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Publications of Linda K. George    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books   
@book{fds255778,
   Author = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Title = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780123808806},
   Abstract = {The Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, Seventh
             Edition summarizes the research literature on the social
             aspects of aging. The Seventh Edition will have 88% new
             material and authors with 25 chapters: 22 of the chapters
             will be on completely new topics. Separated into four
             sections, the fully revised handbook will cover Theory and
             Methods, Aging and Social Structure, Social Factors and
             Social Institutions, and Aging and Society. Contains all the
             main areas of social science gerontological research in one
             volume Begins with a section on theory and methods Edited by
             one of the fathers of gerontology (Binstock) and
             contributors represent top scholars in gerontology. © 2011
             Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds255778}
}

@book{fds255877,
   Author = {Binstock, RH and George, LK and Cutler, SJ and Hendricks, J and Schulz,
             JH},
   Title = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Series = {6th edition},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, R.H. and George, L.K.},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780120883882},
   Abstract = {The Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, Sixth Edition
             provides a comprehensive summary and evaluation of recent
             research on the social aspects of aging. The 25 chapters are
             divided into four sections discussing Aging and Time, Aging
             and Social Structure, Social Factors and Social
             Institutions, and Aging and Society. Within this context,
             aging is examined from the perspectives of many disciplines
             and professions including anthropology, bioethics,
             demography, economics, epidemiology, law, political science,
             psychology, and sociology. The Sixth Edition of the Handbook
             is virtually 100% new material. Seventeen chapters are on
             subjects not carried in the previous edition. Seven topics
             were carried over from the previous edition but written by
             new authors with fresh perspectives and brought up to date.
             Some of the exciting new topics include social relationships
             in late life, technological change and aging, religion and
             aging, lifestyle and aging, perceived quality of life,
             economic security in retirement, and aging and the law.
             There is also a greater emphasis on international
             perspectives, particularly in chapters on aging and
             politics, diversity and aging, and immigration. The Handbook
             will be of use to researchers and professional practitioners
             working with the aged. It is also suitable for use as a
             course text for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses
             on aging and the social sciences. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All
             rights reserved.},
   Key = {fds255877}
}

@book{fds255865,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Role Transitions in Later Life: A Social Stress
             Perspective},
   Publisher = {Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255865}
}

@book{fds392,
   Author = {L. George},
   Title = {Palmore, E., Burchett, B., Fillenbaum, G.G., George, L.K., &
             Wallman, L.},
   Journal = {Retirement: Causes and Consequences},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds392}
}

@book{fds255863,
   Author = {Busse, EW and Maddox, GL and Buckley, III and Burger, PC and George, LK and et al},
   Title = {The Duke Longitudinal Studies of Normal Aging,
             1955-1980},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255863}
}

@book{fds255864,
   Author = {George, L and Palmore, E and Burchett, B and Fillenbaum, GG and Wallman,
             L},
   Title = {Retirement: Causes and Consequences},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255864}
}

@book{fds255862,
   Author = {George, LK and Bearon, LB},
   Title = {Quality of Life in Older Persons: Meaning and
             Measurement},
   Publisher = {New York: Human Sciences Press},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds255862}
}

@book{fds255861,
   Author = {Houpt, JL and Orleans, CS and George, LK and Brodie,
             HKH},
   Title = {The Importance of Mental Health Services for General Health
             Care},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Press},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds255861}
}

@book{fds395,
   Author = {Atchley, R.C. and George, L.K. Symptomatic Measures of
             Age},
   Title = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {332-336},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds395}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds255651,
   Author = {Fu, Q and George, LK},
   Title = {Socioeconomic determinants of childhood overweight and
             obesity in China: the long arm of institutional
             power.},
   Journal = {Sociology of Health & Illness},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {805-822},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0141-9889},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.12234},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have widely reported that the association
             between socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood overweight
             and obesity in China is significant and positive, which
             lends little support to the fundamental-cause perspective.
             Using multiple waves (1997, 2000, 2004 and 2006) of the
             China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) (N = 2,556, 2,063,
             1,431 and 1,242, respectively) and continuous BMI cut-points
             obtained from a polynomial method, (mixed-effect) logistic
             regression analyses show that parental state-sector
             employment, an important, yet overlooked, indicator of
             political power during the market transformation has changed
             from a risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity in 1997
             to a protective factor for childhood overweight/obesity in
             2006. Results from quantile regression analyses generate the
             same conclusions and demonstrate that the protective effect
             of parental state sector employment at high percentiles of
             BMI is robust under different estimation strategies. By
             bridging the fundamental causes perspective and theories of
             market transformation, this research not only documents the
             effect of political power on childhood overweight/obesity
             but also calls for the use of multifaceted,
             culturally-relevant stratification measures in testing the
             fundamental cause perspective across time and
             space.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1467-9566.12234},
   Key = {fds255651}
}

@article{fds255777,
   Author = {Dupre, ME and George, LK and Liu, G and Peterson,
             ED},
   Title = {Association between divorce and risks for acute myocardial
             infarction.},
   Journal = {Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {244-251},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001291},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Divorce is a major life stressor that can have
             economic, emotional, and physical health consequences.
             However, the cumulative association between divorce and
             risks for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unknown. This
             study investigated the association between lifetime exposure
             to divorce and the incidence of AMI in US adults. METHODS
             AND RESULTS: We used nationally representative data from a
             prospective cohort of ever-married adults aged 45 to 80
             years (n=15,827) who were followed biennially from 1992 to
             2010. Approximately 14% of men and 19% of women were
             divorced at baseline and more than one third of the cohort
             had ≥1 divorce in their lifetime. In 200,524 person-years
             of follow-up, 8% (n=1211) of the cohort had an AMI and
             age-specific rates of AMI were consistently higher in those
             who were divorced compared with those who were continuously
             married (P<0.05). Results from competing-risk hazard models
             showed that AMI risks were significantly higher in women who
             had 1 divorce (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval,
             1.01-1.55), ≥2 divorces (hazard ratio, 1.77; 95%
             confidence interval, 1.30-2.41), and among the remarried
             (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.70)
             compared with continuously married women after adjusting for
             multiple risk factors. Multivariable-adjusted risks were
             elevated only in men with a history of ≥2 divorces (hazard
             ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.66) compared
             with continuously married men. Men who remarried had no
             significant risk for AMI. Interaction terms for sex were not
             statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Divorce is a
             significant risk factor for AMI. The risks associated with
             multiple divorces are especially high in women and are not
             reduced with remarriage.},
   Doi = {10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.114.001291},
   Key = {fds255777}
}

@article{fds255650,
   Author = {Fu, Q and George, LK},
   Title = {Sex, Socioeconomic and Regional Disparities in Age
             Trajectories of Childhood BMI, Underweight and Overweight in
             China},
   Journal = {Asian Population Studies},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {134-148},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1744-1730},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2015.1038873},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Taylor & Francis. Using a longitudinal dataset from
             the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), growth-curve
             models were employed to examine age trajectories of body
             mass index (BMI) for 1694 subjects in China, who were aged
             2–11 in 1993 and followed in four waves (1997, 2000, 2004
             and 2006). Based on age- and sex-specific BMI cut-points
             recommended for international use, the prevalence rates of
             overweight and underweight in the transition from childhood
             to adulthood (age 6–18) were also predicted. Sex, family
             income, rural–urban residency and geographical location
             were found to be significantly associated with the onsets,
             slopes, and acceleration of age trajectories in BMI,
             overweight, and underweight (p < 0.01). Children who had
             lower prevalence of underweight in the transition from
             childhood to adulthood exhibited higher prevalence of
             overweight than their counterparts. Moreover, the age
             interval during which children were more vulnerable to an
             increase in underweight was different from that for
             overweight. There were substantial regional disparities in
             the age trajectories of childhood overweight and
             underweight. Whereas the analyses suggest that the dual
             burden of nutritional problems (the coexistence of
             overweight and underweight) in China, is more like two sides
             of a coin than two separate health issues; the critical age
             period for intervening in childhood overweight is different
             from that of childhood underweight. Geographical indicators
             of childhood obesity in China deserve further
             attention.},
   Doi = {10.1080/17441730.2015.1038873},
   Key = {fds255650}
}

@article{fds255780,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Taking time seriously: a call to action in mental health
             research.},
   Journal = {Journal of Health and Social Behavior},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {251-264},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022146514542434},
   Abstract = {Sociological research on mental health focuses on a
             multitude of dynamic processes, including changes in
             psychological symptoms or the onset of a mental disorder,
             the course and outcome of mental health problems, and the
             associations of mental health with a wide variety of
             time-varying social risk and protective factors. I argue
             that scholars studying mental health have, thus far, only
             scratched the surface of the temporal dynamics upon which
             mental health and illness rest. Two broad research issues
             are reviewed to illustrate important temporal issues that
             have been neglected or understudied in mental health
             research: (1) specific dimensions of temporality, which
             focus on dynamic processes at the individual level, and (2)
             the age-period-cohort model, which focuses on mental health
             at the population level. Priority topics for future research
             that takes time seriously are recommended.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0022146514542434},
   Key = {fds255780}
}

@article{fds255781,
   Author = {George, LK and Hu, L and Sloan, FA},
   Title = {The effects of total knee arthroplasty on physical
             functioning and health among the under age 65
             population.},
   Journal = {Value in Health},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {605-610},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1098-3015},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2014.04.004},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effects of total knee
             arthroplasty on six measures of physical functioning,
             self-rated health, pain, earnings, and employment status
             among US adults aged 51 to 63 years at baseline. METHODS:
             Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally
             representative longitudinal study conducted biannually. The
             analysis sample consisted of individuals aged 51 to 63 years
             at baseline with arthritis who were resurveyed at 2-year
             intervals from 1996 to 2010. Propensity score matching was
             used to compare outcomes of persons receiving total knee
             arthroplasty (TKA) with those of matched controls. Six
             measures of physical functioning were examined: lower-body
             mobility problems, instrumental activities of daily living
             limitations, activities of daily living limitations, and
             large muscle, fine motor, and gross motor limitations.
             Self-rated health and pain were also examined. The two
             employment-related outcomes were earnings and employment
             status. RESULTS: Receipt of TKA was associated with better
             outcomes for several measures of physical functioning,
             especially mobility limitations, pain, and self-rated
             health. Receipt of TKA was not associated with increased
             earnings or employment. CONCLUSIONS: Receipt of TKA yields
             important improvements in physical function among persons
             with an arthritis diagnosis who received the procedure
             before reaching the age of 65 years. This study contributes
             to knowledge about the benefits of TKA in a community
             setting among nonelderly recipients of TKA.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jval.2014.04.004},
   Key = {fds255781}
}

@article{fds255782,
   Author = {Hybels, CF and George, LK and Blazer, DG and Pieper, CF and Cohen, HJ and Koenig, HG},
   Title = {Inflammation and Coagulation as Mediators in the
             Relationships Between Religious Attendance and Functional
             Limitations in Older Adults.},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {679-697},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0898-2643},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264314527479},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to examine inflammation and
             coagulation, which are positively linked to disability and
             inversely linked to increased religious attendance, as
             mediators in the cross-sectional relationships between
             religious attendance and functional status.Frequency of
             attendance and limitations in basic activities of daily
             living (ADLs), instrumental activities (IADLs), and mobility
             were assessed in 1,423 elders.More frequent attendance was
             associated with fewer ADL, IADL, and mobility limitations,
             and with lower levels of inflammation and coagulation
             including interleukin-6, soluble vascular cell adhesion
             molecule, and D-dimer. Inflammation and coagulation
             partially mediated the associations between attendance and
             function. Eight percent of the effect of attendance on ADL
             (p = .014), 5% of the effect on IADL (p = .003), and 8% of
             the effect on mobility (p = .001) limitations were due to
             inflammation and coagulation.Relationships between
             attendance and function may be due in part to lower levels
             of inflammation and coagulation among elders who attend
             services.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0898264314527479},
   Key = {fds255782}
}

@article{fds255880,
   Author = {George, LK and Palmore, E and Cohen, HJ},
   Title = {The Duke Center for the Study of Aging: one of our earliest
             roots.},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {59-66},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733867},
   Abstract = {The Duke University Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development (Duke CFA) was established by a
             multidisciplinary group of visionary scientists in 1955. It
             is the oldest continually operating center or institute
             dedicated to aging in the United States. This article
             outlines the origins of the Duke CFA and summarizes the
             major research initiatives conducted in its early years. The
             primary focus is on these landmark studies and their
             legacies. Those studies made important initial contributions
             to the knowledge base, introduced measurement tools and
             research designs that became standards in the field, and
             served as the impetus for later and current research. The
             hallmarks of these studies are their multidisciplinary
             foundations and their focus on the health and well-being of
             older adults. The Duke CFA's current research clearly builds
             upon the goals, insights, and empirical results of previous
             research initiatives. Although aging research is and has
             been the bedrock of the Duke CFA, developing services
             responsive to the needs of older adults and
             multidisciplinary training have also been hallmarks of the
             Duke CFA. Duke's Geriatric Evaluation and Treatment Clinic
             was established in 1974 and remains a national model for
             geriatric assessment. Our postdoctoral research training
             program has graduated more than 200 scholars and our
             Geriatric Fellowship program has graduated 113
             geriatricians. Many of our graduates have exemplary careers
             in aging, contributing to important research advances,
             providing care to thousands of older adults, serving as
             leaders in the field, and training new generations of
             gerontologists and geriatricians.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/gnt049},
   Key = {fds255880}
}

@article{fds255779,
   Author = {George, LK and Hu, L and Sloan, FA},
   Title = {The effects of total knee arthroplasty on physical
             functioning and health among the under age 65
             population},
   Journal = {Value in Health},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {605-610},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1098-3015},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2014.04.004},
   Abstract = {Objectives This study examined the effects of total knee
             arthroplasty on six measures of physical functioning,
             self-rated health, pain, earnings, and employment status
             among US adults aged 51 to 63 years at baseline. Methods
             Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally
             representative longitudinal study conducted biannually. The
             analysis sample consisted of individuals aged 51 to 63 years
             at baseline with arthritis who were resurveyed at 2-year
             intervals from 1996 to 2010. Propensity score matching was
             used to compare outcomes of persons receiving total knee
             arthroplasty (TKA) with those of matched controls. Six
             measures of physical functioning were examined: lower-body
             mobility problems, instrumental activities of daily living
             limitations, activities of daily living limitations, and
             large muscle, fine motor, and gross motor limitations.
             Self-rated health and pain were also examined. The two
             employment-related outcomes were earnings and employment
             status. Results Receipt of TKA was associated with better
             outcomes for several measures of physical functioning,
             especially mobility limitations, pain, and self-rated
             health. Receipt of TKA was not associated with increased
             earnings or employment. Conclusions Receipt of TKA yields
             important improvements in physical function among persons
             with an arthritis diagnosis who received the procedure
             before reaching the age of 65 years. This study contributes
             to knowledge about the benefits of TKA in a community
             setting among nonelderly recipients of TKA. © 2014
             International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes
             Research (ISPOR).},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jval.2014.04.004},
   Key = {fds255779}
}

@article{fds255783,
   Author = {Sloan, FA and George, LK and Hu, L},
   Title = {Productivity improvements in hip and knee
             surgery.},
   Journal = {Arthritis},
   Volume = {2014},
   Pages = {615784},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2090-1984},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/615784},
   Abstract = {Productivity improvements that occur as technologies become
             widely used are not well documented. This study measured
             secular trends over 1998-2010 in productivity of hip and
             knee procedures gauged in terms of changes in physical
             function and pain after versus before surgery. We used data
             from the Health and Retirement Study. Health outcomes from
             surgery were measured by 6 physical functioning scales and 2
             pain indicators. We used propensity score matching to obtain
             nonsurgery control groups. Not only were there substantial
             improvements in physical functioning and pain reduction
             after receipt of these procedures in all years, but also we
             documented improvements in health outcomes over time.
             Largest improvements were for reductions in numbers of
             Activity and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living
             limitations for knee procedures.},
   Doi = {10.1155/2014/615784},
   Key = {fds255783}
}

@article{fds255881,
   Author = {George, LK and Kinghorn, WA and Koenig, HG and Gammon, P and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Why gerontologists should care about empirical research on
             religion and health: transdisciplinary perspectives.},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {898-906},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23442382},
   Abstract = {A large volume of empirical research has accumulated on the
             relationship between religion/spirituality (R/S) and health
             since the year 2000, much of it involving older adults. The
             purpose of this article is to discuss how this body of
             existing research findings has important messages or
             important new insights for gerontologists; clinicians in
             medicine, psychiatry, and psychology; sociologists; and
             theologians. In other words, what contributions do the
             research findings on R/S and health make to these
             disciplines? In this article, experts from each of the
             aforementioned disciplines discuss what contributions this
             research can make to their own area of study and expertise.
             Besides emphasizing the broad relevance of research on R/S
             and health to many clinical and academic audiences in
             gerontology (i.e., addressing the "so what" question), this
             discussion provides clues about where R/S research might
             focus on in the future. },
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/gnt002},
   Key = {fds255881}
}

@article{fds255879,
   Author = {Sloan, FA and George, LK and Hu, L},
   Title = {Longer term effects of total knee arthroplasty from a
             national longitudinal study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {982-997},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23872821},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study used data for 1996-2010 from a U.S.
             longitudinal sample of elderly individuals from the Health
             and Retirement Study (HRS) merged with Medicare claims data
             to assess changes in several dimensions of physical
             functioning and general health up to 68 months following
             total knee arthroplasty (TKA) receipt. METHOD: Using
             propensity score matching, we assessed outcomes at follow-up
             for Medicare beneficiaries receiving TKA and a comparable
             group of beneficiaries with the same osteoarthritis
             diagnoses (controls). RESULTS: Receipt of TKA was most often
             associated with improvements in physical functioning,
             especially in physical functioning measures most directly
             related to the knee. General health of TKA recipients only
             improved relative to controls on 1 of the 3 study general
             health measures. DISCUSSION: Improvements in physical
             functioning of TKA recipients persisted in this longer term
             analysis of outcome in a nationally representative
             population study.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0898264313494799},
   Key = {fds255879}
}

@article{fds255943,
   Author = {Sloan, FA and George, LK and Hu, L},
   Title = {Emergency room and inpatient use after cardiac pacemaker
             implantation.},
   Journal = {Am J Cardiol},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {563-568},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23211359},
   Abstract = {Although studies have demonstrated health benefits, there is
             limited evidence on utilization and cost changes associated
             with cardiac pacemaker implantation from national community
             samples. The aim of this study was to quantify changes in
             emergency room (ER) and hospital inpatient use and in
             Medicare payments per beneficiary/year after pacemaker
             implantation. Outcomes for pacemaker recipients after and
             before implantation and between pacemaker recipients and
             controls were compared using propensity score matching. Data
             came from Health and Retirement Study interviews merged with
             Medicare claims. Sample subjects were aged ≥68 years with
             diagnosed conduction disorders or cardiac dysrhythmias in
             the previous 3 years. Outcome measures were (1) ER visits,
             inpatient admissions and days, and Medicare payments for ER
             and inpatient care in the after period for the pacemaker
             versus control groups, defined per beneficiary/year, (2)
             difference in differences in the same 5 outcome variables,
             and (3) binary variables for whether or not utilization or
             payments were lower in the after versus before periods for
             the pacemaker versus control groups. In conclusion, most
             pacemaker recipients improved, as measured by reductions in
             use and payments in the after versus before period, and
             there were reductions in ER visits and hospital admissions
             for conditions commonly leading to pacemaker
             implantation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.amjcard.2012.10.043},
   Key = {fds255943}
}

@article{fds255652,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Matching Corporate Interests with Older Adults’ Needs: A
             Case Study},
   Journal = {Public Policy & Aging Report},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {23-26},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds255652}
}

@article{fds255882,
   Author = {Zheng, H and George, LK},
   Title = {Rising U.S. income inequality and the changing gradient of
             socioeconomic status on physical functioning and activity
             limitations, 1984-2007},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2170-2182},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000312757800016&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.08.014},
   Key = {fds255882}
}

@article{fds255883,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Understanding Well-being in the Oldest Old.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {871-875},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000311306400013&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/gns133},
   Key = {fds255883}
}

@article{fds255945,
   Author = {Hybels, CF and Blazer, DG and George, LK and Koenig,
             HG},
   Title = {The complex association between religious activities and
             functional limitations in older adults.},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {676-685},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22403163},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine the longitudinal
             associations between 3 dimensions of religious
             involvement-religious attendance, use of religious media,
             and private religious activities-and 3 domains of functional
             status-limitations in basic activities of daily living
             (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and
             mobility in older adults. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the data
             from a survey of 2,924 adults aged 65+, with self-reported
             religious involvement and functional status collected at
             baseline, 3, 6, and 10 years postbaseline, we used repeated
             measures mixed models to predict functional change by
             religious status at the prior interview. RESULTS: Increased
             religious attendance was associated with fewer ADL, IADL,
             and mobility limitations 3-4 years later, controlling for
             demographic, health, and social variables as well as prior
             functional status. Neither use of religious media nor
             private religious activities was associated with functional
             change in controlled analyses. Use of religious media,
             however, was associated with developing more IADL and
             mobility limitations in uncontrolled analysis, suggesting a
             potential indirect association. IMPLICATIONS: Religious
             attendance may protect against decline in functional
             limitations in older adults. Clinicians may wish to consider
             the importance of attendance at services in preventing
             disability for those patients for whom religious involvement
             is important. Gerontologists may wish to include religious
             participation in their conceptual framework outlining risk
             factors for functional decline.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/gnr156},
   Key = {fds255945}
}

@article{fds255942,
   Author = {Sautter, JM and Thomas, PA and Dupre, ME and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status and the Black-White mortality
             crossover.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1566-1571},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698043},
   Abstract = {We investigated associations among age, race, socioeconomic
             status (SES), and mortality in older persons and whether low
             SES contributes to the Black-White mortality crossover (when
             elevated age-specific mortality rates invert).We used panel
             data from the North Carolina Established Populations for
             Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly to test the main and
             interactive effects of SES on mortality.Discrete-time hazard
             models showed that the association between low education and
             mortality did not vary by race or age and was only
             significant for men. For women, the effect of low income
             diminished with age and had little impact on the crossover.
             For men, low income varied by race and age, altering the
             Black-White crossover and producing low-high income
             crossovers at advanced ages.Low education and income were
             associated with increased mortality risk for older adults,
             but only low income had a differential impact on the
             Black-White mortality crossover. A primary route to reducing
             mortality differentials in later life is to prevent the
             disproportionate selective mortality of Blacks and the poor
             earlier in the life course.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.2011.300518},
   Key = {fds255942}
}

@article{fds255884,
   Author = {Liu, G and Dupre, M and George, L and Peterson, E},
   Title = {The Cumulative Impact of Unemployment on Risks of Acute
             Myocardial Infarction},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {1731-1737},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23401888},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Employment instability is a major source of
             strain affecting an increasing number of adults in the
             United States. Little is known about the cumulative effect
             of multiple job losses and unemployment on the risks for
             acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: We investigated
             the associations between different dimensions of
             unemployment and the risks for AMI in US adults in a
             prospective cohort study of adults (N = 13,451) aged 51 to
             75 years in the Health and Retirement Study with biennial
             follow-up interviews from 1992 to 2010. Unadjusted rates of
             age-specific AMI were used to demonstrate observed
             differences by employment status, cumulative number of job
             losses, and cumulative time unemployed. Cox proportional
             hazards models were used to examine the multivariate effects
             of cumulative work histories on AMI while adjusting for
             sociodemographic background and confounding risk factors.
             RESULTS: The median age of the study cohort was 62 years,
             and 1061 AMI events (7.9%) occurred during the 165,169
             person-years of observation. Among the sample, 14.0% of
             subjects were unemployed at baseline, 69.7% had 1 or more
             cumulative job losses, and 35.1% had spent time unemployed.
             Unadjusted plots showed that age-specific rates of AMI
             differed significantly for each dimension of work history.
             Multivariate models showed that AMI risks were significantly
             higher among the unemployed (hazard ratio, 1.35 [95% CI,
             1.10-1.66]) and that risks increased incrementally from 1
             job loss (1.22 [1.04-1.42]) to 4 or more cumulative job
             losses (1.63 [1.29-2.07]) compared with no job loss. Risks
             for AMI were particularly elevated within the first year of
             unemployment (hazard ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.01-1.60]) but
             not thereafter. Results were robust after adjustments for
             multiple clinical, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk
             factors. CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment status, multiple job
             losses, and short periods without work are all significant
             risk factors for acute cardiovascular events.},
   Doi = {10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.447},
   Key = {fds255884}
}

@article{fds255914,
   Author = {Chen, X and Zhang, Z-X and George, LK and Wang, Z-S and Fan, Z-J and Xu, T and Zhou, X-L and Han, S-M and Wen, H-B and Zeng, Y},
   Title = {Birth measurements, family history, and environmental
             factors associated with later-life hypertensive
             status},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {464-471},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2011.262},
   Abstract = {Background: This birth cohort study was conducted to
             investigate the contribution of prenatal and antenatal
             environmental exposures to later-life hypertensive status.
             Methods: Two thousand five hundred and three individuals
             born in 1921-1954 at the Peking Union Medical College
             Hospital (PUMCH) were targeted; 2,081 (83.1%) participated.
             Clinical examinations included an interview, blood pressure
             (BP) measurements, and laboratory assays. Statistical
             analyses were performed using ordinal regression models with
             later-life hypertensive status as the dependent variable.
             Similar analyses were for subpopulations divided by family
             history of hypertension. Results: In the 2,081 subjects, 449
             were normotensive, 531 were prehypertensive, and 1,101 had
             hypertension. Three hundred and forty two hypertensive
             patients were classified as high-risk (BP ≥180/110 mm Hg,
             or accompanied with diabetes or three well-established
             cardiovascular risk factors); the other 759 patients were at
             mid-to-low risks. Lower birth weight (&lt;2,500 g: odds
             ratio (OR) = 1.67, P = 0.02; 2,500- &lt;3,000 g: OR = 1.64,
             P &lt; 0.01; 3,000- &lt;3,500 g, OR = 1.40, P = 0.01),
             family history of hypertension (OR = 1.73, P &lt; 0.01),
             poor education (OR = 1.76, P &lt; 0.01), and alcoholism (OR
             = 3.05, P &lt; 0.01) significantly predicted later-life
             high-risk hypertension. For participants with hypertensive
             family history (57.7%), the association with birth weight
             became nonsignificant, but poor education (OR = 2.33, P &lt;
             0.01) and alcoholism (OR = 3.10, P = 0.01) remained
             important. For participants without hypertensive family
             history (42.3%), the effects of lower birth weight
             (&lt;2,500 g: OR = 2.26, P = 0.02; 2,500- &lt;3,000 g: OR =
             1.91, P = 0.01; 3,000- &lt;3,500 g, OR = 1.78, P = 0.01) and
             alcoholism (OR = 3.23, P &lt; 0.01) remained significant.
             Conclusion: Low birth weight, low education, alcoholism, and
             hypertensive family history are linked to later-life
             hypertensive status. Low birth weight is also partly
             associated with one's genetic background; whereas the
             association with education and alcoholism are independent
             from hypertensive family history. © 2012 American Journal
             of Hypertension, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ajh.2011.262},
   Key = {fds255914}
}

@article{fds255776,
   Author = {Richard A Settersten and J and Angel, JL},
   Title = {Handbook of Sociology of Aging},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {714 pages},
   Publisher = {Springer Science & Business Media},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnt060},
   Abstract = {These are all very crucial lessons for sociologists of
             aging. On the other hand, so much attention to the life
             course could also threaten the sociology of aging. As
             attention to the life course seems certain to grow
             exponentially in the years ahead,&nbsp;...},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/gnt060},
   Key = {fds255776}
}

@article{fds255891,
   Author = {Dupre, ME and George, LK},
   Title = {Exceptions to the rule: Exceptional health among the
             disadvantaged},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {115-144},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0164-0275},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027510391988},
   Abstract = {Countless studies show that socioeconomic status (SES) is
             strongly related to morbidity and mortality. However, few
             studies consider the substantial variability in health
             within socioeconomic strata. In this article, the authors
             examine the incompatibility between stratification-based
             theories of health inequality and empirical patterns of
             exceptional health among the socially disadvantaged. Using
             panel data from the Health and Retirement Survey
             (1992-2008), the authors test the mediating and moderating
             effects of various predictors of exceptional health (no
             chronic diseases or physical limitations) for middle-aged
             and older adults with and without a high school education.
             Results suggest that a combination of demographic
             characteristics, family and religious factors, socioeconomic
             resources, health behaviors, psychological makeup, and
             biological attributes play differing roles in protecting the
             health of disadvantaged men and women. The findings
             underscore the complex associations among SES, protective
             mechanisms, and health and offer new insight into how
             disadvantaged adults defy their odds of poor health. © 2011
             The Author(s).},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027510391988},
   Key = {fds255891}
}

@article{fds255941,
   Author = {Zeng, Y and Gu, D and George, LK},
   Title = {Association of Religious Participation With Mortality Among
             Chinese Old Adults.},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {51-83},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448080},
   Abstract = {This research examines the association of religious
             participation with mortality using a longitudinal data set
             collected from 9,017 oldest-old aged 85+ and 6,956 younger
             elders aged 65 to 84 in China in 2002 and 2005 and hazard
             models. Results show that adjusted for demographics,
             family/social support, and health practices, risk of dying
             was 24% (p < 0.001) and 12% (p < 0.01) lower among frequent
             and infrequent religious participants than among
             nonparticipants for all elders aged 65+. After baseline
             health was adjusted, the corresponding risk of dying
             declined to 21% (p < 0.001) and 6% (not significant),
             respectively. The authors also conducted hazard models
             analysis for men versus women and for young-old versus
             oldest-old, respectively, adjusted for single-year age; the
             authors found that gender differentials of association of
             religious participation with mortality among all elderly
             aged 65+ were not significant; association among young-old
             men was significantly stronger than among oldest-old men,
             but no such significant young-old versus oldest-old
             differentials in women were found.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027510383584},
   Key = {fds255941}
}

@article{fds255944,
   Author = {Blazer, DG and Cohen, HJ and George, LK and Koenig, HG and Verhey,
             A},
   Title = {Why John wasn't healed by prayer: perspectives across
             disciplines.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {377-391},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22530400},
   Abstract = {Patients and family members often turn to prayer in response
             to serious, life-threatening illness. Prayer for a
             miraculous cure is often the request. While prayer can keep
             hope alive, it may also promote unrealistic expectations
             that fuel demands for life-preserving technology in
             medically futile situations. Furthermore, if prayer does not
             achieve the desired results, then disappointment and
             disillusionment may follow and make the coping process even
             more difficult. We present here a case of a seriously ill
             man whose family and faith community prayed for his healing.
             John, however, was not healed. A medical internist, two
             psychiatrists, a sociologist, and a theologian discuss their
             perspectives on the apparent failure of prayer to heal John.
             This cross-disciplinary discussion reveals insights that we
             believe physicians can use when confronting such issues with
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.2190/PM.42.4.d},
   Key = {fds255944}
}

@article{fds255940,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Still happy after all these years: research frontiers on
             subjective well-being in later life.},
   Journal = {Journals of Gerontology: Series B},
   Volume = {65B},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {331-339},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20233742},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: OBJECTIVES. Understanding the factors that
             promote quality of life in old age has been a staple of
             social gerontology since its inception and remains a
             significant theme in aging research. The purpose of this
             article was to review the state of the science with regard
             to subjective well-being (SWB) in later life and to identify
             promising directions for future research. METHODS: This
             article is based on a review of literature on SWB in aging,
             sociological, and psychological journals. Although the
             materials reviewed date back to the early 1960s, the
             emphasis is on publications in the past decade. RESULTS:
             Research to date paints an effective portrait of the
             epidemiology of SWB in late life and the factors associated
             with it. Although the research base is large, causal
             inferences about the determinants of SWB remain problematic.
             Two recent contributions to the research base are
             highlighted as emerging issues: studies of secular trends in
             SWB and cross-national studies. Discussion. The review ends
             with discussion of priority issues for future
             research.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/gbq006},
   Key = {fds255940}
}

@article{fds255878,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Still happy after all these years: Research frontiers on
             subjective well-being in later life},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {65 B},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {331-339},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbq006},
   Abstract = {Objectives.Understanding the factors that promote quality of
             life in old age has been a staple of social gerontology
             since its inception and remains a significant theme in aging
             research. The purpose of this article was to review the
             state of the science with regard to subjective well-being
             (SWB) in later life and to identify promising directions for
             future research.Methods.This article is based on a review of
             literature on SWB in aging, sociological, and psychological
             journals. Although the materials reviewed date back to the
             early 1960s, the emphasis is on publications in the past
             decade.Results.Research to date paints an effective portrait
             of the epidemiology of SWB in late life and the factors
             associated with it. Although the research base is large,
             causal inferences about the determinants of SWB remain
             problematic. Two recent contributions to the research base
             are highlighted as emerging issues: studies of secular
             trends in SWB and cross-national studies. Discussion.The
             review ends with discussion of priority issues for future
             research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University
             Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/gbq006},
   Key = {fds255878}
}

@article{fds255964,
   Author = {Steinhauser, KE and Alexander, SC and Byock, IR and George, LK and Tulsky, JA},
   Title = {Seriously ill patients' discussions of preparation and life
             completion: an intervention to assist with transition at the
             end of life.},
   Journal = {Palliative & Supportive Care},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {393-404},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19939302},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Patients approaching the end of life not only
             face challenges to physical well-being but also threats to
             emotional and spiritual integrity. Yet, identifying
             appropriate, effective, and brief interventions to address
             those concerns has proven elusive. We developed an
             intervention based on life review and emotional disclosure
             literatures and conducted a pilot study to determine
             feasibility and acceptability. This article presents
             qualitative intervention responses. METHOD: We conducted a
             three-armed randomized control trial to evaluate the effects
             of preparation and life completion discussion on health
             outcomes in patients with advanced serious illness.
             Hospice-eligible subjects were randomly assigned to one of
             three groups: (1) intervention (life completion discussion
             intervention), (2) attention control (relaxation
             meditation), and control (no intervention). Subjects in the
             intervention arm met with a facilitator three times. Session
             1 focused on life story, Session 2 on forgiveness, and
             Session 3, on heritage and legacy. RESULTS: Eighteen
             subjects participated in the pilot intervention interviews.
             Subjects from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds completed
             the intervention with equal facility. Results from Session 1
             demonstrate narrative responses participants gave as they
             reconnected with previous life roles, values, and
             accomplishments. The second session illustrated reflections
             of choices one might have made differently and exploration
             of forgiveness offered and sought. Content from the first
             and second sessions laid the foundation for discussing
             Session 3's lessons learned and heritage and legacy.
             Responses are summarized to assist clinicians in
             anticipating life review content that may improve overall
             quality of life at the end of life. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS:
             Discussions of life completion may improve important health
             outcomes for patients at the end of life. This intervention
             may provide a brief, standardized, and transportable means
             for improving the quality of life of patients with advanced
             serious illness.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S147895150999040X},
   Key = {fds255964}
}

@article{fds255963,
   Author = {Steinhauser, KE and Alexander, SC and Byock, IR and George, LK and Olsen, MK and Tulsky, JA},
   Title = {Do preparation and life completion discussions improve
             functioning and quality of life in seriously ill patients?
             Pilot randomized control trial.},
   Journal = {Journal of Palliative Medicine},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1234-1240},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19021487},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Significant palliative care intervention has
             focused on physical pain and symptom control; yet less
             empirical evidence supports efforts to address the
             psychosocial and spiritual dimensions of experience.
             OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an intervention
             (Outlook) that promotes discussions of end-of-life
             preparation and completion on health outcomes in dying
             persons, including pain and symptoms, physical function,
             emotional function (anxiety and depression), spiritual
             well-being, and quality of life at the end of life. DESIGN:
             A three-arm pilot randomized control trial. Subjects were
             recruited from inpatient and outpatient hospital, palliative
             care, and hospice settings. Intervention subjects met with a
             facilitator three times and discussed issues related to life
             review, forgiveness, and heritage and legacy. Attention
             control subjects met with a facilitator three times and
             listened to a nonguided relaxation CD. True control subjects
             received no intervention. MEASUREMENTS: Preoutcomes and
             postoutcomes included the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale,
             QUAL-E, Rosow-Breslau ADL Scale, Profile of Mood States
             anxiety sub-scale, the CESD short version, and the Daily
             Spiritual Experience Scale. RESULTS: Eighty-two hospice
             eligible patients enrolled in the study; 38 were women, 35
             were African American. Participants' primary diagnoses
             included cancer (48), heart disease (5) lung disease (10),
             and other (19) Ages ranged from 28-96. Participants in the
             active discussion intervention showed improvements in
             functional status, anxiety, depression, and preparation for
             end of life. CONCLUSIONS: The Outlook intervention was
             acceptable to patients from a variety of educational and
             ethnic backgrounds and offers a brief, manualized,
             intervention for emotional and spiritual
             concerns.},
   Doi = {10.1089/jpm.2008.0078},
   Key = {fds255963}
}

@article{fds255938,
   Author = {George, LK and Ruiz, D and Sloan, FA},
   Title = {The effects of total knee arthroplasty on physical
             functioning in the older population.},
   Journal = {Arthritis and Rheumatism},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {3166-3171},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0004-3591},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821689},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Clinical research provides convincing evidence
             that total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is safe and improves
             joint-specific outcomes. However, higher-level functioning
             associated with self care and independent living has not
             been studied. Furthermore, most previous studies of the
             effects of TKA relied on relatively small clinical samples.
             We undertook this study to estimate the effects of TKA on 3
             levels of physical functioning in a national sample of older
             adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Medicare
             Current Beneficiary Survey from 1992 to 2003. Medicare
             claims data identified participants with osteoarthritis of
             the knee who received TKA (n=259) or no TKA (n=1,816).
             Propensity scores were used to match treatment and
             no-treatment groups according to demographic
             characteristics, comorbid conditions, and baseline
             functioning. Three levels of physical functioning were
             examined as outcomes of TKA. These levels were represented
             by items on the Nagi Disability Scale, the Instrumental
             Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale, and the Activities
             of Daily Living (ADL) Scale. These items were measured after
             TKA and at comparable intervals for the no-treatment group.
             Average treatment effects were calculated for relevant Nagi
             Disability Scale, IADL Scale, and ADL Scale tasks. RESULTS:
             Between baseline and outcome assessments, TKA recipients
             improved on all 3 levels of physical functioning; the
             no-treatment group declined. Statistically significant
             average treatment effects for TKA were observed for one or
             more tasks for each measure of physical functioning.
             CONCLUSION: TKA is associated with sizeable improvements in
             3 levels of physical functioning among elderly Medicare
             beneficiaries.},
   Doi = {10.1002/art.23888},
   Key = {fds255938}
}

