow for nuanced and sensitive
             measurement of core symptomology in treatment
             contexts.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.comppsych.2015.04.011},
   Key = {fds302617}
}

@article{fds302610,
   Author = {Skarphedinsson, G and Compton, S and Thomsen, PH and Weidle, B and Dahl,
             K and Nissen, JB and Torp, NC and Hybel, K and Melin, KH and Valderhaug, R and Wentzel-Larsen, T and Ivarsson, T},
   Title = {Tics Moderate Sertraline, but Not Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
             Response in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients
             Who Do Not Respond to Cognitive-Behavior
             Therapy.},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {432-439},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2014.0167},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the
             presence of tic disorder is negatively associated with
             sertraline (SRT) outcomes, but not with continued
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), in a sample of youth who
             were unresponsive to an initial full course of CBT.In the
             Nordic Long-Term OCD Study, children and adolescents with
             OCD who were rated as nonresponders to 14 weeks of
             open-label CBT were randomized to continued CBT (n=28) or
             SRT treatment (n=22) for an additional 16 weeks of
             treatment. We investigated whether the presence or absence
             of comorbid tic disorder moderated treatment outcomes on the
             Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale
             (CY-BOCS).Twelve out of 50 (24.0%) participants were
             diagnosed with comorbid tic disorder, with 7 receiving
             continued CBT and 5 receiving SRT, respectively. In patients
             without tic disorder, results showed no significant
             between-group differences on average CY-BOCS scores.
             However, in patients with comorbid tic disorder, those who
             received SRT had significantly lower average CY-BOCS scores
             than those who received continued CBT.Children and
             adolescents with OCD and comorbid tic disorder, who are
             nonresponders to an initial 14 week course of CBT, may
             benefit more from a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) than
             from continued CBT.},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2014.0167},
   Key = {fds302610}
}

@article{fds302620,
   Author = {Nail, JE and Christofferson, J and Ginsburg, GS and Drake, K and Kendall, PC and McCracken, JT and Birmaher, B and Walkup, JT and Compton, SN and Keeton, C and Sakolsky, D},
   Title = {Academic Impairment and Impact of Treatments Among Youth
             with Anxiety Disorders},
   Journal = {Child & Youth Care Forum},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {327-342},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1053-1890},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-014-9290-x},
   Abstract = {© 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
             Background: Global academic difficulties have often been
             reported in youth with anxiety disorders, however, little is
             known about the specific academic deficits in this
             population. Objective: To (a) evaluate the prevalence of
             seven specific academic impairments in children and
             adolescents with anxiety disorders, (b) determine whether
             these impairments are associated with demographic (i.e.,
             race, gender and age) and clinical characteristics (i.e.,
             type of disorder, anxiety severity and global impairment)
             and (c) examine the impact of anxiety treatments on these
             impairments. Methods: As part of the Child-Adolescent
             Anxiety Multimodal Study (a randomized controlled trial),
             academic impairments, anxiety severity and global impairment
             were measured in 488 youth (mean age = 10.7 years) with
             separation, social and/or generalized anxiety disorders.
             Results: At baseline, 47 % of the sample was rated as
             impaired on 4 out of 7 items, and nearly 10 % of the sample
             was rated as academically impaired on 6 out of 7 items.
             Conversely, 28 % reported no impairment across the 7 items.
             There were no significant differences in parent-reported
             academic impairments by race, age or gender. Academic
             impairment was significantly, positively correlated with
             anxiety severity and negatively correlated with global
             functioning. Treatment responders were significantly more
             likely than non-responders to evidence improvement across
             all seven specific academic items. Conclusions: Specific
             academic impairments are prevalent among youth with anxiety
             disorders. The benefits of evidence-based treatments (i.e.,
             medication/sertraline; CBT/Coping cat) extend beyond symptom
             relief to include improved academic performance, as
             perceived by parents, in youth with anxiety
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10566-014-9290-x},
   Key = {fds302620}
}

@article{fds302622,
   Author = {Skarphedinsson, G and Weidle, B and Thomsen, PH and Dahl, K and Torp,
             NC and Nissen, JB and Melin, KH and Hybel, K and Valderhaug, R and Wentzel-Larsen, T and Compton, SN and Ivarsson,
             T},
   Title = {Continued cognitive-behavior therapy versus sertraline for
             children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder
             that were non-responders to cognitive-behavior therapy: a
             randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {591-602},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1018-8827},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-014-0613-0},
   Abstract = {Expert guidelines recommend cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT)
             as a first-line treatment in pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD) and the addition of selective serotonin
             reuptake inhibitors when CBT is not effective. However, the
             recommendations for CBT non-responders are not supported by
             empirical data. Our objective was to investigate the
             effectiveness of sertraline (SRT) versus continued CBT in
             children and adolescents that did not respond to an initial
             course of CBT. Randomized controlled trial conducted in five
             sites in Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 54 children and
             adolescents, age 7-17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD were
             randomized to SRT or continued CBT for 16 weeks. These
             participants had been classified as non-responders to CBT
             following 14 weekly sessions. Primary outcomes were the
             CY-BOCS total score and clinical response (CY-BOCS <16). The
             study was a part of the Nordic Long-Term OCD Treatment Study
             (NordLOTS). Intent-to-treat sample included 50 participants,
             mean age 14.0 (SD = 2.7) and 48 (n = 24) males. Twenty-one
             of 28 participants (75%) completed continued CBT and 15 of
             22 participants (69.2%) completed SRT. Planned pairwise
             comparison of the CY-BOCS total score did not reveal a
             significant difference between the treatments (p = .351),
             the response rate was 50.0% in the CBT group and 45.4% in
             the SRT group. The multivariate χ (2) test suggested that
             there were no statistically significant differences between
             groups (p = .727). Within-group effect sizes were large and
             significant across both treatments. These large within-group
             effect sizes suggest that continued treatment for CBT
             non-responders is beneficial. However, there was no
             significant between-group differences in SRT or continued
             CBT at post-treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00787-014-0613-0},
   Key = {fds302622}
}

@article{fds302618,
   Author = {Peris, TS and Compton, SN and Kendall, PC and Birmaher, B and Sherrill,
             J and March, J and Gosch, E and Ginsburg, G and Rynn, M and McCracken, JT and Keeton, CP and Sakolsky, D and Suveg, C and Aschenbrand, S and Almirall,
             D and Iyengar, S and Walkup, JT and Albano, AM and Piacentini,
             J},
   Title = {Trajectories of change in youth anxiety during
             cognitive-behavior therapy.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {239-252},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038402},
   Abstract = {To evaluate changes in the trajectory of youth anxiety
             following the introduction of specific cognitive-behavior
             therapy (CBT) components: relaxation training, cognitive
             restructuring, and exposure tasks.Four hundred eighty-eight
             youths ages 7-17 years (50% female; 74% ≤ 12 years) were
             randomly assigned to receive either CBT, sertraline (SRT),
             their combination (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO) as part of
             their participation in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study (CAMS). Youths in the CBT conditions were
             evaluated weekly by therapists using the Clinical Global
             Impression Scale-Severity (CGI-S; Guy, 1976) and the
             Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS; Shaffer et al.,
             1983) and every 4 weeks by blind independent evaluators
             (IEs) using the Pediatric Anxiety Ratings Scale (PARS; RUPP
             Anxiety Study Group, 2002). Youths in SRT and PBO were
             included as controls.Longitudinal discontinuity analyses
             indicated that the introduction of both cognitive
             restructuring (e.g., changing self-talk) and exposure tasks
             significantly accelerated the rate of progress on measures
             of symptom severity and global functioning moving forward in
             treatment; the introduction of relaxation training had
             limited impact. Counter to expectations, no strategy altered
             the rate of progress in the specific domain of anxiety that
             it was intended to target (i.e., somatic symptoms, anxious
             self-talk, avoidance behavior).Findings support CBT theory
             and suggest that cognitive restructuring and exposure tasks
             each make substantial contributions to improvement in youth
             anxiety. Implications for future research are discussed.
             (PsycINFO Database Record},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0038402},
   Key = {fds302618}
}

@article{fds302611,
   Author = {Torp, NC and Dahl, K and Skarphedinsson, G and Compton, S and Thomsen,
             PH and Weidle, B and Hybel, K and Valderhaug, R and Melin, K and Nissen,
             JB and Ivarsson, T},
   Title = {Predictors associated with improved cognitive-behavioral
             therapy outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {200-207.e1},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.007},
   Abstract = {To identify predictors of treatment response in a large
             sample of pediatric participants with obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD). The Nordic Long-term Obsessive compulsive
             disorder (OCD) Treatment Study (NordLOTS) included 269
             children and adolescents, 7 to 17 years of age, with a
             DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD. Outcomes were evaluated after 14
             weekly sessions of exposure-based cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT).The association of 20 potential predictors,
             identified by literature review, along with their outcomes,
             was evaluated using the Children's Yale-Brown
             Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) posttreatment. A
             CY-BOCS total score of ≤15 was the primary outcome
             measure.The univariate analyses showed that children and
             adolescents who were older had more severe OCD, greater
             functional impairment, higher rates of internalizing and
             externalizing symptoms, and higher levels of anxiety and
             depression symptoms before treatment had significantly
             poorer outcomes after 14 weeks of treatment. However, only
             age was a significant predictor in the multivariate model.In
             the multivariate analysis, only age predicted better
             treatment outcome. Using univariate analysis, a variety of
             predictors of poorer treatment outcome after CBT was
             identified. The high impact of comorbid symptoms on outcome
             in pediatric OCD suggests that treatment should address
             comorbidity issues. The lack of a family predictor may be
             related to high family involvement in this study. Future
             research strategies should focus on optimizing intervention
             in the presence of these characteristics to achieve greater
             benefits for patients with OCD. Clinical trial registration
             information-Nordic Long-term Obsessive compulsive disorder
             (OCD) Treatment Study; www.controlled-trials.com;
             ISRCTN66385119.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.007},
   Key = {fds302611}
}

@article{fds302612,
   Author = {Read, KL and Settipani, CA and Peterman, J and Kendall, PC and Compton,
             S and Piacentini, J and McCracken, J and Bergman, L and Walkup, J and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher, B and Albano, AM and Rynn, M and Ginsburg, G and Keeton, C and Gosch, E and Suveg, C and Sherrill, J and March,
             J},
   Title = {Predicting Anxiety Diagnoses and Severity with the CBCL-A:
             Improvement Relative to Other CBCL Scales?},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral
             Assessment},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {100-111},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0882-2689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-014-9439-9},
   Abstract = {The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely used
             parent-report of child and adolescent behavior. We examined
             the ability of the CBCL-A scale, a previously published
             subset of CBCL items, to predict the presence of generalized
             anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD),
             and social phobia (SoP), as well as anxiety severity, among
             488 youth randomized in the Child Anxiety Multimodal Study
             (CAMS). We predicted that the CBCL-A's unique inclusion of
             items related to somatic symptoms would better identify
             anxiety disorder and severity than other CBCL scales, given
             that somatic complaints are often key features of anxiety
             among youth. Results support the use of the anxiety-based
             CBCL subscales as first-line screeners for generally
             elevated symptoms of anxiety, rather than tools to identify
             specific anxiety disorders. Although somatic symptoms are
             often reported and included in diagnostic criteria for
             certain anxiety disorders (e.g., SAD, GAD), the unique
             combination of somatic and non-somatic symptoms for the
             CBCL-A subscale did not increase its ability to consistently
             predict the presence of specific anxiety
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10862-014-9439-9},
   Key = {fds302612}
}

