Psychology and Neuroscience Faculty Database
Psychology and Neuroscience
Arts & Sciences
Duke University

 HOME > Arts & Sciences > pn > Faculty    Search Help Login pdf version printable version 

Publications of Richard S. Keefe    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds339773,
   Author = {Wang, C and Lee, J and Ho, NF and Lim, JKW and Poh, JS and Rekhi, G and Krishnan, R and Keefe, RSE and Adcock, RA and Wood, SJ and Fornito, A and Chee, MWL and Zhou, J},
   Title = {Large-Scale Network Topology Reveals Heterogeneity in
             Individuals With at Risk Mental State for Psychosis:
             Findings From the Longitudinal Youth-at-Risk
             Study.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {4234-4243},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhx278},
   Abstract = {Emerging evidence demonstrates heterogeneity in clinical
             outcomes of prodromal psychosis that only a small percentage
             of at-risk individuals eventually progress to full-blown
             psychosis. To examine the neurobiological underpinnings of
             this heterogeneity from a network perspective, we tested
             whether the early patterns of large-scale brain network
             topology were associated with risk of developing clinical
             psychosis. Task-free functional MRI data were acquired from
             subjects with At Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis and
             healthy controls (HC). All individuals had no history of
             drug abuse and were not on antipsychotics. We performed
             functional connectomics analysis to identify patterns of
             system-level functional brain dysconnectivity associated
             with ARMS individuals with different outcomes. In comparison
             to HC and ARMS who did not transition to psychosis at
             follow-up (ARMS-NT), ARMS individuals who did (ARMS-T)
             showed marked brain functional dysconnectivity,
             characterized by loss of network segregation and disruption
             of network communities, especially the salience, default,
             dorsal attention, sensorimotor and limbic networks (P < 0.05
             FWE-corrected, Cohen's d > 1.00), and was associated with
             baseline symptom severity. In contrast, we did not observe
             connectivity differences between ARMS-NT and HC individuals.
             Taken together, these results suggest a possible large-scale
             functional brain network topology phenotype related to risk
             of psychosis transition in ARMS individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhx278},
   Key = {fds339773}
}

@article{fds336077,
   Author = {Yang, Z and Lim, K and Lam, M and Keefe, R and Lee, J},
   Title = {Factor structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale
             (PANSS) in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for
             psychosis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {201},
   Pages = {85-90},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2018.05.024},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION:The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             (PANSS), a comprehensive psychopathology assessment scale
             used in the evaluation of psychopathology in schizophrenia,
             is also often used in the Ultra-High-Risk (UHR) population.
             This paper examined the dimensional structure of the PANSS
             in a UHR sample. METHODS:A total of 168 individuals assessed
             to be at UHR for psychosis on the Comprehensive Assessment
             of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS) were evaluated on the
             PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS),
             Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Brief Assessment of Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (BACS), and Global Assessment of
             Functioning (GAF). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the
             PANSS was performed to identify the factorial structure.
             Convergent validity was explored with the CAARMS, CDSS, BAI
             and BACS. RESULTS:EFA of the PANSS yielded five symptom
             factors - Positive, Negative, Cognition/Disorganization,
             Anxiety/Depression, and Hostility. This 5-factor solution
             showed good convergent validity with the CAARMS composite
             score, CDSS, BAI, and BACS. Positive, Negative and
             Anxiety/Depression factors were associated with functioning.
             CONCLUSION:The reported PANSS factor structure may serve to
             improve the understanding and measurement of clinical
             symptom dimensions manifested in people with UHR for future
             research and clinical setting.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2018.05.024},
   Key = {fds336077}
}

@article{fds339669,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Pani, L},
   Title = {Take This Cognitive Training Efficacy Bar Fight Outside (to
             a Regulatory Agency).},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry. Cognitive Neuroscience and
             Neuroimaging},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {900-902},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.002},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bpsc.2018.09.002},
   Key = {fds339669}
}

@article{fds338438,
   Author = {Kraus, MS and Walker, TM and Jarskog, LF and Millet, RA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Basic auditory processing deficits and their association
             with auditory emotion recognition in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2018.08.031},
   Abstract = {<label>BACKGROUND</label>Individuals with schizophrenia are
             impaired in their ability to recognize emotions based on
             vocal cues and these impairments are associated with poor
             global outcome. Basic perceptual processes, such as auditory
             pitch processing, are impaired in schizophrenia and
             contribute to difficulty identifying emotions. However,
             previous work has focused on a relatively narrow assessment
             of auditory deficits and their relation to emotion
             recognition impairment in schizophrenia.<label>METHODS</label>We
             have assessed 87 patients with schizophrenia and 73 healthy
             controls on a comprehensive battery of tasks spanning the
             five empirically derived domains of auditory function. We
             also explored the relationship between basic auditory
             processing and auditory emotion recognition within the
             patient group using correlational analysis.<label>RESULTS</label>Patients
             exhibited widespread auditory impairments across multiple
             domains of auditory function, with mostly medium effect
             sizes. Performance on all of the basic auditory tests
             correlated with auditory emotion recognition at the
             p < .01 level in the patient group, with 9 out of 13
             tests correlating with emotion recognition at r = 0.40
             or greater. After controlling for cognition, many of the
             largest correlations involved spectral processing within the
             phase-locking range and discrimination of vocally based
             stimuli.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>While many auditory skills
             contribute to this impairment, deficient formant
             discrimination appears to be a key skill contributing to
             impaired emotion recognition as this was the only basic
             auditory skill to enter a step-wise multiple regression
             after first entering a measure of cognitive impairment, and
             formant discrimination accounted for significant unique
             variance in emotion recognition performance after accounting
             for deficits in pitch processing.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2018.08.031},
   Key = {fds338438}
}