@article{fds255937,
   Author = {George, LK and Ruiz, D and Sloan, FA},
   Title = {The effects of total hip arthroplasty on physical
             functioning in the older population.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1057-1062},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18384581},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effects of total hip
             arthroplasty (THA) on three levels of physical functioning
             in a representative national sample of older adults. DESIGN:
             Survey. SETTING: Participants were interviewed in their
             homes. PARTICIPANTS: Participants consisted of stratified
             random samples of Medicare beneficiaries interviewed between
             1992 and 2003. METHODS: Data from the Medicare Current
             Beneficiary Survey from 1992 to 2003 and merged Medicare
             claims data identified participants who received (n=131) or
             did not receive (n=257) THA. Outcomes were three measures of
             physical functioning: Nagi items, instrumental activities of
             daily living, and activities of daily living. Baseline and
             follow-up measures were obtained approximately 6 months
             apart. Logistic regression was used to predict the effects
             of THA on functioning, with a wide range of covariates
             controlled. RESULTS: Persons who received THA significantly
             improved in two of three levels of physical functioning; the
             no-treatment group experienced declines in physical
             functioning. CONCLUSION: Receipt of THA is associated with
             significant improvements in two levels of physical
             functioning. These benefits are broadly applicable in that a
             wide variety of covariates had minimal effects on THA
             receipt and outcome.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.01685.x},
   Key = {fds255937}
}

@article{fds255962,
   Author = {Hastings, SN and George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG and Park, RS and Burchett, BM and Schmader, KE},
   Title = {Does lack of social support lead to more ED visits for older
             adults?},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {454-461},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18410815},
   Abstract = {The goals of this study were to (1) determine whether level
             of social support and living situation predicted emergency
             department (ED) use among older adults and (2) identify
             correlates of ED visits according to whether the patient was
             admitted to the hospital.Secondary analysis of a
             longitudinal, prospective study was conducted.In adjusted
             analyses, subjects who lived alone were 60% more likely to
             visit the ED than those who lived solely with their spouse.
             Neither type nor level of social support as measured by the
             Duke Social Support Index predicted ED use. Indicators of
             poor physical health (prior hospitalization, poorer
             self-rated health, and functional disability) were
             predictors of ED visits that resulted in hospitalization;
             however, these were not significantly associated with
             outpatient ED visits.Older adults who live alone are more
             likely to visit the ED. Additional study is needed to
             understand the determinants of outpatient ED
             visits.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ajem.2007.07.005},
   Key = {fds255962}
}

@article{fds255939,
   Author = {Son, J and Lin, N and George, LK},
   Title = {Cross-national comparison of social support structures
             between Taiwan and the United States.},
   Journal = {Journal of Health and Social Behavior},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {104-118},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18418988},
   Abstract = {The study compares the effects of structural bases and
             functional elements of social support on mental health in
             Taiwan and the United States, using the study conducted in
             the United States by Lin, Ye, and Ensel (1999) as a
             reference. Based on a nationally representative sample of
             Taiwanese adults (n = 2,835), a fundamental similarity in
             social support structure and function between the two
             countries was observed. First, the structural bases of
             social support had a hierarchical order in their effects on
             depression: Binding (presence of an intimate relationship)
             was the strongest in reducing depression, whereas belonging
             (community participation) was the weakest, with bonding
             (social networks) in between. Regarding the functional
             elements, perceived social support was a better protector of
             mental health than actual social support, a finding in line
             with previous research. On the other hand, several notable
             differences in the structural bases and functional elements
             of social support between the two societies were observed,
             possibly due to the differential cultural and historical
             characteristics.},
   Doi = {10.1177/002214650804900108},
   Key = {fds255939}
}

@article{fds303918,
   Author = {Hastings, SN and George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG and Burchett, BM and Schmader, KS},
   Title = {Does Lack of Social Support Lead to More Emergency
             Department Visits for Older Adults},
   Journal = {American Journal of Emergency Medicine},
   Volume = {26},
   Pages = {454-461},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds303918}
}

@article{fds255965,
   Author = {Clarke, P and George, LK},
   Title = {The role of the built environment in the disablement
             process.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1933-1939},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16195520},
   Abstract = {The Disablement Process model explicates the transition from
             health conditions to disability and specifically emphasizes
             the role of intervening factors that speed up or slow down
             the pathway between pathology and disability. We used
             hierarchical Poisson regression analyses with data on older
             adults from central North Carolina to examine the role of
             the built environment as a modifying factor in the pathway
             between lower extremity functional limitations and
             activities of daily living. We found that, despite declining
             physical function, older adults report greater independence
             in instrumental activities when they live in environments
             with more land-use diversity. Independence in self-care
             activities is modified by housing density, in part through
             the effect of substandard and inadequate
             housing.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.2004.054494},
   Key = {fds255965}
}

@article{fds255653,
   Author = {Hoenig, H and Landerman, LR and Shipp, KM and Pieper, C and Richardson,
             M and Pahel, N and George, L},
   Title = {A clinical trial of a rehabilitation expert clinician versus
             usual care for providing manual wheelchairs.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1712-1720},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53502.x},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of differing methods of
             dispensing wheelchairs. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental by day of
             week. SETTING: Department of Veterans Affairs Medical
             Center. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four community-dwelling,
             cognitively intact patients prescribed a standard manual
             wheelchair. INTERVENTION: A multifactorial intervention
             consisting of an expert physical/occupational therapist who
             used a scripted evaluation that included an evaluation based
             on medical record review and self-reported and physical
             performance measures; individualization of the wheelchair
             and initiation of orders for additional occupational/physical
             therapy, equipment, or home modifications as needed;
             multimodal patient education; and telephone follow-up at 3
             and 6 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was amount of
             wheelchair use. Secondary outcomes were shoulder pain,
             wheelchair comfort and confidence, and home modifications.
             RESULTS: The intervention group had significantly greater
             wheelchair use than usual care at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6
             months (P=.01). Wheelchair use declined monotonically over
             time for the entire study sample (P<.001). There were no
             significant differences between the two groups in shoulder
             pain, wheelchair comfort or confidence, or home
             modifications. CONCLUSION: New wheelchair owners used the
             wheelchair more often if they received it from an expert
             therapist using a multifactorial intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53502.x},
   Key = {fds255653}
}

@article{fds255969,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status and health across the life course:
             progress and prospects.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {60 Spec No 2},
   Number = {special issue},
   Pages = {135-139},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16251585},
   Key = {fds255969}
}

@article{fds255966,
   Author = {Yang, Y and George, LK},
   Title = {Functional disability, disability transitions, and
             depressive symptoms in late life.},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {263-292},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0898-2643},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000229153600001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This article addresses how stable functional
             disability statuses and disability transitions are related
             to change in depressive symptoms in the elderly. METHOD: The
             authors estimate longitudinal residual change models using
             two waves of data, 1986 and 1992, from the National
             Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly, Duke University. RESULTS: Both
             stable disability statuses and transitions in disability
             statuses are significantly related to change in depressive
             symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale
             [CES D]). Stable disability statuses in strength and
             mobility, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)
             items and activities of daily living (ADL) items have
             increasing effects on increment in CES-D scores by the
             follow-up. The onset of disability has stronger effects on
             change in CES-D scores than recovery. These effects also
             differ by types of transitions in disability statuses.
             DISCUSSION: The authors discuss alternative interpretations
             of the findings and methodological concerns and also suggest
             avenues for future research.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0898264305276295},
   Key = {fds255966}
}

@article{fds255968,
   Author = {Steffens, DC and Pieper, CF and Bosworth, HB and MacFall, JR and Provenzale, JM and Payne, ME and Carroll, BJ and George, LK and Krishnan, KRR},
   Title = {Biological and social predictors of long-term geriatric
             depression outcome.},
   Journal = {International Psychogeriatrics},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {41-56},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1041-6102},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15948303},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined 204 older depressed
             individuals for up to 64 months to determine factors related
             to depression outcome. We hypothesized that both presence of
             vascular brain lesions seen on baseline magnetic resonance
             imaging (MRI) scans and lower baseline social support
             measures would be related to worse depression outcome.
             METHOD: At study entry, all subjects were at least 59 years
             old, had a diagnosis of major depression, and were free of
             other major psychiatric illness and primary neurological
             illness, including dementia and stroke. Depression was
             diagnosed via structured interview and clinical assessment
             by a geriatric psychiatrist who completed a Montgomery
             Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) to determine severity
             of depression. Subjects provided self-report data on social
             support variables and ability to perform basic and
             instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL). All
             subjects agreed to have a baseline standardized MRI brain
             scan. Ratings of severity of hyperintensities were
             determined for the periventricular white matter, deep white
             matter, and subcortical gray matter by two readers who
             decided by consensus. Treatment was provided by
             geropsychiatrists following clinical guidelines. Using mixed
             models to analyze the data, we determined the effect of a
             variety of demographic, social and imaging variables on the
             trajectory of MADRS score, the outcome variable of interest.
             RESULTS: MADRS scores decreased steadily over time. In a
             final HLM model, in which time since entry, a baseline time
             indicator, age, gender, education and Mini-mental State
             Examination score were controlled, subjective social
             support, instrumental ADL impairment, subcortical gray
             matter severity, and the interactions of time with social
             network and with subcortical gray matter lesions remained
             significantly associated with MADRS score. CONCLUSIONS: Both
             social and biological factors at baseline are associated
             with longitudinal depression severity in geriatric
             depression.},
   Key = {fds255968}
}

@article{fds255967,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Titus, P and Meador,
             KG},
   Title = {Religion, spirituality, and acute care hospitalization and
             long-term care use by older patients.},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1579-1585},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-9926},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15277293},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The impact of religion and spirituality on acute
             care hospitalization (ACH) and long-term care (LTC) in older
             patients before, during, and after ACH is not well known.
             METHODS: Patients 50 years or older consecutively admitted
             to the general medical service at Duke University Medical
             Center were interviewed shortly after admission (N = 811).
             Measures of religiosity were organized religious activity
             (ORA), nonorganizational religious activity (NORA),
             religiosity through religious radio and/or television (RTV),
             intrinsic religiosity, and self-rated religiousness.
             Measures of spirituality included self-rated spirituality
             and daily spiritual experiences (DSE). Primary outcome was
             number of ACH days during an average 21-month observation
             period. Secondary outcomes were times hospitalized and
             number of days spent in a nursing home or rehabilitation
             setting (collectively, long-term care: LTC). Race and sex
             interactions were examined. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional
             analysis, ORA was the only religious variable related to
             fewer ACH days and fewer hospitalizations, an effect that is
             fully explained by physical health status and that
             disappeared when examined prospectively. The number of LTC
             days was inversely related to NORA, RTV, and DSE, effects
             that were partially explained by social support but not by
             severity of medical illness. Interactions with race and sex
             were notable but reached statistical significance only among
             African Americans and women. In those groups, religious
             and/or spiritual characteristics also predicted future LTC
             use independent of physical health and baseline LTC status.
             CONCLUSIONS: Relationships with ACH were weak, were confined
             to ORA only, and disappeared in prospective analyses.
             However, robust and persistent effects were documented for
             religiousness and/or spirituality in the use of LTC among
             African Americans and women.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archinte.164.14.1579},
   Key = {fds255967}
}

@article{fds30418,
   Author = {Koenig, H.G. and George, L.K. and Titus, P.},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Health in Medically Ill
             Hospitalized Older Adults},
   Journal = {ournal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {52},
   Pages = {554-562},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds30418}
}

@article{fds255859,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Titus, P},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Health in Medically Ill
             Hospitalized Older Adults},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {52},
   Pages = {554-562},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds255859}
}

@article{fds255974,
   Author = {Benjamins, MR and Musick, MA and Gold, DT and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Age-related declines in activity level: the relationship
             between chronic illness and religious activities.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {S377-S385},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14614127},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: When they are faced with major life transitions
             such as worsening health, older adults may selectively
             withdraw from activities. Because of the importance of
             religion to a large proportion of the elderly population,
             research is needed to determine whether levels of religious
             involvement are affected by serious health problems such as
             the onset of a chronic disease. METHODS: Multiple waves of
             data from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly were used to analyze the effects of
             five different chronic conditions on two religious
             activities: service attendance and religious media use.
             RESULTS: Findings show that broken hip, cancer, and stroke
             were significantly related to levels of religious
             attendance. Furthermore, the combined conditions also
             significantly predicted religious attendance, with more
             conditions being associated with lower attendance. Neither
             the individual or summed conditions were significantly
             related to religious media use. DISCUSSION: The study finds
             some evidence to support the idea that older adults withdraw
             from social activities such as religious involvement when
             faced with declining health. In contrast, levels of
             religious media use remain stable following the onset of one
             or more new chronic conditions.},
   Key = {fds255974}
}

@article{fds255975,
   Author = {Hoenig, H and Landerman, LR and Shipp, KM and George,
             L},
   Title = {Activity restriction among wheelchair users.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1244-1251},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12919236},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with activity
             restriction. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Patients
             prescribed a new wheelchair at one of two teaching hospitals
             (one Veterans Affairs and one private hospital).
             PARTICIPANTS: One hundred fifty-three consecutive,
             community-dwelling wheelchair users, who had a Short
             Portable Mental Status Score greater than 6 out of 10 and
             could be interviewed within 7 to 21 days of receiving the
             wheelchair. MEASUREMENTS: Dependent variables were
             self-reported nonmedical visits and medical visits in the
             preceding week (any vs no visits and the number of visits).
             Independent variables were self-reported sociodemographic
             and health characteristics, mobility limitations, and
             environmental barriers. RESULTS: Study subjects reported, on
             average, 1.79 mobility limitations, 11.17 hours out of bed,
             and 5.56 hours of personal assistance per day. Multivariate
             analyses show that higher income was the only significant
             sociodemographic factor; it was associated with more medical
             visits (beta=0.44, P<.01). Of health status characteristics,
             more comorbid conditions predicted fewer nonmedical visits
             (beta=-0.14, P<.10) and amputation was associated with fewer
             medical visits (beta-0.82, P<.05). Regarding mobility
             limitations, more mobility limitations was associated with
             lower odds of any nonmedical visit (odds ratio (OR)=0.71,
             P<.5) and fewer nonmedical visits (beta=-0.28, P<.05); more
             hours out of bed predicted more nonmedical visits
             (beta=0.05, P<.5) and lower odds any medical visit (OR=0.92,
             P<.05). More environmental barriers predicted fewer
             nonmedical (beta=-0.32, P<.01) or medical visits
             (beta=-0.21, P<.05). CONCLUSION: Mobility limitations and
             environmental barriers were associated with restricted
             participation in diverse activities outside the
             home.},
   Key = {fds255975}
}

@article{fds255976,
   Author = {George, LK and Lynch, SM},
   Title = {Race differences in depressive symptoms: a dynamic
             perspective on stress exposure and vulnerability.},
   Journal = {Journal of Health and Social Behavior},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {353-369},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14582313},
   Abstract = {The existence, nature, and strength of race differences in
             mental health remain unclear after several decades of
             research. In this research, we examine black-white
             differences in the relationship between acute stressors and
             depressive symptoms. We reframe the stress exposure and
             differential vulnerability hypotheses in the context of
             long-term trajectories of stress and depression, and we
             hypothesize that trajectories of stress growth will be
             associated with trajectories of depressive symptom growth.
             Using latent growth curve analysis of a sample of 1,972
             older persons interviewed three times at three-year
             intervals, we test the hypotheses that (1) growth in
             exposure to loss-related events will predict growth in
             depressive symptoms, and (2) African Americans will
             experience greater stress growth than whites. Results
             support the hypotheses. Stress growth exhibited a linear
             increase for blacks but not for whites, and predicted
             depression growth for both races, but explained more
             variance for blacks than for whites.},
   Key = {fds255976}
}

@article{fds255973,
   Author = {Idler, EL and Musick, MA and Ellison, CG and George, LK and Krause, N and Ory, MG and Pargament, KI and Powell, LH and Underwood, LG and Williams,
             DR},
   Title = {Measuring multiple dimensions of religion and spirituality
             for health research: Conceptual background and findings from
             the 1998 general social survey},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {327-365},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0164-0275},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000183503000001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Progress in studying the relationship between religion and
             health has been hampered by the absence of an adequate
             measure of religiousness and spirituality. This article
             reports on the conceptual and empirical development of an
             instrument to measure religiousness and spirituality,
             intended explicitly for studies of health. It is
             multidimensional to allow investigation of multiple possible
             mechanisms of effect, brief enough to be included in
             clinical or epidemiological surveys, inclusive of both
             traditional religiousness and noninstitutionally based
             spirituality, and appropriate for diverse Judeo-Christian
             populations. The measure may be particularly useful for
             studies of health in elderly populations in which religious
             involvement is higher. The measure was tested in the
             nationally representative 1998 General Social Survey (N =
             1,445). Nine dimensions have indices with moderate-to-good
             internal consistency, and there are three single-item
             domains. Analysis by age and sex shows that elderly
             respondents report higher levels of religiousness in
             virtually every domain of the measure.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027503025004001},
   Key = {fds255973}
}

@article{fds304769,
   Author = {Yi, Z and Yuzhi, L and George, LK},
   Title = {Gender differentials of the oldest old in
             China},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-80},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027502238343},
   Abstract = {Based on unique data from a sample of nearly 9,000 people
             ages 80 to 105 interviewed in 22 provinces in 1998, we found
             that gender differentials in educational attainment among
             the Chinese oldest old are enormous: Many more women are
             illiterate. Oldest old women are more likely to be widowed
             and economically dependent, much less likely to have
             pensions, and thus more likely to live with their children
             and rely on children for financial support and care. The
             female oldest old in China are also seriously disadvantaged
             in activities of daily living, physical performance,
             cognitive function, and self-reported health, as compared
             with their male counterparts; these gender differences are
             more marked with advancing age. The large gender
             differentials among the Chinese oldest old need serious
             attention from society and government, and any old-age
             insurance and service programs to be developed or reformed
             must benefit older women and men equally.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027502238343},
   Key = {fds304769}
}

@article{fds255972,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Titus, P and Meador,
             KG},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Health Service Use by Older
             Hospitalized Patients},
   Journal = {Journal of Religion and Health},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {301-314},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0022-4197},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025812726644},
   Abstract = {Background: Religious and spiritual beliefs and practices
             are common among medical inpatients, and may impact length
             of hospital stay (LOS) and other health services (HSU)
             during hospitalization. Methods: 812 consecutively admitted
             patients age 50 or over to Duke University Medical Center
             were assessed. Measures of religiousness and spirituality
             included religious TV/ radio (RTV), self-rated religiousness
             (SRR), observer-rated spirituality (ORS), and daily
             spiritual experiences (DSE). The primary outcome was LOS.
             Results: RTV and SRR predicted longer LOS, whereas ORS and
             DSE predicted shorter LOS (p ≤ 0.05). Effects of RTV on
             LOS were stronger among women, but explained by worse health
             status. The effects of DSE on LOS were stronger among
             non-whites. Among those reporting high DSE, diagnostic tests
             and total procedures also tended to be less common.
             Conclusions: Religious activities, attitudes, and spiritual
             experiences are weak predictors of LOS and HSU during
             hospitalization. Whether the prediction is positive or
             negative depends on the religious or spiritual
             characteristic.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1025812726644},
   Key = {fds255972}
}

@article{fds255977,
   Author = {Zeng, Y and Liu, Y and George, LK},
   Title = {Gender Differentials in Socioeconomic and Health
             Characteristics among the Oldest-Old in China: Serious
             Female Disadvantages.},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-80},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027502238343},
   Abstract = {Based on unique data from a sample of nearly 9,000 people
             ages 80 to 105 interviewed in 22 provinces in 1998, we found
             that gender differentials in educational attainment among
             the Chinese oldest old are enormous: Many more women are
             illiterate. Oldest old women are more likely to be widowed
             and economically dependent, much less likely to have
             pensions, and thus more likely to live with their children
             and rely on children for financial support and care. The
             female oldest old in China are also seriously disadvantaged
             in activities of daily living, physical performance,
             cognitive function, and self-reported health, as compared
             with their male counterparts; these gender differences are
             more marked with advancing age. The large gender
             differentials among the Chinese oldest old need serious
             attention from society and government, and any old-age
             insurance and service programs to be developed or reformed
             must benefit older women and men equally.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027502238343},
   Key = {fds255977}
}

@article{fds255986,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and McQuoid, DB and George, LK and Steffens,
             DC},
   Title = {Time-to-Remission from Geriatric Depression},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {551-559},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12213689},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined psychosocial and clinical
             predictors of time-to-remission in a sample of initially
             clinically depressed elderly patients. METHODS: Using a
             standardized algorithm, a prospective cohort study enrolled
             239 patients undergoing treatment. Patients were followed
             for up to 4.5 years, until death or withdrawal from the
             study. Baseline predictor variables included psychosocial
             factors, such as four domains of social support; basic and
             instrumental activities of daily living; and clinical
             factors, including use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT),
             past history of depression, comorbidities, and
             antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: Only 33% of the sample
             (n=79) met our classification for depression remission. A
             lack of instrumental and subjective social support, poor
             self-rated health, the use of antipsychotic medication, or
             use of an antidepressant in the last 7 days were predictors
             of longer time-to-remission. Use of ECT in the last year was
             related to shorter time-to-remission. CONCLUSION: Baseline
             psychosocial factors were just as important, as predictors
             of depression remission, as were clinical and diagnostic
             variables. Interventions directed toward social support
             resources, in addition to clinical intervention, including
             the use of ECT where appropriate, are likely to improve
             rates of depression remission.},
   Key = {fds255986}
}

@article{fds255983,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Research design in end-of-life research: state of
             science.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {42 Spec No 3},
   Number = {special issue},
   Pages = {86-98},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12415138},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The volume of research on end-of-life care, death,
             and dying has exploded during the past decade. This article
             reviews the conceptual and methodological adequacy of
             end-of-life research to date, focusing on limitations of
             research to date and ways of improving future research.
             DESIGN AND METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to
             identify the base of end-of-life research. Approximately 400
             empirical articles were identified and are the basis of this
             review. RESULTS: Although much has been learned from
             research to date, limitations in the knowledge base are
             substantial. The most fundamental problems identified are
             conceptual and include failure to define dying; neglect of
             the distinctions among quality of life, quality of death,
             and quality of end-of-life care. Methodologically, the
             single greatest problem is the lack of longitudinal studies
             that cover more than the time period immediately before
             death. IMPLICATIONS: Gaps in the research base include
             insufficient attention to psychological and spiritual
             issues, the prevalence of psychiatric disorder and the
             effectiveness of the treatment of such disorders among dying
             persons, provider and health system variables, social and
             cultural diversity, and the effects of comorbidity on
             trajectories of dying.},
   Key = {fds255983}
}

@article{fds304774,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and McQuoid, DR and George, LK and Steffens,
             DC},
   Title = {Time-to-remission from geriatric depression: psychosocial
             and clinical factors.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {551-559},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12213689},
   Abstract = {The authors examined psychosocial and clinical predictors of
             time-to-remission in a sample of initially clinically
             depressed elderly patients.Using a standardized algorithm, a
             prospective cohort study enrolled 239 patients undergoing
             treatment. Patients were followed for up to 4.5 years, until
             death or withdrawal from the study. Baseline predictor
             variables included psychosocial factors, such as four
             domains of social support; basic and instrumental activities
             of daily living; and clinical factors, including use of
             electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), past history of depression,
             comorbidities, and antidepressant treatment.Only 33% of the
             sample (n=79) met our classification for depression
             remission. A lack of instrumental and subjective social
             support, poor self-rated health, the use of antipsychotic
             medication, or use of an antidepressant in the last 7 days
             were predictors of longer time-to-remission. Use of ECT in
             the last year was related to shorter time-to-remission.Baseline
             psychosocial factors were just as important, as predictors
             of depression remission, as were clinical and diagnostic
             variables. Interventions directed toward social support
             resources, in addition to clinical intervention, including
             the use of ECT where appropriate, are likely to improve
             rates of depression remission.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajgp.10.5.551},
   Key = {fds304774}
}

@article{fds255985,
   Author = {Lynch, SM and George, LK},
   Title = {Interlocking trajectories of loss-related events and
             depressive symptoms among elders.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {S117-S125},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174194700015&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: As people age, their peers (who are also aging)
             become increasingly susceptible to health decline and death,
             implying potential growth in stressful loss-related events
             over time for the individual. Yet little research has
             examined trajectories of stress and their relationship to
             trajectories of depression among elders. The purpose of this
             research was to determine whether growth in loss-related
             events occurs for elders and whether stress growth is
             related to the well-known growth in depressive
             symptomatology in later life. METHODS: Three waves of
             National Institute on Aging Established Populations for
             Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Duke University site)
             data were used in the analyses. Latent growth curve models
             were estimated for stress, for depressive symptoms, and for
             stress predicting depression net of several covariates.
             RESULTS: Findings include that (a) loss-events evidence
             clear growth across age at the aggregate level, but with
             much variation within the sample, and (b) variation in
             growth in stress is strongly related to variation in growth
             in depressive symptoms. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that
             stress in later life may be conceived of as a growth
             process, with strong consequences for trajectories of mental
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/57.2.s117},
   Key = {fds255985}
}

@article{fds255987,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and Hays, JC and George, LK and Steffens,
             DC},
   Title = {Psychosocial and clinical predictors of unipolar depression
             outcome in older adults.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {238-246},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0885-6230},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11921152},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: This study examined psychosocial and clinical
             predictors of depression non-remittance among a sample of
             initially clinically depressed elders. METHODS: Incident and
             prevalent unipolar depression cases (n = 166) were enrolled
             into the MHCRC for the Study of Depression in Late Life and
             followed for 12 months while undergoing treatment using a
             standardized algorithm. The outcome was remission vs
             non-remission (<6 vs > 7 on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression
             Rating Scale (MADRS)) at one-year follow-up. Baseline
             predictor variables included psychosocial factors, such as
             four domains of social support, basic and instrumental
             activities of daily living (ADLs), and clinical factors,
             which included use of ECT, past history of depression,
             comorbidities, and antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: At
             one-year follow-up, 45% of the sample was in remission based
             upon MADRS scores. In bivariate analyses, non-remitted
             patients were more likely at baseline to use
             benzodiazepines, anxiolytic/sedatives, and/or MAO inhibitors
             than patients in remission, and have more depressive
             episodes. Among psychosocial factors, non-remitted patients
             had at baseline, more ADL and IADL problems and decreased
             subjective social support as compared to patients in
             remission. In logistic regression analyses more depression
             episodes, using anxiolytic/sedatives, more IADL problems and
             decreased subjective social support predicted poor
             depression outcome after one-year. CONCLUSIONS: While
             clinical and diagnostic variables were related to
             improvement, baseline psychosocial factors were also
             important.},
   Doi = {10.1002/gps.590},
   Key = {fds255987}
}

@article{fds255920,
   Author = {Hays, JC and George, LK},
   Title = {The life-course trajectory toward living alone: Racial
             differences},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {283-307},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0164-0275},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000178045300001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Objectives: Dramatic increases in living alone in late life
             have been associated with higher incomes and better health,
             obscuring the risk to subgroups living alone with diminished
             health and socioeconomic resources. This study describes
             race differences in the stability and life-course
             antecedents of living alone. Method: The prospective cohort
             study used data from the Established Populations for
             Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly at Duke University (n =
             4,132) to estimate 10-year prevalence, incidence, and
             predictors of living alone among Black and White elders.
             Results: New episodes of living alone were equally likely.
             Black elders' lower prevalence of living alone was a
             function of their 80 percent greater probability of a new
             coresident episode. Home ownership, residential tenure, and
             perceived good health were lower among Blacks living alone,
             compared to Whites, who had fewer living children. Stressful
             life events had similar effects on household size.
             Discussion: Race differences in late life household size
             were primarily dependent on decisions embedded in
             midlife.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027502243001},
   Key = {fds255920}
}

@article{fds255984,
   Author = {George, LK and Ellison, CG and Larson, DB},
   Title = {Explaining the relationships between religious involvement
             and health},
   Journal = {Psychological Inquiry},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {190-200},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1047-840X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000180577800004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {There is increasing research evidence that religious
             involvement is associated both cross-sectionally and
             prospectively with better physical health, better mental
             health, and longer survival. These relationships remain
             substantial in size and statistically significant with other
             risk and protective factors for morbidity and mortality
             statistically controlled. In this article, we review the
             social and psychological factors that have been hypothesized
             to explain the health-promoting effects of religious
             involvement. The four potential psychosocial mechanisms that
             have received empirical attention are health practices,
             social support, psychosocial resources such as self-esteem
             and self-efficacy, and belief structures such as sense of
             coherence. Evidence concerning these potential mediators is
             mixed and inconsistent, suggesting there is more to be
             learned about the pathways by which religion affects health.
             Other possible explanations for the salubrious effects of
             religious involvement on health and longevity are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1207/S15327965PLI1303_04},
   Key = {fds255984}
}

@article{fds255988,
   Author = {Connor, KM and Davidson, JRT and Hughes, DC and Swartz, MS and Blazer,
             DG and George, LK},
   Title = {The impact of borderline personality disorder on
             post-traumatic stress in the community: a study of health
             status, health utilization, and functioning.},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {41-48},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0010-440X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11788918},
   Abstract = {This study examines impairment and health status and
             resource utilization among individuals with and without
             borderline personality disorder (BPD), all of whom had
             post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Using data from the
             community-based Piedmont Health Survey, 150 adult
             respondents who had experienced clinically significant PTSS
             during their life were identified. The Diagnostic Interview
             Schedule (DIS) Borderline Index was used to distinguish a
             subset of respondents who met criteria for BPD. Compared
             with adults with PTSS (n = 135), individuals with PTSS and
             BPD (PTSS-BPD) (n = 15) exhibited impaired health status and
             greater utilization of mental health services and
             psychotropic medications, as well as more functional
             impairment based on social, occupational, and early adverse
             life-event measures. Individuals with comorbid PTSS and BPD
             demonstrate greater overall impairment and usage of health
             care resources.},
   Doi = {10.1053/comp.2002.29846},
   Key = {fds255988}
}

@article{fds303873,
   Author = {George, LK and Connor, KM and Davidson, JRT and Hughes, DC and Swartz,
             MS and blazer, D},
   Title = {The Impact of Borderline Personality Disorder on
             Post-Traumatic Stress in the Community: A Study of Health
             Status, Health Utilization, and Functioning},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Number = {43},
   Pages = {41-48},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds303873}
}

@article{fds255978,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Steffens, DC and Flint, EP and Bosworth, HB and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Does social support buffer functional decline in elderly
             patients with unipolar depression?},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {158},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1850-1855},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11691691},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether social support protects
             against functional decline, either generally or selectively,
             in the most severely depressed elderly patients undergoing
             treatment for major depressive disorder. METHOD: In a
             prospective cohort study design, 113 patients with incident
             and prevalent unipolar depression were followed for 12
             months while they were undergoing naturalistic treatment.
             Outcome measures included performance on basic and
             instrumental activities of daily living; predictor variables
             included Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores and four
             domains of informal social support. The analysis employed
             multivariable ordinary least squares regression models.
             RESULTS: Improved scores on instrumental activities of daily
             living and stable scores on basic activities of daily living
             characterized the subjects. In adjusted analyses,
             instrumental social support provided marginal protection
             against worsening performance on instrumental activities of
             daily living, which were primarily a function of baseline
             depression severity. Large social networks, more frequent
             social interaction, and the perceived adequacy of social
             support played a modest buffering role against declines in
             performance on basic activities of daily living among the
             most depressed elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Instrumental
             support was generally protective against worsening
             performance on instrumental abilities of daily living among
             elderly patients with recurrent unipolar depression.
             Subjective and structural dimensions of social support
             protected the most severely depressed elderly patients
             against the loss of basic maintenance abilities.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1850},
   Key = {fds255978}
}

@article{fds255929,
   Author = {Bosworth, HB and McQuoid, D and George, LK and Steffens,
             DC},
   Title = {Time to recovery from geriatric depression: Psychosocial and
             clinical factors},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {72-72},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000171360400252&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255929}
}

@article{fds255979,
   Author = {Mendes de Leon and CF and Gold, DT and Glass, TA and Kaplan, L and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Disability as a function of social networks and support in
             elderly African Americans and Whites: the Duke EPESE
             1986--1992.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {S179-S190},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11316843},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We examined the association of structural and
             functional aspects of social relationships with change in
             disability, and the degree to which race modifies these
             associations. METHODS: Data are from a population-based
             sample of 4,136 African Americans and Whites aged > or = 65
             living in North CAROLINA: Disability data were collected
             during seven consecutive yearly interviews and summarized in
             two outcome measures. Measures of social relationships
             included five measures representing network size, extent of
             social interaction, and specific type of relationships, as
             well as instrumental and emotional support. Weighted
             proportional odds models were fitted to model disability as
             a function of baseline social network and support variables,
             and the interaction of each variable with follow-up time.
             RESULTS: Network size and social interaction showed
             significant negative associations with disability risks,
             which did not vary by race, or as a function of time. Social
             interaction with friends was associated with a reduced risk
             for disability, but social interaction with children or
             relatives was not related to disability. Instrumental
             support was associated with a significantly increased
             disability risk, with a greater adverse effect among Whites
             than African AMERICANS: Emotional support was not associated
             with disability, but a protective effect for ADL disability
             was found after controlling for its intercorrelation with
             instrumental support. DISCUSSION: The findings provide
             further evidence for the role of social relationships in the
             disablement process, although not all types of social
             relationships may be equally beneficial. Furthermore, these
             associations may be more complex than simple causal effects.
             There were few racial differences in the association of
             social relationships with disability, with the possible
             exception of instrumental support, which may allude to
             possible sociocultural differences in the experience of
             instrumental support exchanges.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/56.3.s179},
   Key = {fds255979}
}

@article{fds255980,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Meador, KG and Branch, PS and George,
             LK},
   Title = {The History of Religion and Spirituality Scale in Four
             Dimensions (HRSS-4): Validity and Reliability},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {239-249},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds255980}
}

@article{fds255960,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Meador, KG and Branch, PS and George,
             LK},
   Title = {The Spiritual History Scale in four dimensions (SHS-4):
             validity and reliability.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {239-249},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11327490},
   Abstract = {The goals of this study were to develop a valid, reliable
             measure of lifetime religious and spiritual experience and
             to assess its value in explaining late-life health.
             Procedures included semi-structured interviews with Duke
             Aging Center volunteers (n = 30), followed by structured
             interviews of a stratified, random sample of subjects (n =
             157) from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly at Duke University. Principal
             components analysis suggested four factors with favorable
             psychometrics. Health-impaired subjects reported a history
             of seeking/receiving divine aid (God Helped). At every level
             of impairment, Lifetime Religious Social Support and current
             religious attendance were positively correlated. Regardless
             of current attendance, subjects who reported higher Lifetime
             Religious Social Support received more instrumental social
             support. Healthy behaviors were associated with both God
             Helped and Lifetime Religious Social Support. Cost of
             Religiousness predicted depressive symptoms and impaired
             social support. Family History of Religiousness was
             unrelated to late-life health. Evaluation of the Spiritual
             History Scale in Four Dimensions (SHS-4) across geographical
             settings, cultural subgroups, age cohorts, and clinical
             samples is warranted.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/41.2.239},
   Key = {fds255960}
}

@article{fds255981,
   Author = {Zeng, Y and George, L},
   Title = {Family Dynamics of 63 Million (in 1990) to More Than 330
             Million (in 2050) Elders in China},
   Journal = {Demographic Research},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {May},
   Abstract = {Based on censuses micro data files, population and family
             households projections, this paper analyses extremely rapid
             population aging, family dynamics and living arrangements of
             the elderly in China. Both our and the U.N.’s most recent
             projections confirm very rapid increase in proportion of
             elderly, huge numbers of elderly persons, an extraordinarily
             rapid increase of the oldest old after 2020, and more
             serious aging problems in rural than urban areas.
             Comparative data analysis on family dynamics and living
             arrangements of the elderly, males vs. females, younger
             elders vs. oldest old, rural vs. urban, and 1982 vs. 1990
             are presented. According to an application to the
             multidimensional family household projection model, the
             family households structure and living arrangements of the
             Chinese elderly would change dramatically during the first
             half of the 21th century. In addition to demographic data
             analysis, we also discuss socio-economic and cultural
             contexts to explain the issues of rapid aging and changes in
             family structure and living arrangements of the elderly in
             China. Drawing upon our empirical findings, we presented
             policy recommendations on strengthening family support
             system, establishing an old age insurance program in rural
             areas, favourable policy for elderly women in consideration
             of their disadvantaged status, and smoothly transiting to a
             two-child plus spacing policy.},
   Key = {fds255981}
}

@article{fds255991,
   Author = {George, LK and Clipp, EC},
   Title = {Quality of life: Conceptual Issues and Clinical
             Implications},
   Journal = {Neurology Report},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {127-132},
   Publisher = {Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01253086-200024040-00003},
   Abstract = {Quality of life (QOL) is an important element of clinical
             practice and health research. Quality of life reminds us
             that people are more than their diseases and that the goal
             of clinical care should be to address the needs of the whole
             person. The clinician and/or health researcher is faced with
             a large number of diverse options for measuring QOL. This
             paper describes the conceptual underpinnings of 3 levels of
             QOL measures: global assessments of life quality,
             health-related quality of life measures, and
             disease-specific measures. Examples of measurement tools at
             all 3 levels are provided. The relative advantages and
             disadvantages of each level of measurement are discussed.
             Matching choice of a QOL measure to the clinical or research
             purpose and assessing QOL at multiple levels are strongly
             encouraged. The research base of QOL studies of persons with
             neurological disorders is reviewed briefly. General
             implications for clinical practice are discussed. © 2000
             Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01253086-200024040-00003},
   Key = {fds255991}
}