@article{fds302619,
   Author = {Rynn, MA and Walkup, JT and Compton, SN and Sakolsky, DJ and Sherrill,
             JT and Shen, S and Kendall, PC and McCracken, J and Albano, AM and Piacentini, J and Riddle, MA and Keeton, C and Waslick, B and Chrisman,
             A and Iyengar, S and March, JS and Birmaher, B},
   Title = {Child/adolescent anxiety multimodal study: Evaluating
             safety},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {180-190},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.015},
   Abstract = {© 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
             Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs)
             across 4 treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent
             Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the
             frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method
             Participants ages 7 to 17 years (mean = 10.7 years) meeting
             the DSM-IV criteria for 1 or more of the following
             disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety
             disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 139), sertraline
             (SRT, n = 133), a combination of both (COMB, n = 140), or
             pill placebo (PBO, n = 76). Data on AEs were collected via a
             standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical
             Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences
             between the double-blinded conditions (SRT versus PBO) for
             total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual
             physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs
             were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when
             compared to CBT (p <.01) and COMB (p <.01). Moreover, those
             who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several
             physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of
             total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years)
             across all arms (31.7% versus 23.1%, p <.05). Total PSC
             scores decreased over time, with no significant differences
             between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the
             tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after
             adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities, leading
             to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences
             occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of
             psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years).
             Clinical trial registration information - Child and
             Adolescent Anxiety Disorders (CAMS); http://clinicaltrials.gov;
             NCT00052078.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2014.12.015},
   Key = {fds302619}
}

@article{fds302628,
   Author = {Gonzalez, A and Peris, TS and Vreeland, A and Kiff, CJ and Kendall, PC and Compton, SN and Albano, AM and Birmaher, B and Ginsburg, GS and Keeton,
             CP and March, J and McCracken, J and Rynn, M and Sherrill, J and Walkup,
             JT and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Parental anxiety as a predictor of medication and CBT
             response for anxious youth.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {84-93},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-014-0454-6},
   Abstract = {The aim of this investigation was to evaluate how parental
             anxiety predicted change in pediatric anxiety symptoms
             across four different interventions: cognitive-behavioral
             therapy, medication (sertraline; SRT), their combination
             (COMB), and pill placebo. Participants were 488 youths (ages
             7-17) with separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety
             disorder, and/or social phobia and their primary caregivers.
             Latent growth curve modeling assessed how pre-treatment
             parental trait anxiety symptoms predicted trajectories of
             youth anxiety symptom change across 12 weeks of treatment at
             four time points. Interactions between parental anxiety and
             treatment condition were tested. Parental anxiety was not
             associated with youth's pre-treatment anxiety symptom
             severity. Controlling for parental trait anxiety, youth
             depressive symptoms, and youth age, youths who received COMB
             benefitted most. Counter to expectations, parental anxiety
             influenced youth anxiety symptom trajectory only within the
             SRT condition, whereas parental anxiety was not
             significantly associated with youth anxiety trajectories in
             the other treatment conditions. Specifically, within the SRT
             condition, higher levels of parental anxiety predicted a
             faster and greater reduction in youth anxiety over the acute
             treatment period compared to youths in the SRT condition
             whose parents had lower anxiety levels. While all active
             treatments produced favorable outcomes, results provide
             insight regarding the treatment-specific influence of
             parental anxiety on the time course of symptom
             change.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-014-0454-6},
   Key = {fds302628}
}

@article{fds302613,
   Author = {White, SW and Lerner, MD and McLeod, BD and Wood, JJ and Ginsburg, GS and Kerns, C and Ollendick, T and Kendall, PC and Piacentini, J and Walkup,
             J and Compton, S},
   Title = {Anxiety in youth with and without autism spectrum disorder:
             examination of factorial equivalence.},
   Journal = {Behavior Therapy},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {40-53},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0005-7894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2014.05.005},
   Abstract = {Although anxiety is frequently reported among children and
             adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it has not
             been established that the manifest symptoms of anxiety in
             the context of ASD are the same as those seen in youth
             without ASD. This study sought to examine the metric and
             latent factor equivalence of anxiety as measured by the
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, parent-report
             (MASC-P) and child-report (MASC-C), in youth with anxiety
             disorders and ASD with intact verbal ability (n=109,
             M(age)=11.67 years, 99 male) and a gender-matched comparison
             group of typically developing (TD) children and adolescents
             with anxiety disorders but without ASD (n=342, M(age)=11.25
             years, 246 male). Multigroup factorial invariance (MFI)
             using structural equation modeling indicated equivalent
             latent factors in youth with and without ASD on the MASC-C
             (metric invariance). However, the item means and covariances
             along with the relations among the factor scores were
             different for the youth with ASD (i.e., lack of evidence for
             scalar or structural invariance). The MASC-P data did not
             fit the measure's established structure for either the ASD
             or TD group, and post-hoc exploratory factor analysis
             revealed a different factor structure in the ASD group.
             Findings suggest that the MASC-C may not measure identical
             constructs in anxious youth with and without ASD. Further
             research on the structure of the MASC in clinical samples is
             warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.beth.2014.05.005},
   Key = {fds302613}
}

@article{fds302621,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Compton, SN and Twohig, MP and Saunders, SM and Franklin, ME and Neal-Barnett, AM and Ely, L and Capriotti, MR and Woods, DW},
   Title = {Measuring the role of psychological inflexibility in
             Trichotillomania},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {220},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {356-361},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.003},
   Abstract = {© 2014. Psychological Inflexibility (PI) is a construct
             that has gained recent attention as a critical theoretical
             component of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). PI is
             typically measured by the Acceptance and Action
             Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II). However, the AAQ-II has shown
             questionable reliability in clinical populations with
             specific diagnoses, leading to the creation of
             content-specific versions of the AAQ-II that show stronger
             psychometric properties in their target populations. A
             growing body of the literature suggests that PI processes
             may contribute to hair pulling, and the current study sought
             to examine the psychometric properties and utility of a
             Trichotillomania-specific version of the AAQ-II, the
             AAQ-TTM. A referred sample of 90 individuals completed a
             battery of assessments as part of a randomized clinical
             trial of Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior Therapy for
             Trichotillomania. Results showed that the AAQ-TTM has two
             intercorrelated factors, adequate reliability, concurrent
             validity, and incremental validity over the AAQ-II.
             Furthermore, mediational analysis between emotional
             variables and hair pulling outcomes provides support for
             using the AAQ-TTM to measure the therapeutic process.
             Implications for the use of this measure will be discussed,
             including the need to further investigate the role of PI
             processes in Trichotillomania.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.003},
   Key = {fds302621}
}

@article{fds302625,
   Author = {Houghton, DC and Compton, SN and Twohig, MP and Saunders, SM and Franklin, ME and Neal-Barnett, AM and Ely, L and Capriotti, MR and Woods, DW},
   Title = {Measuring the role of psychological inflexibility in
             Trichotillomania.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {220},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {356-361},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.003},
   Abstract = {Psychological Inflexibility (PI) is a construct that has
             gained recent attention as a critical theoretical component
             of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). PI is typically
             measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II
             (AAQ-II). However, the AAQ-II has shown questionable
             reliability in clinical populations with specific diagnoses,
             leading to the creation of content-specific versions of the
             AAQ-II that show stronger psychometric properties in their
             target populations. A growing body of the literature
             suggests that PI processes may contribute to hair pulling,
             and the current study sought to examine the psychometric
             properties and utility of a Trichotillomania-specific
             version of the AAQ-II, the AAQ-TTM. A referred sample of 90
             individuals completed a battery of assessments as part of a
             randomized clinical trial of Acceptance-Enhanced Behavior
             Therapy for Trichotillomania. Results showed that the
             AAQ-TTM has two intercorrelated factors, adequate
             reliability, concurrent validity, and incremental validity
             over the AAQ-II. Furthermore, mediational analysis between
             emotional variables and hair pulling outcomes provides
             support for using the AAQ-TTM to measure the therapeutic
             process. Implications for the use of this measure will be
             discussed, including the need to further investigate the
             role of PI processes in Trichotillomania.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.003},
   Key = {fds302625}
}

@article{fds302624,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Rosenfield, D and Hofmann, SG and Smits,
             JAJ},
   Title = {Advances in data analytic methods for evaluating treatment
             outcome and mechanisms of change: introduction to the
             special issue.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {743-745},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0037795},
   Abstract = {This series of articles, which provide an overview of
             several advanced statistical methods for evaluating
             treatment outcomes and mechanisms of change, makes up the
             first research methods-oriented special issue to appear in
             the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Like most
             active areas of scientific inquiry, the field of
             biostatistics and quantitative psychology continues to
             innovate and progress at a remarkable pace. These recent
             advancements provide researchers with the tools needed to
             ask and get answers to progressively nuanced and complex
             questions. It is our hope that the articles included in this
             special issue will spark an interest among applied
             researchers to investigate and learn how these and other
             newer statistical methods might be used to enhance their own
             line of research.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0037795},
   Key = {fds302624}
}

@article{fds302626,
   Author = {Crawley, SA and Caporino, NE and Birmaher, B and Ginsburg, G and Piacentini, J and Albano, AM and Sherrill, J and Sakolsky, D and Compton, SN and Rynn, M and McCracken, J and Gosch, E and Keeton, C and March, J and Walkup, JT and Kendall, PC},
   Title = {Somatic complaints in anxious youth.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {398-407},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-013-0410-x},
   Abstract = {This study examined (a) demographic and clinical
             characteristics associated with physical symptoms in
             anxiety-disordered youth and (b) the impact of
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (Coping Cat), medication
             (sertraline), their combination, and pill placebo on
             physical symptoms. Youth (N = 488, ages 7-17 years) with a
             principal diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder,
             separation anxiety disorder, or social phobia participated
             as part of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial and
             received treatment delivered over 12 weeks. Diagnostic
             status, symptom severity, and impairment were assessed at
             baseline and week 12. The total number and severity of
             physical symptoms was associated with age, principal
             diagnosis, anxiety severity, impairment, and the presence of
             comorbid internalizing disorders. Common somatic complaints
             were headaches, stomachaches, head cold or sniffles,
             sleeplessness, and feeling drowsy or too sleepy. Physical
             symptoms decreased over the course of treatment, and were
             unrelated to treatment condition. Clinical implications and
             directions for future research are discussed
             (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078).},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-013-0410-x},
   Key = {fds302626}
}

@article{fds302614,
   Author = {Freeman, J and Sapyta, J and Garcia, A and Compton, S and Khanna, M and Flessner, C and FitzGerald, D and Mauro, C and Dingfelder, R and Benito,
             K and Harrison, J and Curry, J and Foa, E and March, J and Moore, P and Franklin, M},
   Title = {Family-based treatment of early childhood
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young
             Children (POTS Jr)--a randomized clinical
             trial.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {689-698},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {2168-622X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.170},
   Abstract = {Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been established as
             efficacious for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among
             older children and adolescents, yet its effect on young
             children has not been evaluated sufficiently.To examine the
             relative efficacy of family-based CBT (FB-CBT) involving
             exposure plus response prevention vs an FB relaxation
             treatment (FB-RT) control condition for children 5 to 8
             years of age.A 14-week randomized clinical trial (Pediatric
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study for Young
             Children [POTS Jr]) conducted at 3 academic medical centers
             between 2006 and 2011, involving 127 pediatric outpatients 5
             to 8 years of age who received a primary diagnosis of OCD
             and a Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total
             score of 16 or higher.Participants were randomly assigned to
             14 weeks of (1) FB-CBT, including exposure plus response
             prevention, or (2) FB-RT.Responder status defined as an
             independent evaluator-rated Clinical Global
             Impression-Improvement scale score of 1 (very much improved)
             or 2 (much improved) and change in independent
             evaluator-rated continuous Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive
             Compulsive Scale total score. RESULTS Family-based CBT was
             superior to FB-RT on both primary outcome measures. The
             percentages of children who were rated as 1 (very much
             improved) or 2 (much improved) on the Clinical Global
             Impression-Improvement scale at 14 weeks were 72% for FB-CBT
             and 41% for FB-RT. The effect size difference between FB-CBT
             and FB-RT on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement
             scale was 0.31 (95% CI, 0.17-0.45). The number needed to
             treat (NNT) with FB-CBT vs FB-RT was estimated as 3.2 (95%
             CI, 2.2-5.8). The effect size difference between FB-CBT and
             FB-RT on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive
             Scale at week 14 was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62-1.06).A
             comprehensive FB-CBT program was superior to a relaxation
             program with a similar format in reducing OCD symptoms and
             functional impairment in young children (5-8 years of age)
             with OCD.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00533806.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.170},
   Key = {fds302614}
}