@article{fds337700,
   Author = {Lam, M and Lee, J and Rapisarda, A and See, YM and Yang, Z and Lee, S-A and Abdul-Rashid, NA and Kraus, M and Subramaniam, M and Chong, S-A and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Longitudinal Cognitive Changes in Young Individuals at
             Ultrahigh Risk for Psychosis.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {929-939},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1668},
   Abstract = {Cognitive deficits are a key feature of risk for psychosis.
             Longitudinal changes in cognitive architecture may be
             associated with the social and occupational functioning in
             young people.To examine longitudinal profiles of cognition
             in individuals at ultrahigh risk (UHR) for psychosis,
             compared with healthy controls, and to investigate the
             association of cognition with functioning.This study has a
             multiple-group prospective design completed in 24 months and
             was conducted from January 1, 2009, to November 11, 2012, as
             part of the Longitudinal Youth at-Risk Study conducted in
             Singapore. Participants either were recruited from
             psychiatric outpatient clinics, educational institutions,
             and community mental health agencies or self-referred.
             Follow-up assessments were performed every 6 months for 2
             years or until conversion to psychosis. Individuals with
             medical causes for psychosis, current illicit substance use,
             or color blindness were excluded. Data analysis was
             conducted from June 2014 to May 2018.Neuropsychological,
             perceptual, and social cognitive tasks; semi-structured
             interviews, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV
             Axis I disorders were administered every 6 months. The UHR
             status of nonconverters, converters, remitters, and
             nonremitters was monitored. Cognitive domain scores and
             functioning were investigated longitudinally.In total, 384
             healthy controls and 173 UHR individuals between ages 14 and
             29 years were evaluated prospectively. Of the 384 healthy
             controls, 153 (39.8%) were female and 231 (60.2%) were male
             with a mean (SD) age of 21.69 (3.26) years. Of the 173
             individuals at UHR for psychosis, 56 (32.4%) were female and
             117 (67.6%) were male with a mean (SD) age of 21.27 (3.52)
             years). After 24 months of follow-up, 383 healthy controls
             (99.7%) and 122 individuals at UHR for psychosis (70.5%)
             remained. Baseline cognitive deficits were associated with
             psychosis conversion later (mean odds ratio [OR], 1.66;
             combined 95% CI, 1.08-2.83; P = .04) and nonremission of
             UHR status (mean OR, 1.67; combined 95% CI, 1.09-2.95;
             P = .04). Five cognitive components-social cognition,
             attention, verbal fluency, general cognitive function, and
             perception-were obtained from principal components analysis.
             Longitudinal component structure change was observed in
             general cognitive function (maximum vertical
             deviation = 0.59; χ2 = 8.03; P = .01).
             Group-by-time interaction on general cognitive function
             (F = 12.23; η2 = 0.047; P < .001) and
             perception (F = 8.33; η2 = 0.032; P < .001) was
             present. Changes in attention (F = 5.65;
             η2 = 0.013; P = .02) and general cognitive function
             (F = 7.18; η2 = 0.014; P = .01) accounted for
             longitudinal changes in social and occupational
             functioning.Individuals in this study who met the UHR
             criteria appeared to demonstrate cognitive deficits, and
             those whose UHR status remitted were seen to recover
             cognitively. Cognition appeared as poor in nonremitters and
             appeared to be associated with poor functional outcome. This
             study suggests that cognitive dimensions are sensitive to
             the identification of young individuals at risk for
             psychosis and to the longitudinal course of those at highest
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1668},
   Key = {fds337700}
}

@article{fds332787,
   Author = {Xavier, RM and Dungan, JR and Keefe, RSE and Vorderstrasse,
             A},
   Title = {Polygenic signal for symptom dimensions and cognitive
             performance in patients with chronic schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research. Cognition},
   Volume = {12},
   Pages = {11-19},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2018.01.001},
   Abstract = {Genetic etiology of psychopathology symptoms and cognitive
             performance in schizophrenia is supported by candidate gene
             and polygenic risk score (PRS) association studies. Such
             associations are reported to be dependent on several factors
             - sample characteristics, illness phase, illness severity
             etc. We aimed to examine if schizophrenia PRS predicted
             psychopathology symptoms and cognitive performance in
             patients with chronic schizophrenia. We also examined if
             schizophrenia associated autosomal loci were associated with
             specific symptoms or cognitive domains. Case-only analysis
             using data from the Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness-Schizophrenia trials
             (n = 730). PRS was constructed using Psychiatric
             Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave one out genome wide
             association analysis as the discovery data set. For
             candidate region analysis, we selected 105-schizophrenia
             associated autosomal loci from the PGC study. We found a
             significant effect of PRS on positive symptoms at
             p-threshold (PT ) of 0.5 (R2 = 0.007, p = 0.029,
             empirical p = 0.029) and negative symptoms at PT of
             1e-07 (R2 = 0.005, p = 0.047, empirical
             p = 0.048). For models that additionally controlled for
             neurocognition, best fit PRS predicted positive (p-threshold
             0.01, R2 = 0.007, p = 0.013, empirical
             p = 0.167) and negative symptoms (p-threshold 0.1,
             R2 = 0.012, p = 0.004, empirical p = 0.329). No
             associations were seen for overall neurocognitive and social
             cognitive performance tests. Post-hoc analyses revealed that
             PRS predicted working memory and vigilance performance but
             did not survive correction. No candidate regions that
             survived multiple testing corrections were associated with
             either symptoms or cognitive performance. Our findings point
             to potentially distinct pathogenic mechanisms for
             schizophrenia symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.scog.2018.01.001},
   Key = {fds332787}
}

@article{fds329375,
   Author = {Blokland, GAM and Del Re and EC and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Jovicich, J and Trampush, JW and Keshavan, MS and DeLisi, LE and Walters, JTR and Turner, JA and Malhotra, AK and Lencz, T and Shenton, ME and Voineskos,
             AN and Rujescu, D and Giegling, I and Kahn, RS and Roffman, JL and Holt,
             DJ and Ehrlich, S and Kikinis, Z and Dazzan, P and Murray, RM and Di Forti,
             M and Lee, J and Sim, K and Lam, M and Wolthusen, RPF and de Zwarte, SMC and Walton, E and Cosgrove, D and Kelly, S and Maleki, N and Osiecki, L and Picchioni, MM and Bramon, E and Russo, M and David, AS and Mondelli, V and Reinders, AATS and Falcone, MA and Hartmann, AM and Konte, B and Morris,
             DW and Gill, M and Corvin, AP and Cahn, W and Ho, NF and Liu, JJ and Keefe,
             RSE and Gollub, RL and Manoach, DS and Calhoun, VD and Schulz, SC and Sponheim, SR and Goff, DC and Buka, SL and Cherkerzian, S and Thermenos,
             HW and Kubicki, M and Nestor, PG and Dickie, EW and Vassos, E and Ciufolini, S and Reis Marques and T and Crossley, NA and Purcell, SM and Smoller, JW and van Haren, NEM and Toulopoulou, T and Donohoe, G and Goldstein, JM and Seidman, LJ and McCarley, RW and Petryshen,
             TL},
   Title = {The Genetics of Endophenotypes of Neurofunction to
             Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS) consortium: A collaborative
             cognitive and neuroimaging genetics project.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {195},
   Pages = {306-317},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.09.024},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Schizophrenia has a large genetic component, and
             the pathways from genes to illness manifestation are
             beginning to be identified. The Genetics of Endophenotypes
             of Neurofunction to Understand Schizophrenia (GENUS)
             Consortium aims to clarify the role of genetic variation in
             brain abnormalities underlying schizophrenia. This article
             describes the GENUS Consortium sample collection. METHODS:We
             identified existing samples collected for schizophrenia
             studies consisting of patients, controls, and/or individuals
             at familial high-risk (FHR) for schizophrenia. Samples had
             single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data or genomic
             DNA, clinical and demographic data, and neuropsychological
             and/or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Data
             were subjected to quality control procedures at a central
             site. RESULTS:Sixteen research groups contributed data from
             5199 psychosis patients, 4877 controls, and 725 FHR
             individuals. All participants have relevant demographic data
             and all patients have relevant clinical data. The sex ratio
             is 56.5% male and 43.5% female. Significant differences
             exist between diagnostic groups for premorbid and current IQ
             (both p<1×10-10). Data from a diversity of
             neuropsychological tests are available for 92% of
             participants, and 30% have structural MRI scans (half also
             have diffusion-weighted MRI scans). SNP data are available
             for 76% of participants. The ancestry composition is 70%
             European, 20% East Asian, 7% African, and 3% other.
             CONCLUSIONS:The Consortium is investigating the genetic
             contribution to brain phenotypes in a schizophrenia sample
             collection of >10,000 participants. The breadth of data
             across clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and MRI
             modalities provides an important opportunity for elucidating
             the genetic basis of neural processes underlying
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.09.024},
   Key = {fds329375}
}