@article{fds304764,
   Author = {George, LK and Larson, DB and Koenig, HG and McCullough,
             ME},
   Title = {Spirituality and health: What we know, what we need to
             know},
   Journal = {Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {102-116},
   Publisher = {Guilford Publications},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.102},
   Abstract = {Spirituality and religion have been seen as beneficial,
             harmful, and irrelevant to health. We examine the recent
             research on this topic. We focus on (a) defining
             spirituality and religion both conceptually and
             operationally; (b) the relationships between
             spirituality/religion and health; and (c) priorities for
             future research. Although the effect sizes are moderate,
             there typically are links between religious practices and
             reduced onset of physical and mental illnesses, reduced
             mortality, and likelihood of recovery from or adjustment to
             physical and mental illness. The three mechanisms underlying
             these relationships involve religion increasing healthy
             behaviors, social support, and a sense of coherence or
             meaning. This research is based on religion measures,
             however, and it should be emphasized that spirituality may
             be different.},
   Doi = {10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.102},
   Key = {fds304764}
}

@article{fds255990,
   Author = {George, LK and Larson, DB and Koenig, HG and McCullough,
             M},
   Title = {Spirituality and Health: State of the Evidence},
   Journal = {Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {102-116},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {Spirituality and religion have been seen as beneficial,
             harmful, and irrelevant to health. We examine the recent
             research on this topic. We focus on (a) defining
             spirituality and religion both conceptually and
             operationally; (b) the relationships between
             spirituality/religion and health; and (c) priorities for
             future research. Although the effect sizes are moderate,
             there typically are links between religious practices and
             reduced onset of physical and mental illnesses, reduced
             mortality, and likelihood of recovery from or adjustment to
             physical and mental illness. The three mechanisms underlying
             these relationships involve religion increasing healthy
             behaviors, social support, and a sense of coherence or
             meaning. This research is based on religion measures,
             however, and it should be emphasized that spirituality may
             be different.},
   Key = {fds255990}
}

@article{fds255875,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Idler, E and Kasl, S and Hays, JC and George, LK and Musick,
             M and Larson, DB and Collins, TR and Benson, H},
   Title = {Editorial: Religion, spirituality, and medicine: A rebuttal
             to skeptics},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {123-131},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/C2FB-95VW-FKYD-C8RV},
   Doi = {10.2190/C2FB-95VW-FKYD-C8RV},
   Key = {fds255875}
}

@article{fds255958,
   Author = {Lynch, TR and Mendelson, T and Robins, CJ and Krishnan, KR and George,
             LK and Johnson, CS and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Perceived social support among depressed elderly,
             middle-aged, and young-adult samples: cross-sectional and
             longitudinal analyses.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {159-170},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10628885},
   Abstract = {A number of studies have concluded that the perceived
             quality of support is more strongly associated with mental
             health than with the actual structure of personal networks.
             This study examined clinical, historical, and
             phenomenological variables associated cross-sectionally and
             longitudinally with perceived social support.Participants
             included elderly, middle-aged, and young-adult depressed
             samples derived from the Duke Clinical Research Center for
             the Study of Depression in Late Life.Cross-sectional
             multivariate analyses revealed that perceived social support
             was: (1) for the elderly associated with pessimistic
             thinking, being divorced, having strange ideas, the degree
             of social interaction, and instrumental support; (2) for
             middle-age associated with dysthymia, divorce, pessimistic
             thoughts, social interaction, and instrumental support; and
             (3) among young adults with instrumental support only.
             Longitudinal multivariate analyses indicated that only
             perceived social support at Time 1 predicted perceived
             social support 1 year later among elderly and middle-aged
             subjects, whereas only instrumental support predicted
             perceived social support 1 year later among the young-adult
             sample.The small number of subjects among the young-adult
             sample limit conclusions regarding this group. In addition,
             only patients provided data. Future studies should consider
             using multiple informants to enhance the accuracy of
             reported social support.Our findings indicate that in
             addition to whatever else they do for depressed patients,
             clinicians must endeavor to address relationship or social
             support difficulties, especially in the elderly.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-0327(99)00017-8},
   Key = {fds255958}
}

@article{fds255959,
   Author = {Amaya-Jackson, L and Davidson, JR and Hughes, DC and Swartz, M and Reynolds, V and George, LK and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Functional impairment and utilization of services associated
             with posttraumatic stress in the community.},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {709-724},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10646189},
   Abstract = {This study describes social functioning and service
             utilization patterns associated with posttraumatic stress
             symptoms relative to nonpsychiatric controls and depressive
             disorder controls in a cross-sectional epidemiological
             survey. Data from 49 cases and 147 controls who participated
             in the North Carolina component of the Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area study were examined. Results indicate that
             symptoms of posttraumatic stress were associated with
             impairment along several domains of functioning: social,
             financial, physical, and psychological. Individuals with
             posttraumatic stress were found to have more socioeconomic
             disadvantages and impaired functioning. Despite this,
             individuals with posttraumatic stress are receiving
             relatively few mental health services. Further research
             assessing service use, treatment, and functional outcomes
             are indicated.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1024781504756},
   Key = {fds255959}
}

@article{fds255992,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Hays, JC and Larson, DB and George, LK and Cohen, HJ and McCullough, ME and Meador, KG and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Does religious attendance prolong survival? A six-year
             follow-up study of 3,968 older adults.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences
             and Medical Sciences},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {M370-M376},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1079-5006},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10462170},
   Abstract = {METHODS: A probability sample of 3,968 community-dwelling
             adults aged 64-101 years residing in the Piedmont of North
             Carolina was surveyed in 1986 as part of the Established
             Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly
             (EPESE) program of the National Institutes of Health.
             Attendance at religious services and a wide variety of
             sociodemographic and health variables were assessed at
             baseline. Vital status of members was then determined
             prospectively over the next 6 years (1986 1992). Time (days)
             to death or censoring in days was analyzed using a Cox
             proportional hazards regression model. RESULTS: During a
             median 6.3-year follow-up period, 1,777 subjects (29.7%)
             died. Of the subjects who attended religious services once a
             week or more in 1986 (frequent attenders), 22.9% died
             compared to 37.4% of those attending services less than once
             a week (infrequent attenders). The relative hazard (RH) of
             dying for frequent attenders was 46% less than for
             infrequent attenders (RH: 0.54, 95% CI 0.48-.0.61), an
             effect that was strongest in women (RH 0.51, CI 0.434).59)
             but also present in men (RH 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.75). When
             demographics, health conditions, social connections, and
             health practices were controlled, this effect remained
             significant for the entire sample (RH 0.72, 95% CI
             0.64-.81), and for both women (RH 0.65, 95% CI 0.554-.76,
             p<.0001) and men (RH 0.83, 95% CI 0.69-1.00, p=.05).
             CONCLUSIONS: Older adults, particularly women, who attend
             religious services at least once a week appear to have a
             survival advantage over those attending services less
             frequently.},
   Doi = {10.1093/gerona/54.7.m370},
   Key = {fds255992}
}

@article{fds255989,
   Author = {Lynch, TR and Mendelson, T and Robins, CJ and Krishman, KRK and George,
             LK and Johnson, CS and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Perceived Social Support among Depressed Elderly,
             Middle-Aged, and Young Adult Samples},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {212-218},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds255989}
}

@article{fds255957,
   Author = {Wallsten, SM and Tweed, DL and Blazer, DG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Disability and depressive symptoms in the elderly: the
             effects of instrumental support and its subjective
             appraisal.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {145-159},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-4150},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10376959},
   Abstract = {This article explores the buffering effect of social support
             on depressive symptoms in a community sample of elderly with
             varying levels of disability. Baseline interviews were
             conducted in respondents' homes. Results show that higher
             levels of disability are associated with higher levels of
             depression. Instrumental support and subjective appraisal of
             the network are associated with depressive symptoms, but
             instrumental support has a weak positive correlation, while
             subjective appraisals show a negative relationship. Social
             support mitigates the depressive effect of disability only
             when the network's efforts are appraised positively.
             However, no such relationship is shown for instrumental
             support. One's perception of the network's helpfulness
             appears to be more potent than the actual help provided by
             friends and family.},
   Doi = {10.2190/e48r-w561-v7rg-ll8d},
   Key = {fds255957}
}

@article{fds304773,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Larson, DB and McCullough, ME and Branch,
             PS and Kuchibhatla, M},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and nine-year survival of 1,001 male
             veterans hospitalized with medical illness.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {124-131},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10322239},
   Abstract = {Authors examined effects of depressive symptoms on
             after-discharge survival of hospitalized medically ill male
             veterans. Psychosocial and physical health evaluations were
             performed on a consecutive sample of 1,001 patients ages
             20-39 (16%) and 65-102 years (84%). Subjects or surviving
             family members were later contacted by telephone, and Cox
             proportional-hazards regression modeled the effects of
             depressive symptoms on time-to-death, controlling for
             demographics and social, psychiatric, and physical health.
             Follow-up was obtained on all 1,001 patients (average
             observation time, 9 years), during which 667 patients died
             (67%). Patients with depressive symptoms were significantly
             less likely to survive. For every 1-point increase on the
             12-item Brief Carroll Depression Rating Scale (BCDRS), the
             hazard of dying increased by 10% (P<0. 0001). Age did not
             significantly affect the association between depressive
             symptoms and mortality. Depressive symptoms during acute
             hospitalization are a predictor of shortened
             survival.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00019442-199905000-00005},
   Key = {fds304773}
}

@article{fds255925,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Idler, E and Kasl, S and Hays, JC and George, LK and Musick,
             M and Larson, DB and Collins, TR and Benson, H},
   Title = {Religion, spirituality, and medicine: a rebuttal to
             skeptics.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {123-131},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10587810},
   Doi = {10.2190/C2FB-95VW-FKYD-C8RV},
   Key = {fds255925}
}

@article{fds255993,
   Author = {Benson, H and Cohen, HJ and George, LK and Koenig, HG and McCullough,
             ME and Myers, DG and Post, SG and Worthington, EL},
   Title = {Position Statement Regarding Research on
             Religion/Spirituality and Health},
   Journal = {Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {17-22},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds255993}
}

@article{fds255994,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Larson, DB and McCullough, ME and Branch,
             PS and Kuchibhatla, M},
   Title = {Depressive Symptoms and Nine-Year Survival of 1010 Male
             Veterans Hospitalized with Medical Illness},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {376-382.},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10322239},
   Abstract = {Authors examined effects of depressive symptoms on
             after-discharge survival of hospitalized medically ill male
             veterans. Psychosocial and physical health evaluations were
             performed on a consecutive sample of 1,001 patients ages
             20-39 (16%) and 65-102 years (84%). Subjects or surviving
             family members were later contacted by telephone, and Cox
             proportional-hazards regression modeled the effects of
             depressive symptoms on time-to-death, controlling for
             demographics and social, psychiatric, and physical health.
             Follow-up was obtained on all 1,001 patients (average
             observation time, 9 years), during which 667 patients died
             (67%). Patients with depressive symptoms were significantly
             less likely to survive. For every 1-point increase on the
             12-item Brief Carroll Depression Rating Scale (BCDRS), the
             hazard of dying increased by 10% (P<0. 0001). Age did not
             significantly affect the association between depressive
             symptoms and mortality. Depressive symptoms during acute
             hospitalization are a predictor of shortened
             survival.},
   Key = {fds255994}
}

@article{fds303921,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Cohen, HJ and Hays, JC and Larson, DB and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {The relationship between religious activities and cigarette
             smoking in older adults.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences
             and Medical Sciences},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {M426-M434},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1079-5006},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9823746},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the
             relationship between religious activities and cigarette
             smoking in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS:
             Cigarette smoking and religious activities were assessed in
             a probability sample of 3968 persons age 65 years or older
             participating in the Duke Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) survey. Participants were
             asked if they currently smoked, if they ever smoked, and how
             many cigarettes per day they smoked. Attendance at religious
             services, participation in private religious activities
             (prayer or Bible study), and use of religious media
             (religious TV or radio) were also assessed. Data were
             available for Waves I-III of the survey (1986, 1989, and
             1992). Analyses were controlled for age, race, sex,
             education, alcohol use, physical health, and in the
             longitudinal analyses, smoking status at prior waves.
             RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses revealed that participants
             who frequently attended religious services were
             significantly less likely to smoke cigarettes at all three
             waves. Likewise, elders frequently involved in private
             religious activity were less likely to smoke (Waves II and
             III). Total number of pack-years smoked was also inversely
             related to both attendance at religious services and private
             religious activities. Watching religious TV or listening to
             religious radio, on the other hand, was not related to
             smoking at Waves I and II nor to total pack-years smoked,
             but was positively related to current smoking at Wave III.
             Among those who smoked, number of cigarettes smoked was
             inversely related to frequency of attendance at religious
             services (Wave I), private religious activities (Wave III),
             and religious TV/radio (Waves II and III). Retrospective and
             prospective analyses revealed that religiously active
             persons were less likely to ever start smoking, not more
             likely to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Religiously active
             persons are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and if they do
             smoke, smoke fewer cigarettes. Given the association between
             smoking and disease, and the widespread prevalence of both
             smoking and religious activity, this finding has
             implications for public health.},
   Key = {fds303921}
}

@article{fds303922,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Pieper,
             CF},
   Title = {Racial and psychosocial risk factors for herpes zoster in
             the elderly.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {178 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {S67-S70},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1899},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9852978},
   Abstract = {The effects of black race and psychologic stress on the risk
             of acquiring herpes zoster in late life were examined.
             Subjects were participants of a stratified probability
             sample of community-dwelling persons > or = 65 years old. A
             comprehensive health survey was administered in 1986-1987
             (P1), 1989-1990 (P2), and 1992-1994 (P3). Incident cases of
             zoster between P1 and P2 and P2 and P3 served as the
             dependent variables. Hypothesis-testing variables included
             race, negative life events, and measures of social support.
             Control variables included age, sex, education, cancer,
             other chronic diseases, hospitalization, activities of daily
             living, self-rated health, depression, and cigarette
             smoking. From P1 to P2, 1.4% of black and 3.4% of white
             subjects developed zoster (P < .001). From P2 to P3, 2.9% of
             black and 7.5% of white subjects developed zoster (P <
             .001). After controlling for variables, black subjects were
             significantly less likely to develop zoster than were white
             subjects (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence
             interval, 0.26, 0.53; P = .0001). Most measures of stress
             were not significantly related to zoster; however, study
             limitations preclude definitive conclusions.},
   Doi = {10.1086/514254},
   Key = {fds303922}
}

@article{fds255952,
   Author = {Krishnan, KR and George, LK and Pieper, CF and Jiang, W and Arias, R and Look, A and O'Connor, C},
   Title = {Depression and social support in elderly patients with
             cardiac disease.},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {136},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {491-495},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-8703},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9736142},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Depression is common among patients with cardiac
             disease. A number of psychosocial factors may affect the
             relationship between physical health and depression. There
             is evidence from the psychiatric literature suggesting that
             negative life events and social support are important
             factors in the development and outcome of depression. It is
             unknown if these factors are important in the context of
             depression in medically ill patients. Thus it is important
             to examine the relationship among social support, negative
             life events, and the presence of depression in elderly
             patients with cardiac disease. METHODS: Patients with
             coronary artery disease were assessed with the Duke
             Depression Evaluation Schedule for the Elderly. This
             includes the mood and anxiety disorder section of the
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule modified for Diagnostic and
             Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnoses, life
             events, and multidimensional assessment of social support.
             Two hypotheses were tested: (1) the number of concurrent
             negative life events will be higher in patients with
             coronary artery disease with major depression than those
             without depression, and (2) social support will be less in
             patients with major depression than in those without.
             RESULTS: Presence of major depression was associated with
             increased negative life events and lowered subjective social
             support after accounting for age, sex, and race.
             CONCLUSIONS: The finding that subjective social support and
             negative life events are related to major depression
             suggests that even in the context of medical illness, social
             factors are still important in the development of major
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0002-8703(98)70225-x},
   Key = {fds255952}
}

@article{fds255896,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The psychology of religion and coping},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {508-510},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000075440300017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255896}
}

@article{fds255899,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Counseling troubled older adults: A handbook for pastors and
             religious caregivers},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {508-510},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000075440300016&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255899}
}

@article{fds255995,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Hamilton, JD and Pieper,
             CF},
   Title = {Race and stress in the incidence of herpes zoster in older
             adults.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {973-977},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9706885},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of black race and acute
             (negative life events) and chronic (lack of social support)
             psychological stress on the risk of herpes zoster in late
             life. DESIGN: A population-based, prospective cohort study.
             SETTING: Central North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: Duke
             Established Populations for Epidemiological Studies of the
             Elderly, a stratified probability sample of
             community-dwelling persons more than 65 years of age.
             MEASUREMENTS: Interviewers administered a comprehensive
             health survey to the participants in 1986-1987 (P1, n =
             4162), 1989-1990 (P2, n = 3336), and 1992-1994 (P3, n =
             2568). Incident cases of zoster between P1 and P2 and P2 and
             P3 served as the dependent variable. Hypothesis-testing
             variables included race, negative life events, and five
             measures of social support. Control variables included age,
             sex, education, cancer, chronic diseases, basic ADLs,
             instrumental ADLs, depression, self-rated health,
             hospitalization, and cigarette smoking. Statistical analyses
             employed chi-square tests and proportional hazards model.
             RESULTS: At baseline, the sample had a mean age of 73.6
             years and was 55% black, 45% white, and 65% female. There
             were 65 cases of zoster between P1 and P2 and 102 cases of
             zoster between P2 and P3. From P1 to P2, 1.4% of blacks and
             3.4% of whites developed zoster (P < .001). From P2 to P3,
             2.9% of blacks and 7.5% of whites developed zoster (P <
             .001). After controlling for the above variables, blacks
             were significantly less likely to develop zoster (adjusted
             risk ratio = 0.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24-0.51;
             P < .001). Negative life events increased the risk of
             zoster, but the result was borderline for statistical
             significance (adjusted RR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.96-1.97; P =
             .078). No measures of social support were significantly
             associated with zoster. CONCLUSION: Black race decreased the
             risk of zoster in late life significantly. Measures of
             stress were not significantly related to zoster, but study
             limitations preclude definitive conclusions. Future research
             should focus on these factors in larger samples and
             different populations.},
   Key = {fds255995}
}

@article{fds255874,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Wagner, HR and Swanson, JW and Burns, BJ and George, LK and Padgett, DK},
   Title = {I. Comparing use of public and private mental health
             services: The enduring barriers of race and
             age},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {133-144},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0010-3853},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018736917761},
   Abstract = {Data from the NIMH-Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project were
             used to predict differential use of private versus public
             outpatient mental health services, a salient concern in
             integrating public and private services in market-based
             health care reform efforts. Having a recent psychiatric
             disorder, being age 25-44, female, white, of higher
             educational level, and unmarried increase the odds of any
             mental health service use. However, odds of treatment in the
             public sector are increased for males, African Americans,
             those with low educational and income levels, and odds are
             markedly decreased for the elderly, suggesting significant
             barriers to care for these mentally ill subpopulations.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1018736917761},
   Key = {fds255874}
}

@article{fds255873,
   Author = {Jackson, PB and George, LK},
   Title = {Racial differences in satisfaction with physicians},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {298-316},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0164-0275},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027598203002},
   Abstract = {This analysis examines the association between race and
             satisfaction with physicians among a sample of
             community-dwelling older adults. It is hypothesized that
             minority elderly will hold more negative attitudes toward
             physicians than will their White peers due to the difficulty
             in establishing rapport in the physician-patient
             relationship. Using data from the Established Populations
             for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (Duke), we find
             that African Americans believe that physicians do not
             display much compassion for, and respect toward, the
             elderly. However, African Americans report more positive
             attitudes about the prudence of physicians. These findings
             are discussed in the context of improving the
             physician-patient relationship.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027598203002},
   Key = {fds255873}
}

@article{fds255897,
   Author = {Jackson, PB and George, LK},
   Title = {Racial Differences in Satisfaction with Physicians},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {298-316},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0164-0275},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000073237100002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027598203002},
   Key = {fds255897}
}

@article{fds255951,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Wagner, HR and Swanson, JW and Burns, BJ and George, LK and Padgett, DK},
   Title = {Administrative update: utilization of services. I. Comparing
             use of public and private mental health services: the
             enduring barriers of race and age.},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {133-144},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0010-3853},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9620158},
   Abstract = {Data from the NIMH-Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project were
             used to predict differential use of private versus public
             outpatient mental health services, a salient concern in
             integrating public and private services in market-based
             health care reform efforts. Having a recent psychiatric
             disorder, being age 25-44, female, white, of higher
             educational level, and unmarried increase the odds of any
             mental health service use. However, odds of treatment in the
             public sector are increased for males, African Americans,
             those with low educational and income levels, and odds are
             markedly decreased for the elderly, suggesting significant
             barriers to care for these mentally ill subpopulations.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1018736917761},
   Key = {fds255951}
}

@article{fds256002,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Peterson, BL},
   Title = {Religiosity and remission of depression in medically ill
             older patients.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {155},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {536-542},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9546001},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The effects of religious belief and activity on
             remission of depression were examined in medically ill
             hospitalized older patients. METHOD: Consecutive patients
             aged 60 years or over who had been admitted to medical
             inpatient services at a university medical center were
             screened for depressive symptoms. Of 111 patients scoring 16
             or higher on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
             Scale, 94 were diagnosed with depressive disorder (DSM-III
             major depression or subsyndromal depression) by a
             psychiatrist using a structured psychiatric interview. After
             hospital discharge, depressed patients were followed up by
             telephone at 12-week intervals four times. At each follow-up
             contact, criterion symptoms were reassessed, and changes in
             each symptom over the interval since last contact were
             determined. The median follow-up time for 87 depressed
             patients was 47 weeks. Religious variables were examined as
             predictors of time to remission by means of a multivariate
             Cox model, with controls for demographic, physical health,
             psychosocial, and treatment factors. RESULTS: During the
             follow-up period, 47 patients (54.0%) had remissions; the
             median time to remission was 30 weeks. Intrinsic religiosity
             was significantly and independently related to time to
             remission, but church attendance and private religious
             activities were not. Depressed patients with higher
             intrinsic religiosity scores had more rapid remissions than
             patients with lower scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this study,
             greater intrinsic religiosity independently predicted
             shorter time to remission. To the authors' knowledge, this
             is the first report in which religiosity has been examined
             as a predictor of outcome of depressive disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.155.4.536},
   Key = {fds256002}
}

@article{fds255982,
   Author = {George, LK and Hays, JC and Landerman, LR and E P and K and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Social Correlates of the Dimensions of Late Life
             Depression},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences},
   Volume = {53B},
   Pages = {P31-P39},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds255982}
}

@article{fds255950,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Landerman, LR and George, LK and Flint, EP and Koenig, HG and Land, KC and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Social correlates of the dimensions of depression in the
             elderly.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {P31-P39},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9469169},
   Abstract = {Few investigations of the social correlates of depressive
             symptomatology have addressed variation in the correlates
             across multiple dimensions of depression scales. We examined
             the relationships of selected social, clinical, and
             demographic correlates with four dimensions of the Center
             for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale in 3,401
             community-dwelling elders in the Piedmont area of North
             Carolina. These correlates explained significant variation
             in somatic complaints and depressed affect; effects of
             chronic disability and recent negative events were
             particularly robust. Having a confidant explained reduced
             symptomatology for all four dimensions, but particularly for
             low positive affect and interpersonal problems. Positive
             affect was also buttressed by helping others. These patterns
             have particular relevance where treatment for depression is
             divorced from considerations of the social environment of
             the elderly patient.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronb/53b.1.p31},
   Key = {fds255950}
}

@article{fds255970,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Hays, JC and Larson, DB and Cohen, HJ and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {The relationship between religious activities and blood
             pressure in older adults.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {189-213},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9724889},
   Abstract = {To examine the relationship between religious activities and
             blood pressure in community-dwelling older adults.Blood
             pressure and religious activities were assessed in a
             probability sample of 3,963 persons age sixty-five years or
             older participating in the Duke EPESE survey. Participants
             were asked if their doctor had ever informed them that they
             had high blood pressure and if they were currently taking
             medication for high blood pressure. After the interview,
             systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured
             following a standardized protocol. Data were available for
             three waves of the survey (1986, 1989-90, and 1993-94).
             Analyses were stratified by age (65-74 vs. over 75) and by
             race (Whites vs. Blacks) and were controlled for age, race,
             gender, education, physical functioning, body mass index,
             and, in longitudinal analyses, blood pressure from the
             previous wave.Cross-sectional analyses revealed small (1-4
             mm Hg) but consistent differences in measured systolic and
             diastolic blood pressures between frequent (once/wk) and
             infrequent (< once/wk) religious service attenders. Lower
             blood pressures were also observed among those who
             frequently prayed or studied the Bible (daily or more
             often). Blood pressure differences were particularly notable
             in Black and younger elderly, in whom religious activity at
             one wave predicted blood pressures three years later. Among
             participants who both attended religious services and prayed
             or studied the Bible frequently, the likelihood of having a
             diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher was 40
             percent lower than found in participants who attended
             religious services infrequently and prayed or studied the
             Bible infrequently (OR 0.60, 95% CI, 0.48-0.75, p < .0001).
             Among participants told they had high blood pressure,
             religiously active persons were more likely to be taking
             their blood pressure medication; this could not, however,
             explain the differences in blood pressure observed. While
             most religious activity was associated with lower blood
             pressure, those who frequently watched religious TV or
             listened to religious radio actually had higher blood
             pressures.Religiously active older adults tend to have lower
             blood pressures than those who are less active. This applies
             to attendance at religious services and private religious
             activities, but not to religious media. Physiological
             mechanisms are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.2190/75jm-j234-5jkn-4dqd},
   Key = {fds255970}
}

@article{fds256000,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Krishnan, KR and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Age of first onset of bipolar disorder: demographic, family
             history, and psychosocial correlates.},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {76-82},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1091-4269},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9614596},
   Abstract = {The literature suggests that bipolar elders with early and
             late onset of the disorder present with different
             demographic, family history, and psychosocial profiles,
             which are less well characterized than those for elderly
             unipolar patients. In this cross-sectional clinical survey,
             we assessed subjects (n = 74) from the NIMH Clinical
             Research Center for the Study of Depression in Later Life at
             Duke University who had a consensus diagnosis of bipolar
             depression; the primary assessment instrument was the Duke
             Depression Evaluation Schedule. We found that bipolar
             subjects with later age of onset reported less family
             history of psychiatric problems, more comorbid vascular
             disease, and more instrumental and subjective social
             support. Stressful life events were more frequent among
             bipolar subjects with earlier age of depressive symptom
             onset. This study suggests that early-onset disorder may be
             characterized by a psychosocial component, whereas organic
             factors may be particularly important to late-onset bipolar
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1520-6394(1998)7:2<76::aid-da5>3.0.co;2-3},
   Key = {fds256000}
}

@article{fds256004,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK},
   Title = {Depression and physical disability outcomes in depressed
             medically ill hospitalized older adults.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {230-247},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9659956},
   Abstract = {The authors examined depression/disability outcomes in
             hospitalized older medical patients during the year after
             hospital discharge to assess the pattern and rate of
             changing depression and disability, the causal relationship
             between these variables, and to identify patients at
             greatest risk for poor outcomes. A group of 119 medical
             patients at Duke Hospital were both depressed and disabled;
             they were followed for a median of 47 weeks after hospital
             discharge. Time-series analyses showed that depression and
             disability tended to track together, and most changes
             occurred within the first 6 months after discharge. Blacks
             were more likely to remit from depression despite continued
             disability and less likely to experience continued
             depression despite decreased disability. Patients with a
             history of depression were less likely to experience
             improvement in depression unless disability improved. Number
             of medical diagnoses and depression severity independently
             predicted poorer depression outcomes. Certain
             characteristics of patients during hospitalization predict
             depression/disability outcomes after discharge.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00019442-199808000-00006},
   Key = {fds256004}
}

@article{fds706,
   Author = {Koenig, H.G. and George, L.K.},
   Title = {Depression and Disability Outcomes in Depressed Medically
             Ill Hospitalized Older Adults},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {230-247},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds706}
}

@article{fds255833,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review essay titled:) Religion and Aging Comes of
             Age},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {38},
   Pages = {508-510},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds255833}
}

@article{fds255834,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Coheseveness and Coherence: Religion and the
             Health of the Elderly},
   Journal = {Contemporary Gerontology},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {143-145},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds255834}
}

@article{fds255955,
   Author = {Krishnan, KR and Hays, JC and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Six-month outcomes for MRI-related vascular
             depression.},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {142-146},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1091-4269},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9871815},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relative
             probabilities of 6-month recovery from an index episode of
             major depression for subjects with and without MRI-confirmed
             vascular brain changes. In this cohort study, 57 depressed
             subjects from the Duke University Mental Health Clinical
             Research Center (MHCRC) for Depression in Late Life who
             presented with MRI-related vascular and non-vascular
             depression were followed for 6 months, and the rates of
             recovery in the two risk groups were compared. Overall, the
             recovery rate in this sample was 57.9%. Subjects with
             MRI-related vascular depression demonstrated outcomes
             similar to subjects with non-vascular depression (crude RR =
             0.67 [0.32, 1.43]). There was a trend that demonstrated that
             MRI-related vascular depression placed elderly subjects and
             subjects with first onset of depression after age 40 at
             increased risk of non-recovery. The study demonstrates
             overall no significant difference in course between patients
             with and without vascular depression. It also suggests that
             patients with vascular depression may have a different
             course depending on their age and age of onset of the
             disease.},
   Key = {fds255955}
}

@article{fds255996,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self and Identity in Later Life: Protecting and Enhancing
             the Self},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Identity},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {133-152},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds255996}
}

@article{fds255997,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Pieper,
             CF},
   Title = {Racial and Psychosocial Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster in
             the Elderly},
   Journal = {Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {178},
   Pages = {S567-S600},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0022-1899},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9852978},
   Abstract = {The effects of black race and psychologic stress on the risk
             of acquiring herpes zoster in late life were examined.
             Subjects were participants of a stratified probability
             sample of community-dwelling persons > or = 65 years old. A
             comprehensive health survey was administered in 1986-1987
             (P1), 1989-1990 (P2), and 1992-1994 (P3). Incident cases of
             zoster between P1 and P2 and P2 and P3 served as the
             dependent variables. Hypothesis-testing variables included
             race, negative life events, and measures of social support.
             Control variables included age, sex, education, cancer,
             other chronic diseases, hospitalization, activities of daily
             living, self-rated health, depression, and cigarette
             smoking. From P1 to P2, 1.4% of black and 3.4% of white
             subjects developed zoster (P < .001). From P2 to P3, 2.9% of
             black and 7.5% of white subjects developed zoster (P <
             .001). After controlling for variables, black subjects were
             significantly less likely to develop zoster than were white
             subjects (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence
             interval, 0.26, 0.53; P = .0001). Most measures of stress
             were not significantly related to zoster; however, study
             limitations preclude definitive conclusions.},
   Key = {fds255997}
}

@article{fds255998,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Dignity and Quality of Life in Old Age},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontological Social Work},
   Volume = {29},
   Pages = {39-52},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds255998}
}

@article{fds255999,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Wagner, HR and Swanson, JW and Burns, BJ and George, LK and Padgett, DK},
   Title = {Comparing Use of Public and Private Mental Health Services:
             The Enduring Barriers of Race and Age},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {34},
   Pages = {133-143},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds255999}
}

@article{fds256001,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Cohen, HC and Hays, JC and Blazer, DG and Larson, DB},
   Title = {The Relationship Between Religious Activities and Cigarette
             Smoking in Older Adults},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences},
   Volume = {53A},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {M418-M423},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1079-5006},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9823746},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the
             relationship between religious activities and cigarette
             smoking in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS:
             Cigarette smoking and religious activities were assessed in
             a probability sample of 3968 persons age 65 years or older
             participating in the Duke Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) survey. Participants were
             asked if they currently smoked, if they ever smoked, and how
             many cigarettes per day they smoked. Attendance at religious
             services, participation in private religious activities
             (prayer or Bible study), and use of religious media
             (religious TV or radio) were also assessed. Data were
             available for Waves I-III of the survey (1986, 1989, and
             1992). Analyses were controlled for age, race, sex,
             education, alcohol use, physical health, and in the
             longitudinal analyses, smoking status at prior waves.
             RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses revealed that participants
             who frequently attended religious services were
             significantly less likely to smoke cigarettes at all three
             waves. Likewise, elders frequently involved in private
             religious activity were less likely to smoke (Waves II and
             III). Total number of pack-years smoked was also inversely
             related to both attendance at religious services and private
             religious activities. Watching religious TV or listening to
             religious radio, on the other hand, was not related to
             smoking at Waves I and II nor to total pack-years smoked,
             but was positively related to current smoking at Wave III.
             Among those who smoked, number of cigarettes smoked was
             inversely related to frequency of attendance at religious
             services (Wave I), private religious activities (Wave III),
             and religious TV/radio (Waves II and III). Retrospective and
             prospective analyses revealed that religiously active
             persons were less likely to ever start smoking, not more
             likely to quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Religiously active
             persons are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and if they do
             smoke, smoke fewer cigarettes. Given the association between
             smoking and disease, and the widespread prevalence of both
             smoking and religious activity, this finding has
             implications for public health.},
   Key = {fds256001}
}

@article{fds256003,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Larson, DB and Hays, JC and McCullough, ME and George,
             LK and Branch, PS and Meador, KG and Kuchibhatla,
             M},
   Title = {Religion and Survival of 1010 Male Veterans Hospitalized
             with Medical Illness},
   Journal = {Journal of Religion and Health},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {15-29},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Objective: To examine the effects of religious affiliation
             and religious coping on survival of acutely-hospitalized
             medically-ill male veterans following discharge. Sample and
             Methods: Between 1987 and 1989, comprehensive psychosocial
             and physical-health evaluations were performed on a
             consecutive sample of 1010 patients ages 20-39 and 65-102
             years admitted to the general medicine and neurology
             services of the Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center
             in Durham, North Carolina. Religious affiliation and
             religious coping (the degree to which a patient relied on
             his religious faith for comfort and strength) were among the
             variables assessed. Subjects or surviving family members
             were contacted by telephone in 1996-97 to determine vital
             status; dates of death were confirmed by the Veterans
             Administration's Beneficiary Identification and Records
             Locator Subsystem (BIRLS), death certificate, or the
             National Death Index. Cox proportional-hazards regression
             was used to model the effects of religious variables on time
             to death, controlling for demographic, social, psychiatric,
             and physical-health covariates. Results: Follow-up was
             obtained on all 1010 patients. During the observation
             period, 673 patients died. While a higher proportion of
             conservative Protestants than members of other religious
             groups died during this time (70.5% vs. 64.3%, p = .04), the
             association disappeared once covariates were controlled.
             Religious coping was unrelated to survival in both bivariate
             and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI
             0.99-1.01). Conclusions: Neither religious affiliation nor
             dependence on religion as a coping behavior predicted
             survival in this sample of medically-ill male veterans.
             Several reasons for the absence of an effect are explored,
             notably the fact that the mortality force exerted by age,
             medical diagnosis, and severity of physical-health problems
             overwhelmed the weaker effects of psychosocial
             variables.},
   Key = {fds256003}
}

@article{fds304765,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Larson, DB and Hays, JC and McCullough, ME and George,
             LK and Branch, PS and Meader, KG and Kuchibhatla,
             M},
   Title = {Religion and the survival of 1010 hospitalized
             veterans},
   Journal = {Journal of Religion and Health},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {15-29},
   Year = {1998},
   Abstract = {Objective: To examine the effects of religious affiliation
             and religious coping on survival of acutely-hospitalized
             medically-ill male veterans following discharge. Sample and
             Methods: Between 1987 and 1989, comprehensive psychosocial
             and physical-health evaluations were performed on a
             consecutive sample of 1010 patients ages 20-39 and 65-102
             years admitted to the general medicine and neurology
             services of the Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center
             in Durham, North Carolina. Religious affiliation and
             religious coping (the degree to which a patient relied on
             his religious faith for comfort and strength) were among the
             variables assessed. Subjects or surviving family members
             were contacted by telephone in 1996-97 to determine vital
             status; dates of death were confirmed by the Veterans
             Administration's Beneficiary Identification and Records
             Locator Subsystem (BIRLS), death certificate, or the
             National Death Index. Cox proportional-hazards regression
             was used to model the effects of religious variables on time
             to death, controlling for demographic, social, psychiatric,
             and physical-health covariates. Results: Follow-up was
             obtained on all 1010 patients. During the observation
             period, 673 patients died. While a higher proportion of
             conservative Protestants than members of other religious
             groups died during this time (70.5% vs. 64.3%, p = .04), the
             association disappeared once covariates were controlled.
             Religious coping was unrelated to survival in both bivariate
             and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio 1.00, 95% CI
             0.99-1.01). Conclusions: Neither religious affiliation nor
             dependence on religion as a coping behavior predicted
             survival in this sample of medically-ill male veterans.
             Several reasons for the absence of an effect are explored,
             notably the fact that the mortality force exerted by age,
             medical diagnosis, and severity of physical-health problems
             overwhelmed the weaker effects of psychosocial
             variables.},
   Key = {fds304765}
}