@article{fds302631,
   Author = {Drysdale, AT and Hartley, CA and Pattwell, SS and Ruberry, EJ and Somerville, LH and Compton, SN and Lee, FS and Casey, BJ and Walkup,
             JT},
   Title = {Fear and anxiety from principle to practice: implications
             for when to treat youth with anxiety disorders.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e19-e20},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.08.015},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.08.015},
   Key = {fds302631}
}

@article{fds302627,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Peris, TS and Almirall, D and Birmaher, B and Sherrill,
             J and Kendall, PC and March, JS and Gosch, EA and Ginsburg, GS and Rynn,
             MA and Piacentini, JC and McCracken, JT and Keeton, CP and Suveg, CM and Aschenbrand, SG and Sakolsky, D and Iyengar, S and Walkup, JT and Albano, AM},
   Title = {Predictors and moderators of treatment response in childhood
             anxiety disorders: results from the CAMS
             trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {212-224},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0035458},
   Abstract = {We sought to examine predictors and moderators of treatment
             outcomes among 488 youths ages 7-17 years (50% female; 74%
             ≤ 12 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
             Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric
             Association, 2000) criteria for diagnoses of separation
             anxiety disorder, social phobia, or generalized anxiety
             disorder who were randomly assigned to receive either
             cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), their
             combination (COMB), or medication management with pill
             placebo (PBO) in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS).Six classes of predictor and moderator
             variables (22 variables) were identified from the literature
             and examined using continuous (Pediatric Anxiety Ratings
             Scale; PARS) and categorical (Clinical Global Impression
             Scale-Improvement; CGI-I) outcome measures.Three baseline
             variables predicted better outcomes (independent of
             treatment condition) on the PARS, including low anxiety
             severity (as measured by parents and independent evaluators)
             and caregiver strain. No baseline variables were found to
             predict Week 12 responder status (CGI-I). Participants'
             principal diagnosis moderated treatment outcomes but only on
             the PARS. No baseline variables were found to moderate
             treatment outcomes on Week 12 responder status
             (CGI-I).Overall, anxious children responded favorably to
             CAMS treatments. However, having more severe and impairing
             anxiety, greater caregiver strain, and a principal diagnosis
             of social phobia were associated with less favorable
             outcomes. Clinical implications of these findings are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0035458},
   Key = {fds302627}
}

@article{fds302629,
   Author = {Piacentini, J and Bennett, S and Compton, SN and Kendall, PC and Birmaher, B and Albano, AM and March, J and Sherrill, J and Sakolsky, D and Ginsburg, G and Rynn, M and Bergman, RL and Gosch, E and Waslick, B and Iyengar, S and McCracken, J and Walkup, J},
   Title = {24- and 36-week outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study (CAMS).},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {297-310},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.010},
   Abstract = {We report active treatment group differences on response and
             remission rates and changes in anxiety severity at weeks 24
             and 36 for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study
             (CAMS).CAMS youth (N = 488; 74% ≤ 12 years of age) with
             DSM-IV separation, generalized, or social anxiety disorder
             were randomized to 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT), sertraline (SRT), CBT+SRT (COMB), or medication
             management/pill placebo (PBO). Responders attended 6 monthly
             booster sessions in their assigned treatment arm; youth in
             COMB and SRT continued on their medication throughout this
             period. Efficacy of COMB, SRT, and CBT (n = 412) was
             assessed at 24 and 36 weeks postrandomization. Youth
             randomized to PBO (n = 76) were offered active CAMS
             treatment if nonresponsive at week 12 or over follow-up and
             were not included here. Independent evaluators blind to
             study condition assessed anxiety severity, functioning, and
             treatment response. Concomitant treatments were allowed but
             monitored over follow-up.The majority (>80%) of acute
             responders maintained positive response at both weeks 24 and
             36. Consistent with acute outcomes, COMB maintained
             advantage over CBT and SRT, which did not differ, on
             dimensional outcomes; the 3 treatments did not differ on
             most categorical outcomes over follow-up. Compared to COMB
             and CBT, youth in SRT obtained more concomitant psychosocial
             treatments, whereas those in SRT and CBT obtained more
             concomitant combined (medication plus psychosocial)
             treatment.COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT on some
             measures over follow-up, whereas the 2 monotherapies
             remained indistinguishable. The observed convergence of COMB
             and monotherapy may be related to greater use of concomitant
             treatment during follow-up among youth receiving the
             monotherapies, although other explanations are possible.
             Although outcomes were variable, most CAMS-treated youth
             experienced sustained treatment benefit. Clinical trial
             registration information-Child and Adolescent Anxiety
             Disorders (CAMS); URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique
             identifier: NCT00052078.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2013.11.010},
   Key = {fds302629}
}

@article{fds302630,
   Author = {Ginsburg, GS and Becker, EM and Keeton, CP and Sakolsky, D and Piacentini, J and Albano, AM and Compton, SN and Iyengar, S and Sullivan, K and Caporino, N and Peris, T and Birmaher, B and Rynn, M and March, J and Kendall, PC},
   Title = {Naturalistic follow-up of youths treated for pediatric
             anxiety disorders.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {310-318},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {2168-622X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4186},
   Abstract = {Pediatric anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and
             impairing and are considered gateway disorders in that they
             predict adult psychiatric problems. Although they can be
             effectively treated in the short term, data are limited on
             the long-term outcomes in treated children and adolescents,
             particularly those treated with medication.To determine
             whether acute clinical improvement and treatment type (i.e.,
             cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, or their
             combination) predicted remission of anxiety and improvement
             in global functioning at a mean of 6 years after
             randomization and to examine predictors of outcomes at
             follow-up.This naturalistic follow-up study, as part of the
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Extended Long-term Study
             (CAMELS), was conducted at 6 academic sites in the United
             States and included 288 youths (age range, 11-26 years;
             mean age, 17 years). Youths were randomized to 1 of 4
             interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, medication,
             combination, or pill placebo) in the Child/Adolescent
             Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) and were evaluated a mean of
             6 years after randomization. Participants in this study
             constituted 59.0% of the original CAMS sample.Participants
             were assessed by independent evaluators using a
             semistructured diagnostic interview to determine the
             presence of anxiety disorders, the severity of anxiety, and
             global functioning. Participants and their parents completed
             questionnaires about mental health symptoms, family
             functioning, life events, and mental health service
             use.Remission, defined as the absence of all study entry
             anxiety disorders. RESULTS Almost half of the sample (46.5%)
             were in remission a mean of 6 years after randomization.
             Responders to acute treatment were significantly more likely
             to be in remission (odds ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.08-3.09)
             and had less severe anxiety symptoms and higher functioning;
             the assigned treatment arm was unrelated to outcomes.
             Several predictors of remission and functioning were
             identified.Youths rated as responders during the acute
             treatment phase of CAMS were more likely to be in remission
             a mean of 6 years after randomization, although the effect
             size was small. Relapse occurred in almost half (48%) of
             acute responders, suggesting the need for more intensive or
             continued treatment for a sizable proportion of youths with
             anxiety disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov
             Identifier: NCT00052078.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.4186},
   Key = {fds302630}
}

@article{fds271456,
   Author = {Wei, C and Hoff, A and Villabø, MA and Peterman, J and Kendall, PC and Piacentini, J and McCracken, J and Walkup, JT and Albano, AM and Rynn,
             M and Sherrill, J and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher, B and Ginsburg, G and Keeton, C and Gosch, E and Compton, SN and March,
             J},
   Title = {Assessing Anxiety in Youth with the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology : the
             Official Journal for the Society of Clinical Child and
             Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association,
             Division 53},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {566-578},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1537-4416},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.814541},
   Abstract = {The present study examined the psychometric properties,
             including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the
             youth self-report and parent-report forms of the
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among
             youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents
             and youth (N = 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 to 17 who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study. Although the typical low agreement between parent and
             youth self-reports was found, the MASC evidenced good
             internal reliability across MASC subscales and informants.
             The main MASC subscales (i.e., Physical Symptoms, Harm
             Avoidance, Social Anxiety, and Separation/Panic) were
             examined. The Social Anxiety and Separation/Panic subscales
             were found to be significantly predictive of the presence
             and severity of social phobia and separation anxiety
             disorder, respectively. Using multiple informants improved
             the accuracy of prediction. The MASC subscales demonstrated
             good psychometric properties and clinical utilities in
             identifying youth with anxiety disorders. © 2014 Copyright
             Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2013.814541},
   Key = {fds271456}
}

@article{fds271457,
   Author = {Beidas, RS and Lindhiem, O and Brodman, DM and Swan, A and Carper, M and Cummings, C and Kendall, PC and Albano, AM and Rynn, M and Piacentini,
             J and McCracken, J and Compton, SN and March, J and Walkup, J and Ginsburg,
             G and Keeton, CP and Birmaher, B and Sakolsky, D and Sherrill,
             J},
   Title = {A probabilistic and individualized approach for predicting
             treatment gains: an extension and application to anxiety
             disordered youth.},
   Journal = {Behavior Therapy},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {126-136},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0005-7894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.05.001},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to extend the probability of
             treatment benefit method by adding treatment condition as a
             stratifying variable, and illustrate this extension of the
             methodology using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study data. The probability of treatment benefit
             method produces a simple and practical way to predict
             individualized treatment benefit based on pretreatment
             patient characteristics. Two pretreatment patient
             characteristics were selected in the production of the
             probability of treatment benefit charts: baseline anxiety
             severity, measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale,
             and treatment condition (cognitive-behavioral therapy,
             sertraline, their combination, and placebo). We produced two
             charts as exemplars which provide individualized and
             probabilistic information for treatment response and outcome
             to treatments for child anxiety. We discuss the implications
             of the use of the probability of treatment benefit method,
             particularly with regard to patient-centered outcomes and
             individualized decision-making in psychology and
             psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.beth.2013.05.001},
   Key = {fds271457}
}

@article{fds302632,
   Author = {Cummings, CM and Caporino, NE and Settipani, CA and Read, KL and Compton, SN and March, J and Sherrill, J and Piacentini, J and McCracken, J and Walkup, JT and Ginsburg, G and Albano, AM and Rynn, M and Birmaher, B and Sakolsky, D and Gosch, E and Keeton, C and Kendall,
             PC},
   Title = {The therapeutic relationship in cognitive-behavioral therapy
             and pharmacotherapy for anxious youth.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {859-864},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000324780500012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:We examined the therapeutic relationship with
             cognitive-behavioral therapists and with pharmacotherapists
             for youth from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study
             (Walkup et al., 2008). The therapeutic relationship was
             examined in relation to treatment outcomes.
             METHOD:Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17 years; 50%
             male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT;
             Coping Cat), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their
             combination, or placebo pill. Participants met criteria for
             generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or
             separation anxiety disorder according to the Diagnostic and
             Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American
             Psychiatric Association, 1994). The therapeutic relationship
             was assessed by youth report at Weeks 6 and 12 of treatment
             using the Child's Perception of Therapeutic Relationship
             scale (Kendall et al., 1997). Outcome measures (Pediatric
             Anxiety Rating Scale; Research Units on Pediatric
             Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group, 2002; and Clinical
             Global Impressions Scales; Guy, 1976) were completed by
             independent evaluators blind to condition. RESULTS:For youth
             who received CBT only, a stronger therapeutic relationship
             predicted positive treatment outcome. In contrast, the
             therapeutic relationship did not predict outcome for youth
             receiving sertraline, combined treatment, or placebo.
             CONCLUSION:A therapeutic relationship may be important for
             anxious youth who receive CBT alone.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0033294},
   Key = {fds302632}
}