@article{fds336078,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Nomikos, G and Zhong, W and Christensen, MC and Jacobson,
             W},
   Title = {A Subgroup Analysis of the Impact of Vortioxetine on
             Functional Capacity, as Measured by UPSA, in Patients with
             Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Cognitive
             Dysfunction.},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {442-447},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyy020},
   Abstract = {Background:We evaluated vortioxetine's effects on functional
             capacity in demographic and clinical subgroups of patients
             with major depressive disorder. Methods:This was an
             exploratory analysis of the CONNECT study (NCT01564862) that
             evaluated changes in functional capacity using University of
             California San Diego Performance-based Skills Assessment
             data, categorized by sex, age, education, employment status,
             and baseline disease severity (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression
             Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of
             Illness). Results:Greater changes in University of
             California San Diego Performance-based Skills Assessment
             composite scores were observed with vortioxetine vs placebo
             in specific subgroups: males (∆+3.2), females (∆+2.9),
             45-54 or ≥55 years (∆+5.6, ∆+3.4), working (∆+2.8),
             high school or greater education (∆+2.7, ∆+2.8), disease
             severity (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale, <30,
             ∆+3.5; ≥30, ∆+2.5; Clinical Global
             Impressions-Severity of Illness ≤4, ∆+2.8; >4, ∆+3.0),
             major depressive episodes (≤2, >2 [∆+2.7,+3.3]), and
             episode duration (≤22, >22 weeks [∆+3.7,+2.4]).
             Conclusions:Our findings support the need for additional
             studies to assess whether vortioxetine improves functional
             capacity within specific patient subgroups. Clinical Trial
             Registry:clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01564862.},
   Doi = {10.1093/ijnp/pyy020},
   Key = {fds336078}
}

@article{fds336079,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Khan, A and Saoud, JB and Staner, C and Davidson, M and Luthringer, R},
   Title = {Cognitive Effects of MIN-101 in Patients With Schizophrenia
             and Negative Symptoms: Results From a Randomized Controlled
             Trial.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.17m11753},
   Abstract = {Current dopamine-blocking antipsychotic drugs have little
             impact on the cognitive deficits associated with
             schizophrenia. We evaluated whether MIN-101, a molecule that
             combines sigma-2 antagonism and 5-HT2A antagonism, might
             improve cognitive deficits in individuals with moderate to
             severe negative symptoms in schizophrenia.Individuals (N =
             244) aged 18 to 60 years with stable symptoms of
             DSM-5-defined schizophrenia and moderate to severe negative
             symptoms were randomized to placebo (n = 83), MIN-101 32 mg
             (n = 78), or MIN-101 64 mg (n = 83) in a 12-week, phase 2b,
             prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
             parallel-group trial between May 2015 and December 2015. In
             a post hoc analysis, mean z and T score changes from
             baseline at 12 weeks of treatment in the cognitive composite
             score and individual tests on the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) Battery were compared
             between MIN-101 and placebo.A total of 79 patients (95.2%)
             from the placebo group, 76 (97.4%) from the MIN-101 32 mg
             group, and 79 (95.2%) from the MIN-101 64 mg group completed
             the BACS at baseline. The BACS token motor (P = .04), verbal
             fluency (P = .01), and composite z scores (P = .05) showed
             significant improvements in the MIN-101 32 mg group compared
             to the placebo group. At week 4, the clinical improvements
             from baseline in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             (PANSS) negative factor showed a significant correlation
             with improvements from baseline on the BACS composite in the
             64 mg group (r = -0.292, P = .020). At week 12, improvement
             in the PANSS negative factor showed significant correlations
             with improvements in the BACS composite (r = -0.408, P =
             .002), Trail Making Test (r = -0.394, P = .003), and verbal
             memory (r = -0.322, P = .017) for the 64 mg group.Results
             suggest a possible benefit of MIN-101 on cognitive
             performance in individuals with schizophrenia with stable
             positive symptoms and concurrent clinically significant
             negative symptoms.EU Clinical Trials Register identifier:
             2014-004878-42​.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.17m11753},
   Key = {fds336079}
}

@article{fds329482,
   Author = {Xavier, RM and Vorderstrasse, A and Keefe, RSE and Dungan,
             JR},
   Title = {Genetic correlates of insight in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {195},
   Pages = {290-297},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.10.021},
   Abstract = {Insight in schizophrenia is clinically important as it is
             associated with several adverse outcomes. Genetic
             contributions to insight are unknown. We examined genetic
             contributions to insight by investigating if polygenic risk
             scores (PRS) and candidate regions were associated with
             insight. METHOD:Schizophrenia case-only analysis of the
             Clinical Antipsychotics Trials of Intervention Effectiveness
             trial. Schizophrenia PRS was constructed using Psychiatric
             Genomics Consortium (PGC) leave-one out GWAS as discovery
             data set. For candidate regions, we selected 105
             schizophrenia-associated autosomal loci and 11
             schizophrenia-related oligodendrocyte genes. We used
             regressions to examine PRS associations and set-based
             testing for candidate analysis. RESULTS:We examined data
             from 730 subjects. Best-fit PRS at p-threshold of 1e-07 was
             associated with total insight (R2=0.005, P=0.05, empirical
             P=0.054) and treatment insight (R2=0.005, P=0.048, empirical
             P=0.048). For models that controlled for neurocognition, PRS
             significantly predicted treatment insight but at higher
             p-thresholds (0.1 to 0.5) but did not survive correction.
             Patients with highest polygenic burden had 5.9 times
             increased risk for poor insight compared to patients with
             lowest burden. PRS explained 3.2% (P=0.002, empirical
             P=0.011) of variance in poor insight. Set-based analyses
             identified two variants associated with poor insight-
             rs320703, an intergenic variant (within-set P=6e-04, FDR
             P=0.046) and rs1479165 in SOX2-OT (within-set P=9e-04, FDR
             P=0.046). CONCLUSION:To the best of our knowledge, this is
             the first study examining genetic basis of insight. We
             provide evidence for genetic contributions to impaired
             insight. Relevance of findings and necessity for replication
             are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.10.021},
   Key = {fds329482}
}

@article{fds336080,
   Author = {Shafee, R and Nanda, P and Padmanabhan, JL and Tandon, N and Alliey-Rodriguez, N and Kalapurakkel, S and Weiner, DJ and Gur, RE and Keefe, RSE and Hill, SK and Bishop, JR and Clementz, BA and Tamminga,
             CA and Gershon, ES and Pearlson, GD and Keshavan, MS and Sweeney, JA and McCarroll, SA and Robinson, EB},
   Title = {Polygenic risk for schizophrenia and measured domains of
             cognition in individuals with psychosis and
             controls.},
   Journal = {Translational Psychiatry},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0124-8},
   Abstract = {Psychotic disorders including schizophrenia are commonly
             accompanied by cognitive deficits. Recent studies have
             reported negative genetic correlations between schizophrenia
             and indicators of cognitive ability such as general
             intelligence and processing speed. Here we compare the
             effect of polygenetic risk for schizophrenia (PRSSCZ) on
             measures that differ in their relationships with psychosis
             onset: a measure of current cognitive abilities (the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, BACS) that is
             greatly reduced in psychotic disorder patients, a measure of
             premorbid intelligence that is minimally affected by
             psychosis onset (the Wide-Range Achievement Test, WRAT); and
             educational attainment (EY), which covaries with both BACS
             and WRAT. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism
             (SNP) data from 314 psychotic and 423 healthy research
             participants in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for
             Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) Consortium, we investigated
             the association of PRSSCZ with BACS, WRAT, and EY. Among
             apparently healthy individuals, greater genetic risk for
             schizophrenia (PRSSCZ) was significantly associated with
             lower BACS scores (r = -0.17, p = 6.6 × 10-4 at
             PT = 1 × 10-4), but not with WRAT or EY. Among
             individuals with psychosis, PRSSCZ did not associate with
             variations in any of these three phenotypes. We further
             investigated the association between PRSSCZ and WRAT in more
             than 4500 healthy subjects from the Philadelphia
             Neurodevelopmental Cohort. The association was again null
             (p > 0.3, N = 4511), suggesting that different
             cognitive phenotypes vary in their etiologic relationship
             with schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41398-018-0124-8},
   Key = {fds336080}
}