@article{fds255949,
   Author = {Hays, JC and Krishnan, KR and George, LK and Pieper, CF and Flint, EP and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Psychosocial and physical correlates of chronic
             depression.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {149-159},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9406904},
   Abstract = {This study used a case-control design to address differences
             in psychosocial, physical and clinical profiles between
             subjects who presented with a chronic index episode of major
             depression and those who presented with a non-chronic index
             episode. Subjects were adult patients participating in the
             Duke University Mental Health Clinical Research Center
             (MHCRC) for the Study of Depression in Later Life. Cases (N
             = 88) who reported duration of depressive symptoms lasting >
             or = 24 months at enrollment were compared to controls (N =
             354) who reported symptoms lasting 1-12 months. The groups
             were compared with respect to selected demographic and
             clinical variables, physical function deficits, medical
             comorbidity, social support constructs and number of recent
             stressful life events. Social support and physical health
             were more relevant to chronicity of major depressive illness
             than were severity of illness or family history. Older age
             (> 60 years) intensified the deleterious effect of recent
             negative life events and reduced the deleterious effect of
             functional impairment on chronic major depression. These
             findings require special emphasis where treatment for
             chronic major depression is divorced from considerations of
             the social environment and functional capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-1781(97)00105-4},
   Key = {fds255949}
}

@article{fds256005,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Peterson, BL and Pieper,
             CF},
   Title = {Depression in medically ill hospitalized older adults:
             prevalence, characteristics, and course of symptoms
             according to six diagnostic schemes.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {154},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1376-1383},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9326819},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine and
             compare rates of depression, correlates, and course of
             symptoms in medically ill hospitalized elders through use of
             six diagnostic schemes (inclusive, etiologic,
             exclusive-inclusive, exclusive-etiologic,
             substitutive-inclusive, and substitutive-etiologic). METHOD:
             A consecutive series of 460 cognitively unimpaired patients
             aged 60 or over who were admitted to the medical inpatient
             services of Duke Hospital underwent a structured psychiatric
             evaluation administered by a psychiatrist. Patients with
             depression were contacted by telephone at 12-week intervals
             after discharge to assess weekly change in depressive
             symptoms (median follow-up time = 47 weeks). RESULTS: The
             prevalence of major depression varied from 10% to 21%
             depending on diagnostic scheme; similarly, minor depression
             varied from 14% to 25%. Diagnostic strategy made little
             difference in known psychological and health characteristics
             of patients with depression (predictive validity) or
             severity of depressive symptoms (convergent validity). The
             diagnostic strategy that best distinguished a severe and
             persistent major depression was the exclusive-etiologic
             approach; however, this strategy missed 49% of patients with
             major depression identified by the inclusive approach,
             almost 60% of whom continued to experience persistent
             symptoms of depression many weeks after discharge.
             CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic strategy affects rates of major and
             minor depression, with about a twofold difference between
             the extremes. There is little reason, however, to choose one
             diagnostic scheme over another in all cases. Diagnostic
             strategy should be chosen on the basis of the specific goals
             and purposes of the examiner. While the exclusive-etiologic
             approach identifies the most severe and persistent
             depressions, the inclusive approach is the most sensitive
             and reliable approach and is an intermediate predictor of
             persistent depression.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.154.10.1376},
   Key = {fds256005}
}

@article{fds304772,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Meador, KG},
   Title = {Use of antidepressants by nonpsychiatrists in the treatment
             of medically ill hospitalized depressed elderly
             patients.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {154},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1369-1375},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9326818},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine
             antidepressant use by nonpsychiatrists in the treatment of
             depressed elderly medical inpatients. METHOD: Patients aged
             60 or older who were admitted to medical services at Duke
             Hospital were evaluated by a geropsychiatrist who used a
             structured psychiatric interview to identify major or minor
             depressive disorder. Medical records of depressed patients
             were reviewed for use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines
             before admission, during hospitalization, and on discharge.
             After discharge, depressed patients were contacted four
             times by telephone at 12-week intervals to inquire about
             medication use (median follow-up time = 45 weeks). RESULTS:
             Of 153 depressed patients, 40.5% received antidepressants at
             some time during their hospital stay or follow-up period,
             25.5% received only benzodiazepines, and 34.0% received
             neither. The most commonly prescribed antidepressant was
             amitriptyline (45.2% of treated patients), administered at
             an average maximum dose of 49 mg/day. Only 15 of 114
             untreated depressed patients started antidepressant therapy
             during hospitalization (nine with amitriptyline). Of 91
             depressed patients who did not receive antidepressants
             either before admission or during hospitalization, only 11%
             received any antidepressant therapy during the median
             11-month follow-up; again, half were treated with
             amitriptyline at doses of 10-30 mg/day. Intensity of
             antidepressant therapy was predicted by severity of
             depressive symptoms, history of psychiatric problems, and
             higher income. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low proportion of
             depressed older medical inpatients receive treatment with
             antidepressants. Patients treated with antidepressants often
             receive potentially dangerous tertiary tricyclics at
             inadequate doses. Unless depression is identified and
             treated during medical hospitalization, it is unlikely to be
             treated adequately after discharge.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.154.10.1369},
   Key = {fds304772}
}

@article{fds256009,
   Author = {Golding, JM and Cooper, ML and George, LK},
   Title = {Sexual assault history and health perceptions: Seven general
             population studies},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {417-425},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1997XY26600002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.16.5.417},
   Key = {fds256009}
}

@article{fds256008,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Choosing among Established Assessment Tools: Scientific
             Demands and Practical Constraints},
   Journal = {Generations},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {32-36},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0738-7806},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1997WU92400009&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds256008}
}

@article{fds256007,
   Author = {Swanson, JW and Swartz, MS and George, LK and Burns, BJ and Hiday, VA and Borum, R and Wagner, HR},
   Title = {Interpreting the effectiveness of involuntary outpatient
             commitment: a conceptual model.},
   Journal = {The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the
             Law},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {5-16},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1093-6793},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9148879},
   Abstract = {Many experimental trials of community mental health
             interventions fail to develop testable conceptual models of
             the specific mechanisms and pathways by which relevant
             outcomes may occur, thus falling short of usefully
             interpreting what happens inside the experimental "black
             box." This paper describes a conceptual model of involuntary
             outpatient commitment (OPC) for persons with severe and
             persistent mental disorders. The model represents an attempt
             to "unpack" the effects of OPC by incorporating several
             interacting variables at various stages. According to this
             model, court-mandated outpatient treatment may improve
             long-term outcomes both directly and indirectly in several
             ways: by stimulating case management efforts, mobilizing
             supportive resources, improving individual compliance with
             treatment in the community, reducing clients' psychiatric
             symptoms and dangerous behavior, improving clients' social
             functioning, and finally by reducing the chance of illness
             relapse and rehospitalization. A randomized clinical trial
             of OPC is underway in North Carolina that will test the
             direct and indirect effects suggested by this model, using
             longitudinal data from the multiple perspectives of mental
             health clients, family members, and case
             managers.},
   Key = {fds256007}
}

@article{fds256010,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Burns, BJ and George, LK and Swanson, J and Hiday, VA and Borum, R and Wagner, HR},
   Title = {The ethical challenges of a randomized controlled trial of
             involuntary outpatient commitment.},
   Journal = {Journal of Mental Health Administration},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-43},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0092-8623},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9033154},
   Abstract = {Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC) is a civil justice
             procedure intended to enhance compliance with community
             mental health treatment, to improve functioning, and to
             reduce recurrent dangerousness and hospital recidivism. The
             research literature on OPC indicates that it appears to
             improve outcomes in rates of rehospitalization and length of
             stay. However, all studies to date have serious
             methodological limitations because of selection bias; lack
             of specification of target populations; unclear
             operationalization of OPC; unmeasured variability in type,
             frequency, and intensity of treatment; as well as other
             confounding factors. To address limitations in these
             studies, the authors designed a randomized controlled trial
             (RCT) of OPC, combined with community-based case management,
             which is now under way in North Carolina. This article
             describes ethical dilemmas in designing and implementing an
             RCT of a legally coercive intervention in community-based
             settings. These ethical dilemmas challenge the experimental
             validity of an RCT but can be successfully addressed with
             careful planning and negotiation.},
   Key = {fds256010}
}

@article{fds256013,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Hays, JC and George, LK and Blazer, DG and Larson, DB and Landerman, LR},
   Title = {Modeling the cross-sectional relationships between religion,
             physical health, social support, and depressive
             symptoms.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-144},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1064-7481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9106377},
   Abstract = {The authors examined models of the relationships between
             religious activities, physical health, social support, and
             depressive symptoms in a sample of 4,000 persons age 65 and
             over. Religious activity was examined first as a single
             composite construct and then split into three component
             variables that were examined individually. Religious
             activity as a single construct was correlated with both
             social support and good physical health but was unrelated to
             depression. Split into the three components, model fit was
             significantly increased. Frequency of church attendance was
             positively related to physical health and negatively related
             to depression, but was surprisingly unrelated to social
             support. Frequent churchgoers were about half as likely to
             be depressed. Private prayer/Bible reading was negatively
             correlated with physical health and positively correlated
             with social support, but unrelated to depression. Religious
             TV/radio listening was unrelated to social support,
             negatively related to good physical health, and,
             unexpectedly, positively associated with
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00019442-199721520-00006},
   Key = {fds256013}
}

@article{fds255971,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Cohen, HJ and George, LK and Hays, JC and Larson, DB and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Attendance at religious services, interleukin-6, and other
             biological parameters of immune function in older
             adults.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {233-250},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9565726},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: First, to examine and explain the relationship
             between religious service attendance and plasma
             Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and second, to examine the
             relationship between religious attendance and other
             immune-system regulators and inflammatory substances.
             METHODS: During the third in-person interview (1992) of the
             Establishment of Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of
             the Elderly (EPESE) project, Duke site, 1718 subjects age
             sixty-five or over had blood drawn for analysis of immune
             regulators and inflammatory factors, including IL-6
             measurements. IL-6 was examined both as a continuous
             variable and at a cutoff of 5 pg/ml. Information on
             attendance at religious services was available from the 1992
             interview and two prior interviews (1986 and 1989). RESULTS:
             Religious attendance was inversely related to high IL-6
             levels (> 5 pg/ml), but not to IL-6 measured as a continuous
             variable. Bivariate analyses revealed that high religious
             attendance in 1989 predicted a lower proportion of subjects
             with high IL-6 in 1992 (beta-.10, p = .01) High religious
             attendance in 1992 also predicted a lower proportion of
             subjects with high IL-6 levels in 1992 (beta-.14, p =
             .0005). When age, sex, race, education, chronic illnesses,
             and physical functioning were controlled, 1989 religious
             attendance weakened as a predictor of high IL-6 (beta-.07, p
             = .10), but 1992 religious attendance retained its effect
             (beta-.10, p = .02). When religious attenders were compared
             to non- attenders, they were only about one-half as likely
             to have IL-6 levels greater than 5 ng/ml (OR 0.58, 95% CI
             0.40-0.84, p < .005). Religious attendance was also related
             to lower levels of the immune-inflammatory markers alpha-2
             globulin, fibrin d-dimers, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and
             lymphocytes. While controlling for covariates weakened most
             of these relationships, adjusting analyses for depression
             and negative life events had little effect. CONCLUSIONS:
             There is a weak relationship between religious attendance
             and high IL-6 levels that could not be explained by other
             covariates, depression, or negative life events. This
             finding provides some support for the hypothesis that older
             adults who frequently attend religious services have
             healthier immune systems, although mechanism of effect
             remains unknown.},
   Doi = {10.2190/40NF-Q9Y2-0GG7-4WH6},
   Key = {fds255971}
}

@article{fds256006,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Meador, KG},
   Title = {Use of Antidepressants by Non-Psychiatrists in the Treatment
             of Hospitalized Medically Ill Depressed Elderly
             Patients},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {154,},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1369-1375},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9326818},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine
             antidepressant use by nonpsychiatrists in the treatment of
             depressed elderly medical inpatients. METHOD: Patients aged
             60 or older who were admitted to medical services at Duke
             Hospital were evaluated by a geropsychiatrist who used a
             structured psychiatric interview to identify major or minor
             depressive disorder. Medical records of depressed patients
             were reviewed for use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines
             before admission, during hospitalization, and on discharge.
             After discharge, depressed patients were contacted four
             times by telephone at 12-week intervals to inquire about
             medication use (median follow-up time = 45 weeks). RESULTS:
             Of 153 depressed patients, 40.5% received antidepressants at
             some time during their hospital stay or follow-up period,
             25.5% received only benzodiazepines, and 34.0% received
             neither. The most commonly prescribed antidepressant was
             amitriptyline (45.2% of treated patients), administered at
             an average maximum dose of 49 mg/day. Only 15 of 114
             untreated depressed patients started antidepressant therapy
             during hospitalization (nine with amitriptyline). Of 91
             depressed patients who did not receive antidepressants
             either before admission or during hospitalization, only 11%
             received any antidepressant therapy during the median
             11-month follow-up; again, half were treated with
             amitriptyline at doses of 10-30 mg/day. Intensity of
             antidepressant therapy was predicted by severity of
             depressive symptoms, history of psychiatric problems, and
             higher income. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low proportion of
             depressed older medical inpatients receive treatment with
             antidepressants. Patients treated with antidepressants often
             receive potentially dangerous tertiary tricyclics at
             inadequate doses. Unless depression is identified and
             treated during medical hospitalization, it is unlikely to be
             treated adequately after discharge.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.154.10.1369},
   Key = {fds256006}
}

@article{fds303874,
   Author = {George, LK and Koenig, HG and Hays, JC and Blazer, D and Larson, DB and Landerman, LR},
   Title = {Modeling the Cross-sectional Relationships Between Religion,
             Physical Health, Social Support, and Depressive
             Symptoms},
   Journal = {Am J Geriatr Psychiatry},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {131-144},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1545-7214},
   Key = {fds303874}
}

@article{fds256012,
   Author = {Steffens, DC and Hays, JC and George, LK and Krishnan, KR and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of number of
             previous depressive episodes in the depressed
             elderly.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {99-106},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8827418},
   Abstract = {Age of onset has been used as a correlate of depressive
             symptomatology in the elderly. Examining frequency of
             episodes may improve our ability to make such correlations.
             The authors studied variations in an index presentation of
             depression in late life based on the number of previous
             depressive episodes. Having more than two previous episodes
             (as compared to two or less) was related to younger age,
             early age of onset, dysthymia, feelings of worthlessness,
             difficulty concentrating, slowed thoughts, suicidal
             ideation, generalized anxiety, and decreased perceptions of
             social support. In a logistic regression model, significant
             predictors of more than two previous episodes were young
             age, early age of onset, dysthymia, suicidality, and lower
             perceived social support. Patients with many episodes may be
             at higher risk for more severe illness and may require more
             aggressive treatment.},
   Key = {fds256012}
}

@article{fds255928,
   Author = {Schmader, KE and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Pieper, CF and Hamilton, JD},
   Title = {Racial differences in herpes zoster and age at onset of
             varicella - Reply},
   Journal = {The Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {240-241},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-1899},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1996UT46800041&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/infdis/174.1.240},
   Key = {fds255928}
}

@article{fds256011,
   Author = {Davidson, JR and Hughes, DC and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {The association of sexual assault and attempted suicide
             within the community.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {550-555},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8639039},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Lifetime community rates of attempted suicide
             were compared between those who reported a history of sexual
             assault and a control group without such a history. METHODS:
             The 2918 respondents in the Duke University Epidemiological
             Catchment Area Study were placed into groups with reported
             sexual assault (n = 67) and those with no known history of
             such (n = 2851). Multivariate and bivariate procedures were
             used to examine the relation between sexual assault and
             attempted suicide. RESULTS: Subjects reporting a history of
             sexual assault were more likely to be female, younger, and
             to report higher rates of lifetime suicide attempt and
             post-traumatic stress symptoms; no differences were found in
             the number of chronic medical disorders, major depression,
             substance abuse or substance dependence, or panic attacks.
             Nine (14.9%) of the 67 index group subjects reported a
             suicide attempt, 4 of whom reported their first sexual
             assault as occurring before age 16 years. A sexual assault
             history was associated with increased prevalence of lifetime
             suicide attempt after controlling for sex, age, education,
             posttraumatic stress symptoms, and psychiatric disorder.
             Findings were similar in the female-only subsample (n =
             1778). For women, the odds of attempting suicide was 3 to 4
             times greater when the first reported sexual assault
             occurred prior to age 16 years compared with age 16 years or
             older. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual assault is associated with an
             increased lifetime rate of attempted suicide. In women, a
             history of sexual trauma before age 16 years is a
             particularly strong correlate of attempted
             suicide.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830060096013},
   Key = {fds256011}
}

@article{fds256015,
   Author = {Svetkey, LP and George, LK and Tyroler, HA and Timmons, PZ and Burchett,
             BM and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Effects of gender and ethnic group on blood pressure control
             in the elderly.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Hypertension},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {529-535},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0895-7061},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8783776},
   Abstract = {In order to determine the adequacy of blood pressure
             treatment in black and white elderly men and women, the
             authors performed a cross-sectional population survey in
             Central North Carolina in 1986-1987. Participants included a
             random sample of noninstitutionalized individuals age 65
             years or older. Blacks were oversampled. A health
             questionnaire was administered, and blood pressure was
             measured. Of 5,223 eligible persons, 4,162 (80%)
             participated. Fifty-four percent of subjects were black and
             65% were women. Sixteen percent of the study subjects were
             white men, 30% white women, 19% black men, and 35% black
             women. The mean age was 73 years. Fifty-three percent had
             hypertension. Among hypertensives, 80.8% were taking blood
             pressure medication. Among treated hypertensives, blood
             pressure was adequately controlled, (measured diastolic
             blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or lower) in 85.6%. Women were
             52% more likely than men and blacks were 40% less likely
             than whites to exhibit adequate blood pressure control.
             Older age and smoking were also associated with better blood
             pressure control. The authors conclude that hypertension is
             more likely to be controlled in elderly women than men and
             less likely to be well-controlled in elderly blacks than
             whites. The choice of antihypertensive agent may also be
             important. Further investigation is needed into the
             mechanisms accounting for the observed sex and race
             differences.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0895-7061(96)00026-x},
   Key = {fds256015}
}

@article{fds256016,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Missing links: the case for a social psychology of the life
             course.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {248-255},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8920096},
   Abstract = {The major purpose of this discussion is to demonstrate that
             the knowledge base has suffered as a result of insufficient
             cross-fertilization of social-psychological and life
             course/aging perspectives. The central focus of the article
             is identification of research issues of interest to life
             course and aging scholars that would be enriched by
             increased attention to social-psychological principles and,
             conversely, identification of social-psychological research
             topics that would be advanced by increased attention to life
             course and aging issues.},
   Key = {fds256016}
}

@article{fds256014,
   Author = {Clipp, EC and Moore, MJ and George, LK},
   Title = {The content and properties of the caregiver activities time
             survey (CATS): An outcome measure for use in clinical trial
             research on Alzheimer's disease},
   Journal = {American Journal of Alzheimer'S Disease & Other
             Dementias®},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3-9},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/153331759601100602},
   Abstract = {The Caregiver Activities Time Survey (CATS) was developed in
             1990, pilot tested and revised twice before its use in a
             long-term study of Mentane® (velnacrine maleate), conducted
             by Hoechst Roussel Pharmaceuticals Inc. (currently Hoechst
             Marion Roussel Pharmaceuticals). The instrument yields ratio
             level data and, by relying on caregivers' reports of minutes
             per task, is more objective and theoretically less ambiguous
             than other subjective ratings. Overall alpha of the informal
             scale is. 51 suggesting modest internal consistency which is
             not surprising given that caregiving tasks are more discrete
             than items on scales presumed to tap one dimension.
             Test-retest reliability of individual items suggests good
             reproducibility of scores over a J0-week period
             Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by the strong
             relationships shown between the CATS and several measures of
             cognitive functioning. Longitudinal data support the
             CATS'sensitivity to change in disease severity. Ratings by a
             panel of experts suggest very good to excellent content
             validity of both informal caregiving andformal or paid
             caregiving CATS scales.},
   Doi = {10.1177/153331759601100602},
   Key = {fds256014}
}

@article{fds256017,
   Author = {Krishnan, KR and Hays, JC and Tupler, LA and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Clinical and phenomenological comparisons of late-onset and
             early-onset depression.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {785-788},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7726320},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relationship between age
             at onset of first depressive episode and clinical features
             in elderly depressed patients. METHOD: They used data on age
             at onset and clinical features in 246 elderly depressed
             patients treated at the National Institute of Mental Health
             Clinical Research Center for the Study of Depression in
             Later Life, located at Duke University. RESULTS: Two
             variables--loss of interest and number of depressive
             episodes--were related to age at onset in all analyses.
             CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the hypothesis that apathy
             is more prominent in late-onset than in early-onset
             depression.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.152.5.785},
   Key = {fds256017}
}

@article{fds256018,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Burns, BJ and Hiday, VA and George, LK and Swanson, J and Wagner, HR},
   Title = {New directions in research on involuntary outpatient
             commitment.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {381-385},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1075-2730},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7788461},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Involuntary outpatient commitment has been used
             as a method of improving tenure in community programs for
             individuals with severe and persistent mental illness. This
             paper reviews literature on research about involuntary
             outpatient commitment and suggests questions and methods for
             future research. METHODS: Literature describing research
             studies of involuntary outpatient commitment, located by
             searching MEDLINE and following up references cited in
             relevant articles, was reviewed with attention to patient
             characteristics and diagnostic, treatment, and outcomes
             measures. RESULTS: Involuntary outpatient commitment appears
             to provide limited but improved outcomes in rates of
             rehospitalization and lengths of hospital stay. Variability
             in community treatment makes interpretation of other types
             of outcome difficult. Few studies specifically identify
             results among patients with severe and persistent mental
             illness. CONCLUSIONS: No studies have examined the extent to
             which outpatient commitment affects compliance and treatment
             when essential community services such as case management
             are consistently and aggressively provided, nor have studies
             controlled for potentially confounding factors such as
             treatment and nontreatment effects, including informal
             coercion. A randomized trial of involuntary outpatient
             commitment should be useful in evaluating the effectiveness
             of this type of intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ps.46.4.381},
   Key = {fds256018}
}

@article{fds255947,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Pieper, CF and Hamilton,
             JD},
   Title = {Racial differences in the occurrence of herpes
             zoster.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {171},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {701-704},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-1899},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7876622},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine if there are
             racial differences in the occurrence of herpes zoster
             (shingles). The study population was the Duke Established
             Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, a
             probability sample of community-dwelling persons > 64 years
             old in North Carolina. Interviewers administered a
             comprehensive health survey to the participants that
             included questions about lifetime occurrence of shingles. Of
             the 3206 subjects, 316 (9.9%) had had zoster: 81 (4.5%) of
             1754 blacks and 235 (16.1%) of 1452 whites had had shingles
             (P < .0001). After controlling for age, cancer, and
             demographic factors, blacks remained one-fourth as likely as
             whites (adjusted odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval
             0.18-0.35; P = .0001) to have experienced zoster. In
             summary, blacks had a significantly lower risk of developing
             herpes zoster than whites, a new finding in herpes zoster
             epidemiology.},
   Key = {fds255947}
}

@article{fds256020,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Linda George and K and Robins, CJ and Stangl, D and Tweed,
             DL},
   Title = {The development of a dysfunctional attitudes scale for
             medically ill elders (dasmie)},
   Journal = {Clinical Gerontologist},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {3-22},
   Publisher = {The Haworth Press},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0731-7115},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J018v15n02_02},
   Abstract = {Objective: In this paper we developed a scale to measure
             dysfunctional attitudes in medically ill elderly, examined
             its test characteristics, and explored associations with
             other health variables. Sample and Methods: Eight items were
             selected from Weissman and Beck’s Dysfunctional Attitudes
             Scale based on factor loadings from an earlier analysis of
             the scale. Twenty-two additional items, based on information
             learned from elderly patients during a pilot study and the
             clinical experience of a geropsychiatrist and cognitive
             therapist, were added to create a 30-item scale called
             DASMIE. The scale was administered to 92 consecutive
             vatients aged 60 or over admitted to the general medicine,
             cardiology, and neurology services of a university teaching
             hospital. It was then factor analyzed and its test
             characteristics determined Individual items and total scale
             score was next correlated with depressive symptoms (CES-D);
             relationships between total score and functional disability,
             cognitive status, medical diagnosis, insurance status, sex,
             race, and religiosity were also examined. Results:
             Dysfunctional attitudes were prevalent in this population.
             Over half (54%) strongly agreed that having to rely on
             others was a terrible thing; 46% strongly believed that if
             someone was sick and disabled, he or she could only be a
             burden on others; 24% felt that until their physical
             condition improved, they could not experience pleasure; 32%
             strongly disagreed that they could be happy if living in a
             nursing home; 44% strongly indicated that it was awful to be
             disapproved of by people close to them; and 15% either
             slightly or strongly agreed that they had no special talents
             or abilities that would be useful to others. Factor analysis
             of the 30-item DASHMIE revealed nine distinct factors;
             internal reliability of the scale was acceptable
             (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86). Total score was related to both
             depression and cognitive status. The factors "performance
             evaluation," "ability to function," and "approval by others"
             contained items that were strongly related to depression. An
             abbreviated 15-item DASMIE was developed to minimize
             respondent burden, enhance face validity, and maximize
             response variability. Conclusions: Dysfunctional attitudes
             are prevalent in this population and are associated with
             depression. We have developed both a standard 30-item and an
             abbreviated 15-item instrument to identify and track these
             attitudes. © 1994 Taylor & Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1300/J018v15n02_02},
   Key = {fds256020}
}

@article{fds255935,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The last half-century of aging research--and thoughts for
             the future.},
   Journal = {The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological
             Sciences and Social Sciences},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {S1-S3},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1079-5014},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7757825},
   Key = {fds255935}
}

@article{fds255936,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Stangl, D and Tweed,
             DL},
   Title = {Hospital stressors experienced by elderly medical
             inpatients: developing a Hospital Stress
             Index.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {103-122},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-2174},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649715},
   Abstract = {To develop a long and short version of an index to measure
             experiences during hospitalization perceived by elderly
             patients as stressful.Consecutive patients aged sixty or
             over admitted to a university teaching hospital were
             assessed for hospital-related stressors during two separate
             studies. In the first study, seventy-six patients were asked
             an open-ended question exploring what they found most
             stressful about being in the hospital. Responses were
             grouped into major categories, and questions were developed
             to address concerns in each category; the resulting forty
             items were called the Hospital Stress Index (HSI). The HSI
             was then administered to a separate group of ninety-two
             patients; data were also collected on functional disability
             (impaired ADLs), dysfunctional attitudes (DAS), and
             depressive symptoms (CES-D).Spontaneously reported hospital
             stressors were grouped into seven categories: 1) adverse
             effects of diagnostic or therapeutic procedures/treatments,
             2) forced life-style changes, 3) relationships with staff,
             4) individual psychiatric issues, 5) understanding
             diagnosis/prognosis, 6) family issues, and 7) the physical
             environment. The largest category of stressors concerned
             relationships with doctors and nurses. High HSI scores were
             significantly more common among Whites than Blacks and among
             patients with high CES-D, high DAS, or impaired ADLs scores.
             A number of potentially modifiable hospital-related
             stressors and individual patient issues were identified.
             Finally, an abbreviated fifteen-item HSI was developed to
             maximize patient discriminability, highlight individual
             differences, and enhance the detection of modifiable
             stressors.Hospital-reported stressors may contribute to the
             emotional distress that elderly inpatients experience. We
             have developed an index to identify such
             stressors.},
   Doi = {10.2190/30p7-d2rq-tpgf-3whr},
   Key = {fds255936}
}

@article{fds255832,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Age and Structural Lag: Society’s Failure to
             Provide Meaningful Opportunities in Work, Family, and
             Leisure},
   Journal = {Contemporary Gerontology},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {81-83},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255832}
}

@article{fds255848,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Pieper, CF and Hamilton,
             JD},
   Title = {Racial Differences in the Occurrence of Herpes Zoster
             Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {171},
   Pages = {701-704},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255848}
}

@article{fds255931,
   Author = {KOENIG, HG and HAYS, JC and GEORGE, LK and BLAZER,
             DG},
   Title = {MODELING THE IMPACT OF CHRONIC ILLNESS, RELIGION, AND SOCIAL
             SUPPORT ON DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-61},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1995QE07400030&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255931}
}

@article{fds256019,
   Author = {Landerman, LR and Burns, BJ and Swartz, MS and Wagner, HR and George,
             LK},
   Title = {The relationship between insurance coverage and psychiatric
             disorder in predicting use of mental health
             services.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {151},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1785-1790},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7977886},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how insurance coverage
             for mental health services affects outpatient mental health
             service utilization among those with and among those without
             a DSM-III psychiatric diagnosis. The authors used a
             representative community sample to compare the regression
             effects of insurance coverage on utilization of mental
             health services among these subjects. METHOD: Data are from
             the second wave of the Piedmont, North Carolina, site of the
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. These data contain
             DSM-III diagnostic measures derived from the National
             Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule as
             well as measures of insurance coverage and utilization.
             Responses from 2,889 community residents were analyzed using
             both ordinary least squares and logistic regression.
             RESULTS: In both models, insurance coverage was strongly
             associated with care among those with as well as among those
             without a psychiatric disorder. The association between
             coverage and the probability of care was strongest among
             those with a disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are not
             consistent with the claim that failing to provide insurance
             coverage will reduce discretionary but not necessary mental
             health care utilization. They provide evidence that failing
             to provide insurance coverage will reduce utilization as
             much or more among those with a psychiatric disorder as
             among those without. This result has important implications
             for health care reform.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.151.12.1785},
   Key = {fds256019}
}

@article{fds256022,
   Author = {Davidson, JR and Hughes, DC and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {The boundary of social phobia. Exploring the
             threshold.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {975-983},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7979886},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Individuals with subthreshold social phobia
             (SSP) in the community are characterized relative to
             nonphobic, healthy controls (C), and diagnosed social
             phobics (SP). METHODS: Data from 1488 subjects from the Duke
             University Epidemiological Catchment Area Study were
             examined. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to
             compare the SSP, SP, and C groups on 10 sets of variables.
             RESULTS: Compared with C respondents, SSP respondents were
             more likely to be female and unmarried and to report less
             income and education. The SSP respondents were also more
             likely to report work attendance problems, poor grades in
             school, symptoms of conduct disturbance, impaired subjective
             social support, lack of self-confidence, lack of a close
             friend, use of psychotropic drugs in past year, and a
             greater number of life changes, chronic medical problems,
             and mental health visits within the past 6 months. In a
             multivariate logistic regression model with group membership
             as the dependent variable, compared with C respondents, SSP
             respondents were more likely to be female, to have less
             education, and to report more indicators of poor school
             performance and symptoms of adolescent conduct disturbance.
             In contrast, in a similar but separate multivariate model,
             compared with SP respondents, SSP respondents met the
             criteria for fewer DSM-III psychiatric disorders and were
             less likely to report impaired instrumental support.
             CONCLUSION: Social phobia adversely affects over 10% of the
             population. Previous epidemiologic catchment area-based
             prevalence estimates have probably been unrealistically
             low.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950120047008},
   Key = {fds256022}
}

@article{fds256023,
   Author = {Schmader, K and George, LK and Newton, R and Hamilton,
             JD},
   Title = {The accuracy of self-report of herpes zoster.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Epidemiology},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1271-1276},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0895-4356},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7722563},
   Abstract = {The accuracy of self-report of herpes zoster was
             investigated in the Duke Established Populations for
             Epidemiological Studies of the Elderly, a longitudinal study
             of 4162 community-dwelling elderly persons residing in North
             Carolina, 1986-1993. The authors compared self-reports of
             zoster with physician diagnosis of zoster and with a zoster
             verification questionnaire (ZVQ). Compared to physician
             diagnosis, 3.2% (95% confidence interval 0-61%) of
             self-reports of zoster (n = 31) were false-positive and no
             denials of zoster (n = 63) were false-negative. The
             agreement of self-reports to physician diagnosis was 98.9%,
             the sensitivity and negative predictive value were 100%, the
             specificity was 98.4% and the positive predictive value was
             96.7%. The ZVQ comparisons were similarly high. These data
             suggest that the frequency of false-positive and
             false-negative reports of zoster is low in this elderly
             population. Zoster self-reports appear to be accurate and
             suitable for epidemiological investigations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0895-4356(94)90132-5},
   Key = {fds256023}
}

@article{fds256024,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Schneider, R},
   Title = {Mental health care for older adults in the year 2020: a
             dangerous and avoided topic.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {674-679},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7959136},
   Abstract = {Low Medicare reimbursement rates are already causing some
             mental health professionals to turn away elderly patients,
             restricting access to care. Where will funds come from to
             pay for the mental health needs of older adults in the year
             2020, when 80 million baby boomers pass age 65? This cohort,
             in contrast to elders today, have high rates of psychiatric
             illness, and are also much more likely than older adults to
             seek mental health services. Seemingly oblivious to these
             trends, plans are being made to cut, rather than expand, the
             Medicare budget. We are projecting an increasing gap over
             the next 25 years between need and availability of geriatric
             mental health services.},
   Key = {fds256024}
}

@article{fds256030,
   Author = {Thompson, RJ and Gil, KM and Keith, BR and Gustafson, KE and George, LK and Kinney, TR},
   Title = {Psychological adjustment of children with sickle cell
             disease: stability and change over a 10-month
             period.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {856-856},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7962891},
   Abstract = {Rates of poor psychological adjustment of children with
             sickle cell disease remained relatively constant over
             initial and follow-up assessment points. However, there was
             relatively little stability in the classification of the
             adjustment of individuals, low congruence in specific
             behavior problem patterns and diagnoses in accordance with
             the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
             (3rd ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1980), and less
             stability in child adjustment by child report than by mother
             report. With initial levels of adjustment controlled,
             children's strategies for coping with pain accounted for a
             significant increment in child-reported symptoms (19%) and
             mother-reported internalizing behavior problems (8%) at
             follow-up beyond the contribution of illness and demographic
             parameters and follow-up interval. The findings suggest that
             children's coping strategies are a salient intervention
             target for enhancing adjustment.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.62.4.856},
   Key = {fds256030}
}

@article{fds256027,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Meador, KG and Blazer, DG and Dyck,
             PB},
   Title = {Religious affiliation and psychiatric disorder among
             Protestant baby boomers.},
   Journal = {Hospital and Community Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {586-596},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0022-1597},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8088740},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the relationship between
             religious affiliation and psychiatric disorder among
             Protestant members of the baby-boom generation (those born
             between 1945 and 1966) who resided in the Piedmont area of
             North Carolina. METHODS: Data were obtained on six-month and
             lifetime rates of major psychiatric disorders among 853
             Protestant baby boomers during wave II of the National
             Institute of Mental Health's Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             survey, conducted in 1983-1984. Participants were grouped
             into three categories based on religious affiliation:
             mainline Protestants, conservative Protestants, and
             Pentecostals. Rates of disorder were compared across
             denominational groups, controlling for sex, race, physical
             health status, and socioeconomic status and stratifying by
             frequency of church attendance. The analyses were repeated
             for 1,826 middle-aged and older Protestants born between
             1889 and 1944, and the results were compared with the
             findings for baby boomers. RESULTS: Among the baby boomers,
             Pentecostals had significantly higher six-month and lifetime
             rates of depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and any
             DSM-III disorder. Mainline Protestants had the lowest
             six-month and lifetime rates of anxiety disorder and the
             lowest six-month rates of any DSM-III disorder, whereas
             conservative Protestants had the lowest six-month and
             lifetime rates of depressive disorder and the lowest
             lifetime rates of any DSM-III disorder. These relationships
             among baby boomers were weaker among middle-aged and older
             Protestants, although a new association with alcohol abuse
             or dependence emerged among older Pentecostals. When
             analyses were stratified by frequency of church attendance,
             associations between psychiatric disorder and Pentecostal
             affiliation were strongest among infrequent churchgoers, a
             group also unlikely to seek help from mental health
             professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult Pentecostals in the
             Peidmont area experienced high rates of psychiatric
             disorder, which was not generally true for Pentecostals who
             were middle aged or older. Infrequent churchgoers appeared
             to be at greatest risk, although they seldom sought
             professional help for their problems.},
   Key = {fds256027}
}

@article{fds256031,
   Author = {Thompson, RJ and Gustafson, KE and George, LK and Spock,
             A},
   Title = {Change over a 12-month period in the psychological
             adjustment of children and adolescents with cystic
             fibrosis.},
   Journal = {Journal of Pediatric Psychology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {189-203},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0146-8693},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8051602},
   Abstract = {Found that group rates of mother-reported and child-reported
             adjustment problems remained relatively constant over
             initial and 12-month follow-up assessment points. However,
             there was less stability in the classification of the
             adjustment of individuals, in specific behavior problem
             patterns and diagnoses, and in child-reported adjustment
             than in mother-reported adjustment. With initial level of
             child adjustment controlled, children's perceptions of
             self-worth accounted for a significant increment in
             child-reported symptoms and mother-reported adjustment at
             follow-up. Maternal distress also accounted for a
             significant increment in child-reported symptoms. These
             findings add support for the role of maternal adjustment and
             child self-worth in the adjustment of children with cystic
             fibrosis.},
   Key = {fds256031}
}

@article{fds256032,
   Author = {Thompson, RJ and Gil, KM and Gustafson, KE and George, LK and Keith, BR and Spock, A and Kinney, TR},
   Title = {Stability and change in the psychological adjustment of
             mothers of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis and
             sickle cell disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Pediatric Psychology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {171-188},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0146-8693},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8051601},
   Abstract = {Found moderate stability in the classification of maternal
             adjustment in two longitudinal studies of mothers of
             children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis and sickle
             cell disease. In terms of the transactional stress and
             coping model, stable poor maternal adjustment was associated
             with higher levels of appraisal of daily stress and
             palliative coping and low levels of family supportiveness.
             With initial levels of maternal adjustment, demographic
             parameters, and follow-up interval controlled, concurrent
             levels of daily stress accounted for significant portions of
             variance in maternal adjustment at follow-up for both
             illness groups. In addition, illness severity, child
             psychological adjustment, and family conflict added
             significant increments to maternal adjustment at follow-up
             in the cystic fibrosis group. Findings are discussed in
             terms of a basis for subsequent intervention studies to
             enhance the adjustment of mothers of children with chronic
             illness.},
   Key = {fds256032}
}