@article{fds271458,
   Author = {Podell, JL and Kendall, PC and Gosch, EA and Compton, SN and March, JS and Albano, A-M and Rynn, MA and Walkup, JT and Sherrill, JT and Ginsburg,
             GS and Keeton, CP and Birmaher, B and Piacentini,
             JC},
   Title = {Therapist Factors and Outcomes in CBT for Anxiety in
             Youth.},
   Journal = {Professional Psychology: Research and Practice},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {89-98},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0735-7028},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000318146500004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationship between therapist
             factors and child outcomes in anxious youth who received
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) as part of the
             Child-Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Of the 488
             youth who participated in the CAMS project, 279 were
             randomly assigned to one of the CBT conditions (CBT only or
             CBT plus sertraline). Participants included youth (ages
             7-17; M = 10.76) who met criteria for a principal anxiety
             disorder. Therapists included 38 cognitive-behavioral
             therapists. Therapist style, treatment integrity, and
             therapist experience were examined in relation to child
             outcome. Child outcome was measured via child, parent, and
             independent evaluator report. Therapists who were more
             collaborative and empathic, followed the treatment manual,
             and implemented it in a developmentally appropriate way had
             youth with better treatment outcomes. Therapist "coach"
             style was a significant predictor of child-reported outcome,
             with the collaborative "coach" style predicting fewer
             child-reported symptoms. Higher levels of therapist prior
             clinical experience and lower levels of prior
             anxiety-specific experience were significant predictors of
             better treatment outcome. Findings suggest that although all
             therapists used the same manual-guided treatment, therapist
             style, experience, and clinical skills were related to
             differences in child outcome. Clinical implications and
             recommendations for future research are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0031700},
   Key = {fds271458}
}

@article{fds271482,
   Author = {Conelea, CA and Woods, DW and Zinner, SH and Budman, CL and Murphy, TK and Scahill, LD and Compton, SN and Walkup, JT},
   Title = {The impact of Tourette Syndrome in adults: results from the
             Tourette Syndrome impact survey.},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {110-120},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0010-3853},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-011-9465-y},
   Abstract = {Chronic tic disorders (CTD) are characterized by motor
             and/or vocal tics. Existing data on the impact of tics in
             adulthood is limited by small, treatment-seeking samples or
             by data aggregated across adults and children. The current
             study explored the functional impact of tics in adults using
             a nationwide sample of 672 participants with a self-reported
             CTD. The impact of tics on physical, social,
             occupational/academic, and psychological functioning was
             assessed. Results suggested mild to moderate functional
             impairment and positive correlations between impairment and
             tic severity. Notable portions of the sample reported social
             or public avoidance and experiences of discrimination
             resulting from tics. Compared to previously reported
             population norms, participants had more psychological
             difficulties, greater disability, and lower quality of life.
             The current study suggests that CTDs can adversely impact
             functioning in adults and highlights the need for clinical
             interventions and systemic efforts to address tic-related
             impairments.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10597-011-9465-y},
   Key = {fds271482}
}

@article{fds271460,
   Author = {Barlow, A and Mullany, B and Neault, N and Compton, S and Carter, A and Hastings, R and Billy, T and Coho-Mescal, V and Lorenzo, S and Walkup,
             JT},
   Title = {Effect of a paraprofessional home-visiting intervention on
             American Indian teen mothers’ and infants’ behavioral
             risks: a randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-93},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010121},
   Abstract = {The authors sought to examine the effectiveness of Family
             Spirit, a paraprofessional-delivered, home-visiting
             pregnancy and early childhood intervention,in improving
             American Indian teen mothers’ parenting outcomes and
             mothers’and children’s emotional and behavioral
             functioning 12 months postpartum.Pregnant American Indian
             teens(N=322) from four southwestern tribal reservation
             communities were randomlyassigned in equal numbers to the
             Family Spirit intervention plus optimized standard care or
             to optimized standard care alone. Parent and child emotional
             and behavioral outcome data were collected at baseline and
             at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum using self-reports,
             interviews,and observational measures.At 12 months
             postpartum, mothers in the intervention group had
             significantly greater parenting knowledge parenting
             self-efficacy, and home safety attitudes and fewer
             externalizing behaviors,and their children had fewer
             externalizing problems. In a subsample of mothers with any
             lifetime substance use at baseline (N=285; 88.5%), children
             in the intervention group had fewer externalizing and
             dysregulation problems than those in the standard care
             group, and fewer scored in the clinically “at risk”
             range ($10th percentile) for externalizing and internalizing
             problems. No between-group differences were observed for
             outcomes measured by the Home Observation for Measurement of
             the Environment scale.Outcomes 12 months postpartum suggest
             that the Family Spirit intervention improves parenting and
             infant outcomes that predict lower lifetime behavioral and
             drug use risk for participating teen mothers and
             children.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010121},
   Key = {fds271460}
}

@article{fds271462,
   Author = {Caporino, NE and Brodman, DM and Kendall, PC and Albano, AM and Sherrill, J and Piacentini, J and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher, B and Compton, SN and Ginsburg, G and Rynn, M and McCracken, J and Gosch, E and Keeton, C and March, J and Walkup, JT},
   Title = {Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety:
             Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating
             Scale},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-67},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Abstract = {Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating
             Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for
             predicting treatment response and remission among children
             and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were
             from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS), a multi-site, randomized controlled trial that
             examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline [SRT]),
             their combination, and pill placebo for the treatment of
             separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder,
             and social phobia. The clinician-rated PARS was administered
             pre- and posttreatment (delivered over 12 weeks). Quality
             receiver operating characteristic methods assessed the
             performance of various PARS percent reductions and absolute
             cut-off scores in predicting treatment response and
             remission, as determined by posttreatment ratings on the
             Clinical Global Impression scales and the Anxiety Disorders
             Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Corresponding change in
             impairment was evaluated using the Child Anxiety Impact
             Scale. Results: Reductions of 35% and 50% on the six-item
             PARS optimally predicted treatment response and remission,
             respectively. Post-treatment PARS raw scores of 8 to 10
             optimally predicted remission. Anxiety improved as a
             function of PARS-defined treatment response and remission.
             Conclusions: Results serve as guidelines for
             operationalizing treatment response and remission in future
             research and in making cross-study comparisons. These
             guidelines can facilitate translation of research findings
             into clinical practice. © 2013 American Academy of Child
             and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Key = {fds271462}
}

@article{fds271488,
   Author = {Caporino, NE and Brodman, DM and Kendall, PC and Albano, AM and Sherrill, J and Piacentini, J and Sakolsky, D and Birmaher, B and Compton, SN and Ginsburg, G and Rynn, M and McCracken, J and Gosch, E and Keeton, C and March, J and Walkup, JT},
   Title = {Defining treatment response and remission in child anxiety:
             signal detection analysis using the pediatric anxiety rating
             scale.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-67},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Abstract = {To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS)
             percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting
             treatment response and remission among children and
             adolescents with anxiety disorders.Data were from a subset
             of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in
             the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a
             multi-site, randomized controlled trial that examined the
             relative efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT;
             Coping Cat), medication (sertraline [SRT]), their
             combination, and pill placebo for the treatment of
             separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder,
             and social phobia. The clinician-rated PARS was administered
             pre- and posttreatment (delivered over 12 weeks). Quality
             receiver operating characteristic methods assessed the
             performance of various PARS percent reductions and absolute
             cut-off scores in predicting treatment response and
             remission, as determined by posttreatment ratings on the
             Clinical Global Impression scales and the Anxiety Disorders
             Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Corresponding change in
             impairment was evaluated using the Child Anxiety Impact
             Scale.Reductions of 35% and 50% on the six-item PARS
             optimally predicted treatment response and remission,
             respectively. Post-treatment PARS raw scores of 8 to 10
             optimally predicted remission. Anxiety improved as a
             function of PARS-defined treatment response and
             remission.Results serve as guidelines for operationalizing
             treatment response and remission in future research and in
             making cross-study comparisons. These guidelines can
             facilitate translation of research findings into clinical
             practice.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Key = {fds271488}
}

@article{fds271461,
   Author = {Conelea, CA and Woods, DW and Zinner, SH and Budman, CL and Murphy, TK and Scahill, LD and Compton, SN and Walkup, JT},
   Title = {The impact of tourette syndrome in adults: Results from the
             tourette syndrome impact survey},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {110-120},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0010-3853},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-011-9465-y},
   Abstract = {Chronic tic disorders (CTD) are characterized by motor
             and/or vocal tics. Existing data on the impact of tics in
             adulthood is limited by small, treatment-seeking samples or
             by data aggregated across adults and children. The current
             study explored the functional impact of tics in adults using
             a nationwide sample of 672 participants with a self-reported
             CTD. The impact of tics on physical, social,
             occupational/academic, and psychological functioning was
             assessed. Results suggested mild to moderate functional
             impairment and positive correlations between impairment and
             tic severity. Notable portions of the sample reported social
             or public avoidance and experiences of discrimination
             resulting from tics. Compared to previously reported
             population norms, participants had more psychological
             difficulties, greater disability, and lower quality of life.
             The current study suggests that CTDs can adversely impact
             functioning in adults and highlights the need for clinical
             interventions and systemic efforts to address tic-related
             impairments. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10597-011-9465-y},
   Key = {fds271461}
}

@article{fds271487,
   Author = {Lewin, AB and Murphy, TK and Storch, EA and Conelea, CA and Woods, DW and Scahill, LD and Compton, SN and Zinner, SH and Budman, CL and Walkup,
             JT},
   Title = {A phenomenological investigation of women with Tourette or
             other chronic tic disorders.},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {525-534},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0010-440X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.07.004},
   Abstract = {There are little data concerning clinical characteristics of
             women with Tourette disorder and chronic tic disorders in
             the extant literature and what is available mostly focuses
             on treatment-seeking individuals. The present research was
             conducted to provide a phenomenological characterization of
             tic disorders among 185 adult women with tic disorders. In
             addition to providing a descriptive overview of specific tic
             symptoms, tic severity, self-reported history of other
             psychiatric conditions, and impairment/lifestyle impact due
             to tics, this study compares 185 women and 275 men between
             18 and 79 years old with tic disorders (who completed an
             identical battery of measures) based on demographic,
             social/economic status indicators, psychiatric variables
             (comorbidity, family psychiatric history, symptom
             presentation), adaptive functioning/quality of life, and
             impairment variables among a nonclinical adult sample.
             Finally, this research examines the relationship between tic
             severity and impairment indicators among women with tics.
             Sixty-eight percent of women in our sample reported severe
             motor tics and 40% reported severe phonic tics. Our
             exploratory data suggest that a sizeable number of adult
             women with persistent tics are suffering from psychiatric
             comorbidity and psychosocial consequences such as
             underachievement and social distress. Tic severity in women
             may be associated with lifestyle interference as well as
             with symptoms of depression and anxiety, and such symptoms
             may be more common among women with tics than in men with
             tics.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.07.004},
   Key = {fds271487}
}

@article{fds271490,
   Author = {Almirall, D and Compton, SN and Gunlicks-Stoessel, M and Duan, N and Murphy, SA},
   Title = {Designing a pilot sequential multiple assignment randomized
             trial for developing an adaptive treatment
             strategy.},
   Journal = {Statistics in Medicine},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1887-1902},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0277-6715},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.4512},
   Abstract = {There is growing interest in how best to adapt and readapt
             treatments to individuals to maximize clinical benefit. In
             response, adaptive treatment strategies (ATS), which
             operationalize adaptive, sequential clinical decision
             making, have been developed. From a patient's perspective an
             ATS is a sequence of treatments, each individualized to the
             patient's evolving health status. From a clinician's
             perspective, an ATS is a sequence of decision rules that
             input the patient's current health status and output the
             next recommended treatment. Sequential multiple assignment
             randomized trials (SMART) have been developed to address the
             sequencing questions that arise in the development of ATSs,
             but SMARTs are relatively new in clinical research. This
             article provides an introduction to ATSs and SMART designs.
             This article also discusses the design of SMART pilot
             studies to address feasibility concerns, and to prepare
             investigators for a full-scale SMART. We consider an example
             SMART for the development of an ATS in the treatment of
             pediatric generalized anxiety disorders. Using the example
             SMART, we identify and discuss design issues unique to
             SMARTs that are best addressed in an external pilot study
             prior to the full-scale SMART. We also address the question
             of how many participants are needed in a SMART pilot study.
             A properly executed pilot study can be used to effectively
             address concerns about acceptability and feasibility in
             preparation for (that is, prior to) executing a full-scale
             SMART.},
   Doi = {10.1002/sim.4512},
   Key = {fds271490}
}