@article{fds327061,
   Author = {Kendler, KS and Ohlsson, H and Keefe, RSE and Sundquist, K and Sundquist, J},
   Title = {The joint impact of cognitive performance in adolescence and
             familial cognitive aptitude on risk for major psychiatric
             disorders: a delineation of four potential pathways to
             illness.},
   Journal = {Molecular Psychiatry},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1076-1083},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2017.78},
   Abstract = {How do joint measures of premorbid cognitive ability and
             familial cognitive aptitude (FCA) reflect risk for a
             diversity of psychiatric and substance use disorders? To
             address this question, we examined, using Cox models, the
             predictive effects of school achievement (SA) measured at
             age 16 and FCA-assessed from SA in siblings and cousins, and
             educational attainment in parents-on risk for 12 major
             psychiatric syndromes in 1 140 608 Swedes born
             1972-1990. Four developmental patterns emerged. In the
             first, risk was predicted jointly by low levels of SA and
             high levels of FCA-that is a level of SA lower than would be
             predicted from the FCA. This pattern was strongest in autism
             spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, and weakest in bipolar
             illness. In these disorders, a pathologic process seems to
             have caused cognitive functioning to fall substantially
             short of familial potential. In the second pattern, seen in
             the internalizing conditions of major depression and anxiety
             disorders, risk was associated with low SA but was unrelated
             to FCA. Externalizing disorders-drug abuse and alcohol use
             disorders-demonstrated the third pattern, in which risk was
             predicted jointly by low SA and low FCA. The fourth pattern,
             seen in eating disorders, was directly opposite of that
             observed in externalizing disorders with risk associated
             with high SA and high FCA. When measured together,
             adolescent cognitive ability and FCA identified four
             developmental patterns leading to diverse psychiatric
             disorders. The value of cognitive assessments in psychiatric
             research can be substantially increased by also evaluating
             familial cognitive potential.},
   Doi = {10.1038/mp.2017.78},
   Key = {fds327061}
}

@article{fds327210,
   Author = {Xavier, RM and Pan, W and Dungan, JR and Keefe, RSE and Vorderstrasse,
             A},
   Title = {Unraveling interrelationships among psychopathology
             symptoms, cognitive domains and insight dimensions in
             chronic schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {193},
   Pages = {83-90},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.07.002},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION:Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have
             a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and
             cognition. However, very few studies have examined models
             that explain these interrelationships. METHODS:In a large
             sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials
             of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial
             (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for
             potential causal pathways using structural equation
             modeling. Using the NIMH consensus model, latent variables
             were constructed for psychopathology symptom dimensions,
             including positive, negative, disorganized, excited and
             depressed from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             (PANSS) items. Neurocognitive variables were created from
             five predefined domains of working memory, verbal memory,
             reasoning, vigilance and processing speed. Illness insight
             and treatment insight were tested using latent variables
             constructed from the Illness and Treatment Attitude
             Questionnaire (ITAQ). RESULTS:Disorganized symptoms had the
             strongest effect on insight. Illness insight mediated the
             relationship of positive, depressed, and disorganized
             symptoms with treatment insight. Neurocognition mediated the
             relationship between disorganized and treatment insight and
             depressed symptoms and treatment insight. There was no
             effect of negative symptoms on either illness insight or
             treatment insight. Taken together, our results indicate
             overlapping and unique relational paths for illness and
             treatment insight dimensions, which could suggest
             differences in causal mechanisms and potential interventions
             to improve insight.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.07.002},
   Key = {fds327210}
}

@article{fds326634,
   Author = {Hochberger, WC and Combs, T and Reilly, JL and Bishop, JR and Keefe,
             RSE and Clementz, BA and Keshavan, MS and Pearlson, GD and Tamminga, CA and Hill, SK and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Deviation from expected cognitive ability across psychotic
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {192},
   Pages = {300-307},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.019},
   Abstract = {Patients with schizophrenia show a deficit in cognitive
             ability compared to estimated premorbid and familial
             intellectual abilities. However, the degree to which this
             pattern holds across psychotic disorders and is familial is
             unclear. The present study examined deviation from expected
             cognitive level in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder,
             and psychotic bipolar disorder probands and their
             first-degree relatives. Using a norm-based regression
             approach, parental education and WRAT-IV Reading scores
             (both significant predictors of cognitive level in the
             healthy control group) were used to predict global
             neuropsychological function as measured by the composite
             score from the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS) test in probands and relatives. When
             compared to healthy control group, psychotic probands showed
             a significant gap between observed and predicted BACS
             composite scores and a greater likelihood of robust
             cognitive decline. This effect was not seen in unaffected
             relatives. While BACS and WRAT-IV Reading scores were
             themselves highly familial, the decline in cognitive
             function from expectation had lower estimates of
             familiality. Thus, illness-related factors such as
             epigenetic, treatment, or pathophysiological factors may be
             important causes of illness related decline in cognitive
             abilities across psychotic disorders. This is consistent
             with the markedly greater level of cognitive impairment seen
             in affected individuals compared to their unaffected family
             members.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.05.019},
   Key = {fds326634}
}

@article{fds337740,
   Author = {Healey, KM and Penn, DL and Perkins, D and Woods, SW and Keefe, RSE and Addington, J},
   Title = {Latent Profile Analysis and Conversion to Psychosis:
             Characterizing Subgroups to Enhance Risk
             Prediction.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {286-296},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbx080},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Groups at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing
             psychosis are heterogeneous, composed of individuals with
             different clusters of symptoms. It is likely that there
             exist subgroups, each associated with different symptom
             constellations and probabilities of conversion.
             METHOD:Present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to
             ascertain subgroups in a combined sample of CHR (n = 171)
             and help-seeking controls (HSCs; n = 100; PREDICT study).
             Indicators in the LPA model included baseline Scale of
             Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS), Calgary Depression Scale for
             Schizophrenia (CDSS), and neurocognitive performance as
             measured by multiple instruments, including category
             instances (CAT). Subgroups were further characterized using
             covariates measuring demographic and clinical features.
             RESULTS:Three classes emerged: class 1 (mild, transition
             rate 5.6%), lowest SOPS and depression scores, intact
             neurocognitive performance; class 2 (paranoid-affective,
             transition rate 14.2%), highest suspiciousness, mild
             negative symptoms, moderate depression; and class 3
             (negative-neurocognitive, transition rate 29.3%), highest
             negative symptoms, neurocognitive impairment, social
             cognitive impairment. Classes 2 and 3 evidenced poor social
             functioning. CONCLUSIONS:Results support a subgroup approach
             to research, assessment, and treatment of help-seeking
             individuals. Class 3 may be an early risk stage of
             developing schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbx080},
   Key = {fds337740}
}