@article{fds255918,
   Author = {Ellison, CG and George, LK},
   Title = {Religious Involvement, Social Ties, and Social Support in a
             Southeastern Community},
   Journal = {Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {46-46},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0021-8294},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1994NP36900004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.2307/1386636},
   Key = {fds255918}
}

@article{fds256028,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Meador, KG and Blazer, DG and Ford,
             SM},
   Title = {Religious practices and alcoholism in a southern adult
             population.},
   Journal = {Hospital and Community Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {225-231},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-1597},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8188192},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The study examined associations between religious
             variables and alcohol abuse and dependence among 2,969 North
             Carolina residents aged 18 to 97 who participated in the
             1983-1984 National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area survey at its Piedmont location. METHODS:
             Six-month and lifetime prevalence of alcohol disorders were
             compared among participants reporting varying levels of
             religious activity. Data were collected on frequency of
             Bible reading, prayer, and church attendance; time spent
             watching or listening to religious programming on television
             or radio; importance of religion; religious denomination;
             and identification as "born-again" Christians. RESULTS:
             Recent and lifetime alcohol disorders were less common among
             weekly churchgoers and those who considered themselves born
             again. Recent, but not lifetime, alcohol disorders were also
             less common among respondents who frequently read the Bible
             or prayed privately. Alcohol disorders were more common
             among those who frequently watched or listened to religious
             television and radio. Lifetime, but not recent, alcohol
             disorders were more prevalent among members of Pentecostal
             denominations. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal study is necessary
             to further clarify and explain these relationships between
             religious practices and alcohol disorders.},
   Key = {fds256028}
}

@article{fds255919,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {CAREGIVER BURDEN AND WELL-BEING - AN ELUSIVE
             DISTINCTION},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {6-7},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1994MX53500001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/34.1.6},
   Key = {fds255919}
}

@article{fds256021,
   Author = {Tweed, JL and George, LK and Blazer, D and Swartz, M and MacMillan,
             J},
   Title = {Adult onset of severe and pervasive antisocial behavior: A
             distinct syndrome?},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Disorders},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {192-202},
   Publisher = {Guilford Publications},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1994.8.3.192},
   Abstract = {Data from the Duke Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study
             were used to determine if persons reporting a pervasive
             pattern of severe adult antisocial behavior always report a
             similar pattern of antisocial behavior in childhood. Roughly
             half of persons reporting severe adult antisocial behavior
             reported onset in adulthood. Adult onset antisocial behavior
             would not meet criteria for a DSM-IIIR diagnosis, yet
             childhood and adult onset antisocials differed little in
             sociodemographic factors, psychiatric comorbidity,
             antisocial symptom profiles, or severity of the disorder.
             The nosologic implications of these findings are discussed.
             Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to
             determine if the childhood and adult onset antisocials
             differ with respect to risk factors, prognosis, and response
             to treatment; this will help in deciding whether adult onset
             antisocial behavior warrants a separate diagnostic
             caterory.},
   Doi = {10.1521/pedi.1994.8.3.192},
   Key = {fds256021}
}

@article{fds256025,
   Author = {Feld, S and George, LK},
   Title = {Moderating Effects of Prior Social Resources on the
             Hospitalizations of Elders Who Become Widowed},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {275-295},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds256025}
}

@article{fds256026,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Multidimensional Assessment Instruments: Present Status and
             Future Prospects},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {353-375},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds256026}
}

@article{fds256029,
   Author = {Ellison, CG and George, LK},
   Title = {Religious Involvement, Social Ties, and Social Support in a
             Southeastern Community},
   Journal = {Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {46-61},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds256029}
}

@article{fds256034,
   Author = {Salive, ME and Collins, KS and Foley, DJ and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Predictors of nursing home admission in a biracial
             population.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1765-1767},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.83.12.1765},
   Abstract = {Racial differences in predictors of institutionalization
             were studied in a biracial North Carolina cohort (n = 4074).
             During 3 years of follow-up, 8.5% of Whites and 6.4% of
             African Americans were admitted to nursing homes. African
             Americans were one half as likely as Whites to be
             institutionalized after adjustment for other risk factors.
             Among Whites, impaired activities of daily living and
             cognition were the strongest predictors; among African
             Americans, impaired instrumental activities of daily living
             and prior history of nursing home use were strongest. Racial
             differences in nursing home use were not explained by
             financial and social support or physical and cognitive
             impairment.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.83.12.1765},
   Key = {fds256034}
}

@article{fds256036,
   Author = {Davidson, JR and Hughes, DL and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {The epidemiology of social phobia: findings from the Duke
             Epidemiological Catchment Area Study.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {709-718},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8234577},
   Abstract = {Social phobia was studied in a North Carolina community,
             using DSM-III criteria. Two kinds of comparison were made:
             social phobia v. non-social phobia, and comorbid social
             phobia v. non-comorbid social phobia. Six-month and lifetime
             prevalence rates were 2.7 and 3.8% respectively. Social
             phobia had an early onset, lasted a long time and rarely
             recovered. Predictors of good outcome recovery in a logistic
             regression analysis were onset of phobia after age 11,
             absence of psychiatric comorbidity and greater education.
             The disorder was often missed in medical consultation.
             Increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity existed,
             especially for other anxiety disorders and for
             schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder. There was increased
             risk of neurological disorder. Social phobia was also
             associated with an increased rate of suicide attempts,
             antisocial behaviour and impaired school performance during
             adolescence, impaired medical health, increased
             health-seeking behaviour, poor employment performance,
             reduced social interaction and impaired social support.
             Comorbidity accounted for some, but not all observed
             differences.},
   Key = {fds256036}
}

@article{fds256037,
   Author = {Clipp, EC and George, LK},
   Title = {Dementia and cancer: a comparison of spouse
             caregivers.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {534-541},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8375684},
   Abstract = {Can prominent themes that have emerged in dementia
             caregiving research be extrapolated to caregivers of persons
             with other chronic illnesses such as cancer? To answer this
             question, the present study compared 272 spouse caregivers
             of dementia sufferers with 30 spouse caregivers of cancer
             victims on multiple indicators of well-being. Group
             contrasts using MANOVA revealed that dementia caregivers
             were more adversely affected by their role than cancer
             caregivers. Illness duration and caregivers' employment
             status did not help to explain this difference, yet
             caregiver age was a robust covariate. Specifically, younger
             spouse caregivers were significantly more compromised than
             older spouse providers.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/33.4.534},
   Key = {fds256037}
}

@article{fds256033,
   Author = {Regier, DA and Farmer, ME and Rae, DS and Myers, JK and Kramer, M and Robins, LN and George, LK and Karno, M and Locke,
             BZ},
   Title = {One-month prevalence of mental disorders in the United
             States and sociodemographic characteristics: the
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area study.},
   Journal = {Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-47},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0001-690X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03411.x},
   Abstract = {The associations between the one-month prevalence rates of
             mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics were
             investigated for 18,571 people interviewed in the first-wave
             community samples of all 5 sites in the US National
             Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Epidemiologic Catchment
             Area program. Men were found to have a significantly higher
             rate of cognitive impairment than women after controlling
             for the effects of age, race or ethnicity, marital status
             and socioeconomic status. Marital status was one of the most
             powerful correlates of mental disorder risk: the odds of
             separated or divorced people having any NIMH Diagnostic
             Interview Schedule disorder were twice that of married
             people after controlling for age, gender, race or ethnicity
             and socioeconomic status. The odds of those in the lowest
             socioeconomic status group having any Diagnostic Interview
             Schedule disorder was about 2.5 times that of those in the
             highest socioeconomic status group, controlling for age,
             gender, race or ethnicity and marital status. For all
             disorders except cognitive impairment, race or ethnicity did
             not remain statistically significant after controlling for
             age, gender, marital status and socioeconomic
             status.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1600-0447.1993.tb03411.x},
   Key = {fds256033}
}

@article{fds304771,
   Author = {Mathew, RJ and Wilson, WH and Blazer, DG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Psychiatric disorders in adult children of alcoholics: data
             from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {793-800},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8480827},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined differences in the
             prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals who did
             or did not have alcoholic parents. METHOD: They used data
             from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area project, specifically from the Piedmont of
             North Carolina. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was
             estimated in 408 ECA participants who reported problem
             drinking in their mother, their father, or both and in 1,477
             age- and sex-matched subjects who did not report having
             alcoholic parents. RESULTS: The adult children of alcoholics
             showed significantly higher current (6-month) prevalence
             rates of simple phobia and agoraphobia and lifetime rates of
             dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder,
             simple phobia, and agoraphobia. Adult children of alcoholics
             also had significantly more antisocial symptoms. Male
             children of alcoholics had higher rates of alcohol and drug
             abuse and reported more antisocial symptoms than did female
             children of alcoholics. Male children of alcoholics had a
             significantly higher rate of lifetime diagnoses of alcohol
             and drug abuse than men who were not children of alcoholics.
             More female children of alcoholics had generalized anxiety
             disorder than women who were not children of alcoholics.
             Both male and female children of alcoholics had
             significantly more antisocial symptoms than their matched
             comparison subjects. Sons of alcoholic fathers had a higher
             rate of substance abuse and more antisocial symptoms than
             did daughters of alcoholic fathers. Daughters of alcoholic
             fathers had a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder.
             CONCLUSIONS: These data on adult children of alcoholics in a
             large community sample add to a literature based mainly on
             descriptive material or studies of smaller
             samples.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.150.5.793},
   Key = {fds304771}
}

@article{fds256041,
   Author = {Greenfield, SF and Swartz, MS and Landerman, LR and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Long-term psychosocial effects of childhood exposure to
             parental problem drinking.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {608-613},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8465878},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The effects of childhood exposure to parental
             problem drinking remain unclear because of inconsistent
             findings and methodologic difficulties in previous studies.
             The authors used a large community sample to examine whether
             exposure to parental problem drinking in childhood was
             related to a greater number of psychiatric symptoms and
             impaired social and occupational functioning in adulthood.
             METHOD: The study used self-report data from the Piedmont
             Health Survey, a project of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             program, which were collected from a stratified random
             sample of 2,936 adults residing in a five-county catchment
             area in North Carolina. The National Institute of Mental
             Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule was used to measure the
             subjects' lifetime psychiatric symptoms. Social and
             occupational functioning were assessed with two scales
             measuring social support, a scale measuring occupational
             prestige, and an occupational problem index. Regression
             analyses were used to determine whether exposure to parental
             problem drinking in childhood was associated with adverse
             psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. RESULTS: Adults who had
             been exposed to parental problem drinking in childhood were
             more likely to manifest psychiatric symptoms and marital
             instability, but they showed no difference from the rest of
             the sample in occupational functioning. CONCLUSIONS:
             Exposure to parental problem drinking in childhood is
             positively associated with specific adverse effects in
             adulthood even after controlling for other confounding
             childhood risk factors.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.150.4.608},
   Key = {fds256041}
}

@article{fds256047,
   Author = {Weinberger, M and Gold, DT and Divine, GW and Cowper, PA and Hodgson,
             LG and Schreiner, PJ and George, LK},
   Title = {Expenditures in caring for patients with dementia who live
             at home.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {338-341},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8438969},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: Given the national interest in progressive
             dementia, we estimated expenditures incurred in caring for
             dementia patients who live at home. METHODS: Primary
             caregivers of 264 patients from a university-based memory
             disorders clinic were interviewed at baseline and asked to
             keep service use diaries for 6 months; 141 caregivers who
             returned the diaries are the focus of this report. We
             examined both formal and informal services (distinguished by
             whether money was exchanged) and associated expenditures.
             RESULTS: Neither caregivers returning diaries nor their
             patients differed at baseline from those not returning
             diaries and their patients. Expenditures incurred over 6
             months were extensive for both formal ($6986) and informal
             ($786) services. Out-of-pocket expenditures were high (e.g.,
             in-home companion or sitter, adult day care, visiting
             nurse). Multivariable analyses indicated that patients with
             more severe symptoms of dementia and families with higher
             incomes reported significantly higher expenditures.
             CONCLUSIONS: The expense of caring for patients with
             progressive dementia living at home may be higher than
             previously estimated and frequently involves expenses paid
             directly by patients and their families.},
   Key = {fds256047}
}

@article{fds256043,
   Author = {Weinberger, M and Gold, DT and Divine, GW and Cowper, PA and Hodgson,
             LG and Schreiner, PJ and George, LK},
   Title = {Social service interventions for caregivers of patients with
             dementia: impact on health care utilization and
             expenditures.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153-156},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8426038},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: An intervention, which had as its primary goal
             the enhancement of compliance to social work
             recommendations, was shown to produce extremely high rates
             of compliance. This report addresses the secondary objective
             of the study: to evaluate the impact of the intervention on
             short-term (ie, 6-month) health services utilization and
             expenditures. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING:
             University-based memory disorders clinic. PARTICIPANTS:
             Caregivers of patients with progressive memory disorders.
             MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Service utilization and expenditures.
             RESULTS: The intervention did not have a statistically
             significant impact on utilization of either health care or
             community resources. The intervention group had $903 less
             expenditures during the study period, a difference that did
             not achieve statistical significance. The results were
             consistent when controlling for caregiver characteristics
             that differed at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Although the
             intervention was successful in enhancing compliance with
             recommendations, more intensive interventions may be
             required to increase subsequent service utilization. Future
             investigations may wish to target the appropriateness of
             services used over a period longer than 6
             months.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1993.tb02050.x},
   Key = {fds256043}
}

@article{fds256035,
   Author = {Koenig, MDMSHG and Ford, MDSM and George, PDLK and Blazer, MDPDDG and Meador, MDTMKG},
   Title = {Religion and anxiety disorder: An examination and comparison
             of associations in young, middle-aged, and elderly
             adults},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {321-342},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(93)90028-J},
   Abstract = {We examined and compared associations between religious
             variables and anxiety disorders in 1025 young (ages 18 to
             39), 645 middle-aged (ages 40 to 59), and 1299 elderly (ages
             60 to 97) community-dwelling adults who participated in Wave
             II of the Piedmont NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey.
             Religious variables included church attendance, prayer and
             Bible reading, religious TV viewing, importance of religion,
             religious denomination, and "born again" status. Both
             six-month (recent) and life-time anxiety disorders were
             examined. All analyses were controlled for sex, chronic
             illnesses, recent negative life events, and socioeconomic
             status using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method. In young
             adults, rates of anxiety disorder were lower among frequent
             church attenders, mainline Protestants, and those
             considering themselves "born again". On the other hand,
             anxiety disorder was more frequent among younger adults
             affiliated with fundamentalist Pentecostal religious groups,
             those with no religious affiliation, and frequent religious
             TV viewers or radio listeners. Among middle-age adults,
             social phobia was less common among frequent church
             attenders and those considering themselves "born again",
             although these differences disappeared when social support
             was controlled for. As reported elsewhere, there was no
             relationship between religion and anxiety disorder in older
             adults. These findings suggest a pattern of both positive
             and negative relationships between religion and anxiety
             disorder that is most evident among uoung adults age 18 to
             39, and weakens with age as dynamic factors increase the
             complexity of these relationships. © 1993.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0887-6185(93)90028-J},
   Key = {fds256035}
}

@article{fds256038,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Blazer, DG and Pritchett, JT and Meador,
             KG},
   Title = {The relationship between religion and anxiety in a sample of
             community dwelling older adults},
   Journal = {Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-93},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The relationship between religion and anxiety was examined
             in a sample of 1299 adults age 60 or over participating in
             Wave II of the Piedmont NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             survey. Religious variables included church attendance,
             prayer and Bible reading, religious TV viewing, importance
             of religion, religious denomination, and 'born again'
             status. Uncontrolled analyses indicated that anxiety
             symptoms were negatively related to church attendance, but
             positively related to religious TV viewing, 'born again'
             status, and Pentacostal or conservative affiliations. When
             sociodemographic and health factors were controlled,
             however, these associations lost their significance.
             Uncontrolled rates of anxiety disorder (6-month and
             lifetime) also tended to be higher among elders who
             frequently prayed or read the Bible, and simple phobia was
             more common among Pentacostals and conservative Protestants;
             again, however, when socioeconomic status, number of chronic
             illnesses, sex, and recent life events were taken into
             account, these differences disappeared. Based upon largely
             cross-sectional data and relatively limited measures of
             religiosity, we conclude that there is no relationship
             between religion and anxiety in later life. Dynamic factors
             possibly masking significant relationships are
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds256038}
}

@article{fds256039,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Westlund, RE and George, LK and Hughes, DC and Blazer,
             DG and Hybels, C},
   Title = {Abbreviating the Duke Social Support Index for use in
             chronically ill elderly individuals.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatics},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-69},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3182},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8426892},
   Abstract = {The 35-item Duke Social Support Index (DSSI) measures
             multiple dimensions of social support and has been used
             extensively in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of
             aging. Epidemiological studies of chronically ill, frail
             elderly individuals often wish to include a measure of
             social support. However, most multidimensional measures
             (including the DSSI) are long and may exhaust the patient,
             especially when included in an often already congested
             interview schedule. The authors have developed two
             abbreviated versions of the DSSI (23-item and 11-item) that
             capture the essential components of social support related
             to mental health outcomes and use of health services in
             treating elderly individuals with nonpsychiatric medical
             illness.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0033-3182(93)71928-3},
   Key = {fds256039}
}

@article{fds256046,
   Author = {Svetkey, LP and George, LK and Burchett, BM and Morgan, PA and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Black/white differences in hypertension in the elderly: an
             epidemiologic analysis in central North Carolina.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {137},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {64-73},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8434574},
   Abstract = {Hypertension in blacks, compared with whites, occurs at
             higher prevalence rates, is more severe, and carries a worse
             prognosis for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The
             authors examined the degree to which black/white differences
             in hypertension in the elderly are explained by demographic
             variables, income, health behavior (smoking, obesity),
             health service use, and comorbid diabetes. The study
             population consisted of subjects participating in the Duke
             site of the Established Populations for Epidemiologic
             Studies of the Elderly, initiated in 1984. Cross-sectional
             data reported here were collected between January 1986 and
             July 1987. Subjects were aged 65 years or older and were not
             institutionalized. Blacks were oversampled. Of 5,223
             eligible persons, 4,163 (80%) agreed to be interviewed; 16%
             of the study subjects were white men, 30% white women, 19%
             black men, and 35% black women. The mean age for all groups
             was approximately 73 years. Forty-four percent of white men,
             52% of white women, 50% of black men, and 66% of black women
             had hypertension. Eighty percent of hypertensives were
             receiving pharmacologic therapy. Older age, female sex,
             lower socioeconomic status, obesity, and diabetes mellitus
             were associated with hypertension. After adjusting for
             covariables, black race/ethnicity remained an independent
             risk factor for high blood pressure in the elderly, with an
             adjusted odds ratio of 1.30.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116603},
   Key = {fds256046}
}

@article{fds256040,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociological Perspectives on Life Transitions},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Sociology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {353-373},
   Publisher = {ANNUAL REVIEWS},
   Year = {1993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.002033},
   Doi = {10.1146/annurev.so.19.080193.002033},
   Key = {fds256040}
}

@article{fds256042,
   Author = {Mathew, RJ and Wilson, WH and Blazer, DG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Psychiatric Disorders in Individuals with Alcoholic Parents:
             An Epidemiologic Enquiry},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {793-800},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8480827},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined differences in the
             prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals who did
             or did not have alcoholic parents. METHOD: They used data
             from the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area project, specifically from the Piedmont of
             North Carolina. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was
             estimated in 408 ECA participants who reported problem
             drinking in their mother, their father, or both and in 1,477
             age- and sex-matched subjects who did not report having
             alcoholic parents. RESULTS: The adult children of alcoholics
             showed significantly higher current (6-month) prevalence
             rates of simple phobia and agoraphobia and lifetime rates of
             dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder,
             simple phobia, and agoraphobia. Adult children of alcoholics
             also had significantly more antisocial symptoms. Male
             children of alcoholics had higher rates of alcohol and drug
             abuse and reported more antisocial symptoms than did female
             children of alcoholics. Male children of alcoholics had a
             significantly higher rate of lifetime diagnoses of alcohol
             and drug abuse than men who were not children of alcoholics.
             More female children of alcoholics had generalized anxiety
             disorder than women who were not children of alcoholics.
             Both male and female children of alcoholics had
             significantly more antisocial symptoms than their matched
             comparison subjects. Sons of alcoholic fathers had a higher
             rate of substance abuse and more antisocial symptoms than
             did daughters of alcoholic fathers. Daughters of alcoholic
             fathers had a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder.
             CONCLUSIONS: These data on adult children of alcoholics in a
             large community sample add to a literature based mainly on
             descriptive material or studies of smaller
             samples.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.150.5.793},
   Key = {fds256042}
}

@article{fds256044,
   Author = {Wright, LK and Clipp, EC and George, LK},
   Title = {Health Consequences of Caregiver Stress},
   Journal = {Medicine Exercise, Nutrition, and Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {181-195},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds256044}
}

@article{fds256045,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Depression Disorders and Symptoms in Later
             Life},
   Journal = {Generations},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {35-38},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds256045}
}

@article{fds256049,
   Author = {Meador, KG and Koenig, HG and Hughes, DC and Blazer, DG and Turnbull, J and George, LK},
   Title = {Religious affiliation and major depression.},
   Journal = {Hospital and Community Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1204-1208},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-1597},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1459541},
   Abstract = {Data from the Duke Epidemiologic Catchment Area survey were
             used to examine the relationship between religious
             affiliation and major depression among 2,850 adults in the
             community. Religious affiliations were categorized into six
             groups: mainline Protestant (27 percent), conservative
             Protestant (59 percent), Pentecostal (4.2 percent), Catholic
             (2.4 percent), other religions (2.6 percent), and no
             affiliation (4.4 percent). The six-month prevalence of major
             depression among Pentecostals was 5.4 percent, compared with
             1.7 percent for the entire sample. Even after psychosocial
             factors such as gender, age, race, socioeconomic status,
             negative life events, and social support were controlled
             for, the likelihood of major depression among Pentecostals
             was three times greater than among persons with other
             affiliations. Carefully designed studies are needed to
             understand the complex interactions of religion and mental
             health.},
   Key = {fds256049}
}

@article{fds256052,
   Author = {Hanlon, JT and Fillenbaum, GG and Burchett, B and Wall, WE and Service,
             C and Blazer, DG and George, LK},
   Title = {Drug-use patterns among black and nonblack
             community-dwelling elderly.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Pharmacotherapy},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {679-685},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1060-0280},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1591430},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare drug-use patterns among
             black and nonblack community-dwelling elderly. DESIGN:
             Survey. SETTING: Five-county urban and rural region in
             Piedmont, NC. PARTICIPANTS: Stratified probability household
             sample of 4164 community residents aged 65 or older from the
             Piedmont Health Survey of the Elderly (65 percent women, 54
             percent black, mean age 73.56 +/- 6.74 y). MAIN OUTCOME
             MEASURES: Prevalence of medication use and mean drug use;
             therapeutic medication category use. RESULTS: Data were
             weighted to represent the population in this geographic
             area. Fewer blacks reported the use of over-the-counter
             (OTC) medications and total medications than did nonblacks
             (66 vs. 76 percent and 88 vs. 92 percent, respectively; p
             less than 0.001). Compared with nonblacks, blacks reported
             using a lower mean number of prescription (2.02 vs. 2.35; p
             less than 0.001), OTC (1.12 vs. 1.42; p less than 0.001),
             and total (3.14 vs. 3.77; p less than 0.001) drugs. The
             therapeutic medication categories varied by race for
             prescription cardiovascular, analgesic, and central nervous
             system (CNS) drugs and OTC nutritional supplements. More
             nonblacks than blacks reported the use of analgesics (62.5
             vs. 55.6 percent, respectively; p less than 0.001), CNS
             drugs (26.1 vs. 14.2 percent, respectively; p less than
             0.001), nutritional supplements (27.5 vs. 16.9 percent,
             respectively; p less than 0.001), and gastrointestinal
             agents (29.0 vs. 23.5 percent, respectively; p less than
             0.001). Blacks were more likely to report problems in
             managing their medications than were nonblacks (9.0 vs. 6.1
             percent, respectively; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data
             suggest that there are distinct racial differences in
             medication-use patterns among the elderly.},
   Doi = {10.1177/106002809202600514},
   Key = {fds256052}
}

@article{fds256051,
   Author = {George, LK and Winfield, I and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Sociocultural Factors in Sexual Assault: Comparison of Two
             Representative Samples of Women},
   Journal = {Journal of Social Issues},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {105-125},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-4537},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01160.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1540-4560.1992.tb01160.x},
   Key = {fds256051}
}

@article{fds256048,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Hughes, DC and George, LK},
   Title = {Age and impaired subjective support. Predictors of
             depressive symptoms at one-year follow-up.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
   Volume = {180},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {172-178},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-3018},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1588335},
   Abstract = {We followed a cohort of subjects (predominantly inpatients)
             suffering a major depressive episode in midlife and
             late-life for 1 year (N = 118). In this follow-up study, we
             examined three hypotheses. a) Elder subjects suffering major
             depression, compared with middle-aged subjects, will more
             likely report endogenous symptoms and less likely report
             decreased life satisfaction symptoms at 1-year follow-up. b)
             Impaired social support during the index episode will
             predict poor life satisfaction, but not endogenous symptoms
             at 1-year follow-up, regardless of age. c) Impaired social
             support during the index episode will be more predictive of
             decreased life satisfaction symptoms in midlife, compared
             with late life, at 12-month follow-up. The first two
             hypotheses were not supported, but the third hypothesis was.
             Both decreased life satisfaction and endogenous symptoms at
             outcome were significantly predicted by impaired social
             support during the index episode. Impaired social support
             predicted a poor outcome from an episode of major depression
             in both middle life and late life in controlled analyses.
             However, the effect of impaired subjective social support
             was conditional on age. Subjective social support appears to
             have a decreasing influence on the report of both endogenous
             and decreased life satisfaction symptoms for older
             individuals.},
   Key = {fds256048}
}

@article{fds256050,
   Author = {Clipp, EC and George, LK},
   Title = {Patients with cancer and their spouse caregivers.
             Perceptions of the illness experience.},
   Journal = {Cancer},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1074-1079},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0008-543X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1735074},
   Abstract = {This study focuses on patterns of response between patients
             with cancer and their spouse caregivers to examine the
             reliability of spouse informants in research and clinical
             settings. Thirty dyads (patient with cancer-spouse caregiver
             couples; total n = 60) were interviewed concurrently in
             their homes concerning patient functioning, psychologic
             distress, physical symptoms, caregiver perceptions of
             patient functioning, and marriage quality. Couples had been
             married an average of 32 years. Patients had either the lung
             or colon as their primary cancer site, and one third had
             metastasis. Correlations between 14 variable pairs and
             cross-tabulation of scale scores suggest that spouse
             caregivers agree with patients on objective measures with
             observable referents (e.g., ability to dress independently).
             Partners disagree on subjective aspects of patient
             functioning (e.g., depression, fear of future, and
             confidence in treatment) and marriage quality. Almost
             without exception, caregivers viewed patients' functioning
             more negatively than patients described themselves.
             Patients, however, viewed marital quality more negatively
             than did caregivers. It was concluded that caregivers can
             serve as proxies for patients with cancer in research and
             clinical settings when objective data are sought. Data from
             both spouses are needed, however, to complete the picture of
             subjective illness experiences in patients with cancer,
             including perceptions of pain and disease
             symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1097-0142(19920215)69:4<1074::aid-cncr2820690440>3.0},
   Key = {fds256050}
}

@article{fds288502,
   Author = {George, LK and Hanlon, JT and Fillenbaum, GG and Burchett, B and Wall,
             Jr., WE and Service, C and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Drug Use Patterns in Black and Non-black Community Dwelling
             Elderly.},
   Journal = {The Annals of Pharmacotherapy},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {679-685},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds288502}
}

@article{fds255885,
   Author = {ADELMAN, RC and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {RESPONSE TO THE INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE REPORT, EXTENDING
             LIFE, ENHANCING LIFE - A NATIONAL RESEARCH AGENDA ON
             AGING},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {R1-R2},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1991GN52400001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255885}
}

@article{fds256054,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Burchett, B and Service, C and George,
             LK},
   Title = {The association of age and depression among the elderly: an
             epidemiologic exploration.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {M210-M215},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1834726},
   Abstract = {Advanced age among the elderly has been hypothesized to be a
             risk factor for depression, yet extant data do not uniformly
             support this hypothesis. The paucity of sufficiently large
             and representative samples of both the young-old and old-old
             and the failure to control for critical variables known to
             confound the association between advanced age and depression
             have prevented testing this hypothesis. The Duke EPESE
             (Establishment of a Population for Epidemiologic Studies of
             the Elderly) assessed 3,998 community-dwelling elders (65+)
             for depressive symptoms using a modified version of the
             CES-D and relevant control variables. Depressive symptoms
             were associated in bivariate analysis with increased age,
             being female, lower income, physical disability, cognitive
             impairment, and social support. In a multiple regression
             analysis, the association of age and depressive symptoms
             reversed when the above confounding variables were
             simultaneously controlled. The oldest old suffered fewer
             depressive symptoms when factors associated with both
             increased age and depressive symptoms were taken into
             account. Because many of these factors can be prevented
             (such as decreased income, physical disability, and social
             support), the uncontrolled association between age and
             depressive symptoms can potentially be modified.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/46.6.m210},
   Key = {fds256054}
}

@article{fds256056,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and Schniebolk, S and Walsh-Riddle, M and George, LK and McKee, DC and Higginbotham, MB and Cobb, FR and Coleman, RE},
   Title = {Long-term effects of exercise on psychological functioning
             in older men and women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {P352-P361},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1940092},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine the
             psychological, behavioral, and cognitive changes associated
             with up to 14 months of aerobic exercise training. For the
             first 4 months of the study, 101 older (greater than 60
             years) men and women were randomly assigned to one of three
             conditions: Aerobic exercise, Yoga, or a Waiting List
             control group. Before and following the intervention, all
             subjects completed a comprehensive assessment battery,
             including measures of mood and cognitive functioning. A
             semi-crossover design was employed such that, following
             completion of the second assessment, all subjects completed
             4 months of aerobic exercise and underwent a third
             assessment. Subjects were given the option of participating
             in 6 additional months of supervised aerobic exercise (14
             months total), and all subjects, regardless of their
             exercise status, completed a fourth assessment. Results
             indicated that subjects experienced a 10-15% improvement in
             aerobic capacity. In general, there were relatively few
             improvements in cognitive performance associated with
             aerobic exercise, although subjects who maintained their
             exercise participation for 14 months experienced
             improvements in some psychiatric symptoms. However, the
             healthy subjects in this study were functioning at a
             relatively high level to begin with, and exercise training
             may produce greater improvements among elderly with
             concomitant physical or emotional impairments.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/46.6.p352},
   Key = {fds256056}
}

@article{fds256057,
   Author = {Landerman, R and George, LK and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Adult vulnerability for psychiatric disorders: interactive
             effects of negative childhood experiences and recent
             stress.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
   Volume = {179},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {656-663},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-3018},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1940888},
   Abstract = {The effects of negative childhood experiences on adult
             psychiatric status remain unclear because of inconsistent
             findings in previous studies. In this study, we examine the
             extent to which parental separation/divorce before the age
             of 10, parental death before the age of 10, and self-reports
             of parental mental illness during early childhood interact
             with recent stressful life events to increase the
             probability of multiple psychiatric disorders and
             psychiatric symptoms during adulthood. Data are from a
             stratified random sample of 3801 adults residing in a
             five-county catchment area in North Carolina. The Diagnostic
             Interview Schedule was used to measure psychiatric disorders
             and symptoms during the 6 months prior to the interview.
             Regression analyses were used to determine whether negative
             childhood experiences interact with recent stressful life
             events to increase the probability of psychiatric disorders
             or symptoms, with other risk factors statistically
             controlled. Results suggest that: a) parental mental illness
             increases the likelihood that stressful life events will
             result in depression, although it is unclear whether this
             increased vulnerability is due to genetic or environmental
             factors; b) parental separation/divorce interacts with
             stressful life events to increase vulnerability to alcohol
             problems and psychiatric disorders more generally; and c)
             parental death does not interact with recent events to
             affect the likelihood of psychiatric problems.},
   Key = {fds256057}
}

@article{fds256058,
   Author = {Davidson, JR and Hughes, D and Blazer, DG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Post-traumatic stress disorder in the community: an
             epidemiological study.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {713-721},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1946860},
   Abstract = {Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in the
             Piedmont region of North Carolina. Among 2985 subjects, the
             lifetime and six month prevalence figures for PTSD were 1.30
             and 0.44% respectively. In comparison to non-PTSD subjects,
             those with PTSD had significantly greater job instability,
             family history of psychiatric illness, parental poverty,
             child abuse, and separation or divorce of parents prior to
             age 10. PTSD was associated with greater psychiatric
             comorbidity and attempted suicide, increased frequency of
             bronchial asthma, hypertension, peptic ulcer and with
             impaired social support. Differences were noted between
             chronic and acute PTSD on a number of measures, with chronic
             PTSD being accompanied by more frequent social phobia,
             reduced social support and greater avoidance
             symptoms.},
   Key = {fds256058}
}

@article{fds256060,
   Author = {George, LK and Clipp, EC},
   Title = {Subjective Components of Aging Well},
   Journal = {Generations},
   Volume = {15},
   Pages = {57-60},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds256060}
}

@article{fds256059,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Landerman, R and George, LK and Melville, ML and Blazer,
             D and Smith, K},
   Title = {Benzodiazepine anti-anxiety agents: prevalence and
             correlates of use in a southern community.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {592-596},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1673048},
   Abstract = {Benzodiazepine anti-anxiety agents are the most widely
             prescribed psychotherapeutic drugs in the United States
             today. Recent evidence, however, suggests that their use may
             be decreasing.We examine the population prevalence and
             correlates of use of benzodiazepine anxiolytics at the Duke
             site of the NIMH-sponsored Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             project.Bivariate analysis of use patterns for the drugs
             revealed demographic predictors similar to those reported in
             previous studies: increased likelihood of use by the
             elderly, Whites, women, the less educated, and the separated
             or divorced. Use is also associated with symptoms of psychic
             distress, negative life events, use of health care services,
             and diagnoses of affective disorder, agoraphobia with panic,
             and panic disorder. Age, sex, race, education, and marital
             status remain associated with non-hypnotic benzodiazepine
             use in a logistic regression analysis.Multivariate analyses
             of these data indicate that when potential confounding
             factors are controlled, age, sex, race, education, and
             marital status are significantly related to benzodiazepine
             anxiolytic use but the effects of sex and education are
             mediated by intervening variables. Implications of these
             findings are discussed particularly in relation to high
             levels of use in the elderly.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.81.5.592},
   Key = {fds256059}
}

@article{fds256062,
   Author = {George, LK and Gold, DT},
   Title = {Life course perspectives on intergenerational and
             generational connections},
   Journal = {Marriage & Family Review},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {67-88},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v16n01_04},
   Doi = {10.1300/J002v16n01_04},
   Key = {fds256062}
}

@article{fds256055,
   Author = {Saltz, CC and Eisenberg, M and Fillenbaum, G and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Functional Status and Service Use among Community-based
             Spinal Cord-injured Male Veterans 12},
   Journal = {Neurorehabilitation},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {25-35},
   Publisher = {IOS Press},
   Editor = {Frank, RG},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NRE-1991-1405},
   Abstract = {Copyright © 1991 by Andover Medical Publishers, Inc. A
             national study of community-based spinal cord-injured male
             veterans was conducted by telephone interviews using a
             modified version of the Older Americans Resources and
             Services (OARS) Questionnaire (developed at Duke
             University). The final sample included 719 veterans showing
             varying degrees of impairment in five levels of functioning:
             social resources (29.5%), economic resources (40.9%), mental
             health (19.1%), physical health (62.5%), and activities of
             daily living (54.5%). Compared to representative community
             samples of elderly men, aging spinal cord-injured veterans
             are at greater risk of impairment in four of five dimensions
             of functioning and are more likely to have impairments in
             multiple dimensions. More than 90% used supportive devices
             and prostheses, transportation, and medical services.
             Two-thirds used homemaker-household services, and
             approximately one-half used personal care, checking, and
             meal preparation services. A larger proportion of spinal
             cord-injured male veterans used services than did older men
             in two other samples, reflecting greater impairments in
             functioning as well as the existence of multiple chronic
             conditions five or more years after injury.},
   Doi = {10.3233/NRE-1991-1405},
   Key = {fds256055}
}

@article{fds256053,
   Author = {Adelman, RC and George, LKRTTIOMR},
   Title = {Extending Life, Enhancing Life: A National Research Agenda
             on Aging.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {46},
   Pages = {i-ii},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds256053}
}

@article{fds256061,
   Author = {Blazer, D and George, L and Winfield, I},
   Title = {Epidemiologic data and planning mental health services. A
             tale of two surveys},
   Journal = {Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {21-27},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program (ECA) is the most
             comprehensive community and institutionalized epidemiologic
             data base currently available for mental health service
             planning. In this report, the authors compare the ECA with a
             previous community survey used to plan mental health
             services - the Stirling County Study - in terms of
             conceptual framework, research design, results and
             implementation of service planning. Familiarity with the
             Stirling County Study can inform users of ECA data regarding
             the strengths and weaknesses of the ECA data for health
             services research.},
   Key = {fds256061}
}

@article{fds256064,
   Author = {Turnbull, JE and George, LK and Landerman, R and Swartz, MS and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Social outcomes related to age of onset among psychiatric
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {832-839},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2292633},
   Abstract = {Analyses are presented that examine the impact of a
             diagnosis of affective disorder, anxiety disorder, and
             substance abuse before and after age 20 on multiple measures
             of education, socioeconomic and employment status,
             childbearing, marital status, and instability in a random
             sample (N = 3,000) of community respondents from the
             Piedmont Health Survey. Results indicate that all categories
             are associated with social outcomes regardless of age of
             onset, particularly for marital and family outcomes. For
             socioeconomic outcomes, the correlates of anxiety disorder
             are more pervasive, and the effects of a substance abuse
             diagnosis are stronger for early onset.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.58.6.832},
   Key = {fds256064}
}