@article{fds271489,
   Author = {Almirall, D and Compton, SN and Rynn, MA and Walkup, JT and Murphy,
             SA},
   Title = {SMARTer discontinuation trial designs for developing an
             adaptive treatment strategy},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {364-374},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2011.0073},
   Abstract = {Objective: Developing evidenced-based practices for the
             management of childhood psychiatric disorders requires
             research studies that address how to treat children during
             both the acute phase of the disorder and beyond. Given the
             selection of a medication for acute treatment,
             discontinuation trials are used to evaluate the effects of
             treatment duration (e.g., time on medication) and/or
             maintenance strategies following successful acute-phase
             treatment. Recently, sequential multiple assignment
             randomized trials (SMART) have been proposed for use in
             informing sequences of critical clinical decisions such as
             those mentioned. The objective of this article is to
             illustrate how a SMART study is related to the standard
             discontinuation trial design, while addressing additional
             clinically important questions with similar trial resources.
             Method: The recently completed Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study (CAMS), a randomized trial that examined
             the relative efficacy of three acute-phase treatments for
             pediatric anxiety disorders, along with a next logical step,
             a standard discontinuation trial design, is used to clarify
             the ideas. This example is used to compare the
             discontinuation trial design relative to the SMART design.
             Results: We find that the standard discontinuation trial can
             be modified slightly using a SMART design to yield
             high-quality data that can be used to address a wider
             variety of questions in addition to the impact of treatment
             duration. We discuss how this innovative trial design is
             ultimately more efficient and less costly than the standard
             discontinuation trial, and may result in more representative
             comparisons between treatments. Conclusions: Mental health
             researchers who are interested in addressing questions
             concerning the effects of continued treatment (for different
             durations) following successful acute-phase treatment should
             consider SMART designs in place of discontinuation trial
             designs in their research. SMART designs can be used to
             address these and other questions concerning individualized
             sequences of treatment, such as the choice of a rescue
             treatment in case of postacute phase relapse. © Copyright
             2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2011.0073},
   Key = {fds271489}
}

@article{fds271486,
   Author = {Ginsburg, GS and Kendall, PC and Sakolsky, D and Compton, SN and Piacentini, J and Albano, AM and Walkup, JT and Sherrill, J and Coffey,
             KA and Rynn, MA and Keeton, CP and McCracken, JT and Bergman, L and Iyengar, S and Birmaher, B and March, J},
   Title = {Remission after acute treatment in children and adolescents
             with anxiety disorders: findings from the
             CAMS.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {806-813},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025933},
   Abstract = {To report on remission rates in anxious youth who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial,
             randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years;
             79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or
             generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of
             sertraline (SRT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their
             combination (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo
             (PBO).The primary definition of remission was loss of all
             study-entry anxiety disorder diagnoses; additional
             definitions of remission were used. All outcomes were rated
             by independent evaluators blind to treatment assignment.
             Predictors of remission were also examined.Remission rates
             after 12 weeks of treatment ranged from 46% to 68% for COMB,
             34% to 46% for SRT, 20% to 46% for CBT, and 15% to 27% for
             PBO. Rates of remission (i.e., achieving a nearly
             symptom-free state) were significantly lower than rates of
             response (i.e., achieving a clinically meaningful
             improvement relative to baseline) for the entire sample.
             Youth who received COMB had significantly higher rates of
             remission compared to all other treatment groups. Both
             monotherapies had higher remission rates compared to PBO,
             but rates were not different from each other. Predictors of
             remission were younger age, nonminority status, lower
             baseline anxiety severity, absence of other internalizing
             disorders (e.g., anxiety, depression), and absence of social
             phobia.For the majority of children, some symptoms of
             anxiety persisted, even among those showing improvement
             after 12 weeks of treatment, suggesting a need to augment or
             extend current treatments for some children.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0025933},
   Key = {fds271486}
}

@article{fds271485,
   Author = {Franklin, ME and Sapyta, J and Freeman, JB and Khanna, M and Compton, S and Almirall, D and Moore, P and Choate-Summers, M and Garcia, A and Edson,
             AL and Foa, EB and March, JS},
   Title = {Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy
             in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric
             OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {306},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1224-1232},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934055},
   Abstract = {The extant literature on the treatment of pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicates that partial
             response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is the norm
             and that augmentation with short-term OCD-specific cognitive
             behavior therapy (CBT) may provide additional benefit.To
             examine the effects of augmenting SRIs with CBT or a brief
             form of CBT, instructions in CBT delivered in the context of
             medication management.A 12-week randomized controlled trial
             conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2004 and
             2009, involving 124 pediatric outpatients between the ages
             of 7 and 17 years with OCD as a primary diagnosis and a
             Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score of 16
             or higher despite an adequate SRI trial.Participants were
             randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment strategies that
             included 7 sessions over 12 weeks: 42 in the medication
             management only, 42 in the medication management plus
             instructions in CBT, and 42 in the medication management
             plus CBT; the last included 14 concurrent CBT
             sessions.Whether patients responded positively to treatment
             by improving their baseline obsessive-compulsive scale score
             by 30% or more and demonstrating a change in their
             continuous scores over 12 weeks.The medication management
             plus CBT strategy was superior to the other 2 strategies on
             all outcome measures. In the primary intention-to-treat
             analysis, 68.6% (95% CI, 53.9%-83.3%) in the plus CBT group
             were considered responders, which was significantly better
             than the 34.0% (95% CI, 18.0%-50.0%) in the plus
             instructions in CBT group, and 30.0% (95% CI, 14.9%-45.1%)
             in the medication management only group. The results were
             similar in pairwise comparisons with the plus CBT strategy
             being superior to the other 2 strategies (P < .01 for both).
             The plus instructions in CBT strategy was not statistically
             superior to medication management only (P = .72). The number
             needed-to-treat analysis with the plus CBT vs medication
             management only in order to see 1 additional patient at week
             12, on average, was estimated as 3; for the plus CBT vs the
             plus instructions in CBT strategy, the number needed to
             treat was also estimated as 3; for the plus instructions in
             CBT vs medication management only the number needed to treat
             was estimated as 25.Among patients aged 7 to 17 years with
             OCD and partial response to SRI use, the addition of CBT to
             medication management compared with medication management
             alone resulted in a significantly greater response rate,
             whereas augmentation of medication management with the
             addition of instructions in CBT did not.clinicaltrials.gov
             Identifier: NCT00074815.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2011.1344},
   Key = {fds271485}
}

@article{fds271483,
   Author = {Conelea, CA and Woods, DW and Zinner, SH and Budman, C and Murphy, T and Scahill, LD and Compton, SN and Walkup, J},
   Title = {Exploring the impact of chronic tic disorders on youth:
             results from the Tourette Syndrome Impact
             Survey.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {219-242},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0211-4},
   Abstract = {Prior research has demonstrated that chronic tic disorders
             (CTD) are associated with functional impairment across
             several domains. However, methodological limitations, such
             as data acquired by parental report, datasets aggregated
             across child and adult samples, and small treatment-seeking
             samples, curtail interpretation. The current study explored
             the functional impact of tics among youth in a large,
             "virtual" community sample. An Internet-based survey was
             completed by families with children who had CTD. The sample
             included 740 parents and 232 of their children (ages 10-17
             years). The survey assessed impact across five functional
             domains: physical, social, familial, academic, and
             psychological. Health-related quality of life and
             perceptions of discrimination resulting from tics were also
             assessed. Results suggest that (1) youth with CTD experience
             mild to moderate functional impairment, (2) impairment is
             generally positively correlated with tic severity, (3)
             children with CTD plus one or more co-occurring psychiatric
             conditions tend to have greater functional impairment, and
             (4) a notable portion of youth with CTD experience
             discrimination due to tics. Implications and limitations of
             these findings are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-010-0211-4},
   Key = {fds271483}
}

@article{fds271481,
   Author = {Franklin, ME and Best, SH and Wilson, MA and Loew, B and Compton,
             SN},
   Title = {Habit Reversal Training and Acceptance and Commitment
             Therapy for Tourette Syndrome: A Pilot Project},
   Journal = {Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-60},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1056-263X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10882-010-9221-1},
   Abstract = {Chronic tic disorders (CTDs), including Tourette Syndrome,
             affect approximately 1 in 100 individuals, and pediatric
             onset is the norm. Pharmacotherapy has traditionally been
             the first line of treatment for CTD. However, given that
             partial response to pharmacotherapy is typical and that the
             side effect profile for efficacious medications warrants
             consideration before initiating treatment, there is a clear
             need to develop and disseminate psychosocial treatments to
             enhance outcomes among individuals with CTDs. The current
             report describes findings from a pilot project designed to:
             (a) train two sites in behavior therapy involving Habit
             Reversal Training (HRT) for CTDs; (b) pilot test the HRT
             protocol in adolescents and young adults with CTDs; (c)
             develop and refine a combined Habit Reversal Training plus
             Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (HRT+ACT) protocol for
             CTDs; and (d) pilot test the combined protocol in
             adolescents and young adults with CTDs. Results indicated
             that, on average, both the HRT alone and the HRT+ACT groups
             experienced substantial, clinically relevant, durable, and
             comparable reductions in tic symptoms through the 1 month
             follow-up, as well as improvements in participant and
             parent-rated global functioning over this same period. ©
             2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10882-010-9221-1},
   Key = {fds271481}
}

@article{fds271484,
   Author = {Lewin, AB and Storch, EA and Conelea, CA and Woods, DW and Zinner, SH and Budman, CL and Scahill, LD and Compton, SN and Walkup, JT and Murphy,
             TK},
   Title = {The roles of anxiety and depression in connecting tic
             severity and functional impairment},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {164-168},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.016},
   Abstract = {The current study examined relationships between tic
             severity and both functional impairment and perceived
             quality of life (QOL) in adults with a chronic tic disorder.
             The authors explored whether these relationships were
             moderated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Five-hundred
             adults with Tourette's Disorder, Chronic Motor Tic Disorder,
             or Chronic Vocal Tic Disorder participated in a
             comprehensive self-report internet-based survey. Anxiety and
             depressive symptoms moderated the relationship between tic
             severity and functional impairment such that stronger
             relationships were documented in participants with elevated
             depressive or anxious symptoms. Limitations and implications
             for research and clinical practice are discussed. © 2010
             Elsevier Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.08.016},
   Key = {fds271484}
}

@article{fds271479,
   Author = {Kendall, PC and Compton, SN and Walkup, JT and Birmaher, B and Albano,
             AM and Sherrill, J and Ginsburg, G and Rynn, M and McCracken, J and Gosch,
             E and Keeton, C and Bergman, L and Sakolsky, D and Suveg, C and Iyengar, S and March, J and Piacentini, J},
   Title = {Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered
             youth.},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {360-365},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009},
   Abstract = {Reports the characteristics of a large, representative
             sample of treatment-seeking anxious youth (N=488).
             Participants, aged 7-17 years (mean 10.7 years), had a
             principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder
             (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia
             (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a
             different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated
             (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not
             included, there were few other exclusion criteria.
             Participants and their parent/guardian underwent an
             extensive baseline assessment using a broad array of
             measures capturing diagnostic status, anxiety symptoms and
             severity, and areas of functional impairment. Means and
             standard deviations of the measures of psychopathology and
             data on diagnostic status are provided. The sample had
             moderate to severe anxiety disorder and was highly comorbid,
             with 55.3% of participants meeting criteria for at least one
             non-targeted DSM-IV disorder. Anxiety disorders in youth
             often do not present as a single/focused disorder: such
             disorders in youth overlap in symptoms and are highly
             comorbid among themselves.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009},
   Key = {fds271479}
}