@article{fds339319,
   Author = {Atkins, AS and Khan, A and Ulshen, D and Vaughan, A and Balentin, D and Dickerson, H and Liharska, LE and Plassman, B and Welsh-Bohmer, K and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Assessment of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in
             Older Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline Using the
             Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool
             (VRFCAT).},
   Journal = {The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer'S
             Disease},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {216-234},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2018.28},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Continuing advances in the understanding of
             Alzheimer's disease progression have inspired development of
             disease-modifying therapeutics intended for use in
             preclinical populations. However, identification of
             clinically meaningful cognitive and functional outcomes for
             individuals who are, by definition, asymptomatic remains a
             significant challenge. Clinical trials for prevention and
             early intervention require measures with increased
             sensitivity to subtle deficits in instrumental activities of
             daily living (IADL) that comprise the first functional
             declines in prodromal disease. Validation of potential
             endpoints is required to ensure measure sensitivity and
             reliability in the populations of interest. OBJECTIVES:The
             present research validates use of the Virtual Reality
             Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) for
             performance-based assessment of IADL functioning in older
             adults (age 55+) with subjective cognitive decline.
             DESIGN:Cross-sectional validation study. SETTING:All
             participants were evaluated on-site at NeuroCog Trials,
             Durham, NC, USA. PARTICIPANTS:Participants included 245
             healthy younger adults ages 20-54 (131 female), 247 healthy
             older adults ages 55-91 (151 female) and 61 older adults
             with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) ages 56-97 (45
             female). MEASURES:Virtual Reality Functional Capacity
             Assessment Tool; Brief Assessment of Cognition App;
             Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Prevention Instrument
             Project - Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument;
             Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Instrumental
             Activities of Daily Living - Prevention Instrument,
             University of California, San Diego Performance-Based Skills
             Assessment - Validation of Intermediate Measures; Montreal
             Cognitive Assessment; Trail Making Test- Part B.
             RESULTS:Participants with SCD performed significantly worse
             than age-matched normative controls on all VRFCAT endpoints,
             including total completion time, errors and forced
             progressions (p≤0001 for all, after Bonferonni
             correction). Consistent with prior findings, both groups
             performed significantly worse than healthy younger adults
             (age 20-54). Participants with SCD also performed
             significantly worse than controls on objective cognitive
             measures. VRFCAT performance was strongly correlated with
             cognitive performance. In the SCD group, VRFCAT performance
             was strongly correlated with cognitive performance across
             nearly all tests with significant correlation coefficients
             ranging from 0.3 to 0.7; VRFCAT summary measures all had
             correlations greater than r=0.5 with MoCA performance and
             BAC App Verbal Memory (p<0.01 for all). CONCLUSIONS:Findings
             suggest the VRFCAT provides a sensitive tool for evaluation
             of IADL functioning in individuals with subjective cognitive
             decline. Strong correlations with cognition across groups
             suggest the VRFCAT may be uniquely suited for clinical
             trials in preclinical AD, as well as longitudinal
             investigations of the relationship between cognition and
             function.},
   Doi = {10.14283/jpad.2018.28},
   Key = {fds339319}
}

@article{fds337108,
   Author = {Romero, HR and Monsch, AU and Hayden, KM and Plassman, BL and Atkins,
             AS and Keefe, RSE and Brewster, S and Chiang, C and O'Neil, J and Runyan,
             G and Atkinson, MJ and Crawford, S and Budur, K and Burns, DK and Welsh-Bohmer, KA},
   Title = {TOMMORROW neuropsychological battery: German language
             validation and normative study.},
   Journal = {Alzheimer'S & Dementia (New York, N. Y.)},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {314-323},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2018.06.009},
   Abstract = {Assessment of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires
             reliable and validated methods to detect subtle cognitive
             changes. The battery of standardized cognitive assessments
             that is used for diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive
             impairment due to AD in the TOMMORROW study have only been
             fully validated in English-speaking countries. We conducted
             a validation and normative study of the German language
             version of the TOMMORROW neuropsychological test battery,
             which tests episodic memory, language, visuospatial ability,
             executive function, and attention.German-speaking
             cognitively healthy controls (NCs) and subjects with AD were
             recruited from a memory clinic at a Swiss medical center.
             Construct validity, test-retest, and alternate form
             reliability were assessed in NCs. Criterion and discriminant
             validities of the cognitive measures were tested using
             logistic regression and discriminant analysis.
             Cross-cultural equivalency of performance of the German
             language tests was compared with English language tests.A
             total of 198 NCs and 25 subjects with AD (aged
             65-88 years) were analyzed. All German language tests
             discriminated NCs from persons with AD. Episodic memory
             tests had the highest potential to discriminate with almost
             twice the predictive power of any other domain. Test-retest
             reliability of the test battery was adequate, and alternate
             form reliability for episodic memory tests was supported.
             For most tests, age was a significant predictor of group
             effect sizes; therefore, normative data were stratified by
             age. Validity and reliability results were similar to those
             in the published US cognitive testing literature.This study
             establishes the reliability and validity of the German
             language TOMMORROW test battery, which performed similarly
             to the English language tests. Some variations in test
             performance underscore the importance of regional normative
             values. The German language battery and normative data will
             improve the precision of measuring cognition and diagnosing
             incident mild cognitive impairment due to AD in clinical
             settings in German-speaking countries.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.trci.2018.06.009},
   Key = {fds337108}
}

@article{fds326113,
   Author = {Eum, S and Hill, SK and Rubin, LH and Carnahan, RM and Reilly, JL and Ivleva, EI and Keedy, SK and Tamminga, CA and Pearlson, GD and Clementz,
             BA and Gershon, ES and Keshavan, MS and Keefe, RSE and Sweeney, JA and Bishop, JR},
   Title = {Cognitive burden of anticholinergic medications in psychotic
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {190},
   Pages = {129-135},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.03.034},
   Abstract = {Patients with psychotic disorders are often treated with
             numerous medications, many of which have anticholinergic
             activity. We assessed cognition in relation to the
             cumulative anticholinergic burden of multiple drugs included
             in treatment regimens of participants from the
             Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes
             (B-SNIP) study.Clinically stable participants with
             schizophrenia (n=206), schizoaffective disorder (n=131), and
             psychotic bipolar disorder (n=146) were examined.
             Anticholinergic properties of all scheduled drugs were
             quantified using the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS). ADS
             scores were summed across individual drugs to create a total
             ADS burden score for each participant and examined in
             relation to the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS).Anticholinergic burden aggregated
             across all medications was inversely related to cognitive
             performance starting at ADS scores of 4 in participants with
             schizophrenia. Those with ADS scores ≥4 had lower
             composite BACS scores compared to those with ADS<4
             (p=0.004). Among BACS subtests, Verbal Memory was the most
             adversely affected by high anticholinergic burden. Despite
             similar anticholinergic burden scores across groups, a
             significant threshold effect of anticholinergic burden was
             not detected in schizoaffective or psychotic bipolar
             disorder.We identified an adverse effect threshold of
             anticholinergic burden on cognition in clinically stable
             participants with schizophrenia. This relationship was not
             identified in affective psychoses. Examination of other
             medications, doses, and clinical measures did not account
             for these findings. Patients with schizophrenia may have
             increased cognitive susceptibility to anticholinergic
             medications and the aggregate effects of one's medication
             regimen may be important to consider in clinical
             practice.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.03.034},
   Key = {fds326113}
}