@article{fds256063,
   Author = {Broadhead, WE and Blazer, DG and George, LK and Tse,
             CK},
   Title = {Depression, disability days, and days lost from work in a
             prospective epidemiologic survey.},
   Journal = {Jama},
   Volume = {264},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {2524-2528},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2146410},
   Abstract = {We describe the relationship of depression and depressive
             symptoms to disability days and days lost from work in 2980
             participants in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study in
             North Carolina after 1 year of follow-up. Compared with
             asymptomatic individuals, persons with major depression had
             a 4.78 times greater risk of disability (95% confidence
             interval, 1.64 to 13.88), and persons with minor depression
             with mood disturbance, but not major depression, had a 1.55
             times greater risk (95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.40).
             Because of its prevalence, individuals with minor depression
             were associated with 51% more disability days in the
             community than persons with major depression. This group was
             also at increased risk of having a concomitant anxiety
             disorder or developing major depression within 1 year. We
             conclude that the threshold for identifying clinically
             significant depression may need to be reevaluated to include
             persons with fewer symptoms but measurable morbidity. Only
             by changing our nosology can the societal impact of
             depression be adequately addressed.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.264.19.2524},
   Key = {fds256063}
}

@article{fds255906,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caregiver stress studies--there really is more to
             learn.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {580-581},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.5.580},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/30.5.580},
   Key = {fds255906}
}

@article{fds255923,
   Author = {JACKSON, T and LYLES, KW and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {PREDICTORS OF ADL FUNCTION AFTER HIP FRACTURE},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {A27-A27},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990DW50100128&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255923}
}

@article{fds256071,
   Author = {Clipp, EC and George, LK},
   Title = {Caregiver needs and patterns of social support.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {S102-S111},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2335732},
   Abstract = {Levels of caregiver need were used to predict four patterns
             of continuity and change in social support over a one-year
             interval among 376 adults caring for a family member with
             Alzheimer's disease. Canonical correlation analysis was used
             to identify predictors of each support pattern from selected
             caregiver characteristics and needs (i.e., demographics,
             financial resources, physical and mental health, social and
             recreational activities, and aspects of the caregiving
             situation). Three significant canonical variates emerged for
             each type of support, instrumental and perceived adequacy of
             support, correctly classifying more than half of the
             caregiver sample. Results suggest that caregiver need does
             not necessarily elicit support. Needs do, however, predict
             several patterns of social support, the most common of which
             is characterized by stability (high or low support).
             Depending on type of support (instrumental or perceived
             adequacy), different configurations of predictors
             emerge.},
   Key = {fds256071}
}

@article{fds255871,
   Author = {Winfield, I and George, LK and Swartz, M and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Sexual assault and psychiatric disorders among a community
             sample of women.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {335-341},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.147.3.335},
   Abstract = {The authors examined the relationships between sexual
             assault and psychiatric disorders in a sample of 1,157 women
             18-64 years old in the North Carolina site of the NIMH
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. The results suggest
             that sexual assault is a risk factor for a number of
             psychiatric disorders. In addition, several characteristics
             of the assault among sexual assault victims were
             significantly related to one or more psychiatric disorders.
             However, there was no clear pattern relating characteristics
             of the assault to the risk of specific psychiatric
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.147.3.335},
   Key = {fds255871}
}

@article{fds256069,
   Author = {Clipp, EC and George, LK},
   Title = {Psychotropic drug use among caregivers of patients with
             dementia.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {227-235},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2313004},
   Abstract = {The majority of research on "caregiver burden" focuses on
             mental health consequences. These stresses are associated
             with psychotropic drug use among some caregivers. The
             purposes of this paper are to identify the correlates of
             psychotropic drug use among caregivers of demented older
             adults and to determine whether or not certain types of
             psychotropics (ie, antianxiety, antidepressant, and
             sedative/hypnotic agents) have common or unique correlates.
             The prevalence of psychotropic drug use among caregivers in
             the sample (n = 510) is substantially higher than previously
             reported prevalence rates in the general population and
             among community-dwelling elderly. Using logistic regression
             techniques, caregiver characteristics (eg, gender, health,
             relationship to the patient) rather than severity of the
             patient's condition emerge as predictors of antianxiety,
             antidepressant, and sedative/hypnotic use. The caregiver's
             perception of how well he or she is supported in the
             caregiving role emerges as an important correlate of
             psychotropic drug use in general and especially of
             antidepressant consumption. Results suggest that caregivers
             are a high-risk group for the development of emotional
             symptoms such as nervousness, exhaustion, decreased
             appetite, and difficulty sleeping, symptoms that may or may
             not constitute a psychiatric disorder. Characteristics of
             the caregiver, especially aspects of the support system,
             should be important considerations in decisions to prescribe
             psychotropic drugs.},
   Key = {fds256069}
}

@article{fds256070,
   Author = {Gold, DT and Woodbury, MA and George, LK},
   Title = {Relationship classification using grade of membership
             analysis: a typology of sibling relationships in later
             life.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {S43-S51},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2313052},
   Abstract = {The results of a comparison of two typologies of sibling
             relationships in old age are reported. Both analyses rely on
             the same data collected in individual interviews with adults
             over the age of 65. The first typology was constructed using
             constant comparative analysis; the second relied on the
             grade of membership (GOM) technique. This is the first time
             GOM has been used to create a taxonomy of human
             relationships based on psychosocial variables. The two
             typologies are compared in terms of number of types
             generated, the characteristics of each type, factors
             influencing typological construction, and the utility of
             empirical results. Implications for additional use of the
             GOM technique to study late-life sibling relations are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/45.2.s43},
   Key = {fds256070}
}

@article{fds255903,
   Author = {LaCroix, AZ and Wienpahl, J and White, LR and Wallace, RB and Scherr,
             PA and George, LK and Cornoni-Huntley, J and Ostfeld,
             AM},
   Title = {Thiazide diuretic agents and the incidence of hip
             fracture.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {322},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {286-290},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990CL19900002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Thiazide diuretic agents lower the urinary excretion of
             calcium. Their use has been associated with increased bone
             density, but their role in preventing hip fracture has not
             been established. We prospectively studied the effect of
             thiazide diuretic agents on the incidence of hip fracture
             among 9518 men and women 65 years of age or older residing
             in three communities. At base line, 24 to 30 percent of the
             subjects were thiazide users. In the subsequent four years,
             242 subjects had hip fractures. The incidence rates of hip
             fracture were lower among thiazide users than nonusers in
             each community; the Mantel-Haenszel relative risk of hip
             fracture, adjusted for community and age, was 0.63 (95
             percent confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.86). The protective
             effect of the use of thiazides was independent of sex, age,
             impaired mobility, body-mass index, and current and former
             smoking status; the multivariate adjusted relative risk of
             hip fracture was 0.68 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.49
             to 0.94). Furthermore, the protective effect was specific to
             thiazide diuretic agents, since there was no association
             between the use of antihypertensive medications other than
             thiazides and the risk of hip fracture. These prospective
             data suggest that in older men and women the use of thiazide
             diuretic agents is associated with a reduction of
             approximately one third in the risk of hip
             fracture.},
   Doi = {10.1056/nejm199002013220502},
   Key = {fds255903}
}

@article{fds256065,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Siegler, IC and Meador, KG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Religious coping and personality in later
             life},
   Journal = {International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {123-131},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0885-6230},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.930050210},
   Abstract = {A stratified random subsample of 100 older adults from
             long‐term participants of the Second Duke Longitudinal
             Study was interviewed concerning how they coped with three
             stressful event periods. Responses to open‐ended coping
             questions were categorized as religious or non‐religious
             in nature. Mean scores on 16 personality traits were
             compared between religious copers. Few differences were
             observed in personality scores between these groups.
             Compared with non‐religious copers, religious copers
             scored lower on factor E (less aggressive or hostile, more
             humble, submissive); there was also a tendency towards being
             higher on factor G (more responsible, conscientious, and
             moralistic). Over a six‐year period between wave 1 and
             wave 4, stability or change in personality was not related
             to coping style. No evidence was found for negative
             personality traits among older religious copers that have
             commonly been reported in younger religious individuals.
             Copyright © 1990 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/gps.930050210},
   Key = {fds256065}
}

@article{fds256066,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Blazer, D and George, L and Winfield,
             I},
   Title = {Estimating the prevalence of borderline personality disorder
             in the community},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality Disorders},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {257-272},
   Publisher = {Guilford Publications},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi.1990.4.3.257},
   Abstract = {The authors use a new diagnostic algorithm derived from the
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule (the DIS/Borderline Index) to
             identify a borderline personality disorder among 19- to
             55-year-olds at the Duke site of the Epidemiologic Catchment
             Area project. A criterion score of 11 or more symptoms from
             the 24-item DIS/Borderline Index identifies 1.8% of the
             sample. The borderline diagnosis is significantly higher
             among females, the widowed, and the unmarried; and there is
             a trend toward the diagnosis in younger, non-White, urban,
             and poorer respondents. Extensive psychiatric comorbidity
             and high use of mental health services are found in the
             borderline group.},
   Doi = {10.1521/pedi.1990.4.3.257},
   Key = {fds256066}
}

@article{fds256067,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Gender, Age, and Psychiatric Disorders},
   Journal = {Generations},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {22-27},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds256067}
}

@article{fds256068,
   Author = {Winfield, I and George, LK and Swartz, MS and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Sexual Assault and Psychiatric Disorders Among Women in a
             Community Population},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {147},
   Pages = {335-341},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds256068}
}

@article{fds256072,
   Author = {LaCroiz, AZ and Wienpahl, J and White, LR and Wallace, RB and Scherr,
             PA and George, LK},
   Title = {Cornoni-Huntley, J., & Ostfeld, A.M. Thiazide Diuretic
             Agents and the Incidence of Hip Fracture},
   Journal = {New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {322},
   Pages = {286-290},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds256072}
}

@article{fds256073,
   Author = {Landerman, R and George, LK and Campbell, RT and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Alternative models of the stress buffering
             hypothesis.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {625-642},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0091-0562},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2627025},
   Abstract = {The interactive effects of life events and social support on
             a DSM-III diagnosis of major depressive episode and on
             number of depressive symptoms were examined. Data are from a
             stratified random sample of 3,732 community-dwelling adults.
             The paper focuses on differences between linear probability
             models and logistic regression models with regard to the
             definition, detection, and interpretation of interaction
             effects. Results indicate that conclusions about the
             interaction of life events and social support are model
             dependent. Using a linear probability model, significant
             event by support interactions were observed for both
             depressive symptoms and major depression. Using logistic
             regression, which estimates interactions in terms of odds
             ratios, no significant event by support interactions were
             observed. Discussion addresses the interpretive implications
             of modeling interaction in terms of probability differences
             versus odds ratios.},
   Doi = {10.1007/bf00922639},
   Key = {fds256073}
}

@article{fds256075,
   Author = {Jordan, BK and Swartz, MS and George, LK and Woodbury, MA and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Antisocial and related disorders in a southern community. An
             application of grade of membership analysis.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
   Volume = {177},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {529-541},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-3018},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2769246},
   Abstract = {Symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and of
             psychiatric conditions reported to be related to ASPD were
             subjected to grade of membership analysis, a relatively new
             procedure for medical classification, to identify the pure
             types that would empirically emerge in the absence of prior
             assumptions about the clustering of those symptoms. The
             sample consists of 914 respondents who participated in the
             NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program at the North
             Carolina site. Symptom and diagnostic data were obtained
             using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Seven pure types
             emerged from the grade of membership analysis. Two pure
             types closely resemble the DSM-III portrait of ASPD. Two
             other pure types consisted of alcohol abuse/dependence
             symptoms and indicators of illicit drug use for recreational
             purposes. Only two of the symptomatic pure types were common
             among women. The first of these was characterized by marital
             instability, other domestic problems, and employment
             difficulties; as such this type resembles the DSM-III
             description of borderline and/or histrionic personality
             disorder. The other female pure type was characterized by
             multiple symptoms of depression and selected symptoms of
             other axis I disorders. The final pure type was
             characterized by an absence of psychiatric symptoms and
             served as a comparison group against which the symptomatic
             pure types were compared.},
   Key = {fds256075}
}

@article{fds256076,
   Author = {Blumenthal, JA and Emery, CF and Madden, DJ and George, LK and Coleman,
             RE and Riddle, MW and McKee, DC and Reasoner, J and Williams,
             RS},
   Title = {Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise
             training in healthy older men and women.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {M147-M157},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2768768},
   Abstract = {The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated
             with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were
             examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years).
             Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise
             group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting
             List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month
             program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and
             psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included
             measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and
             cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of
             peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold.
             Psychological measures included measures of mood,
             psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning.
             This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise
             training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2
             and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the
             Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change
             in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological
             changes observed among aerobic exercise participants
             included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure
             levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend
             toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few
             significant psychological changes could be attributed to
             aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active
             treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a
             number of psychological and behavioral dimensions.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/44.5.m147},
   Key = {fds256076}
}

@article{fds256078,
   Author = {Tweed, JL and Schoenbach, VJ and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {The effects of childhood parental death and divorce on
             six-month history of anxiety disorders.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental
             Science},
   Volume = {154},
   Pages = {823-828},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0007-1250},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2597890},
   Abstract = {Duke Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) data were used to
             examine the relationships between: (a) early childhood
             maternal death, paternal death, and parental
             separation/divorce, and (b) six-month DIS/DSM-III diagnoses
             of agoraphobia with and without panic attacks, simple
             phobia, social phobia, panic disorder, generalised anxiety
             disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Associations
             were found between: (a) maternal death and agoraphobia with
             panic attacks, and (b) parental separation/divorce and
             agoraphobia with panic attacks and panic disorder. The
             associations could not be explained by the effects of
             potentially confounding socio-demographic
             factors.},
   Key = {fds256078}
}

@article{fds256079,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and Siegler, IC and George, LK},
   Title = {Religious And Non-Religious Coping: Impact On Adaptation In
             Later Life},
   Journal = {Journal of Religion and Aging},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {73-94},
   Publisher = {The Haworth Press},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J491v05n04_07},
   Abstract = {Religious behaviors are commonly used by older persons to
             cope with stressful life-events and situations. In the
             present study, adaptation and coping were examined in a
             stratified random sample of 100 persons age 55 to 80
             participating in the Second Duke Longitudinal Study of
             Aging. Twelve established social psychological measures of
             adaptation and coping were utilized for this purpose. Mean
             scores were compared between persons using religious
             behaviors and those using other coping behaviors. Social
             class, amount of life-stress experienced, and type of
             stressors were also compared between religious and
             non-religious copers. No significant difference was observed
             between religious and non-religious copers on any of the 12
             measures of coping and adaptation. Stratifying the sample by
             sex did not alter these results. A small proportion of the
             sample (7%) were distinguished by the degree to which
             religion had permeated their coping behaviors and outlook on
             life. Despite being. © Taylor © Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1300/J491v05n04_07},
   Key = {fds256079}
}

@article{fds256080,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, DG and Hughes, DC and Fowler,
             N},
   Title = {Social support and the outcome of major depression.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental
             Science},
   Volume = {154},
   Pages = {478-485},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0007-1250},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2590779},
   Abstract = {One hundred and fifty middle-aged and elderly adults with a
             diagnosis of major depression were assessed initially as
             in-patients, and were reinterviewed 6-32 months later. Both
             size of social network and subjective social support were
             significant predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-up,
             with baseline depression scores and other predictors of
             outcome status statistically controlled. Subjective social
             support was most strongly associated with major depression;
             this effect was significantly stronger for middle-aged than
             older adults, and for men than women. Differences in the
             effects of marital status, size of social network, and
             subjective social support also suggest the importance of
             distinguishing between involvement in and quality of
             interpersonal relationships.},
   Doi = {10.1192/bjp.154.4.478},
   Key = {fds256080}
}

@article{fds256074,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Blazer, DG and George, LK and Winfield, I and Zakris, J and Dye, E},
   Title = {Identification of borderline personality disorder with the
             NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {200-205},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2643363},
   Abstract = {No lay-administered interviews are currently available to
             identify persons with borderline personality disorder. The
             authors studied 79 subjects with the NIMH Diagnostic
             Interview Schedule (DIS), a lay-administered interview, and
             the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients (DIB) and
             used the results to construct a DIS-based diagnostic index
             to identify borderline personality disorder. Using the
             clinician-administered DIB as the diagnostic standard, the
             authors found that the DIS borderline index had a
             sensitivity of 85.7%, a specificity of 86.2%, and a kappa of
             0.67. The DIS borderline index is a promising extension of
             the DIS that will facilitate studies of borderline
             personality disorder in clinical and community
             settings.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.146.2.200},
   Key = {fds256074}
}

@article{fds256081,
   Author = {Sloane, P and Blazer, D and George, LK},
   Title = {Dizziness in a community elderly population.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {101-108},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1989.tb05867.x},
   Abstract = {Dizziness was studied in 1,622 community-dwelling adults
             aged 60 and older who were interviewed as part of the Duke
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. The lifetime prevalence
             of dizziness (defined as severe enough to see a physician,
             to take a medication, or to interfere with daily activities)
             was 29.3%; the 1-year prevalence was 18.2%. When the
             subgroup with dizziness was compared with those who never
             suffered dizziness, using logistic regression, four
             variables displayed the strongest associations: a
             constructed variable of risk for multiple neurosensory
             deficits, a cardiovascular risk score, a depression symptom
             inventory, and perception of self as a nervous person. In
             this population, dizziness was not associated with increased
             risk of death or institutionalization at the 1-year follow
             up.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1989.tb05867.x},
   Key = {fds256081}
}

@article{fds256082,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Landerman, R and Blazer, D and George,
             L},
   Title = {Somatization symptoms in the community: a rural/urban
             comparison.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {44-53},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0033-3182(89)72316-1},
   Abstract = {Somatization is conceptualized as a bodily or somatic
             expression of psychic distress. Unexplained somatic
             symptomatology was assessed by use of the National Institute
             of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule among
             community respondents in the Piedmont of North Carolina
             participating in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program.
             Previous literature suggests that somatization is associated
             with rural residence, less education, lower socioeconomic
             class, and particular ethnicities. Through use of a multiple
             regression analysis, lifetime unexplained somatic-symptom
             counts were regressed on urban residence and other
             sociodemographic variables. Rural residence was not
             associated with somatization; rather, somatization was more
             common among urban residents. The urban/rural differences
             were greatest among women and high school graduates.
             Somatization was also associated with being aged 45 to 64,
             and being separated, widowed, or divorced; it was not
             associated with race. Overall, somatization was also
             associated with less education.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0033-3182(89)72316-1},
   Key = {fds256082}
}

@article{fds303920,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Woodbury, M and Hughes, DC and George, LK and Manton, KG and Bachar, JR and Fowler, N},
   Title = {A statistical analysis of the classification of depression
             in a mixed community and clinical sample.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11-20},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2521645},
   Abstract = {Depressive symptoms in three samples are assessed using
             grade-of-membership analysis to clarify the distribution of
             depressive symptoms across traditional affective diagnoses.
             The technique is used to examine whether depressive symptoms
             and symptoms frequently associated with depressive disorders
             cluster into recognizable syndromes or pure types that
             parallel current operational diagnoses. Three hundred and
             ninety subjects were studied to address the question: among
             a mixed population with a range of depressive symptoms, will
             syndromes resembling endogenous depression and
             demoralization emerge from the range of presentation of
             depressive symptoms? A single pure type is nearly identical
             to the DSM-III classification of major depression with
             melancholia. No such pure type emerged that resembled
             demoralization.},
   Key = {fds303920}
}

@article{fds304763,
   Author = {Tweed, DL and George, LK},
   Title = {A more balanced perspective on 'psychiatric diagnosis as
             reified measurement. An invited comment on Mirowsky and
             Ross},
   Journal = {Journal of Health and Social Behavior},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-37},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136910},
   Doi = {10.2307/2136910},
   Key = {fds304763}
}

@article{fds256077,
   Author = {Tweed, DL and George, LK},
   Title = {A More Balanced Perspective on "Psychiatric Diagnosis as
             Reified Measurement" (a commentary)},
   Journal = {Journal of Health and Social Behavior},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-37},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   Key = {fds256077}
}

@article{fds256083,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Woodbury, M and Hughes, DC and George, LK and Manton, KG and Bachar, JR and Fowler, N},
   Title = {A Statistical Analysis of the Classification of Depression
             in a Mixed Community and Clinical Sample},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {977-986},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2521645},
   Abstract = {Depressive symptoms in three samples are assessed using
             grade-of-membership analysis to clarify the distribution of
             depressive symptoms across traditional affective diagnoses.
             The technique is used to examine whether depressive symptoms
             and symptoms frequently associated with depressive disorders
             cluster into recognizable syndromes or pure types that
             parallel current operational diagnoses. Three hundred and
             ninety subjects were studied to address the question: among
             a mixed population with a range of depressive symptoms, will
             syndromes resembling endogenous depression and
             demoralization emerge from the range of presentation of
             depressive symptoms? A single pure type is nearly identical
             to the DSM-III classification of major depression with
             melancholia. No such pure type emerged that resembled
             demoralization.},
   Key = {fds256083}
}

@article{fds256085,
   Author = {Fillenbaum, GG and George, LK and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Scoring nonresponse on the Mini-Mental State
             Examination.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1021-1025},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3270826},
   Abstract = {Alternative procedures for coding nonresponse on the
             Mini-Mental State Examination as error or as correct)
             results in different classification of 13% of a random
             sample of 1931 subjects aged 60 and over. Comparison of
             responders' and nonresponders' ability to perform activities
             of daily living, and examination of the relative difficulty
             level of omitted items indicates that, in epidemiological
             surveys, scoring nonresponse as error is more likely to be
             correct.},
   Key = {fds256085}
}

@article{fds256086,
   Author = {Regier, DA and Boyd, JH and Burke, JD and Rae, DS and Myers, JK and Kramer,
             M and Robins, LN and George, LK and Karno, M and Locke,
             BZ},
   Title = {One-month prevalence of mental disorders in the United
             States. Based on five Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             sites.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {977-986},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800350011002},
   Abstract = {One-month prevalence results were determined from 18,571
             persons interviewed in the first-wave community samples of
             all five sites that constituted the National Institute of
             Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program. US
             population estimates, based on combined site data, were that
             15.4% of the population 18 years of age and over fulfilled
             criteria for at least one alcohol, drug abuse, or other
             mental disorder during the period one month before
             interview. Higher prevalence rates of most mental disorders
             were found among younger people (less than age 45 years),
             with the exception of severe cognitive impairments. Men had
             higher rates of substance abuse and antisocial personality,
             whereas women had higher rates of affective, anxiety, and
             somatization disorders. When restricted to the diagnostic
             categories covered in international studies based on the
             Present State Examination, results fell within the range
             reported for European and Australian studies.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800350011002},
   Key = {fds256086}
}

@article{fds255894,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {THE ELDERLY - VICTIMS AND DEVIANTS - CHAMBERS,CD,
             LINDQUIST,JH, WHITE,OZ, HARTER,MT},
   Journal = {Contemporary Sociology},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {657-657},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0094-3061},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1988AC58800081&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.2307/2073988},
   Key = {fds255894}
}

@article{fds256089,
   Author = {Fillenbaum, GG and Hughes, DC and Heyman, A and George, LK and Blazer,
             DG},
   Title = {Relationship of health and demographic characteristics to
             Mini-Mental State examination score among community
             residents.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {719-726},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3263663},
   Abstract = {Mini-Mental State findings from an age 60+ random community
             sample (N = 1681) indicate that score is related to
             education, age and race (but not sex) and to functional
             status, but not to selected aspects of physical or mental
             health. Adjustment for demographic characteristics,
             particularly education, is recommended lest cognitive
             impairment be overestimated.},
   Key = {fds256089}
}

@article{fds256084,
   Author = {Koenig, HG and George, LK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {The use of religion and other emotion-regulating coping
             strategies among older adults.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {303-310},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3396911},
   Key = {fds256084}
}

@article{fds256090,
   Author = {Hughes, DC and George, LK and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Age differences in life event qualities: Multivariate
             controlled analyses},
   Journal = {Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {161-174},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0090-4392},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629(198804)16:2<161::aid-jcop2290160207>3.0.co},
   Doi = {10.1002/1520-6629(198804)16:2<161::aid-jcop2290160207>3.0.co},
   Key = {fds256090}
}

@article{fds256088,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Swartz, M and Woodbury, M and Manton, KG and Hughes, D and George, LK},
   Title = {Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Diagnoses in a Community
             Population: Use of a New Procedure for Analysis of
             Psychiatric Classification},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1078-1084},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3058087},
   Abstract = {A multivariate classification technique was used to examine
             whether depressive symptoms and symptoms frequently
             associated with depressive disorders would cluster into
             recognizable syndromes that parallel traditional DSM-III
             psychiatric diagnoses. An analysis was made of all
             respondents in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA)
             project of the Piedmont region of North Carolina who
             reported suffering from depressive symptoms (n = 406) at the
             second wave of the ECA study. The analysis identified five
             profiles of symptoms that adequately described the
             interrelationships of the symptoms as reported in the
             population. One profile included a set of symptoms nearly
             identical to the symptoms associated with the DSM-III
             classification of major depression. Other depressive
             syndromes emerged and included a premenstrual syndrome among
             younger women and a mixed anxiety/depression syndrome. The
             existence of these other depressive syndromes may explain
             the present discrepancy in the epidemiologic literature
             between a high prevalence of depressive symptoms and a low
             prevalence of traditional depressive diagnoses in community
             populations. © 1988, American Medical Association. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800360026004},
   Key = {fds256088}
}

@article{fds256091,
   Author = {Hughes, DC and Blazer, DG and George, LK},
   Title = {Age differences in life events: a multivariate controlled
             analysis.},
   Journal = {International Journal of Aging & Human Development},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {207-220},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-4150},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3243654},
   Abstract = {Effects of age on the distribution of specific life events
             experienced during the past year by community-based adults
             were examined controlling for sex, race, education, marital
             status, and place of residence. The controlled analyses were
             done using logistic regression. Data were gathered via
             personal interview from 3,798 respondents ages eighteen
             years and over who participated in the Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area (ECA), community survey from North Carolina.
             Respondents were placed in one of four age groups. The
             percentage of respondents reporting each of the nineteen
             events examined ranged from 0.5 percent for death of spouse
             to 19.1 percent for death of loved one. Age was an important
             predictor in the controlled analysis for thirteen of the
             seventeen life events examined. A majority of differences
             occurred between the youngest and oldest age groups. Age
             differences were not found for illness of one week or more
             involving activity limitation.},
   Doi = {10.2190/f9rp-8v9d-cgh7-2f0n},
   Key = {fds256091}
}

@article{fds255930,
   Author = {BLUMENTHAL, JA and EMERY, CF and MADDEN, DJ and WALSHRIDDLE, MA and GEORGE, LK and COLEMAN, RE and WILLIAMS, RS},
   Title = {THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR AND
             PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN THE ELDERLY},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {207-207},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1988M721400049&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255930}
}

@article{fds256087,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Blazer, D and George, LK and Landerman,
             R},
   Title = {Somatization Disorder in a Southern Community},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Annals},
   Volume = {18},
   Pages = {335-339},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds256087}
}

@article{fds303875,
   Author = {George, LK and fillenbaum, GG and blazer, D},
   Title = {Scoring Nonresponse on the Mini Mental State
             Examination},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {1021-1025},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds303875}
}

@article{fds256093,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Hughes, D and George, LK},
   Title = {Stressful life events and the onset of a generalized anxiety
             syndrome.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1178-1183},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.144.9.1178},
   Abstract = {In a study of 2,902 subjects from the National Institute of
             Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area Project in North
             Carolina, the association between life events and the onset
             of new cases of generalized anxiety syndrome varied across
             demographic subgroups and type of life event measure. Men
             reporting four or more life events had a risk of generalized
             anxiety syndrome 8.5 times that of men reporting zero to
             three life events; no association was found for women. Both
             men and women reporting one or more unexpected, negative,
             very important life events had a threefold increase in the
             risk of developing generalized anxiety syndrome.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.144.9.1178},
   Key = {fds256093}
}

@article{fds256095,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Crowell, BA and George, LK},
   Title = {Alcohol abuse and dependence in the rural
             South.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {736-740},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800200062009},
   Abstract = {We studied rural-urban differences in the prevalence of
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS)-DSM-III alcohol abuse or
             dependence from a community survey (part of the
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area program) of 3921 adults living
             in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Bivariate analyses
             disclosed that current alcohol-related problems, as
             identified by the DIS, were more common in the rural area
             (4.2% vs 2.6%). In a logistic regression analysis that
             controlled for potential confounders, including age, sex,
             race, socioeconomic status, and the DIS-DSM-III diagnoses of
             major depression and antisocial personality disorder, the
             elevated odds of alcohol abuse or dependence in the rural
             area remained significant for the interactive variable
             "rural blacks" (relative risk, 2.88). Factors leading to
             urban-rural differences in psychiatric disorders, such as
             current alcohol abuse or dependence, are therefore more
             complex than can be explained by geographic boundaries
             alone.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1987.01800200062009},
   Key = {fds256095}
}

@article{fds256094,
   Author = {Blazer, D and Hughes, DC and George, LK},
   Title = {The epidemiology of depression in an elderly community
             population.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {281-287},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/27.3.281},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/27.3.281},
   Key = {fds256094}
}

@article{fds256092,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Blazer, DG and Woodbury, MA and George, LK and Manton,
             KG},
   Title = {A study of somatization disorder in a community population
             utilizing grade of membership analysis.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Developments},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {219-237},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0262-9283},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3502659},
   Abstract = {A new multivariate analytical technique for the analysis of
             medical classification, Grade of Membership analysis, is
             utilized to examine somatization disorder in a community
             population. The authors examine whether somatic symptoms
             will cluster into a clinical syndrome resembling
             somatization disorder, as defined by the Diagnostic and
             Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), if no
             prior assumptions are made about the inter-relationship of
             somatic symptoms or their clustering into clinical
             syndromes. Using respondents in the US National Institute of
             Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area project of the
             Piedmont Region of North Carolina, Grade of Membership
             analysis was applied to all respondents reporting 3 or more
             somatic symptoms from the somatization disorder section of
             the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Seven 'pure' types,
             roughly analogous to clusters in cluster analysis emerged
             from the analysis. One 'pure' type in the analysis is nearly
             identical to DSM-III somatization disorder and is associated
             with demographic characteristics found among patients with
             DSM-III somatization disorder. The results indicate that
             symptoms associated with somatization disorder cluster in a
             highly predictable fashion and represent a strong validation
             of the natural occurrence of an entity resembling
             somatization disorder.},
   Key = {fds256092}
}

@article{fds256096,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Hughes, D and Blazer, D and George,
             L},
   Title = {Somatization disorder in the community. A study of
             diagnostic concordance among three diagnostic
             systems.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
   Volume = {175},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {26-33},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Somatization disorder, the presentation of multiple somatic
             complaints in multiple organ systems, can be diagnosed by
             three roughly comparable diagnostic systems: the Washington
             University Feighner criteria, the Research Diagnostic
             Criteria, and DSM-III criteria. This study evaluates
             diagnostic concordance for somatization disorder in these
             three diagnostic systems using data gathered in the National
             Institute of Mental Health-sponsored Epidemiologic Catchment
             Area Program at four sites. Data gathered through use of the
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule at the Duke, Johns Hopkins,
             Washington, and Yale University sites indicate that each
             criterion set identifies a somewhat different group of
             respondents. Feighner criteria identify the fewest number of
             respondents, followed by DSM-III criteria and the Research
             Diagnostic Criteria. Demographic, symptomatic, health
             utilization, and other severity indices indicate that the
             respondents identified by each group are very similar and
             that all diagnostic groups are clearly distinguishable from
             the normal population.},
   Key = {fds256096}
}

@article{fds256097,
   Author = {Kessler, LG and Burns, BJ and Shapiro, S and Tischler, GL and George,
             LK and Hough, RL and Bodison, D and Miller, RH},
   Title = {Psychiatric diagnoses of medical service users: evidence
             from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {18-24},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3789231},
   Abstract = {Based on data from the five sites of the National Institute
             of Mental Health-sponsored Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             (ECA) Program, this paper examines the prevalence of
             psychiatric disorder among recent medical service users
             versus nonusers, with a particular focus on affective
             disorders, substance abuse/dependence, and phobias. The rate
             of current Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) disorders
             among medical users in all five ECA sites is 21.7 per cent
             (slightly higher than general population rates) versus 16.7
             per cent among nonusers; there is generally no difference
             between users and nonusers with past DIS diagnoses.
             Affective disorders were among the most common mental
             disorders of medical service users, especially among
             females, with little variation between sites: females:
             users: 6.9 per cent to 9.3 per cent, nonusers: 3.4 per cent
             to 6.4 per cent, and males: users: 3.3 per cent to 6.5 per
             cent, nonusers: 1.2 per cent to 4.1 per cent. Rates of
             phobias among persons using medical services are also higher
             than among nonusers. Substance abuse disorders are at least
             as common among persons who use medical services (8 per cent
             to 14 per cent of male users) as among those who do not (9
             per cent to 11 per cent of male nonusers). The high rates of
             affective disorders among women and of substance abuse among
             male medical service users underscore the need to increase
             the ability of general medical practitioners to recognize
             and manage or refer these conditions.},
   Key = {fds256097}
}

@article{fds256098,
   Author = {Strain, JJ and George, LK and Pincus, HA and Gise, LH and Houpt, JL and Wolf, R},
   Title = {Models of mental health training for primary care
             physicians: a validation study.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {88-98},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3174},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006842-198701000-00008},
   Abstract = {Since the majority of persons with alcohol, drug abuse,
             and/or mental disorders (19%) of Americans during any
             6-month period are seen exclusively within the general
             health sector, it is imperative to know the quality and
             quantity of mental health training for primary care
             residents. In this study, the five program training model
             types previously described--Consultation, Liaison, Bridge,
             Hybrid, Autonomous--are validated by a random sampling
             technique using a structured instrument to test eight
             hypotheses developed before data collection to preclude post
             hoc interpretations. Of 250 programs, 147 responded (60%):
             67 Family Practice, 42 Primary Internal Medicine, and 38
             Internal Medicine. Since all eight hypotheses were supported
             by the data, the construct validity of the program model
             types is significantly substantiated. Multiple discriminant
             analysis revealed that the relationships between twelve
             training program characteristics and the five program model
             types were such that the former could explain 57% of the
             variance in the latter and correctly classify 89% of the
             programs.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00006842-198701000-00008},
   Key = {fds256098}
}

@article{fds256103,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Blazer, D and George, L and Landerman,
             R},
   Title = {Somatization disorder in a community population.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1403-1408},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.143.11.1403},
   Abstract = {The data recently collected in the Piedmont region of North
             Carolina as part of the National Institute of Mental Health
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program were used to examine
             somatization disorder in a community population. The authors
             found an adjusted prevalence of 0.38% for somatization
             disorder diagnosed according to the Diagnostic Interview
             Schedule and DSM-III. Respondents with somatization disorder
             demonstrated demographic characteristics (female, unmarried,
             nonwhite, from a rural area, less educated) that are
             consistent with findings from past clinical and
             epidemiologic studies of somatization disorder. The adjusted
             prevalence is higher than that of other Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area sites, and possible explanations for this
             findings are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.143.11.1403},
   Key = {fds256103}
}

@article{fds304770,
   Author = {Stout, AL and Grady, TA and Steege, JF and Blazer, DG and George, LK and Melville, ML},
   Title = {Premenstrual symptoms in black and white community
             samples.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1436-1439},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777236},
   Abstract = {Premenstrual syndrome specialty clinics are reported to be
             almost exclusively attended by white women. This racial
             discrepancy has raised the question of whether there is a
             lower prevalence or severity of symptoms during the
             premenstruum among black women. The authors evaluated
             selected premenstrual symptoms in a representative
             community-based sample and found no difference in the
             prevalence or severity of premenstrual symptoms reported by
             black and white women, except for a higher prevalence of
             food cravings among blacks. Exploration of broader
             sociocultural factors may explain the observed racial
             difference in seeking help for premenstrual
             complaints.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.143.11.1436},
   Key = {fds304770}
}

@article{fds304767,
   Author = {CLIPP, EC and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {PREDICTORS OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AMONG CAREGIVERS OF
             ALZHEIMERS PATIENTS},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {26},
   Pages = {A179-A180},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1986E258700614&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds304767}
}

@article{fds256102,
   Author = {Stout, AL and Steege, JF and Blazer, DG and George,
             LK},
   Title = {Comparison of lifetime psychiatric diagnoses in Premenstrual
             Syndrome Clinic and community samples.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease},
   Volume = {174},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {517-522},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-3018},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3746277},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this investigation was to obtain information
             about lifetime psychiatric diagnoses of women seeking
             treatment for premenstrual syndrome. The National Institute
             for Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was
             administered to 223 women attending a premenstrual syndrome
             clinic. Rates of symptoms and psychiatric disorders were
             then compared with DIS data collected from an Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area (ECA) program community sample of 923 women
             in the same age group from the same geographic location.
             Women in the Premenstrual Syndrome Clinic sample met
             DIS/DSM-III criteria for dysthymia, phobia,
             obsessive-compulsive disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, and
             drug abuse/dependence with a greater frequency than did
             women from the community sample. There appears to be much
             overlap between the symptoms for which women seek help from
             a specialty premenstrual syndrome clinic and symptoms
             related to several specific affective, anxiety, and
             substance abuse disorders. Further investigation is needed
             to determine whether premenstrual syndrome is strongly
             associated with DSM-III psychiatric diagnoses or whether
             current psychiatric classification systems are inadequate
             for differentiation.},
   Key = {fds256102}
}