@article{fds271476,
   Author = {Walkup, JT and Compton, S},
   Title = {Deputy Editor's Comment},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {186-188},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.007},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2009.11.007},
   Key = {fds271476}
}

@article{fds271480,
   Author = {Walkup, JT and Compton, S},
   Title = {Review: pharmacotherapy increases response and reduces
             symptom severity in paediatric anxiety disorders},
   Journal = {Evidence Based Mental Health},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-19},
   Publisher = {BMJ},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.13.1.19},
   Doi = {10.1136/ebmh.13.1.19},
   Key = {fds271480}
}

@article{fds271477,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Walkup, JT and Albano, AM and Piacentini, JC and Birmaher, B and Sherrill, JT and Ginsburg, GS and Rynn, MA and McCracken, JT and Waslick, BD and Iyengar, S and Kendall, PC and March,
             JS},
   Title = {Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale,
             design, and methods.},
   Journal = {Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental
             Health},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {1},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051130},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To present the design, methods, and rationale of
             the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a
             recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized
             placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy
             of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and
             their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the
             treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized
             anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children
             and adolescents. METHODS: Following a brief review of the
             acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the
             psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for
             pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the
             CAMS trial are described. RESULTS: CAMS was a six-year,
             six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred
             eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17
             years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were
             randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT,
             SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety,
             and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and
             moderators of treatment response were completed in a
             multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based
             therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators
             were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A
             multi-layered administrative structure with representation
             from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the
             entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance.
             CONCLUSIONS: CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods
             applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological
             comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art
             methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also
             provided a large-scale examination of the relative and
             combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based
             psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to
             date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety
             disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold
             important implications for informing practice-relevant
             decisions regarding the initial treatment of youth with
             anxiety disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov
             NCT00052078.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-4-1},
   Key = {fds271477}
}

@article{fds327206,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Atkins, DC},
   Title = {Statistics and research methodology at ABCT: AMASS and
             beyond},
   Journal = {Behavior Therapist},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {140-141},
   Year = {2010},
   Abstract = {Twenty years ago, hierarchical regression and analysis of
             covariance were the established statistical methods commonly
             found in clinical psychology research studies. At present,
             these methods have largely given way to hierarchical linear
             models (HLM) and structural equation models (SEM), which are
             used in many—if not most—research studies. For more than
             two decades, ABCT has attempted to meet the ever-widening
             gap by offering a series of workshops during its annual
             conference that focus on topics related to statistics and
             research methodology. The primary motivation for applied
             researchers to stay on top of advances made in statistics
             and research methodology is that as our field matures, we
             are asking increasingly complex questions about human
             behavior that require more sophisticated research designs
             and statistical techniques. Here we present findings from
             this survey, address a frequent misunderstanding about AMASS
             sessions, and introduce the creation of a new Special
             Interest Group (SIG) devoted to Clinical Research Methods
             and Statistics. Results show that respondents expressed the
             most interest for workshops focused on HLM for continuous
             and nonnormal outcomes, power analyses, longitudinal
             mediation, missing data, and SEM approaches. (PsycINFO
             Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights
             reserved)},
   Key = {fds327206}
}

@article{fds271459,
   Author = {Vitiello, B and Brent, DA and Greenhill, LL and Emslie, G and Wells, K and Walkup, JT and Stanley, B and Bukstein, O and Kennard, BD and Compton,
             S and Coffey, B and Cwik, MF and Posner, K and Wagner, A and March, JS and Riddle, M and Goldstein, T and Curry, J and Capasso, L and Mayes, T and Shen, S and Gugga, SS and Turner, JB and Barnett, S and Zelazny,
             J},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and clinical status during the Treatment
             of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {997-1004},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b5db66},
   Abstract = {To examine the course of depression during the treatment of
             adolescents with depression who had recently attempted
             suicide.Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a
             90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of
             depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder),
             and a Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R)
             score of 36 or higher, entered a 6-month treatment with
             antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy
             focused on suicide prevention, or their combination (Comb),
             at five academic sites. Treatment assignment could be either
             random or chosen by study participants. Intent-to-treat,
             mixed effects regression models of depression and other
             relevant ratings were estimated. Improvement and remission
             rates were computed with the last observation carried
             forward.Most patients (n = 104 or 84%) chose treatment
             assignment, and overall, three fourths (n = 93) received
             Comb. In Comb, CDRS-R declined from a baseline adjusted mean
             of 49.6 (SD 12.3) to 38.3 (8.0) at week 12 and to 27.0
             (10.1) at week 24 (p < .0001), with a Clinical Global
             Impression -defined improvement rate of 58.0% at week 12 and
             72.2% at week 24 and a remission (CDRS-R ≤ 28) rate of
             32.5% at week 12 and 50.0% at week 24. The CDRS-R and the
             Scale for Suicidal Ideation scores were correlated at
             baseline (r = 0.43, p < .0001) and declined in parallel.When
             vigorously treated with a combination of medication and
             psychotherapy, adolescents with depression who have recently
             attempted suicide show rates of improvement and remission of
             depression that seem comparable to those observed in
             nonsuicidal adolescents with depression.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b5db66},
   Key = {fds271459}
}

@article{fds271478,
   Author = {Brent, DA and Greenhill, LL and Compton, S and Emslie, G and Wells, K and Walkup, JT and Vitiello, B and Bukstein, O and Stanley, B and Posner, K and Kennard, BD and Cwik, MF and Wagner, A and Coffey, B and March, JS and Riddle, M and Goldstein, T and Curry, J and Barnett, S and Capasso, L and Zelazny, J and Hughes, J and Shen, S and Gugga, SS and Turner,
             JB},
   Title = {The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters study (TASA):
             predictors of suicidal events in an open treatment
             trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {987-996},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19730274},
   Abstract = {To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts
             in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in
             an open treatment trial.Adolescents who had made a recent
             suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were
             either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among
             three conditions. Two participants withdrew before treatment
             assignment. The remaining 124 youths received a specialized
             psychotherapy for suicide attempting adolescents (n = 17), a
             medication algorithm (n = 14), or the combination (n = 93).
             The participants were followed up 6 months after intake with
             respect to rate, timing, and predictors of a suicidal event
             (attempt or acute suicidal ideation necessitating emergency
             referral).The morbid risks of suicidal events and attempts
             on 6-month follow-up were 0.19 and 0.12, respectively, with
             a median time to event of 44 days. Higher self-rated
             depression, suicidal ideation, family income, greater number
             of previous suicide attempts, lower maximum lethality of
             previous attempt, history of sexual abuse, and lower family
             cohesion predicted the occurrence, and earlier time to
             event, with similar findings for the outcome of attempts. A
             slower decline in suicidal ideation was associated with the
             occurrence of a suicidal event.In this open trial, the
             6-month morbid risks for suicidal events and for reattempts
             were lower than those in other comparable samples,
             suggesting that this intervention should be studied further.
             Important treatment targets include suicidal ideation,
             family cohesion, and sequelae of previous abuse. Because 40%
             of events occurred with 4 weeks of intake, an emphasis on
             safety planning and increased therapeutic contact early in
             treatment may be warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b5dbe4},
   Key = {fds271478}
}

@article{fds271475,
   Author = {Walkup, JT and Compton, SN and Kendall, PC},
   Title = {Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or Both in Childhood Anxiety
             Reply},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {360},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {2477-2477},
   Publisher = {New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc090635},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJMc090635},
   Key = {fds271475}
}

@article{fds271493,
   Author = {Shapiro, M and Silva, SG and Compton, S and Chrisman, A and DeVeaugh-Geiss, J and Breland-Noble, A and Kondo, D and Kirchner, J and March, JS},
   Title = {The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN):
             infrastructure development and lessons learned.},
   Journal = {Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental
             Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320979},
   Abstract = {In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the
             Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) under
             the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research
             (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be
             both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly
             speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was
             "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning
             experience for the field."To describe valuable lessons
             learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric
             psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease
             barriers to research participation.The CAPTN Team has
             completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure,
             conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a
             novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large
             antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic
             study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges
             overcome included establishing structures for network
             organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active
             CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training
             programs; developing and implementing procedures for site
             contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and
             malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and
             IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa
             report form (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data
             capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for
             audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among
             others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Given stable
             funding for network construction and maintenance, our
             experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based
             technologies for profiling investigators, investigator
             training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled
             to innovative approaches to network governance, data
             management and site management, can reduce the costs and
             burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical
             research into routine clinical practice. Having successfully
             achieved its initial aim of constructing a network
             infrastructure, CAPTN is now a capable platform for large
             safety registries, pharmacogenetic studies, and randomized
             practical clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-3-12},
   Key = {fds271493}
}

@article{fds271473,
   Author = {Walkup, JT and Albano, AM and Piacentini, J and Birmaher, B and Compton,
             SN and Sherrill, JT and Ginsburg, GS and Rynn, MA and McCracken, J and Waslick, B and Iyengar, S and March, JS and Kendall,
             PC},
   Title = {Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination
             in childhood anxiety.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {359},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {2753-2766},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974308},
   Abstract = {Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions
             affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive
             behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake
             inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders,
             little is known about their relative or combined efficacy.In
             this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children
             between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary
             diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized
             anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of
             cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to
             200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive
             behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a
             2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional
             ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and
             at weeks 4, 8, and 12.The percentages of children who were
             rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global
             Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination
             therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy
             (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies
             were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was
             superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the
             Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar
             magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a
             greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which
             was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were
             superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and
             homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline
             group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide.
             There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness
             associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with
             sertraline.Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline
             reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety
             disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior
             response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number,
             NCT00052078.)},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJMoa0804633},
   Key = {fds271473}
}

@article{fds271474,
   Author = {Roy, AK and Vasa, RA and Bruck, M and Mogg, K and Bradley, BP and Sweeney,
             M and Bergman, RL and McClure-Tone, EB and Pine, DS and CAMS
             Team},
   Title = {Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1189-1196},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/chi.0b013e3181825ace},
   Abstract = {To examine attention bias toward threat faces in a large
             sample of anxiety-disordered youths using a well-established
             visual probe task.Study participants included 101 children
             and adolescents (ages 7-18 years) with generalized anxiety
             disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder
             enrolled in a multisite anxiety treatment study. Nonanxious
             youths (n = 51; ages 9-18 years) were recruited separately.
             Participants were administered a computerized visual probe
             task that presents pairs of faces portraying threat (angry),
             positive (happy), and neutral expressions. They pressed a
             response key to indicate the spatial location of a probe
             that replaced one of the faces on each trial. Attention bias
             scores were calculated from response times to probes for
             each emotional face type.Compared to healthy youths, anxious
             participants demonstrated a greater attention bias toward
             threat faces. This threat bias in anxious patients did not
             significantly vary across the anxiety disorders. There was
             no group difference in attention bias toward happy
             faces.These results suggest that pediatric anxiety disorders
             are associated with an attention bias toward threat. Future
             research may examine the manner in which cognitive bias in
             anxious youths changes with treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e3181825ace},
   Key = {fds271474}
}