@article{fds330046,
   Author = {Ang, MS and Abdul Rashid and NA and Lam, M and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Keefe, RSE and Lee, J},
   Title = {The Impact of Medication Anticholinergic Burden on Cognitive
             Performance in People With Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {651-656},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000790},
   Abstract = {Cognitive deficits are prevalent in people with
             schizophrenia and associated with functional impairments. In
             addition to antipsychotics, pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia
             often includes other psychotropics, and some of these agents
             possess anticholinergic properties, which may impair
             cognition. The objective of this study was to explore the
             association between medication anticholinergic burden and
             cognition in schizophrenia.Seven hundred five individuals
             with schizophrenia completed a neuropsychological battery
             comprising Judgment of Line Orientation Test, Wechsler
             Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Matrix Reasoning,
             Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs Version, and the
             Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Cognitive g
             and 3 cognitive factor scores that include executive
             function, memory/fluency, and speed of processing/vigilance,
             which were derived from a previously published analysis,
             were entered as cognitive variables. Anticholinergic burden
             was computed using 2 anticholinergic scales: Anticholinergic
             Burden Scale and Anticholinergic Drug Scale. Duration and
             severity of illness, antipsychotic dose, smoking status,
             age, and sex were included as covariates.Anticholinergic
             burden was associated with poorer cognitive performance in
             cognitive g, all 3 cognitive domains and most cognitive
             tasks in multivariate analyses. The associations were
             statistically significant, but the effect sizes were small
             (for Anticholinergic Burden Scale, Cohen f = 0.008; for
             Anticholinergic Drug Scale, Cohen f = 0.017).Although our
             results showed a statistically significant association
             between medications with anticholinergic properties and
             cognition in people with schizophrenia, the impact is of
             doubtful or minimal clinical significance.},
   Doi = {10.1097/JCP.0000000000000790},
   Key = {fds330046}
}

@article{fds332788,
   Author = {Khan, A and Liharska, L and Harvey, PD and Atkins, A and Ulshen, D and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative
             Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for
             Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency.},
   Journal = {Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {11-12},
   Pages = {30-40},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie
             negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions
             are understood across localities might result in better
             understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end,
             the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom
             dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits
             and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15
             geographical regions to determine whether the items defining
             them manifest similar reliability across these regions.
             Design: Data were obtained for the baseline Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale visits of 6,889 subjects across 15
             geographical regions. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we
             examined whether a two-factor negative symptom structure
             that is found in schizophrenia (experiential deficits and
             expressive deficits) would be replicated in our sample, and
             using differential item functioning, we tested the degree to
             which specific items from each negative symptom subfactor
             performed across geographical regions in comparison with the
             United States. Results: The two-factor negative symptom
             solution was replicated in this sample. Most geographical
             regions showed moderate-to-large differential item
             functioning for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             expressive deficit items, especially N3 Poor Rapport, as
             compared with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             experiential deficit items, showing that these items might
             be interpreted or scored differently in different regions.
             Across countries, except for India, the differential item
             functioning values did not favor raters in the United
             States. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Positive
             and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor can be
             better represented by a two-factor model than by a
             single-factor model. Additionally, the results show
             significant differences in responses to items representing
             the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive factors,
             but not the experiential factors, across regions. This could
             be due to a lack of equivalence between the original and
             translated versions, cultural differences with the
             interpretation of items, dissimilarities in rater training,
             or diversity in the understanding of scoring anchors.
             Knowing which items are challenging for raters across
             regions can help to guide Positive and Negative Syndrome
             Scale training and improve the results of international
             clinical trials aimed at negative symptoms.},
   Key = {fds332788}
}

@article{fds332789,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Khan, A and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to
             Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of
             Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression
             and Emotional Experience.},
   Journal = {Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {11-12},
   Pages = {18-22},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are
             two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these
             two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using
             an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different
             elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and
             everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with
             performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A
             large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used
             as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses,
             the authors predicted the three different aspects of
             everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global
             negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive
             performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results:
             The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional
             experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance
             in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional
             expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted
             for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor
             alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression
             factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance
             in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the
             addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced
             emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative
             Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and
             anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social
             outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social
             impairments better than emotional expression or the total
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom
             factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional
             experience was specifically related with social outcomes,
             accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday
             activities, and being the sole meaningful predictor of
             impairment in social outcomes.},
   Key = {fds332789}
}

@article{fds327060,
   Author = {Georgiades, A and Davis, VG and Atkins, AS and Khan, A and Walker, TW and Loebel, A and Haig, G and Hilt, DC and Dunayevich, E and Umbricht, D and Sand, M and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Psychometric characteristics of the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery in a large pooled cohort of stable
             schizophrenia patients.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {190},
   Pages = {172-179},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2017.03.040},
   Abstract = {The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed
             to assess cognitive treatment effects in schizophrenia
             clinical trials, and is considered the FDA gold standard
             outcome measure for that purpose. The aim of the present
             study was to establish pre-treatment psychometric
             characteristics of the MCCB in a large pooled sample. The
             dataset included 2616 stable schizophrenia patients enrolled
             in 15 different clinical trials between 2007 and 2016 within
             the United States (94%) and Canada (6%). The MCCB was
             administered twice prior to the initiation of treatment in
             1908 patients. Test-retest reliability and practice effects
             of the cognitive composite score, the neurocognitive
             composite score, which excludes the domain Social Cognition,
             and the subtests/domains were examined using Intra-Class
             Correlations (ICC) and Cohen's d. Simulated regression
             models explored which domains explained the greatest portion
             of variance in composite scores. Test-retest reliability was
             high (ICC=0.88) for both composite scores. Practice effects
             were small for the cognitive (d=0.15) and neurocognitive
             (d=0.17) composites. Simulated bootstrap regression analyses
             revealed that 3 of the 7 domains explained 86% of the
             variance for both composite scores. The domains that entered
             most frequently in the top 3 positions of the regression
             models were Speed of Processing, Working Memory, and Visual
             Learning. Findings provide definitive psychometric
             characteristics and a benchmark comparison for clinical
             trials using the MCCB. The test-retest reliability of the
             MCCB composite scores is considered excellent and the
             learning effects are small, fulfilling two of the key
             criteria for outcome measures in cognition clinical
             trials.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2017.03.040},
   Key = {fds327060}
}