@article{fds256104,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Blazer, D and Woodbury, M and George, L and Landerman,
             R},
   Title = {Somatization disorder in a US southern community: use of a
             new procedure for analysis of medical classification.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {595-609},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {August},
   Abstract = {The authors examine somatization disorder in a community
             population, using grade of membership analysis, a new
             multivariate analytical technique for the analysis of
             medical classification. The technique is used to examine
             whether somatic symptoms will cluster into a clinical
             syndrome resembling somatization disorder, as defined by the
             Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
             (DSM-III), if no a priori assumptions are made about the
             interrelationship of somatic symptoms or their clustering
             into clinical syndromes. Grade of membership analysis is
             applied to all respondents in the US National Institute of
             Mental Health Epidemiological Catchment Area Project of the
             Piedmont region of North Carolina reporting three or more
             somatic symptoms from the somatization disorder section of
             the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. The analysis indicates
             that seven 'pure' types, roughly analogous to clusters in
             cluster analysis, best describe the interrelationship of the
             symptoms included in the analysis. One 'pure' type in the
             analysis is nearly identical to DSM-III somatization
             disorder and is associated with demographic characteristics
             consistently found among patients with DSM-III somatization
             disorder. The present results demonstrate that symptoms
             associated with this disorder do cluster in a highly
             predictable fashion and represent a strong validation of the
             natural occurrence of an entity resembling somatization
             disorder.},
   Key = {fds256104}
}

@article{fds255905,
   Author = {COLERICK, EJ and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {PREDICTORS OF INSTITUTIONALIZATION AMONG CAREGIVERS OF
             PATIENTS WITH ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {493-498},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1986D111300001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1986.tb04239.x},
   Key = {fds255905}
}

@article{fds255887,
   Author = {George, LK and Gwyther, LP},
   Title = {Caregiver well-being: a multidimensional examination of
             family caregivers of demented adults.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {253-259},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3721232},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/26.3.253},
   Key = {fds255887}
}

@article{fds255921,
   Author = {GWYTHER, LP and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {SYMPOSIUM - CAREGIVERS FOR DEMENTIA PATIENTS - COMPLEX
             DETERMINANTS OF WELL-BEING AND BURDEN - INTRODUCTION},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {245-247},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1986C694700005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/26.3.245},
   Key = {fds255921}
}

@article{fds256106,
   Author = {Gwyther, LP and George, LK},
   Title = {Caregivers for dementia patients: complex determinants of
             well-being and burden.},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {245-247},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3721230},
   Key = {fds256106}
}

@article{fds256100,
   Author = {Swartz, M and Hughes, D and George, L and Blazer, D and Landerman, R and Bucholz, K},
   Title = {Developing a screening index for community studies of
             somatization disorder.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {335-343},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-3956},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(86)90036-1},
   Abstract = {Despite the low prevalence of somatization disorder in the
             community, the section of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule
             used to make the diagnosis--as well as previous diagnostic
             interviews for the related diagnoses of hysteria, and
             Briquet's syndrome--is quite lengthy. This study evaluates a
             somatization disorder screening index derived from completed
             interviews from the NIMH sponsored Epidemiologic Catchment
             Area program. A screening index comprised of 11 symptoms of
             somatization was derived at the Duke ECA site and replicated
             across the Johns Hopkins, Yale, and Washington University
             sites. Across ECA sites a screening threshold of five of 11
             symptoms correctly identified 41 of 42 respondents with
             DIS/DSM-III somatization disorder (97.6%) while correctly
             classifying 14,600 of 14,750 (99.0%) without the disorder.
             The screening index offers promise as a screening device for
             clinical and community studies of somatization
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-3956(86)90036-1},
   Key = {fds256100}
}

@article{fds256099,
   Author = {Holzer, CE and Sheal, BM and Swanson, JS and Leaf, PJ and Myers, JK and George, LK and Bednarski, P},
   Title = {The Increased Risk for Specific Psychiatric Disorders Among
             Persons of Low Socioeconomic Status},
   Journal = {American Journal of Social Psychiatry},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {259-271},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds256099}
}

@article{fds256101,
   Author = {Stout, AL and Grady, TA and Steege, JF and Blazer, DG and George, LK and Melville, ML},
   Title = {Comparison of Premenstrual Symptoms in Black and White
             Community Samples},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1436-1439},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3777236},
   Abstract = {Premenstrual syndrome specialty clinics are reported to be
             almost exclusively attended by white women. This racial
             discrepancy has raised the question of whether there is a
             lower prevalence or severity of symptoms during the
             premenstruum among black women. The authors evaluated
             selected premenstrual symptoms in a representative
             community-based sample and found no difference in the
             prevalence or severity of premenstrual symptoms reported by
             black and white women, except for a higher prevalence of
             food cravings among blacks. Exploration of broader
             sociocultural factors may explain the observed racial
             difference in seeking help for premenstrual
             complaints.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.143.11.1436},
   Key = {fds256101}
}

@article{fds256105,
   Author = {Colerick, EJ and George, LK},
   Title = {Predictors of Institutionalization among Caregivers of
             Alzheimer’s Patients},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {34},
   Pages = {493-498},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1986E258700614&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds256105}
}

@article{fds256107,
   Author = {Jr, BAC and George, LK and Blazer, D and Landerman,
             R},
   Title = {Psychosocial risk factors and urban/rural differences in the
             prevalence of major depression},
   Journal = {British Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {149},
   Number = {SEPT.},
   Pages = {307-314},
   Year = {1986},
   Abstract = {The Piedmont Health Survey interviewed 3798 adult community
             residents in a region of North Carolina. Current major
             depression was nearly three times more common in the urban
             than in the rural counties; rural residence decreased the
             risk of major depression for some, but not all, demographic
             subgroups. The risk of major depression was decreased for
             young rural residents, compared with their urban age peers;
             rural residence was more protective for young women than for
             young men. Rural residence appears to be a buffer against
             major depression.},
   Key = {fds256107}
}

@article{fds256108,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Satisfaction in Late Life–The Positive Side of Mental
             Health},
   Journal = {Generations},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {5-8},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds256108}
}

@article{fds256109,
   Author = {George, LK and Hughes, DC and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Urban/Rural Differences in the Prevalence of Anxiety
             Disorders},
   Journal = {American Journal of Social Psychiatry},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {249-258},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds256109}
}

@article{fds256111,
   Author = {George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG},
   Title = {OARS methodology. A decade of experience in geriatric
             assessment.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {607-615},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4031339},
   Abstract = {The Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS)
             methodology was designed to assess functional capacity in
             five dimensions (social resources, economic resources,
             mental health, physical health, and activities of daily
             living) and to measure use of and need for 24 types of
             generic services. The OARS questionnaire now has been used
             in more than 150 research and practice settings. Recent
             refinements in the OARS methodology include new information
             about validity and reliability, computerized summary ratings
             for the five dimensions of functional status, and eleven
             scales that measure specific aspects of functioning within
             the five dimensions. This paper describes the conceptual
             foundation, appropriate uses, psychometric properties, and
             recent refinements in the OARS methodology. Empirical data
             from a geriatric clinic population are used for purposes of
             illustration. The paper presents an assessment of the
             strengths and limitations of the OARS methodology based on
             more than a decade of experience. Particular attention is
             paid to the degree to which the measures of functional
             status can be related to health service use measures to
             inform geriatric research and practice.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1532-5415.1985.tb06317.x},
   Key = {fds256111}
}

@article{fds256113,
   Author = {Blazer, D and George, LK and Landerman, R and Pennybacker, M and Melville, ML and Woodbury, M and Manton, KG and Jordan, K and Locke,
             B},
   Title = {Psychiatric disorders. A rural/urban comparison.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {651-656},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4015306},
   Abstract = {We studied rural/urban differences in the prevalence of nine
             psychiatric disorders from a community survey (part of the
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program) of 3,921 adults living
             in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Crude comparisons
             disclosed that major depressive episodes and drug abuse
             and/or dependence were more common in the urban area,
             whereas alcohol abuse/dependence was more common in the
             rural area. When prevalence for these disorders was
             stratified for age, sex, race, and education (factors that
             may confound urban/rural comparisons), a number of
             significant differences were identified, such as higher
             prevalence of major depression in female and white subjects
             and higher prevalence of alcohol abuse/dependence in the
             less educated subjects. A logistic-regression analysis was
             used to determine if significant urban/rural differences
             persisted when these potential confounders were controlled.
             Major depressive disorders were found to be twice as
             frequent in the urban area in this controlled
             analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790300013002},
   Key = {fds256113}
}

@article{fds256112,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA and Landerman, R},
   Title = {Age as a moderator of the determinants of life
             satisfaction.},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {209-233},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027585007002004},
   Doi = {10.1177/0164027585007002004},
   Key = {fds256112}
}

@article{fds256114,
   Author = {Fillenbaum, GG and George, LK and Palmore, EB},
   Title = {Determinants and consequences of retirement among men of
             different races and economic levels.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-94},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3965566},
   Abstract = {Data from two national longitudinal studies of older workers
             were examined in order to compare the determinants and
             consequences of retirement for white and black men, and for
             poverty, marginal, and upper economic level men. The number
             of categories important in determining retirement was
             greater for white men than for black men and increased with
             increase in economic level. Retirement was found to have few
             consequences, being important mainly with respect to health
             and economic matters. Blacks and poverty level men were
             minimally affected by retirement, the impact of retirement
             probably being somewhat ameliorated by age-determined income
             maintenance programs and subsidies. Men at the marginal
             economic level were affected most adversely.},
   Key = {fds256114}
}

@article{fds256115,
   Author = {Orleans, CT and George, LK and Houpt, JL and Brodie,
             HK},
   Title = {How primary care physicians treat psychiatric disorders: a
             national survey of family practitioners.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {52-57},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.142.1.52},
   Abstract = {A survey of 350 family practice physicians nationwide showed
             that 22.6% of their patients had significant psychiatric
             disorders. Physicians reported treating most psychiatric
             problems themselves, usually through a combination of
             psychotropic drugs, advice, and reassurance. The results
             suggest that anxiolytics are more conservatively used and
             referrals for mental health care more often made than past
             studies indicate. Physicians cited patient resistance and
             time limitations as the most important barriers to primary
             care mental health treatment, followed by limited
             third-party payment for mental health services, poor
             coordination between the primary care and mental health care
             sectors, and insufficient training to treat psychiatric
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.142.1.52},
   Key = {fds256115}
}

@article{fds255907,
   Author = {ORLEANS, CT and GEORGE, LK and HOUPT, JL and BRODIE,
             KH},
   Title = {HEALTH PROMOTION IN PRIMARY CARE - A SURVEY OF UNITED-STATES
             FAMILY PRACTITIONERS},
   Journal = {Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {636-647},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0091-7435},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1985AUD5900007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/0091-7435(85)90083-0},
   Key = {fds255907}
}

@article{fds256110,
   Author = {Orleans, CT and George, LK and Houpt, JL and Brodie,
             HKH},
   Title = {Health Promotion in Primary Care:},
   Journal = {A Survey of U.S. Family Practitioners Preventive
             Medicine},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {636-647},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds256110}
}

@article{fds288503,
   Author = {George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG},
   Title = {The OARS Methodology: A Decade of Experience in Geriatric
             Assessment},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Number = {33},
   Pages = {607-615},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds288503}
}

@article{fds256120,
   Author = {George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG and Palmore, E},
   Title = {Sex differences in the antecedents and consequences of
             retirement.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {364-371},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6715816},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this paper was to compare the antecedents and
             consequences of retirement among men and women. Data were
             analyzed from two surveys: the Retirement History Study (N
             for analysis = 1845) and the Duke Second Longitudinal Study
             (N = 235). The predictors and outcomes of retirement used in
             analyses were those suggested in previous research. The
             results suggest that (a) the variables that predict
             retirement for men do not predict retirement for women and
             (b) retirement affects substantially more outcomes for men
             than for women. For both sexes, however, retirement had both
             positive and negative effects. Discussion is focused upon
             the possible explanations for the sex differences
             observed.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/39.3.364},
   Key = {fds256120}
}

@article{fds256118,
   Author = {Okun, MA and George, LK},
   Title = {Physician- and self-ratings of health, neuroticism and
             subjective well-being among men and women},
   Journal = {Personality and Individual Differences},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {533-539},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0191-8869},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(84)90027-8},
   Doi = {10.1016/0191-8869(84)90027-8},
   Key = {fds256118}
}

@article{fds256122,
   Author = {Palmore, EB and Fillenbaum, GG and George, LK},
   Title = {Consequences of retirement.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {109-116},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6690582},
   Abstract = {Six longitudinal data sets were used to examine the
             consequences of retirement controlling for preretirement
             characteristics. Results show (a) about one-half to
             three-fourths of income differences between retired and
             working men was caused by retirement; (b) little, if any, of
             the health differences are caused by retirement; (c) there
             are few effects of retirement on social activity; and (d)
             there are few effects on attitudes such as life satisfaction
             and happiness. Early retirement, however, has stronger
             effects than retirement at normal ages. The results show
             that retirement has different effects depending on type of
             outcome and timing of retirement.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/39.1.109},
   Key = {fds256122}
}

@article{fds255889,
   Author = {STOCK, WA and OKUN, MA and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {NEUROTICISM AND PHYSICIANS AND SELF-RATINGS OF
             HEALTH},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {89-90},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1984TN75000070&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255889}
}

@article{fds255893,
   Author = {BOYD, JH and BURKE, JD and GRUENBERG, E and HOLZER, CE and RAE, DS and GEORGE, LK and KARNO, M and STOLTZMAN, R and MCEVOY, L and NESTADT,
             G},
   Title = {EXCLUSION CRITERIA OF DSM-III - A STUDY OF CO-OCCURRENCE OF
             HIERARCHY-FREE SYNDROMES},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {983-989},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1984TM60100007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255893}
}

@article{fds255900,
   Author = {GWYTHER, LP and GEORGE, LK and FITTING, M and TODD, PA and ZARIT, JM and ZARIT, SH and GONYEA, JG and MONTGOMERY, RJV},
   Title = {COMPLEX DETERMINANTS OF CAREGIVER WELL-BEING - TOWARD MORE
             SOPHISTICATED RESEARCH ANALYSES},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {249-250},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1984TN75000641&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255900}
}

@article{fds255933,
   Author = {BLAZER, DG and GEORGE, LK and LANDERMAN, R},
   Title = {ARE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS DIFFERENT IN THE DEPRESSED
             ELDERLY},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {133-133},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1984TN75000222&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255933}
}

@article{fds256116,
   Author = {Boyd, JH and Burke, JD and Greenberg, E and Holzer, CE and Rae, DS and George, LK and Karno, M},
   Title = {Stoltzman, R., McEvoy, L., & Nestadt, G. The Exclusion
             Criteria of DSM-III: A Study of the Co-occurrence of
             Hierarchy-free Syndromes},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {983-989},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds256116}
}

@article{fds256117,
   Author = {Eaton, WW and Myers, JK and Korff, V and et. al.},
   Title = {The Design of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area Surveys: The
             Control and Measurement of Error},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {942-948},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds256117}
}

@article{fds256119,
   Author = {Stage, FK and Okun, MA and Stock, WA and George, LK},
   Title = {Analyzing Educational Data from a Cohort-Sequential Design:
             An Illustration Using GPA},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Education},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {227-230},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1984},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220973.1984.11011898},
   Doi = {10.1080/00220973.1984.11011898},
   Key = {fds256119}
}

@article{fds256121,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, R},
   Title = {Health and subjective well-being: A replicated secondary
             data analysis},
   Journal = {International Journal of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {133-156},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds256121}
}

@article{fds255886,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and George, LK},
   Title = {The normal psychology of the aging male: Sex differences in
             coping and perceptions of life events},
   Journal = {Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {197-209},
   Year = {1983},
   Abstract = {The data illustrate some important methodological
             considerations about the study of life events and the study
             of developmental data. As the data on the distribution of
             life events indicate, when individuals retell their life
             stories, events are rarely discrete. Psychologically, an
             event expands to include those predictors that later became
             apparent and the time taken to put the event into
             perspective. This calls into question the interpretation
             given to many life event questionnaires that seek to
             consider an event within narrow time framework. Positive and
             negative events appear to have differential
             consequences.},
   Key = {fds255886}
}

@article{fds255915,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {VALUES AND LONG-TERM CARE - KANE,RL, KANE,RA},
   Journal = {Health Education Quarterly},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {73-74},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0195-8402},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1983RK18300005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1177/109019818301000106},
   Key = {fds255915}
}

@article{fds256125,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and George, LK},
   Title = {Sex Differences in Coping and Perceptions of Life
             Events},
   Journal = {Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Volume = {1983},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {197-210},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds256125}
}

@article{fds303917,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Values and Long-Term Care},
   Journal = {Health Education Quarterly},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {73-74},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds303917}
}

@article{fds256123,
   Author = {Palmore, EB and George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG},
   Title = {Predictors of retirement.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {733-742},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7130648},
   Abstract = {Predictors of retirement among men were analyzed using data
             from seven longitudinal studies, multiple definitions of
             retirement, multivariate analyses, and unbiased statistical
             techniques. Results show that the predictors of retirement
             vary depending on how retirement is defined. The strongest
             predictors of objective retirement among men over age 65
             (i.e., employed less than full-time and receiving a pension)
             are structural factors such as socioeconomic status and job
             characteristics. The strongest predictors of early
             retirement (i.e., retiring before age 65) and of age at
             retirement include both structural factors and subjective
             factors, characteristics are more important predictors than
             all the others combined.},
   Key = {fds256123}
}

@article{fds256127,
   Author = {GEORGE, LINDAK},
   Title = {Models of Transitions in Middle and Later
             Life},
   Journal = {The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social
             Science},
   Volume = {464},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {22-37},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-7162},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716282464001003},
   Doi = {10.1177/0002716282464001003},
   Key = {fds256127}
}

@article{fds304762,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {A canonical correlation technique for analyzing patterns of
             change},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-72},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03610738208258398},
   Abstract = {The measurement and analysis of change remain persistent
             dilemmas in aging research. The most frequently suggested
             technique for the analysis of change is residualized change
             score analysis, which is methodologically superior to the
             use of raw change scores. The use of residualized change
             score analysis, however, addresses a very specific
             substantive question: net of initial level what factors best
             predict the dependent variable at a later point in time?
             There are other questions that might be posed to
             longitudinal data. One such question is: what factors best
             predict differential patterns of change within a group? The
             primary purpose of this paper is to present a canonical
             correlation technique that can be used to predict patterns
             of change. In order to illustrate the implications of
             examining patterns of change as compared to aggregate
             change, the canonical correlation procedure is compared to
             residualized change score analysis. Discussion focuses upon
             the importance of matching substantive questions about the
             nature and antecedents of change to appropriate analytic
             techniques. © 1982 Taylor & Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610738208258398},
   Key = {fds304762}
}

@article{fds304768,
   Author = {Mutran, E and George, LK},
   Title = {Alternative methods of measuring role/identity: A research
             note},
   Journal = {Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and
             Interpretation},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {866-876},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0037-7732},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NC67400014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/sf/60.3.866},
   Key = {fds304768}
}

@article{fds255829,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) The Urban Elderly},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {1105-1105},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds255829}
}

@article{fds255890,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {ASSESSING THE ELDERLY - A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO MEASUREMENT -
             KANE,RA, KANE,RL},
   Journal = {Contemporary Psychology: a Journal of Reviews},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {364-365},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0010-7549},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NN87800025&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255890}
}

@article{fds255910,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {THE URBAN ELDERLY - A STUDY OF LIFE SATISFACTION -
             BERGHORN,FJ, SCHAFER,DE, STEERE,GH, WISEMAN,RF},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1105-1105},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NV66700021&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/0277-9536(82)90195-2},
   Key = {fds255910}
}

@article{fds255911,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {THE DYNAMICS OF AGING - ORIGINAL ESSAYS ON THE PROCESSES AND
             EXPERIENCES OF GROWING OLD - BERGHORN,FJ,
             SCHAFER,DE},
   Journal = {Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and
             Interpretation},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {344-345},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0037-7732},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982PF99400054&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255911}
}

@article{fds256126,
   Author = {George, LK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Stress and Coping in Later Life},
   Journal = {Educational Horizons},
   Volume = {60},
   Pages = {147-154},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds256126}
}

@article{fds256128,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {A Canonical Correlation Approach to the Analysis of Patterns
             of Change.},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-72},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NV70500008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The measurement and analysis of change remain persistent
             dilemmas in aging research. The most frequently suggested
             technique for the analysis of change is residualized change
             score analysis, which is methodologically superior to the
             use of raw change scores. The use of residualized change
             score analysis, however, addresses a very specific
             substantive question: net of initial level what factors best
             predict the dependent variable at a later point in time?
             There are other questions that might be posed to
             longitudinal data. One such question is: what factors best
             predict differential patterns of change within a group? The
             primary purpose of this paper is to present a canonical
             correlation technique that can be used to predict patterns
             of change. In order to illustrate the implications of
             examining patterns of change as compared to aggregate
             change, the canonical correlation procedure is compared to
             residualized change score analysis. Discussion focuses upon
             the importance of matching substantive questions about the
             nature and antecedents of change to appropriate analytic
             techniques. © 1982 Taylor & Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610738208258398},
   Key = {fds256128}
}

@article{fds256129,
   Author = {Mutran, E and George, LK},
   Title = {Alternative Methods of Measuring Role/Identity},
   Journal = {Social Forces},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {866-876},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0037-7732},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NC67400014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.2307/2578399},
   Key = {fds256129}
}

@article{fds256130,
   Author = {Linnoila, M and George, LK and Guthrie, S},
   Title = {Interaction between Antidepressants and Perphenazine in
             Psychiatric Inpatients},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {139},
   Pages = {1329-1331},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds256130}
}

@article{fds303915,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Assessing the Elderly},
   Journal = {Contemporary Psychology},
   Volume = {27},
   Pages = {364-365},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds303915}
}

@article{fds303916,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) The Dynamics of Aging},
   Journal = {Social Forces},
   Volume = {61},
   Pages = {344-345},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds303916}
}

@article{fds304766,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {A CANONICAL CORRELATION TECHNIQUE FOR ANALYZING PATTERNS OF
             CHANGE},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-72},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1982NV70500008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610738208258398},
   Key = {fds304766}
}

@article{fds256133,
   Author = {George, LK and Weiler, SJ},
   Title = {Sexuality in middle and late life. The effects of age,
             cohort, and gender.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {919-923},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780330077008},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of sexual behavior in middle and late life
             suggest a decline in sexual activity during the last half of
             adulthood. Longitudinal data on the sexual activity of 278
             married men and women, initially aged 46 to 71 years, were
             collected. These data suggest that levels of sexual activity
             remain more stable over time than previously suggested. It
             is crucial to distinguish between aggregate trends and
             intraindividual change. Although stable levels of sexual
             activity are typical, aggregate statistics can blur distinct
             patterns of change exhibited by individuals. Special
             attention is paid to the relative influences of age, cohort,
             and gender on sexual activity during middle and late
             life.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1981.01780330077008},
   Key = {fds256133}
}

@article{fds255827,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Aging and Adulthood},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {753-753},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds255827}
}

@article{fds255922,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {ADULTHOOD AND AGING, 2ND EDITION - KIMMEL,DC},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {753-753},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1981MP32600019&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/36.6.753},
   Key = {fds255922}
}

@article{fds256131,
   Author = {Linnoila, M and George, LK and Guthrie, S},
   Title = {Drinking and Smoking History and Antidepressant Plasma
             Levels},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {138},
   Pages = {841-842},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds256131}
}

@article{fds256132,
   Author = {George, LK and Siegler, IC and Okun, MA},
   Title = {Separating age, cohort, and time of measurement: analysis of
             variance or multiple regression.},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {297-314},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7318857},
   Abstract = {This paper empirically compares the relative advantages of
             analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression (MR)
             approaches to the separation of age, cohort, and time of
             measurement effects in sequential research designs. The
             comparison utilizes four synthetic data sets, designed to
             have specific characteristics. The results support Adam's
             recent claim that standard ANOVA procedures, as described by
             Schaie, do not permit the development of accurate decision
             rules for age-period-cohort analysis. A modified dummy
             variable regression procedure developed by Mason, et al. is
             demonstrated to permit accurate attribution of variance
             among age, cohort, and time of measurement effects in the
             developmental model.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610738108259812},
   Key = {fds256132}
}

@article{fds256134,
   Author = {George, LK and Mutran, EJ and Pennybacker, MR},
   Title = {The meaning and measurement of age identity.},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {283-298},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03610738008258364},
   Abstract = {Lack of a broader theoretical framework and a relative
             neglect of measurement issues have hindered many previous
             studies of age identity. In this paper, a case is made for
             viewing age identity as a dimension of self-concept and two
             measurement techniques are empirically compared. The first
             is a single-item measure in which the individual chooses the
             age category which best suits him. The second is a semantic
             differential procedure which involves rating the referents
             "An Old Person", "A Middle-Aged Person", and "Myself" on
             identical bipolar adjectives. Data were obtained from 341
             men and women, age 47 to 96, residing in central North
             Carolina. The results support the validity of the semantic
             differential technique, and also suggest that the two
             measures tap somewhat different dimensions of age identity.
             The single-item measure is closely related to chronological
             age, while the semantic differential is more strongly
             related to personal and social correlates of
             aging.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610738008258364},
   Key = {fds256134}
}

@article{fds256135,
   Author = {Houpt, JL and Orleans, CS and George, LK and Keith, H and Brodie,
             HK},
   Title = {The role of psychiatric and behavioral factors in the
             practice of medicine.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {137},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {37-47},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.137.1.37},
   Abstract = {The authors review the role of psychiatric and behavioral
             factors in the practice of medicine in three areas: 1)
             prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, 2) the role of
             behavioral or lifestyle factors in illness onset, and 3) the
             overlapping of psychiatric and behavioral factors with
             medical illness. Within each areas they review behavioral
             factors to the practice of medicine, the limits of current
             treatment approaches, and future research needs. In their
             final section they draw implications for health care
             delivery and manpower development.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.137.1.37},
   Key = {fds256135}
}

@article{fds255826,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Contemporary Theories of the Family, Vols. I and
             II},
   Journal = {Social Forces},
   Volume = {58},
   Pages = {1343-1344},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds255826}
}

@article{fds255898,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {CONTEMPORARY THEORIES ABOUT THE FAMILY - RESEARCH-BASED
             THEORIES, VOL 1 - BURR,WR, HILL,R, NYE,FI,
             REISS,IL},
   Journal = {Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and
             Interpretation},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1343-1345},
   Year = {1980},
   ISSN = {0037-7732},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1980JT67800023&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255898}
}

@article{fds255892,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Symposium: Survey research in the study of aging:
             Possibilities and problems in the use of archival
             data},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {632},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1979GQ33300011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {A special purpose data archive of theoretically significant
             data sets relevant to the study of aging and adulthood has
             now completed its second year of operation at the Duke
             University Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development. Activities of the Data Archive for Aging and
             Adult Development (DAAAD) include the identification,
             cleaning, documentation, and dissemination of relevant data
             sources to the gerontological and social science research
             communities.1 Beyond these standard archival functions,
             additional DAAAD activities include: (1) the provision of
             substantive as well as technical assistance; (2) the
             development of user manuals and technical reports; (3) the
             convening of periodic workshops for training, information
             exchange, and professional development; and (4) ongoing
             efforts to evaluate the "state of the art" regarding surveys
             of the adult population. © 1979 Oxford University
             Press.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/19.2.196},
   Key = {fds255892}
}

@article{fds256136,
   Author = {MADDOX, GL and FILLENBAUM, GG and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {EXTENDING THE USES OF THE LRHS DATA SET},
   Journal = {Review of Public Data Use},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {57-62},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds256136}
}

@article{fds255895,
   Author = {BREYTSPRAAK, LM and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {MEASUREMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM IN OLDER-PEOPLE
             - STATE OF THE ART},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {137-148},
   Year = {1979},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1979GP22500003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610737908257192},
   Key = {fds255895}
}

@article{fds255912,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {HAPPINESS SYNDROME - METHODOLOGICAL AND SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES
             IN THE STUDY OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN
             ADULTHOOD},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {210-216},
   Year = {1979},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1979GQ33300014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geront/19.2.210},
   Key = {fds255912}
}

@article{fds256137,
   Author = {Breytspraak, LM and George, LK},
   Title = {Measurement of Self-Concept and Self-Esteem: State of the
             Art},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {137-154.},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds256137}
}

@article{fds256138,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Happiness Syndrome: Substantive and Methodological
             Issues in the Study of Psychological Well-Being in
             Adulthood},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {210-216},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds256138}
}

@article{fds256139,
   Author = {Siegler, IC and George, LK and Okun, MA},
   Title = {A Cross-Sequential Analysis of Adult Personality},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {350-351},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1979},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.15.3.350},
   Doi = {10.1037/0012-1649.15.3.350},
   Key = {fds256139}
}

@article{fds256140,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The impact of personality and social status factors upon
             levels of activity and psychological well-being.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {840-847},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronj/33.6.840},
   Abstract = {The fact that the relationship between levels of activity
             and psychological well-being is not a simple one that
             suggests an optimal theory of aging has been previously
             recognized. Explanation of individual differences in levels
             of activity and psychological well-being, however, remains a
             salient theoretical issue. In the present study, multiple
             regression is used to examine the impact of both personality
             and social status variables upon levels of activity and
             psychological well-being in a sample of 380 white males and
             females, aged 50-76. The results indicate that both
             personality and social status factors are significant
             predictors, although levels of activity and psychological
             well-being are best predicted by different variables. The
             most striking finding of the study is the substantial power
             of personality factors to significantly predict
             psychological well-being.},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/33.6.840},
   Key = {fds256140}
}

@article{fds256141,
   Author = {Okun, MA and Siegler, IC and George, LK},
   Title = {Cautiousness and verbal learning in adulthood.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {94-97},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/618972},
   Abstract = {Twenty-two young (age 17-21)and 22 old (age 60-74) men and
             women participated in an investigation designed to determine
             the extent to which age differences in omission errors and
             performance in a serial learning task are accounted for by
             cautiousness. Age differences were found on the measures of
             cautiousness, and verbal learning, with young adults making
             more correct responses and proportionately fewer omission
             errors on the learning task and taking greater risks on the
             risk-taking tasks. The results indicated that cautiousness
             measures accounted for age differences in omission errors
             but not in performance.},
   Key = {fds256141}
}

@article{fds255825,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {(review of) Aging and Communication},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {579-580},
   Year = {1977},
   Key = {fds255825}
}

@article{fds255902,
   Author = {BREYTSPRAAK, LM and GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {MEASUREMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT AND SELF-ESTEEM IN OLDER-PEOPLE
             - STATE OF ART},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {42-42},
   Year = {1977},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1977DX50400032&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255902}
}

@article{fds255913,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {AGING AND COMMUNICATION - OYER,HJ AND OYER,EJ},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {579-579},
   Year = {1977},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1977EE15200011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/0037-7856(77)90181-0},
   Key = {fds255913}
}

@article{fds255924,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK and MADDOX, GL},
   Title = {SUBJECTIVE ADAPTATION TO LOSS OF WORK ROLE -
             LONGITUDINAL-STUDY},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {456-462},
   Year = {1977},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1977DL31400011&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/geronj/32.4.456},
   Key = {fds255924}
}

@article{fds256142,
   Author = {Okun, MA and Siegler, IC and George, LK},
   Title = {Sex differences in serial learning for aged persons with
             high verbal ability},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {165-169},
   Year = {1977},
   Abstract = {Serial rote learning was examined in men and women with high
             verbal ability aged 60-74 years. No sex differences were
             found in total errors, commission errors, or omissions
             errors. The results are in accord with the findings reported
             in a study by Wilkie and Eisdorfer (1977) and suggest that
             high verbal ability may, in part, mediate sex differences in
             serial learning.},
   Key = {fds256142}
}

@article{fds256143,
   Author = {George, LK and Maddox, GL},
   Title = {Subjective Adaptation to Loss of the Work Role: A
             Longitudinal Study},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {32},
   Pages = {356-362},
   Year = {1977},
   Key = {fds256143}
}

@article{fds288504,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Sex Differences in Serial Learning for Older Persons with
             High Verbal Ability},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {165-169},
   Publisher = {Taylor & Francis (Routledge): STM, Behavioural Science
             and Public Health Titles},
   Year = {1977},
   ISSN = {1096-4657},
   Key = {fds288504}
}

@article{fds303876,
   Author = {George, LK and Maddox, GL},
   Title = {Subjective Adaptation to Loss of the Work Role: A
             Longitudinal Study},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology},
   Number = {32},
   Pages = {356-362},
   Year = {1977},
   Key = {fds303876}
}

@article{fds256144,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA},
   Title = {Analysis of Covariance in Aging Research
             Revisited.},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {147-151},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds256144}
}

@article{fds255867,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA},
   Title = {Misuse of analysis of covariance in aging research
             revisited},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {449-459},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0361-073X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03610737608258002},
   Abstract = {Storandt and Hudson’s treatment of the issue of which
             general linear model technique is preferable to use when age
             effects are confounded is misleading. Contrary to their
             position that hierarchical ANOVA or step-wise multiple
             regression is superior to ANCOVA, it is demonstrated, using
             hypothetical data, that identical amounts of variance can be
             explained by ANCOVA relative to hierarchical ANOVA and
             multiple regression. Multiple regression is recommended as
             the most appropriate technique for a variety of pragmatic
             reasons concerning calculation of significance tests, the
             distinction between gross and net effects, and the choice of
             the metric used in measurement. © 1976 Taylor & Francis
             Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03610737608258002},
   Key = {fds255867}
}

@article{fds303877,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA},
   Title = {Analysis of Covariance in Aging Research
             Revisited},
   Journal = {Experimental Aging Research},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {147-151},
   Year = {1976},
   Key = {fds303877}
}

@article{fds255888,
   Author = {GEORGE, LK},
   Title = {SOCIALIZATION TO OLD-AGE - PATH ANALYTIC
             MODEL},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {76-76},
   Year = {1975},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1975AR18200202&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255888}
}

@article{fds255662,
   Author = {George, LK and Atchley, RC},
   Title = {Symptomatic Measures of Age},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {332-336},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds255662}
}

@article{fds303919,
   Author = {Atchley, RC and George, LKSMOA},
   Title = {Symptomatic Measures of Age},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {332-336},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds303919}
}

@article{fds256124,
   Author = {Atchley, RC and George, LK},
   Title = {Symptomatic Measures of Age},
   Journal = {The Gerontologist},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {332-336},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds256124}
}


%% Articles and Chapters   
@article{fds167091,
   Author = {George, L.K.},
   Title = {Social Support in Adulthood},
   Booktitle = {Encylodepia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Publishing},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D.},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds167091}
}


%% Preprints   
@article{fds17562,
   Author = {George, L.K.},
   Title = {Religion and Health in Life Course Perspective},
   Booktitle = {Religious Influences on Health and Well-Being in the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {K.W. Schaie and N. Krause},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17562}
}

@article{fds17563,
   Author = {Koenig, H.G. and George, L.K. and Titus, P.},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and health in Medically Ill
             Hospitalized Older Patients},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17563}
}

@article{fds17564,
   Author = {Koenig, H.G. and George, L.K. and Titus P. and Meador,
             K.G.},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Acute Hospital and Long-Term
             Care Use by Older Patients},
   Journal = {Archives of Internal Medicine},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17564}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds303872,
   Author = {George, LK and Harrrell, Jr., FE and Clipp, EC},
   Title = {Logistic Regression},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Number = {35},
   Pages = {595-596},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds303872}
}

@misc{fds303912,
   Author = {George, LK and Lynch, SM},
   Title = {Disabled But Happy: Happy Life Expectancy Exceeds Active
             Life Expectancy},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds303912}
}

@misc{fds303913,
   Author = {Lynch, SM and George, LK},
   Title = {Trajectories of Happy Life Expectancy and Active Life
             Expectancy},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds303913}
}

@misc{fds255801,
   Author = {Zheng, H and George, LK},
   Title = {Rising U.S. Income Inequality and The Changing Gradient of
             Socioeconomic Status on Health, 1985-2005},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255801}
}

@misc{fds255802,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Support: More Answers, More Questions},
   Journal = {Mind/Body Medicine},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {80-81},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds255802}
}

@misc{fds2896,
   Author = {George, L.K.},
   Title = {Social Factors and Depression},
   Journal = {The Center Report},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {4},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds2896}
}

@misc{fds255800,
   Author = {George, LK and Gold, DT},
   Title = {Easing Caregiver Burden: An Intervention to Overcome
             Barriers to Service Utilization},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds255800}
}

@misc{fds255799,
   Author = {George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG and Burchett, BM},
   Title = {Respite Care: A Strategy for Easing Caregiver
             Burden},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds255799}
}

@misc{fds2894,
   Author = {George, L.K.},
   Title = {Respite Care: Evaluating a Strategy for Easing Caregiver
             Burden},
   Journal = {Advances in Research},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds2894}
}

@misc{fds255798,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Psychological and Social Determinants of Help-Seeking.
             Position paper, NIMH, in preparation for NIMH Depression
             Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment Program},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255798}
}

@misc{fds255795,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Coping With the Challenges of Time. Keynote Address at
             Canadian Association on Gerontology Annual
             Meetings},
   Journal = {Printed in Proceedings of 1984 Canadian Association on
             Gerontology Meetings},
   Publisher = {Vancouver: University of British Columbia.},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255795}
}

@misc{fds255796,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Dynamics of Caregiver Burden},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255796}
}

@misc{fds255797,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Burden of Caregiving: How Much? What Kinds? For
             Whom?},
   Journal = {Advances in Research},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255797}
}

@misc{fds255794,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caregiver Well-Being: Correlates of Burden and Relationships
             with Participation in Community Self-Help
             Groups},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds255794}
}

@misc{fds255793,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, LR and Fillenbaum, GG},
   Title = {Developing Measures of Functional Status and Service
             Utilization: Refining and Extending the OARS
             Methodology},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds255793}
}

@misc{fds255791,
   Author = {George, LK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Coping with Stress and Challenge in Later
             Life},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds255791}
}

@misc{fds255792,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Effects of Marital Status and Social Support on Service
             Utilization in Later Life},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds255792}
}