@article{fds271472,
   Author = {Freeman, JB and Garcia, AM and Coyne, L and Ale, C and Przeworski, A and Himle, M and Compton, S and Leonard, HL},
   Title = {Early childhood OCD: preliminary findings from a
             family-based cognitive-behavioral approach.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {593-602},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816765f9},
   Abstract = {To examine the relative efficacy of family-based
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus family-based
             relaxation treatment (RT) for young children ages 5 to 8
             years with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).Forty-two
             young children with primary OCD were randomized to receive
             12 sessions of family-based CBT or family-based RT.
             Assessments were conducted before and after treatment by
             independent raters blind to treatment assignment. Primary
             outcomes included scores on the Children's Yale-Brown
             Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global
             Impressions-Improvement.For the intent-to-treat sample, CBT
             was associated with a moderate treatment effect (d = 0.53),
             although there was not a significant difference between the
             groups at conventional levels. For the completer sample, CBT
             had a large effect (d = 0.85), and there was a significant
             group difference favoring CBT. In the intent-to-treat
             sample, 50% of children in the CBT group achieved remission
             as compared to 20% in the RT group. In the completer sample,
             69% of children in the CBT group achieved a clinical
             remission compared to 20% in the RT group.Results indicate
             that children with early-onset OCD benefit from a treatment
             approach tailored to their developmental needs and family
             context. CBT was effective in reducing OCD symptoms and in
             helping a large number of children achieve a clinical
             remission.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e31816765f9},
   Key = {fds271472}
}

@article{fds271471,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Kratochvil, CJ and March, JS},
   Title = {Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and
             adolescents: an evidence-based medicine review.},
   Journal = {Pediatric Annals},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {586-598},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0090-4481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17910206},
   Key = {fds271471}
}

@article{fds271470,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Kratochvil, CJ and March, JS},
   Title = {Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and
             adolescents: An evidence-based medicine review},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Annals},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {504-517},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0048-5713},
   Abstract = {These studies generally support the use of the SSRIs
             fluvoxamine, sertraline, and fluoxetine in the acute
             treatment of pediatric non-OCD anxiety disorders. Two large
             multicenter studies suggest a favorable outcome for
             paroxetine in the treatment of pediatric social anxiety
             disorder. Mixed results currently exist for the use of
             extended-release venlafaxine in the treatment of pediatric
             generalized anxiety disorder. In both of these latter
             studies, concerns with safety were present.},
   Key = {fds271470}
}

@article{fds271469,
   Author = {Franklin, M and Cahill, SP and Compton, SN},
   Title = {What is the question? A comment on "investigating treatment
             mediators when simple random assignment to a control group
             is not possible"},
   Journal = {Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {337-341},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0969-5893},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.2006.00046.x},
   Abstract = {Debate about psychotherapy research methods in the last
             decade has helped to highlight important issues related to
             the clinical utility of randomized controlled trials. Out of
             this debate, significant recent advances have been made in
             using randomized designs to examine treatment efficacy in
             settings more akin to those in the "real world" where most
             patients access mental health care. Doss and Atkins (2006)
             accurately note several potential limitations of
             treatment-treatment designs for testing mediation,
             especially when the same mediator may be operating in both
             active treatments, and they propose several ways that
             correlational methods can be useful in pursuing mediational
             hypotheses. These proposed methods are discussed and, using
             several specific psychotherapy research examples, the
             continuing relevance of randomized designs in answering
             specific questions about causality is underscored. © 2006
             American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1468-2850.2006.00046.x},
   Key = {fds271469}
}

@article{fds271492,
   Author = {Chrisman, A and Egger, H and Compton, SN and Curry, J and Goldston,
             DB},
   Title = {Assessment of childhood depression},
   Journal = {Child and Adolescent Mental Health},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {111-116},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1475-357X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-3588.2006.00395.x},
   Abstract = {Background: Depression as a disorder in childhood began to
             be increasingly recognised in the 1970s. Epidemiologic
             community and clinic-based studies have characterised the
             prevalence, clinical course, and complications of this
             illness throughout childhood and adolescence into adulthood.
             This paper reviews two instruments for assessing depression
             in prepubertal children - the Dominic Interactive and The
             Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Both instruments are
             useful in screening for psychiatric disorders and reliably
             identifying the presence of depressive symptoms in young
             children. © 2006 Association for Child and Adoloscent
             Mental Health.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1475-3588.2006.00395.x},
   Key = {fds271492}
}

@article{fds271468,
   Author = {Gosch, EA and Flannery-Schroeder, E and Mauro, CF and Compton,
             SN},
   Title = {Principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety
             disorders in children},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {247-262},
   Publisher = {Springer Publishing Company},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0889-8391},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/jcop.20.3.247},
   Abstract = {This article elucidates the theoretical underpinnings of
             cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) as applied to the treatment
             of anxiety disorders in children, focusing on social phobia,
             generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety
             disorder. It reviews behavioral and cognitive theories that
             have influenced this approach. We argue that it is necessary
             to understand the essential components of this approach in
             the context of these theories in order to provide effective,
             clinically sensitive, and child-focused treatment.
             Components discussed include assessment, psychoeducation,
             affective education, self-instruction training, cognitive
             restructuring, problem solving, relaxation training,
             modeling, contingency management, and exposure procedures.
             Hypothesized key processes, such as the need to be
             experiential in treatment, are presented for consideration.
             © 2006 Springer Publishing Company.},
   Doi = {10.1891/jcop.20.3.247},
   Key = {fds271468}
}

@article{fds271467,
   Author = {Curry, J and Compton, SN and March, JS},
   Title = {CBT VERSUS SUPPORTIVE THERAPY FOR DEPRESSION},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {842-843},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0890-8567(09)62188-2},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0890-8567(09)62188-2},
   Key = {fds271467}
}

@article{fds271495,
   Author = {March, JS and Silva, SG and Compton, S and Shapiro, M and Califf, R and Krishnan, R},
   Title = {The case for practical clinical trials in
             psychiatry.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {836-846},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15863782},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials in psychiatry frequently fail to
             maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, or,
             stated differently, available evidence is not perceived by
             clinicians (and other decision makers) as sufficiently
             relevant to clinical practice, thereby diluting its impact.
             To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability,
             researchers must conduct clinical trials designed to meet
             the needs of clinicians and others who are making decisions
             about patients' care. The authors present the case for
             psychiatry's adoption of the practical clinical trials
             model, which is widely used in research in other areas of
             medicine. METHOD: The authors outline the characteristics
             and scope of practical clinical trials, give examples of
             practical clinical trials, and discuss the challenges of
             using the practical clinical trials model in psychiatry,
             including issues of funding. RESULTS: Practical clinical
             trials, which are intended to provide generalizable answers
             to important clinical questions without bias, are
             characterized by eight key features: a straightforward
             clinically relevant question, a representative sample of
             patients and practice settings, sufficient power to identify
             modest clinically relevant effects, randomization to protect
             against bias, clinical uncertainty regarding the outcome of
             treatment at the patient level, assessment and treatment
             protocols that enact best clinical practices, simple and
             clinically relevant outcomes, and limited subject and
             investigator burden. CONCLUSIONS: To implement the practical
             clinical trials model in psychiatry will require stable
             funding for network construction and maintenance plus
             methodological innovation in governance and trial selection,
             assessment, treatment, data management, site management, and
             data analytic procedures.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.162.5.836},
   Key = {fds271495}
}

@article{fds271466,
   Author = {Compton, SN and March, JS and Brent, D and Albano, AM and Weersing, R and Curry, J},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and
             depressive disorders in children and adolescents: an
             evidence-based medicine review.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {930-959},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266189},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the
             cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents
             with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual
             framework of evidence-based medicine. METHOD: The
             psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically
             searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral
             treatment to pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.
             RESULTS: For both anxiety and depression, substantial
             evidence supports the efficacy of problem-specific
             cognitive-behavioral interventions. Comparisons with
             wait-list, inactive control, and active control conditions
             suggest medium to large effects for symptom reduction in
             primary outcome domains. CONCLUSIONS: From an evidence-based
             perspective, cognitive-behavioral therapy is currently the
             treatment of choice for anxiety and depressive disorders in
             children and adolescents. Future research in this area will
             need to focus on comparing cognitive-behavioral
             psychotherapy with other treatments, component analyses, and
             the application of exportable protocol-driven treatments to
             divergent settings and patient populations.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000127589.57468.bf},
   Key = {fds271466}
}

@article{fds271494,
   Author = {March, JS and Silva, SG and Compton, S and Anthony, G and DeVeaugh-Geiss, J and Califf, R and Krishnan, R},
   Title = {The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network
             (CAPTN).},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {515-518},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15100557},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The current generation of clinical trials in
             pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical
             utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its
             impact. METHOD: To attain maximum clinical relevance and
             acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials
             Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the
             practical clinical trials model widely used in other areas
             of medicine. RESULTS: CAPTN, a collaborative effort of the
             Duke Clinical Research Institute and the American Academy of
             Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, will conduct large, simple
             "practical" trials that provide generalizable answers to
             important clinical questions without bias. "Large" in this
             case means the random allocation of thousands of patients in
             hundreds of clinical centers to different treatments as they
             are delivered in community settings. "Simple" means that the
             number and type of data elements (and, hence, subject and
             investigator burden) is small and straightforward so as not
             to discourage provider or patient participation and to
             maximize the number of subjects per dollar spent.
             CONCLUSION: With 200 to 400 child and adolescent
             psychiatrists each participating in two or three practical
             clinical trials over 4 years, CAPTN promises to advance both
             the evidence base and research capacity in child and
             adolescent psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200405000-00004},
   Key = {fds271494}
}

@article{fds327207,
   Author = {Costello, EJ and Compton, SN and Keeler, G and Angold,
             A},
   Title = {Effect of poverty on emotional symptoms in children -
             Reply},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {291},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {424-424},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds327207}
}

@article{fds271501,
   Author = {Case, B and Costello, EJ and Compton, SN and Keeler, G and Angold,
             A},
   Title = {Effect of Poverty on Emotional Symptoms in Children [4]
             (multiple letters)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {291},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {424-},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.291.4.424-a},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.291.4.424-a},
   Key = {fds271501}
}

@article{fds271500,
   Author = {Costello, EJ and Compton, SN and Keeler, G and Angold,
             A},
   Title = {Relationships between poverty and psychopathology: a natural
             experiment.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {290},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {2023-2029},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14559956},
   Abstract = {Social causation (adversity and stress) vs social selection
             (downward mobility from familial liability to mental
             illness) are competing theories about the origins of mental
             illness.To test the role of social selection vs social
             causation of childhood psychopathology using a natural
             experiment.Quasi-experimental, longitudinal study.A
             representative population sample of 1420 rural children aged
             9 to 13 years at intake were given annual psychiatric
             assessments for 8 years (1993-2000). One quarter of the
             sample were American Indian, and the remaining were
             predominantly white. Halfway through the study, a casino
             opening on the Indian reservation gave every American Indian
             an income supplement that increased annually. This increase
             moved 14% of study families out of poverty, while 53%
             remained poor, and 32% were never poor. Incomes of
             non-Indian families were unaffected.Levels of Diagnostic and
             Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition,
             psychiatric symptoms in the never-poor, persistently poor,
             and ex-poor children were compared for the 4 years before
             and after the casino opened.Before the casino opened, the
             persistently poor and ex-poor children had more psychiatric
             symptoms (4.38 and 4.28, respectively) than the never-poor
             children (2.75), but after the opening levels among the
             ex-poor fell to those of the never-poor children, while
             levels among those who were persistently poor remained high
             (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.09; and
             odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.07,
             respectively). The effect was specific to symptoms of
             conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. Anxiety and
             depression symptoms were unaffected. Similar results were
             found in non-Indian children whose families moved out of
             poverty during the same period.An income intervention that
             moved families out of poverty for reasons that cannot be
             ascribed to family characteristics had a major effect on
             some types of children's psychiatric disorders, but not on
             others. Results support a social causation explanation for
             conduct and oppositional disorder, but not for anxiety or
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.290.15.2023},
   Key = {fds271500}
}