@article{fds326635,
   Author = {Lam, M and Wang, M and Huang, W and Eng, GK and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Kang, S and Keefe, RSE and Lee, J},
   Title = {Establishing the Brief Assessment of Cognition - Short
             form.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {93},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.05.006},
   Abstract = {The study aims to identify and validate a parsimonious
             subset of tests in the commonly used Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) that allows the evaluation
             of global cognitive ability. Several permutations of
             subtests from the BACS were examined to identify the best
             subset of tests to compose the short form measure. The Brief
             Assessment of Cognition-Short Form (BAC-SF) was evaluated
             for convergent validity in healthy and psychiatric samples
             (N = 3718). Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, and Symbol
             Coding subtests were found to best summarize the variance of
             composite scores in both Asian and US Norming samples
             (r = 0.91) indicating that BAC-SF is an appropriate
             approximation of cognitive deficits. Test re-test
             reliability of the BAC-SF was adequate (Intraclass
             Correlation Coefficient (ICC) = 0.73) and showed
             sufficient separation between healthy controls and
             schizophrenia (Average Predictive Accuracy = 79.9%;
             replication = 76.5%). Findings indicate that the BAC-SF an
             could be used as a cognitive screener for large-scale
             clinical and epidemiological studies. The short form does
             not replace the need for comprehensive neuropsychological
             batteries purposed for detailed neuropsychological and
             clinical investigation of cognitive function. Further
             replication of the construct might be necessary in other
             clinical populations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2017.05.006},
   Key = {fds326635}
}

@article{fds330047,
   Author = {Cella, M and Stahl, D and Morris, S and Keefe, RSE and Bell, MD and Wykes,
             T},
   Title = {Effects of cognitive remediation on negative symptoms
             dimensions: exploring the role of working
             memory.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717000757},
   Abstract = {Recent theories suggest that poor working memory (WM) may be
             the cognitive underpinning of negative symptoms in people
             with schizophrenia. In this study, we first explore the
             effect of cognitive remediation (CR) on two clusters of
             negative symptoms (i.e. expressive and social amotivation),
             and then assess the relevance of WM gains as a possible
             mediator of symptom improvement.Data were accessed for 309
             people with schizophrenia from the NIMH Database of
             Cognitive Training and Remediation Studies and a separate
             study. Approximately half the participants received CR and
             the rest were allocated to a control condition. All
             participants were assessed before and after therapy and at
             follow-up. Expressive negative symptoms and social
             amotivation symptoms scores were calculated from the
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. WM was assessed with
             digit span and letter-number span tests.Participants who
             received CR had a significant improvement in WM scores (d =
             0.27) compared with those in the control condition.
             Improvements in social amotivation levels approached
             statistical significance (d = -0.19), but change in
             expressive negative symptoms did not differ between groups.
             WM change did not mediate the effect of CR on social
             amotivation.The results suggest that a course of CR may
             benefit behavioural negative symptoms. Despite hypotheses
             linking memory problems with negative symptoms, the current
             findings do not support the role of this cognitive domain as
             a significant mediator. The results indicate that WM
             improves independently from negative symptoms
             reduction.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0033291717000757},
   Key = {fds330047}
}

@article{fds327058,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Davis, VG and Harvey, PD and Atkins, AS and Haig, GM and Hagino, O and Marder, S and Hilt, DC and Umbricht,
             D},
   Title = {Placebo Response and Practice Effects in Schizophrenia
             Cognition Trials.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {807-814},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.1574},
   Abstract = {Patients' previous experience with performance-based
             cognitive tests in clinical trials for cognitive impairment
             associated with schizophrenia can create practice-related
             improvements. Placebo-controlled trials for cognitive
             impairment associated with schizophrenia are at risk for
             these practice effects, which can be difficult to
             distinguish from placebo effects.To conduct a systematic
             evaluation of the magnitude of practice effects on the
             Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in
             Schizophrenia Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) in
             cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and to
             examine which demographic, clinical, and cognitive
             characteristics were associated with improvement in placebo
             conditions.A blinded review was conducted of data from 813
             patients with schizophrenia who were treated with placebo in
             12 randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted
             mostly in outpatient clinics in North America, Europe, Asia,
             and Latin America from February 22, 2007, to March 1, 2014.
             A total of 779 patients provided data for the primary
             outcome measure at baseline and at least 1 follow-up. Seven
             trials had prebaseline assessments wherein the patients knew
             that they were not receiving treatment, allowing a
             comparison of practice and placebo effects in the same
             patients.Placebo compared with various experimental drug
             treatments.Composite score on the MCCB.Of the 813 patients
             in the study (260 women and 553 men; mean [SD] age, 41.2
             [11.5] years), the mean MCCB composite score at baseline was
             22.8 points below the normative mean, and the mean (SEM)
             total change in the MCCB during receipt of placebo was 1.8
             (0.2) T-score points (95% CI, 1.40-2.18), equivalent to a
             change of 0.18 SD. Practice effects in the 7 studies in
             which there was a prebaseline assessment were essentially
             identical to the postbaseline placebo changes. Baseline
             factors associated with greater improvements in the MCCB
             during receipt of placebo included more depression/anxiety
             (F1,438 = 5.41; P = .02), more motivation
             (F1,272 = 4.63; P = .03), and less improvement from
             screening to baseline (F1,421 = 59.32;
             P < .001).Placebo effects were minimal and associated
             with the number of postbaseline assessments and several
             patient characteristics. Given that the patients performed
             2.28 SDs below normative standards on average at baseline, a
             mean placebo-associated improvement of less than 0.2 SD
             provides evidence that ceiling effects do not occur in these
             trials. These minimal changes in the MCCB could not be
             responsible for effective active treatments failing to
             separate from placebo.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.1574},
   Key = {fds327058}
}

@article{fds324823,
   Author = {Mazhari, S and Ghafaree-Nejad, AR and Soleymani-Zade, S and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the Persian version of the Schizophrenia
             Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) in patients with
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Asian Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {27},
   Pages = {12-15},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2017.02.007},
   Abstract = {The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) is an
             interview-based assessment of cognition that involves
             interviews with patients and informants. The SCoRS has shown
             good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to cognitive
             impairment in schizophrenia, with the advantage of brief
             administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to
             test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the
             SCoRS. A group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and a group
             of 35 healthy controls received the Persian-SCoRS in the
             first session, and a standardized performance-based
             cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS), in the second session.Our results
             indicated that the Persian version of the SCoRS was
             sensitive to cognitive impairment in the patients. The
             Persian SCoRS global rating was significantly associated
             with the composite score generated from the Persian version
             of the BACS and predicted functional outcomes as measured by
             Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health
             Organization Quality of Life (WHO QOL). A Persian version of
             the SCoRS, an interview based measure of cognition that
             included informants, is related to cognitive performance and
             global functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ajp.2017.02.007},
   Key = {fds324823}
}

@article{fds327059,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Kahn, RS},
   Title = {Cognitive Decline and Disrupted Cognitive Trajectory in
             Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {535-536},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0312},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0312},
   Key = {fds327059}
}