@misc{fds255790,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, R and Halbur, B},
   Title = {Quality of Care in Nursing Homes: Attitudinal and
             Environmental Factors},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds255790}
}

@misc{fds255788,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Developing Research Tools for Gerontological Research and
             Practice},
   Journal = {Advances in Research},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds255788}
}

@misc{fds255789,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, R},
   Title = {The Meaning and Measurement of Attitudes Toward
             Aging},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds255789}
}

@misc{fds255786,
   Author = {George, LK and Bearon, LB},
   Title = {The Well-Being of Older People},
   Journal = {Durham: Center for the Study of Aging and Human
             Development,},
   Year = {1977},
   Key = {fds255786}
}

@misc{fds255787,
   Author = {George, LK and Wallman, L and Landerman, R},
   Title = {User’s Guide to the LRHS Data Set: 1969 and
             1971},
   Journal = {(Technical Report). Durham: Center for the Study of Aging
             and Human Development, 1977},
   Year = {1977},
   Key = {fds255787}
}

@misc{fds255785,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {A Comparison of Canonical Correlation and Multiple
             Regression in the Analysis of Change},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 1975 Joint Statistical
             Association},
   Publisher = {Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Association,
             1975},
   Year = {1975},
   Key = {fds255785}
}

@misc{fds255784,
   Author = {Cottrell, WF and George, LK and Smith, RW and Atchley,
             RC},
   Title = {Ohio’s Older People: A Report for the 1971 White House
             Conference on Aging},
   Year = {1971},
   Key = {fds255784}
}


%% Book Chapters   
@misc{fds303880,
   Author = {George, LK and Ferraro, KF},
   Title = {Aging and the Social Sciences: Progress and
             Prospects},
   Pages = {3-22},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences: Eighth
             Edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {George, LK and Ferraro, KF},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {9780124172357},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417235-7.00001-9},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The purpose of
             this is to highlight recent advances in social science
             research on aging and identify high priority topics for
             future research. It is organized into four sections. The
             first section reviews theoretical and conceptual
             developments in the field; the second provides an update of
             advances in data, methods, and statistical techniques that
             have become central in aging research. The third and longest
             section reviews three thematic topics that have emerged as
             cutting-edge issues in social research on aging and the life
             course. In the concluding section, we briefly comment upon
             the broader issue of how aging research contributes to major
             issues and assumptions in the social sciences.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-417235-7.00001-9},
   Key = {fds303880}
}

@misc{fds304760,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds304760}
}

@misc{fds303878,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Gerontology},
   Booktitle = {Religion and the Social Sciences: Basic and Applied
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Levin, J},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds303878}
}

@misc{fds303879,
   Author = {George, LK and Elder, GH},
   Title = {Age, Cohorts, and the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Life Course},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Shanahan, M and Mortimer, J and Johnson, MK},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds303879}
}

@misc{fds303881,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging, Mental Health, and Well-Being},
   Booktitle = {Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {WILEY-BLACKWELL},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds303881}
}

@misc{fds303882,
   Author = {George, LK and Young, WB and Foy, SG},
   Title = {Stress Outcomes},
   Booktitle = {Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior,
             and Society},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Cockerham, WC and Dingwall, R and Quah, S},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds303882}
}

@misc{fds255663,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Health and Human Development},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Wright, JD},
   Year = {2015},
   Key = {fds255663}
}

@misc{fds255664,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Wright, JD},
   Year = {2015},
   Key = {fds255664}
}

@misc{fds255667,
   Author = {Swaminathan, MS},
   Title = {Foreword},
   Pages = {v},
   Publisher = {Springer India},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {8132209737},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-81-322-0974-4},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-81-322-0974-4},
   Key = {fds255667}
}

@misc{fds255665,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Elder Care},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Capezuti, L and Malone, MM and Mezey, M},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds255665}
}

@misc{fds255666,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Age Structures, Aging, and the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Gerontology: Perspectives and Issues},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Wilmoth, J and Ferraro, KF},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds255666}
}

@misc{fds255760,
   Author = {Shapiro, S and Tischler, GL and Cottler, L and George, LK and Amirkhan,
             JH and Kessler, LG and Skinner, EA},
   Title = {Health Services Research Questions},
   Pages = {191-208},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780080917986},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-091798-6.50014-2},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-08-091798-6.50014-2},
   Key = {fds255760}
}

@misc{fds255761,
   Author = {George, LK and Holzer, CE and Skinner, EA and Works, J and Timbers, DM and Munson, ML},
   Title = {Data Preparation},
   Pages = {99-115},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiologic Field Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH
             Epidemiologic Catchment Area Program},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780080917986},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-091798-6.50010-5},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-08-091798-6.50010-5},
   Key = {fds255761}
}

@misc{fds255668,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Perspectives on Mental Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Aneshensel, CS and Phelan, J},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds255668}
}

@misc{fds255669,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {As Time Goes By: Gerontological and Life Course
             Musings},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Sociology of Aging and the Life
             Course},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Sattersten, RA and Angel, J},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds255669}
}

@misc{fds255670,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Factors, Depression, and Aging},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Academic Press/Elsevier},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds255670}
}

@misc{fds255773,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {Concise Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G and Ryan, JM},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds255773}
}

@misc{fds255774,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Third Age: Fact or Fiction – and Does It
             Matter?},
   Booktitle = {Gerontology in the Era of the Third Age},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Carr, DC and Komp, K},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds255774}
}

@misc{fds255775,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {As Time Goes By: Gerontological and Life Course
             Musings},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Sociology of Aging and the Life
             Course},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Settersten, RA and Angel, J},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds255775}
}

@misc{fds255843,
   Author = {Zeng, Y and George, LK},
   Title = {Population ageing and old-age insurance in
             China},
   Pages = {420-429},
   Booktitle = {The SAGE Handbook of Social Gerontology},
   Publisher = {SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD},
   Editor = {Dannefer, W.D. and Phillipson, C.},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781412934640},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446200933.n32},
   Doi = {10.4135/9781446200933.n32},
   Key = {fds255843}
}

@misc{fds303883,
   Author = {George, LK and Zeng, Y},
   Title = {Population Ageing and Old Age Insurance in
             China},
   Booktitle = {The Sage Handbook of Social Gerontology},
   Publisher = {Sage Publishing},
   Editor = {Dannefer`, D and Phillipson, C},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds303883}
}

@misc{fds255823,
   Author = {O'Driscoll, MP and Brough, PA and Kalliath, TJ},
   Title = {Stress and Coping},
   Booktitle = {The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Well
             Being},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {Johnson, M},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {9780199211913},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199211913.003.0011},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press, 2013. This article considers
             research in the field of stress and coping via a focus on
             three specific areas: theoretical models of stress and
             coping and of work-related stressors in particular; the
             assessment of strain in work contexts; and coping strategies
             and coping measurement. It introduces and reviews the
             current research in each of these three areas and briefly
             identifies the emerging directions for consideration by
             stress and coping researchers. While the popularity of
             stress research has waxed and waned over the decades, the
             occurrence of major events (wars, technology, globalization)
             combined with advances in theoretical explanations (e.g.,
             the transactional stress process, psychological burnout)
             have ensured that the relationship between individual
             experiences and subsequent health, adaptation, and
             performance remains a pertinent topic of
             enquiry.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199211913.003.0011},
   Key = {fds255823}
}

@misc{fds255673,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social and Economic Factors Related to Psychiatric Disorders
             in Late Life},
   Booktitle = {Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Blazer, D and Stefens, D},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds255673}
}

@misc{fds255839,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Spirituality in Later Life},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Publishing},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds255839}
}

@misc{fds255840,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Matilda White Riley},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Publishing},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds255840}
}

@misc{fds255841,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Conceptualizing and Measuring Trajectories},
   Booktitle = {The Craft of Life Course Research},
   Publisher = {Guilford Press},
   Address = {Long Beach, CA},
   Editor = {Elder, J and Giele, JZ},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds255841}
}

@misc{fds255842,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Factors, Mental Health, and Aging},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences (7th
             edition)},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Address = {San Diego, CA},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds255842}
}

@misc{fds303884,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Conceptualizing and Measuring Trajectories},
   Booktitle = {The Craft of Life Course Studies},
   Publisher = {Guilford},
   Editor = {Elder, Jr., GH and Giele, JZ},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds303884}
}

@misc{fds255804,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Duke
             Experience},
   Pages = {255-284},
   Booktitle = {Interdisciplinary Research: Case Studies from Health and
             Social Science},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {9780195324273},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324273.003.0016},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press, 2014. This chapter presents an
             interdisciplinary study on the links between religion and
             spirituality to health. It discusses the state-of-the
             science with regard to what is known about the links between
             religion and health. It reviews the major questions guiding
             the field, progress to date in answering those questions,
             and important directions for future effort. Throughout this
             review, it highlights the contributions of the research team
             at Duke University to this area of inquiry. The chapter also
             chronicles the history of the research program and describes
             the nuts and bolts, opportunities, and constraints to
             interdisciplinary research at Duke University.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195324273.003.0016},
   Key = {fds255804}
}

@misc{fds255676,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Matilda White Riley},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Sociology},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255676}
}

@misc{fds255836,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Elder Care},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Address = {New York},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255836}
}

@misc{fds255837,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Respite Care},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Elder Care},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Address = {New York},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255837}
}

@misc{fds255844,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Conceptualizing and Measuring Trajectories},
   Booktitle = {The Craft of Life Course Studies},
   Publisher = {Guilford},
   Address = {Long Beach, CA},
   Editor = {Elder, GH and Giele, JZ},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255844}
}

@misc{fds255845,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social and Economic Factors Related to Psychiatric Disorders
             in Later Life},
   Series = {Fourth Edition},
   Booktitle = {Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Address = {Washington, D.C.},
   Editor = {Blazer, DG and Steffens, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255845}
}

@misc{fds255846,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Spirituality in Later Life},
   Booktitle = {Encylopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Sociology},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255846}
}

@misc{fds255847,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Support in Adulthood},
   Booktitle = {Encylopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Sociology},
   Address = {Farmington Hills, MI},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds255847}
}

@misc{fds303885,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Support in Adulthood},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Sociology},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds303885}
}

@misc{fds303886,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Spirituality in Later Life},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of the Life Course and Human
             Development},
   Publisher = {Gale Sociology},
   Editor = {Carr, D},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds303886}
}

@misc{fds303887,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Elder Care},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds303887}
}

@misc{fds303888,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Respite Care},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Elder Care},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds303888}
}

@misc{fds255866,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life course perspectives on social factors and mental
             illness},
   Pages = {191-218},
   Booktitle = {Mental Health, Social Mirror},
   Publisher = {Springer US},
   Editor = {MaclLeod, J.D. and Avison, W.R.},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {038736319X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-36320-2_9},
   Abstract = {Virtually all major issues in the study of mental health
             involve conceptualizing and modeling change. Social
             selection and social causation, estimating the effects of
             stress, identifying other antecedents of mental illness,
             examining the consequences of mental illness - these and
             many other topics require conceptualization of processes and
             analysis of longitudinal data. Despite the centrality of
             dynamic processes to our understanding of mental health and
             illness, most longitudinal studies span relatively short
             periods of time and focus on temporality as a prerequisite
             for causal inference. © 2007 Springer Science+Business
             Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-0-387-36320-2_9},
   Key = {fds255866}
}

@misc{fds255824,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Age Structures, Aging, and the Life Course},
   Series = {Third Edition},
   Booktitle = {Gerontology: Perspectives and Issues},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Address = {New York},
   Editor = {Wilmoth, J and Ferraro, K},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds255824}
}

@misc{fds303889,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Perspectives on Social Factors and Mental
             Illness},
   Booktitle = {Mental Health, Social Mirror},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Avison, WR and McLeod, JD and Pescosolido, BA},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds303889}
}

@misc{fds303890,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Age Structures, Aging, and the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Gerontology: Perspectives and Issues},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Wilmoth, J and Ferraro, K},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds303890}
}

@misc{fds304761,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds304761}
}

@misc{fds255817,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging, Mental Health, and Well-Being},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255817}
}

@misc{fds255818,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255818}
}

@misc{fds255819,
   Author = {Zeng, Y and Liu, Y and George, LK},
   Title = {Female Disadvantages among the Elderly in
             China},
   Booktitle = {Longer Life and Healthy Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Zeng, Y and Crimmins, EM and Carriere, Y and Robine,
             JM},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255819}
}

@misc{fds255820,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self-Esteem},
   Series = {4th edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Schulz, R and Noelker, L and Rockwood, K and Sprott,
             R},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255820}
}

@misc{fds255821,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Series = {4th edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Schulz, R and Noelker, L and Rockwood, K and Sprott,
             R},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255821}
}

@misc{fds255822,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Psychology},
   Booktitle = {The Concise Encyclopedia of Ageism},
   Publisher = {Haworth Press},
   Editor = {Palmore, EB},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds255822}
}

@misc{fds255876,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Perceived Quality of Life},
   Series = {6th edition},
   Pages = {320-336},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Binstock, R. B. and George, L.K.},
   Year = {2006},
   ISBN = {9780120883882},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-012088388-2/50021-3},
   Abstract = {This chapter examines the quality of life (QoL) among older
             adults. The vast majority of research on subjective well
             being (SWB) of an individual focuses on the relationships
             between objective life conditions and perceived life
             quality. A research model discussed in the chapter is based
             on cross-sectional data that is designed to provide both a
             temporal and a conceptual template for understanding the
             determinants of SWB. In addition, the model suggests that
             some of the determinants of SWB will be partially or totally
             mediated by predictors that appear in later stages of the
             model. Among middle-aged and younger adults, income is the
             strongest single predictor of SWB and health is a much
             weaker predictor of SWB than among older adults. Activities
             are conceptualized and measured in multiple ways, ranging
             from those that involve social interaction to purely
             physical forms of activity to detailed categories based on
             time-budget data. All types of activities-social, physical,
             and solitary-predict higher levels of SWB in late life.
             Levels of activity also appear to mediate some of the
             relationships between the basic demographic characteristics
             and the perceived life quality. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/b978-012088388-2/50021-3},
   Key = {fds255876}
}

@misc{fds303892,
   Author = {George, LK and Zeng, Y},
   Title = {Female Disadvantages among the Elderly in
             China},
   Booktitle = {Longer Life and Health Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Zeng, Y and Crimmons, EM and Carriere, Y and Robine,
             JM},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303892}
}

@misc{fds303891,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging, Mental Health, and Well-Being},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303891}
}

@misc{fds303893,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Perceived Quality of Life},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303893}
}

@misc{fds303894,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Shulz, R and Noelker, L and Rockwood, K and Sprott,
             R},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303894}
}

@misc{fds303895,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Stress and Coping},
   Booktitle = {The Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Editor = {Johnson, M},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303895}
}

@misc{fds303896,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Psychology},
   Booktitle = {The Concise Encyclopedia of Ageism},
   Publisher = {Haworth Press},
   Editor = {Palmore, EB},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds303896}
}

@misc{fds255808,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Perceived Quality of Life},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences (6th
             ed)},
   Publisher = {San Diego: Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255808}
}

@misc{fds255809,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging, Mental Health, and Well-Being},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255809}
}

@misc{fds255810,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Sociology of Aging},
   Booktitle = {Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing},
   Editor = {Ritzer, G},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255810}
}

@misc{fds255811,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self-Esteem},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology (4th ed.)},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255811}
}

@misc{fds255812,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology (4th ed.)},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255812}
}

@misc{fds255813,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Age Structures, Aging, and the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Gerontology: Perspectives and Issues (3rd
             ed.)},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Wilmoth, J and Ferraro, K},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255813}
}

@misc{fds255814,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Stress and Coping},
   Booktitle = {The Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, England: Cambridge University
             Press},
   Editor = {Johnson, M},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255814}
}

@misc{fds255815,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Psychology},
   Booktitle = {The Concise Encyclopedia of Ageism},
   Publisher = {Binghamton, N.Y.: Haworth Press},
   Editor = {Palmore, EB},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255815}
}

@misc{fds255816,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Health in Life Course Perspective},
   Booktitle = {Religious Influences on Health and Well-Being in the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Schaie, KW and Krause, N},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds255816}
}

@misc{fds303897,
   Author = {George, LK and Zeng, Y and Yuzhi, L},
   Title = {Female Disadvantages among the Elderly in
             China},
   Booktitle = {Longer Life and Healthy Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Zeng, Y and Crimmins, E and Carriere, Y and Robine,
             J},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds303897}
}

@misc{fds303898,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Religion and Health in Life Course Perspective},
   Booktitle = {Religious Influences on Health and Well-Being in the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Schaie, KW and Krause, N},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds303898}
}

@misc{fds255690,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social and Economic Factors Related to Psychiatric Disorders
             in Late Life},
   Booktitle = {Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Blazer, D and Steffens, DC and Busse, EW},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds255690}
}

@misc{fds255691,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Health Impact of Religious and Spiritual
             Practices},
   Booktitle = {Healing, Intention, and Energy Medicine},
   Publisher = {Elsevier Science},
   Editor = {Jonas, W},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds255691}
}

@misc{fds303899,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Embedding Control Beliefs in Social and Cultural
             Context},
   Booktitle = {Societal Impacts on Personal Control in the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Shaie, KW and Zarit, S},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds303899}
}

@misc{fds17558,
   Author = {George, L.K.},
   Title = {Religion, Spirituality, and Health: The Duke
             Experience},
   Booktitle = {Expanding the Boundaries of Health: Bio-Behavioral-Social
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {New York: Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {F. Kessel},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17558}
}

@misc{fds255805,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Embedding Control Beliefs in Social and Cultural
             Context},
   Booktitle = {Societal Impacts on Personal Control in the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Schaie, KW and Zarit, S},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds255805}
}

@misc{fds255806,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {What Life Course Perspectives Offer the Study of Aging and
             Health},
   Booktitle = {A New Look at Old Age: An Invitation to the Life
             Course},
   Publisher = {Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company},
   Editor = {R A Settersten and J},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds255806}
}

@misc{fds255807,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The health impact of religious and spiritual
             practices},
   Pages = {3-12},
   Booktitle = {Healing, Intention and Energy Medicine},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {W. Jonas},
   Year = {2003},
   ISBN = {9780443072376},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-443-07237-6.50006-1},
   Doi = {10.1016/b978-0-443-07237-6.50006-1},
   Key = {fds255807}
}

@misc{fds255835,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Research: Achievements and Potential},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Life Course},
   Publisher = {New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press},
   Editor = {Mortimer, JT and Shanahan, ME},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds255835}
}

@misc{fds303900,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Research: Achievements and Potential},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Life Course},
   Publisher = {Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers},
   Editor = {Mortimer, JT and Shanahan, ME},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds303900}
}

@misc{fds303901,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {What Life Course Perspectives Offer the Study of Aging and
             Health},
   Booktitle = {A New Look at Old Age: An Invitation to the Life
             Course},
   Publisher = {Baywood Publishing},
   Editor = {Settersen, Jr., RA},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds303901}
}

@misc{fds303914,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Health Impact of Religious and Spiritual
             Practices},
   Booktitle = {Healing, Intention, and Energy Medicine},
   Publisher = {Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier Science},
   Editor = {Jonas, W},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds303914}
}

@misc{fds255857,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Health and Human Development},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {London; Elsevier},
   Editor = {Smelser, NJ and Baltes, PB},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds255857}
}

@misc{fds255858,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Satisfaction},
   Booktitle = {Principles and Practice of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {London: John Wiley & Son},
   Editor = {Copeland, J and Abou-Satch, M and Blazer, DG},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds255858}
}

@misc{fds303902,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Satisfaction},
   Booktitle = {Principles and Practice of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {John Wiley & Sons},
   Editor = {Copeland, J and Abou-Saleh, M and Blazer, D},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds303902}
}

@misc{fds309973,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Health and Human Development},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Smelser, NJ and Baltes, PB},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds309973}
}

@misc{fds255856,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caring and Community-Based Voluntary Organizations},
   Booktitle = {The Lost Art of Caring},
   Publisher = {Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press},
   Editor = {Cluff, LE and Binstock, RH},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds255856}
}

@misc{fds255855,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization},
   Series = {third edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds255855}
}

@misc{fds255854,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {The Social Psychology of Health},
   Series = {fifth edition},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {San Diego: Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds255854}
}

@misc{fds255699,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self-esteem},
   Series = {third edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds255699}
}

@misc{fds255700,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Series = {third edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds255700}
}

@misc{fds303905,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {. The Social Psychology of Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds303905}
}

@misc{fds303903,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caring and Community-Based Voluntary Organizations},
   Booktitle = {The Lost Art of Caring},
   Publisher = {Johns Hopkins University Press},
   Editor = {Cluff, LE and Binstock, RH},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds303903}
}

@misc{fds303904,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Gerontology},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds303904}
}

@misc{fds255853,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Well-Being and Sense of Self: What We Know and What We Need
             to Know},
   Booktitle = {Societal Impact of the Aging Self},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Schaie, KW and Hendricks, J},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds255853}
}

@misc{fds255852,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging and the Life Course},
   Series = {second edition},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {New York: Macmillan},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {fds255852}
}

@misc{fds303906,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Aging and the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {Macmillan},
   Editor = {Borgatta, EF and Borgatta, ML},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds303906}
}

@misc{fds303907,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Well-Being and Sense of Self: What We Know and What We Need
             to Know},
   Booktitle = {Societal Impact on the Aging Self},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Shaie, KW and Hendricks, J},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds303907}
}

@misc{fds255851,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Perspectives on the Self in Later
             Life},
   Booktitle = {Self and Society in Aging Processes},
   Publisher = {New York: Springer},
   Editor = {Ryff, CD and Marshall, VW},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds255851}
}

@misc{fds255850,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Perspectives on Mental Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Sociology of Mental Health},
   Publisher = {San Diego: Academic Press},
   Editor = {Aneshensel, CS and Phelan, J},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds255850}
}

@misc{fds303908,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Perspectives on the Self in Later
             Life},
   Booktitle = {Self and Society in Aging Processes},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Ryff, CD and Marshall, VW},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds303908}
}

@misc{fds303909,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Course Perspectives on Mental Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of the Sociology of Mental health},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Aneshensel, C and Phelan, J},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds303909}
}

@misc{fds255849,
   Author = {Idler, EL and George, LK},
   Title = {What Sociology Can and Cannot Help Us Understand about
             Religion and Mental Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Religion and Mental Health},
   Publisher = {San Diego: Academic Press},
   Editor = {Koenig, HG},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds255849}
}

@misc{fds303910,
   Author = {George, LK and Idler, EL},
   Title = {What Sociology Can and Cannot Help Us Understand about
             Religion and Mental Health},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Religion and Mental Health},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds303910}
}

@misc{fds303911,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Dignity and Quality of Life in Old Age},
   Booktitle = {Dignity and Old Age},
   Publisher = {Sage},
   Editor = {Moody, HR},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds303911}
}

@misc{fds255708,
   Author = {George, LK and Clipp, EC and Elder, Jr., GH and Pieper,
             CF},
   Title = {Trajectories of Health in Aging Populations},
   Booktitle = {Rural Health and Aging Research: Theory, Methods and
             Practical Applications},
   Publisher = {Baywood Publishing},
   Editor = {Gesler, WM and Rabiner, DJ and DeFriese, GH},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds255708}
}

@misc{fds255709,
   Author = {George, LK and Elder, Jr, GH and Shanahan, MJ},
   Title = {Psychosocial Stress Over the Life Course},
   Booktitle = {Psychosocial Stress: Perspectives on Structure, Theory, Life
             Course, and Methods},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds255709}
}

@misc{fds255710,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social and economic factors related to psychiatric disorders
             in late life},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Busse, EW and Blazer, D},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds255710}
}

@misc{fds255711,
   Author = {George, LK and Scott-Lennox, J},
   Title = {The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Health
             Services Use Among Older Americans},
   Booktitle = {Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {Levin, BL and Petrila, J},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds255711}
}

@misc{fds255712,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Factors and Illness},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds255712}
}

@misc{fds255713,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255713}
}

@misc{fds255714,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self-Esteem},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {MAddox, GL},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255714}
}

@misc{fds255715,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Respite Care},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255715}
}

@misc{fds255716,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255716}
}

@misc{fds255717,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Affect Balance Scale},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds255717}
}

@misc{fds255718,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Adaptation},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds255718}
}

@misc{fds255719,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caregiving},
   Booktitle = {Older Americans Almanac},
   Publisher = {Gale Research, Inc},
   Editor = {Manheimer, RJ},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds255719}
}

@misc{fds255720,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Satisfaction},
   Booktitle = {The Psychiatry of Old Age: An International
             Textbook},
   Publisher = {John Wiley},
   Editor = {Copeland, JRM and Abou-Saleh, MT and Blazer, D},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds255720}
}

@misc{fds255721,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Factors and Depression in Late Life},
   Booktitle = {Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Late
             Life},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Schneider, LS and Raynolds, CF and Lebowitz, B and Friedoff,
             A},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds255721}
}

@misc{fds255722,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events: Influence on Adult Development},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Adult Development},
   Publisher = {Oryx Press},
   Editor = {Kastenbaum, R},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds255722}
}

@misc{fds255723,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Depressive Disorders and Symptoms in Later
             Life},
   Booktitle = {Mental Health and Aging: Progress and Prospects},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Smyer, MA},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds255723}
}

@misc{fds255724,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Economic Status and Subjective Well Being},
   Booktitle = {Aging, Money, and Life Satisfaction},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Cutler, NE and Gregg, DW and Lawton, MP},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds255724}
}

@misc{fds255725,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Community and Home Care for Mentally Ill Older
             Adults},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Mental Health and Aging},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Birren, JE and Sloane, RB and Cohen, GD},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds255725}
}

@misc{fds255726,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Gerontology},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Sociology},
   Publisher = {Macmillan},
   Editor = {Borgatta, EF and Borgatta, ML},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds255726}
}

@misc{fds255727,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Factors and the Onset and Outcome of
             Depression.},
   Booktitle = {Aging, Health Behaviors, and Health Outcomes},
   Publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates},
   Editor = {Schaie, KW and House, DG and Blazer, D},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds255727}
}

@misc{fds255728,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, D},
   Title = {The Epidemiology of Mental Illness in Rural
             Areas},
   Booktitle = {Health and Safety in Agriculture},
   Publisher = {CRC Press},
   Editor = {Dosman, JA and Cockcroft, DW},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds255728}
}

@misc{fds255729,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, DG and Hughes, D and Swartz, M and Boyer,
             J},
   Title = {Generalized Anxiety Disorder},
   Booktitle = {Psychiatric Disorders in America},
   Publisher = {Free Press},
   Editor = {Robins, LN and Regier, DA},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds255729}
}

@misc{fds255730,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, R and Blazer, D and Anthony,
             JA},
   Title = {Cognitive Impairment: Prevalence, Correlates, and
             Consequences},
   Booktitle = {Psychiatric Disorders in America},
   Publisher = {Free Press},
   Editor = {Robins, LN and Regier, DA},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds255730}
}

@misc{fds255731,
   Author = {George, LK and Swartz, M and Landerman, R and Blazer, D and Escobar,
             J},
   Title = {Somatization Disorder},
   Booktitle = {Psychiatric Disorders in America},
   Publisher = {Free Press},
   Editor = {Robins, LN and Regier, DA},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds255731}
}

@misc{fds255732,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Vulnerability and Social Factors},
   Booktitle = {Understanding and Serving Vulnerable Older Adults and
             Aged},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Harel, Z and Ehrlich, P and Hubbard, R},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds255732}
}

@misc{fds255733,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Structure, Social Processes, and Social Psychological
             States},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Binstock, RH and George, LK},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds255733}
}

@misc{fds255734,
   Author = {George, LK and Maddox, GL},
   Title = {Social Aspects of Institutional Care},
   Booktitle = {Aging and Health Care: Social Science and Policy
             Perspectives},
   Publisher = {Tavistock},
   Editor = {Ory, MG and Bond, K},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255734}
}

@misc{fds255735,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Services Research: Research Problems and
             Possibilities},
   Booktitle = {Alzheimer's Disease Treatment and Family Stress: Directions
             for Research},
   Publisher = {U.S. Government Printing Office},
   Editor = {Light, E and Lebowitz, BD},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255735}
}

@misc{fds255736,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, DG and Woodbury, MA and Manton,
             KG},
   Title = {Internal Consistency of DSM III Diagnoses},
   Booktitle = {The Validity of Psychiatric Diagnosis},
   Publisher = {Raven Press},
   Editor = {robins, LN and Barrett, JE},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255736}
}

@misc{fds255737,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Definition, Classification, and Measurement of Mental Health
             Services},
   Booktitle = {The Future of Mental Health Services Research},
   Publisher = {Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
             Office},
   Editor = {Taube, CA and Mechanic, D},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255737}
}

@misc{fds255738,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Stress, Social Support, and Depression over the Life
             Course},
   Booktitle = {Aging, Stress and Health},
   Publisher = {John Wiley},
   Editor = {Markides, KS and Cooper, CL},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255738}
}

@misc{fds255739,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Economic Factors},
   Booktitle = {Geriatric Psychiatry},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Busse, EW and Blazer, DG},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255739}
}

@misc{fds255740,
   Author = {George, LK and Gold, DT},
   Title = {Job Loss in Middle Age},
   Booktitle = {Coping with Losses in Middle Age},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Editor = {Kalish, R},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255740}
}

@misc{fds255741,
   Author = {George, LK and Landerman, R and Blazer, D and Melville,
             ML},
   Title = {Concurrent Morbidity between Physical and Mental Illness: An
             Epidemiological Examination},
   Booktitle = {Mechanisms of Psychological Influence on Physical Health,
             with Special Attention to the Elderly},
   Publisher = {Plenum},
   Editor = {Carstensen, LL and Neale, J},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds255741}
}

@misc{fds255742,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Social Participation in Later Life: Black White
             Differences},
   Booktitle = {The Black American Elderly: Research on Physical and
             Psychosocial Health},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Jackson, JS},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds255742}
}

@misc{fds255743,
   Author = {George, LK and Hughes, LK},
   Title = {Schizophrenic Symptoms in an Elderly Community
             Population.},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiology and Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Brody, J and Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds255743}
}

@misc{fds255744,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, DG and Winfield Laird and I and Leaf,
             PJ},
   Title = {Psychiatric Disorders and Mental Health Service Use in Later
             Life: Evidence from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area
             Program},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiology and Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Brody, J and Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds255744}
}

@misc{fds255745,
   Author = {George, LK and Gwyther, LP},
   Title = {Support Groups for Caregivers of Memory Impaired Elderly:
             Easing Caregiver Burden},
   Booktitle = {Families in Transition: Primary Prevention Programs That
             Work},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Editor = {Bond, LA and Wagner, BM},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds255745}
}

@misc{fds255746,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Easing Caregiver Burden: The Role of Informal and Formal
             Supports},
   Booktitle = {Health and Aging: Sociological Issues and Policy
             Directions},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Ward, RA and Tobin, SS},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255746}
}

@misc{fds255747,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Non Familial Support for Older Persons: Who Is Out There and
             How Can They Be Reached?},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Applied Gerontology},
   Publisher = {Human Sciences Press},
   Editor = {Lesnoff Caravaglia and G},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255747}
}

@misc{fds255748,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Respite Care},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255748}
}

@misc{fds255749,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255749}
}

@misc{fds255750,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Self Esteem},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255750}
}

@misc{fds255751,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Life Events},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255751}
}

@misc{fds255752,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Affect Balance Scale},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255752}
}

@misc{fds255753,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Adaptation},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Aging},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Editor = {Maddox, GL},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds255753}
}

@misc{fds255754,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, D and Crowell, Jr, BA and Landerman,
             R},
   Title = {Urban/rural Differences in Depressive Disorders: Does Age
             Make a Difference?},
   Booktitle = {Mental Disorder in the Community: Progress and
             Challenge},
   Publisher = {Guilford Press},
   Editor = {Barrett, J},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255754}
}

@misc{fds255755,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Caregiver Burden: Conflict Between Norms of Reciprocity and
             Solidarity},
   Booktitle = {Conflict and Abuse in Families of the Elderly: Theory,
             Research, and Intervention},
   Publisher = {Auburn Hosue},
   Editor = {Pillemer, K and Wolf, R},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255755}
}

@misc{fds255756,
   Author = {George, LK and Gatz, M and Siegler, IC and Tyler,
             FB},
   Title = {Attributional Components of Locus of Control: Cross
             sectional and Longitudinal Analyses},
   Booktitle = {Aging and the Psychology of Control},
   Publisher = {Erlbaum},
   Editor = {Baltes, MM and Baltes, PB},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255756}
}

@misc{fds255757,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, D and Landerman, R},
   Title = {The Phenomenology of Late Life Depression},
   Booktitle = {Psychiatric Disorders in the Elderly},
   Publisher = {The Mental Foundation},
   Editor = {Bebbington, PE and Jacoby, R},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds255757}
}

@misc{fds255762,
   Author = {George, LK and Von Korff and M and Leaf, P and Cottler, L and Burnam, A and Eaton, W},
   Title = {Response Rates and Non Response},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiologic Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area Program},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Eaton, WW and Kessler, LG},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255762}
}

@misc{fds255763,
   Author = {George, LK and German, LP and Spitznagel, E and Landverk, J and Windle,
             C},
   Title = {The Institutional Population},
   Booktitle = {Epidemiologic Methods in Psychiatry: The NIMH Epidemiologic
             Catchment Area Program},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {Kessler, LG and Eaton, WW},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255763}
}

@misc{fds255765,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization to Old Age: A Path Analytic
             Model},
   Booktitle = {Normal Aging III},
   Publisher = {Duke University Press},
   Editor = {Palmore, E and Nowlin, J and Busse, EW and Siegler, IC and Maddox,
             GL},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255765}
}

@misc{fds255767,
   Author = {George, LK and Okun, MA},
   Title = {Self Concept Content in a Sample of Middle Aged and Older
             Adults},
   Booktitle = {Normal Aging III},
   Publisher = {Duke University Press},
   Editor = {Nowlin, PJ and Siegler, IC and Busse, EW and Maddox,
             GL},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds255767}
}

@misc{fds255758,
   Author = {George, LK and Blazer, D and Woodbury, M and Manton, K and Jordan,
             K},
   Title = {The Elderly Alcoholic: A Profile},
   Booktitle = {Nature and Extent of Alcohol Problems among the
             Elderly},
   Publisher = {National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism},
   Editor = {Maddox, G and Robins, LN and Rosenberg, N},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255758}
}

@misc{fds255759,
   Author = {George, LK and Siegler, IC},
   Title = {Aging, Stress, and Health},
   Booktitle = {Aging and Technological Advances},
   Publisher = {Plenum Press},
   Editor = {Robinson, P and Livingston, J and Birren, JE},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255759}
}

@misc{fds255764,
   Author = {George, LK and Winfield Laird and I},
   Title = {The Aging of U.S. College and University
             Faculty},
   Booktitle = {New Directions for Teaching and Learning: Teaching and
             Aging},
   Publisher = {Jossey-Bass},
   Editor = {Mehrotra, CMN},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255764}
}

@misc{fds255766,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Institutionalized},
   Booktitle = {Handbook on the Aged in the United States},
   Publisher = {Greenwood Press},
   Editor = {Palmore, E},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds255766}
}

@misc{fds255768,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Socialization, Roles, and Identity in Later
             Life},
   Volume = {IV},
   Booktitle = {Research in the Sociology of Education and Socialization,
             Volume-IV: Personal Change Over the Life
             Course.},
   Publisher = {JAI Press},
   Editor = {Kerckhoff, AC},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds255768}
}

@misc{fds255769,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Nursing Turnover in Long Term Care Institutions},
   Booktitle = {Research in the Sociology of Work, Volume II: Peripheral
             Workers},
   Publisher = {JAI Press},
   Editor = {Simpson, IH and Simpson, RL},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds255769}
}

@misc{fds255771,
   Author = {George, LK and Breytspraak, LM},
   Title = {Self Concept and Self Esteem},
   Volume = {1},
   Booktitle = {Research Instruments in Social Gerontology, Volume 1:
             Clinical and Social Psychology},
   Publisher = {University of Minnesota Press},
   Editor = {Mangen, DJ and Peterson, WA},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds255771}
}

@misc{fds255770,
   Author = {George, LK},
   Title = {Subjective Well Being: Conceptual and Methodological
             Issues},
   Booktitle = {Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds255770}
}

@misc{fds255772,
   Author = {George, LK and Maddox, GL},
   Title = {Adaptation to Loss of the Work Role.},
   Booktitle = {Dimensions of Aging},
   Publisher = {Winthrop},
   Editor = {Hendricks, J and Davis Hendricks and C},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds255772}
}


%% Work In Progress   
@misc{fds154343,
   Author = {Lynch, S.M. and George, L.K.},
   Title = {Trajectories of Happy Life Expectancy and Active Life
             Expectancy},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds154343}
}

@misc{fds154342,
   Author = {George, L.K. and Lynch, S.M.},
   Title = {Disabled But Happy: Happy Life Expectancy Exceeds Active
             Life Expectancy},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds154342}
}


%% Presented Papers   
@article{fds255927,
   Author = {Hastings, SN and George, LK and Fillenbaum, GG and Park, RS and Burchett, BM and Schmader, KE},
   Title = {Does social support predict emergency department utilization
             in older adults?},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {S72-S73},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-8614},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000237069300211&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255927}
}

@article{fds255917,
   Author = {George, LK and Hays, JC and Flint, EP and Meador,
             KG},
   Title = {Religion and health in life course perspective},
   Journal = {RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES ON HEALTH AND WELL-BEING IN THE
             ELDERLY},
   Pages = {246-282},
   Year = {2004},
   ISBN = {0-8261-2404-6},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000223339000016&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds255917}
}


%% Under Review   
@article{fds53227,
   Author = {Durpre, M.E. and George, L.K.},
   Title = {Exceptions to the Rule: Exceptional Health among the
             Disadvantaged},
   Journal = {Research on Aging},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds53227}
}


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