@article{fds271499,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Swanson, JW and Wagner, HR and Swartz, MS and Burns, BJ and Elbogen, EB},
   Title = {Involuntary outpatient commitment and homelessness in
             persons with severe mental illness.},
   Journal = {Mental health services research},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {27-38},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1522-3434},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602644},
   Abstract = {This study took preliminary steps to explore the
             relationship between involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)
             and the risk of homelessness among individuals with severe
             mental disorders. Involuntarily hospitalized patients were
             randomly assigned to be released or maintained under OPC
             following hospital discharge. Multivariate analyses
             demonstrated that involuntary OPC was associated with a
             significant decrease in the risk of homelessness during the
             first 4 months following hospital discharge for participants
             with severe functional impairment at baseline. OPC did not
             appear to affect risk of homelessness among participants
             with mild-to-moderate functional impairment. Co-occurring
             substance abuse, treatment nonadherence, and outpatient
             services intensity were found to be strongly associated with
             episodes of homelessness. This study suggests that
             involuntary OPC may provide a short-term reduction in the
             risk of homelessness among a subgroup of treatment-reluctant
             individuals with severe mental disorders combined with
             severe functional impairment.},
   Key = {fds271499}
}

@article{fds271498,
   Author = {Phillips, SD and Kramer, TL and Compton, SN and Burns, BJ and Robbins,
             JM},
   Title = {Case-mix adjustment of adolescent mental health treatment
             outcomes.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Behavioral Health Services &
             Research},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {125-136},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-3412},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12633009},
   Abstract = {Case-mix adjustment methods are needed to account for
             differences between providers when the youth they treat have
             characteristics that adversely affect treatment success.
             This study explores variables for adjusting mental health
             treatment outcomes for adolescents and the differential
             effects of case-mix adjustment on providers' performance.
             Linear regression modeling was used to identify case-mix
             variables for five outcomes. Predictive equations for each
             outcome were developed for models based on intake clinical
             data alone, clinical data plus administrative data, and
             clinical data plus data describing youth history and family
             environment. Variance explained by intake clinical data
             alone did not increase appreciably with the addition of
             administrative data or data describing youth history and
             family environment. Adjusting outcomes changed the relative
             performance of certain individual providers substantially,
             but had a more moderate impact on the overall interpretation
             of providers' performance.},
   Key = {fds271498}
}

@article{fds327208,
   Author = {Vitiello, B},
   Title = {Searching for Moderators and Mediators of Pharmacological
             Treatment Effects in Children and Adolescents With Anxiety
             Disorders},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {13-21},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200301000-00006},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200301000-00006},
   Key = {fds327208}
}

@article{fds271464,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Burns, BJ and Helen, LE and Robertson,
             E},
   Title = {Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood
             psychopathology: internalizing disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1240-1266},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472300},
   Abstract = {This article reviews the empirical literature on
             psychosocial, psychopharmacological, and adjunctive
             treatments for children between the ages of 6 and 12 with
             internalizing disorders. The aim of this review was to
             identify interventions that have potential to prevent
             substance use disorders in adolescence by treating
             internalizing disorders in childhood. Results suggest that a
             variety of behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and
             pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing
             symptoms of childhood depression, phobias, and anxiety
             disorders. None of the studies reviewed included substance
             abuse outcomes. Thus, little can be said about the
             relationship between early treatment and the prevention of
             later substance use. The importance of evaluating the
             generalizability of research-supported interventions to
             community settings is highlighted and recommendations for
             future research are offered.},
   Key = {fds271464}
}

@article{fds271497,
   Author = {Farmer, EMZ and Compton, SN and Bums, BJ and Robertson,
             E},
   Title = {Review of the evidence base for treatment of childhood
             psychopathology: externalizing disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1267-1302},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12472301},
   Abstract = {This article reviews controlled research on treatments for
             childhood externalizing behavior disorders. The review is
             organized around 2 subsets of such disorders: disruptive
             behavior disorders (i.e., conduct disorder, oppositional
             defiant disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD). The review was based on a literature review
             of nonresidential treatments for youths ages 6-12. The pool
             of studies for this age group was limited, but results
             suggest positive outcomes for a variety of interventions
             (particularly parent training and community-based
             interventions for disruptive behavior disorders and
             medication for ADHD). The review also highlights the need
             for additional research examining effectiveness of
             treatments for this age range and strategies to enhance the
             implementation of effective practices.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.70.6.1267},
   Key = {fds271497}
}

@article{fds327209,
   Author = {THE RESEARCH UNITS ON PEDIATRIC PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY (RUPP)
             ANXIETY STUDY GROUP},
   Title = {The Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS): Development and
             Psychometric Properties},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1061-1069},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200209000-00006},
   Abstract = {To describe the development and psychometric properties of
             the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS), a clinician-rated
             instrument for assessing the severity of anxiety symptoms
             associated with common DSM-IV anxiety disorders (social
             phobia, separation anxiety disorder, and generalized anxiety
             disorder) in children.As part of a multisite study of the
             efficacy of fluvoxamine, 128 children (aged 6-17) and their
             parents were interviewed weekly with the PARS. Data from
             multiple raters on a subsample of children (using live and
             videotaped interviews) were used to evaluate interrater
             reliability. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability,
             and validity (convergent, divergent) also were evaluated.The
             PARS showed high interrater reliability, adequate
             test-retest reliability, and fair internal consistency.
             Convergent and divergent validity were satisfactory. PARS
             scores were sensitive to treatment and paralleled change in
             other measures of anxiety symptoms and global
             improvement.The PARS is a useful clinician-rated instrument
             for assessing pediatric anxiety symptoms, severity, and
             impairment, particularly in treatment studies. Further study
             of the psychometric properties is warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200209000-00006},
   Key = {fds327209}
}

@article{fds271491,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Grant, PJ and Chrisman, AK and Gammon, PJ and Brown, VL and March, JS},
   Title = {Sertraline in children and adolescents with social anxiety
             disorder: an open trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {564-571},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11349701},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this open-label study was to assess
             the therapeutic benefits, response pattern, and safety of
             sertraline in children with social anxiety disorder. METHOD:
             Fourteen outpatient subjects with a primary Axis I diagnosis
             of social anxiety disorder were treated in an 8-week open
             trial of sertraline. Diagnostic and primary outcome measures
             included the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for
             Children, Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI), Social
             Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children, and a
             standardized behavioral avoidance test. RESULTS: As measured
             by the CGI (Improvement subscale), 36% (5/14) of subjects
             were classified as treatment responders and 29% (4/14) as
             partial responders by the end of the 8-week trial. A
             significant clinical response appeared by week 6.
             Self-report and behavioral measures showed significant
             clinical improvement into normal range across all domains
             measured. The mean dose of sertraline was 123.21+/-37.29 mg
             per day. Sertraline was generally well tolerated.
             CONCLUSION: In open treatment, sertraline resulted in
             significant improvement in symptoms of childhood social
             anxiety disorder. Absolute response rates varied depending
             on rating scales used. Findings from this study are
             sufficiently strong to warrant a future multisite,
             randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of
             sertraline for treatment of childhood social anxiety
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200105000-00016},
   Key = {fds271491}
}

@article{fds271465,
   Author = {Pine, DS and Walkup, JT and Labellarte, MJ and Riddle, MA and Greenhill,
             L and Klein, R and Davies, M and Sweeney, M and Abikoff, H and Hack, S and al,
             E},
   Title = {Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in
             children and adolescents. The Research Unit on Pediatric
             Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study Group.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {344},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1279-1285},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/nejm200104263441703},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Drugs that selectively inhibit serotonin
             reuptake are effective treatments for adults with mood and
             anxiety disorders, but limited data are available on the
             safety and efficacy of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in
             children with anxiety disorders. METHODS: We studied 128
             children who were 6 to 17 years of age; who met the criteria
             for social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, or
             generalized anxiety disorder; and who had received
             psychological treatment for three weeks without improvement.
             The children were randomly assigned to receive fluvoxamine
             (at a maximum of 300 mg per day) or placebo for eight weeks
             and were evaluated with rating scales designed to assess the
             degree of anxiety and impairment. RESULTS: Children in the
             fluvoxamine group had a mean (+/-SD) decrease of 9.7+/-6.9
             points in symptoms of anxiety on the Pediatric Anxiety
             Rating Scale (range of possible scores, 0 to 25, with higher
             scores indicating greater anxiety), as compared with a
             decrease of 3.1+/-4.8 points among children in the placebo
             group (P<0.001). On the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement
             scale, 48 of 63 children in the fluvoxamine group (76
             percent) responded to the treatment, as indicated by a score
             of less than 4, as compared with 19 of 65 children in the
             placebo group (29 percent, P<0.001). Five children in the
             fluvoxamine group (8 percent) discontinued treatment because
             of adverse events, as compared with one child in the placebo
             group (2 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Fluvoxamine is an effective
             treatment for children and adolescents with social phobia,
             separation anxiety disorder, or generalized anxiety
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1056/nejm200104263441703},
   Key = {fds271465}
}

@article{fds271496,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Cuffel, BJ and Burns, BJ and Goldman,
             W},
   Title = {Datapoints: Effects of changing from five to ten
             preauthorized outpatient sessions.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1223},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.51.10.1223},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ps.51.10.1223},
   Key = {fds271496}
}

@article{fds271463,
   Author = {Compton, SN and Nelson, AH and March, JS},
   Title = {Social phobia and separation anxiety symptoms in community
             and clinical samples of children and adolescents.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1040-1046},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939233},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the developmental progression and
             pattern of self-reported symptoms of social phobia (SP) and
             separation anxiety (SA) in community (n = 2,384) and
             clinical (n = 217) samples of children and adolescents,
             using a cross-sectional method. METHOD: Subjects were
             cross-classified by age, gender, and race. Using mean scores
             on the SP and SA subscales of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children, 4 categories of children were
             established: HighSP/HighSA, HighSP/LowSA, LowSP/HighSA, and
             LowSP/LowSA. Data were analyzed using a generalized logit
             model. RESULTS: Community sample: Preadolescents and females
             reported more symptoms of HighSP/HighSA and LowSP/HighSA
             than adolescents and males. White children reported more
             symptoms of HighSP/LowSA, while the opposite pattern was
             found among African-American children. Clinical sample:
             Similar to the community sample, preadolescents reported
             more symptoms of HighSP/HighSA. However, clinical males
             reported more symptoms of LowSP/HighSA than clinical
             females. CONCLUSIONS: In general, adolescents endorsed more
             symptoms of SP and fewer symptoms of SA than preadolescent
             children. Irrespective of age, white children endorsed more
             symptoms of SP and fewer symptoms of SA than
             African-American children. In the community sample,
             preadolescent boys endorsed more symptoms of SA and fewer
             symptoms of SP, suggesting a possible referral
             bias.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200008000-00020},
   Key = {fds271463}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds302615,
   Author = {Burns, BJ and Compton, SN and Egger, HL and Fanner, EMZ and Robertson,
             EB},
   Title = {An Annotated Bibliography of Evidence for
             Diagnostic-Specific Psychosocial and Psychopharmacological
             Interventions},
   Pages = {212-276},
   Booktitle = {Community Treatment for Youth: Evidence-Based Interventions
             for Severe Emotional and Behavioral Disorders},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780195134575},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134575.003.0011},
   Abstract = {© 2002 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights
             reserved. This chapter presents the evidence base for clinic
             and school-based interventions for four common childhood
             disorders or related symptom patterns: attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD), major depressive disorder (MDD), disruptive
             behavior disorders, and anxiety disorders and related
             symptoms. It shows that within the existing base for each
             disorder, psychosocial interventions include an array of
             behavioral approaches. The psychopharmacology evidence base
             is strongest for ADHD, weaker for other disorders, and
             virtually nonexistent for anxiety disorders. Adjunctive
             studies examining a combination of psychosocial and
             psychopharmacological interventions were rare, with the
             largest and most sophisticated one for ADHD.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195134575.003.0011},
   Key = {fds302615}
}


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