@article{fds323546,
   Author = {Atkins, AS and Tseng, T and Vaughan, A and Twamley, EW and Harvey, P and Patterson, T and Narasimhan, M and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the tablet-administered Brief Assessment of
             Cognition (BAC App).},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {181},
   Pages = {100-106},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2016.10.010},
   Abstract = {Computerized tests benefit from automated scoring procedures
             and standardized administration instructions. These methods
             can reduce the potential for rater error. However,
             especially in patients with severe mental illnesses, the
             equivalency of traditional and tablet-based tests cannot be
             assumed. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (BACS) is a pen-and-paper cognitive assessment tool that has
             been used in hundreds of research studies and clinical
             trials, and has normative data available for generating age-
             and gender-corrected standardized scores. A tablet-based
             version of the BACS called the BAC App has been developed.
             This study compared performance on the BACS and the BAC App
             in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. Test
             equivalency was assessed, and the applicability of
             paper-based normative data was evaluated. Results
             demonstrated the distributions of standardized composite
             scores for the tablet-based BAC App and the pen-and-paper
             BACS were indistinguishable, and the between-methods mean
             differences were not statistically significant. The
             discrimination between patients and controls was similarly
             robust. The between-methods correlations for individual
             measures in patients were r>0.70 for most subtests. When
             data from the Token Motor Test was omitted, the
             between-methods correlation of composite scores was r=0.88
             (df=48; p<0.001) in healthy controls and r=0.89 (df=46;
             p<0.001) in patients, consistent with the test-retest
             reliability of each measure. Taken together, results
             indicate that the tablet-based BAC App generates results
             consistent with the traditional pen-and-paper BACS, and
             support the notion that the BAC App is appropriate for use
             in clinical trials and clinical practice.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2016.10.010},
   Key = {fds323546}
}

@article{fds327062,
   Author = {Reilly, JL and Hill, SK and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Clementz, BA and Gershon, E and Keshavan, MS and Pearlson, G and Tamminga, CA and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Impaired Context Processing is Attributable to Global
             Neuropsychological Impairment in Schizophrenia and Psychotic
             Bipolar Disorder.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {397-406},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw081},
   Abstract = {Context processing may reflect a specific cognitive
             impairment in schizophrenia. Whether impaired context
             processing is observed across psychotic disorders or among
             relatives of affected individuals, and whether it is a
             deficit that is independent from the generalized
             neuropsychological deficits seen in psychotic disorders, are
             less established.Schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and
             psychotic bipolar probands (n = 660), their first-degree
             relatives (n = 741), and healthy individuals (n = 308)
             studied by the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate
             Phenotypes consortium performed an expectancy task requiring
             use of contextual information to overcome a pre-potent
             response. Sensitivity for target detection and false alarm
             rates on trials requiring inhibition or goal maintenance
             were measured.Proband groups and relatives with psychosis
             spectrum personality traits demonstrated reduced target
             sensitivity and elevated false alarm rates. False alarm rate
             was higher under inhibition vs goal maintenance conditions
             although this difference was attenuated in schizophrenia and
             schizoaffective proband groups. After accounting for global
             neuropsychological impairment, as reflected by the composite
             score from the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia neuropsychological battery, deficits in
             schizophrenia and bipolar proband groups were no longer
             significant. Performance measures were moderately
             familial.Reduced target detection, but not a specific
             deficit in context processing, is observed across psychotic
             disorders. Impairments in both goal maintenance and response
             inhibition appear to contribute comparably to deficits in
             schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, whereas greater
             difficulty with response inhibition underlies deficits in
             bipolar disorder. Yet, these deficits are not independent
             from the generalized neurocognitive impairment observed in
             schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbw081},
   Key = {fds327062}
}

@article{fds325352,
   Author = {Addington, J and Liu, L and Perkins, DO and Carrion, RE and Keefe, RSE and Woods, SW},
   Title = {The Role of Cognition and Social Functioning as Predictors
             in the Transition to Psychosis for Youth With Attenuated
             Psychotic Symptoms.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-63},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw152},
   Abstract = {In the literature, there have been several attempts to
             develop prediction models for youth who are at clinical high
             risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. Although there are no
             specific clinical or demographic variables that seem to
             consistently predict the later transition to psychosis in
             those CHR youth, in addition to attenuated psychotic
             symptoms, the most commonly occuring predictors tend to be
             poor social functioning and certain cognitive tasks.
             Unfortunately, there has been little attempt to replicate
             alogorithms. A recently published article by Cornblatt et al
             suggested that, for individuals with attentuated psychotic
             symptoms (APS), disorganized communication, suspiciousness,
             verbal memory, and a decline in social functioning were the
             best predictors of later transition to psychosis (the RAP
             model). The purpose of this article was to first test the
             prediction model of Cornblatt et al with a new sample of
             individuals with APS from the PREDICT study. The RAP model
             was not the best fit for the PREDICT data. However, using
             other variables from PREDICT, it was demonstrated that
             unusual thought content, disorganized communication,
             baseline social functioning, verbal fluency, and memory,
             processing speed and age were predictors of later transition
             to psychosis in the PREDICT sample. Although the predictors
             were different in these 2 models, both supported that
             disorganized communication, poor social functioning, and
             verbal memory, were good candidates as predictors for later
             conversion to psychosis.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbw152},
   Key = {fds325352}
}

@article{fds323324,
   Author = {Kraus, M and Rapisarda, A and Lam, M and Thong, JYJ and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Collinson, SL and Chong, SA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Disrupted latent inhibition in individuals at ultra
             high-risk for developing psychosis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research. Cognition},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2016.07.003},
   Abstract = {The addition of off-the-shelf cognitive measures to
             established prodromal criteria has resulted in limited
             improvement in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
             Tests that assess cognitive processes central to
             schizophrenia might better identify those at highest risk.
             The latent inhibition paradigm assesses a subject's tendency
             to ignore irrelevant stimuli, a process integral to healthy
             perceptual and cognitive function that has been hypothesized
             to be a key deficit underlying the development of
             schizophrenia. In this study, 142 young people at ultra
             high-risk for developing psychosis and 105 controls were
             tested on a within-subject latent inhibition paradigm.
             Additionally, we later inquired about the strategy that each
             subject employed to complete the test, and further
             investigated the relationship between reported strategy and
             the extent of latent inhibition exhibited. Unlike controls,
             ultra high-risk subjects did not demonstrate a significant
             latent inhibition effect. This difference between groups
             became greater when controlling for strategy. The lack of
             latent inhibition effect in our ultra high-risk sample
             suggests that individuals at ultra high-risk for psychosis
             are impaired in their allocation of attentional resources
             based on past predictive value of repeated stimuli. This
             fundamental deficit in the allocation of attention may
             contribute to the broader array of cognitive impairments and
             clinical symptoms displayed by individuals at ultra
             high-risk for psychosis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.scog.2016.07.003},
   Key = {fds323324}
}

@article{fds325512,
   Author = {Mahableshwarkar, AR and Zajecka, J and Jacobson, W and Chen, Y and Keefe, RS},
   Title = {A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference,
             Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of
             Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive
             Disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2961},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2016.181},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2016.181},
   Key = {fds325512}
}

@article{fds322122,
   Author = {Wang, C and Ji, F and Hong, Z and Poh, JS and Krishnan, R and Lee, J and Rekhi, G and Keefe, RSE and Adcock, RA and Wood, SJ and Fornito, A and Pasternak, O and Chee, MWL and Zhou, J},
   Title = {Disrupted salience network functional connectivity and
             white-matter microstructure in persons at risk for
             psychosis: findings from the LYRIKS study.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2771-2783},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291716001410},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Salience network (SN) dysconnectivity has been
             hypothesized to contribute to schizophrenia. Nevertheless,
             little is known about the functional and structural
             dysconnectivity of SN in subjects at risk for psychosis. We
             hypothesized that SN functional and structural connectivity
             would be disrupted in subjects with At-Risk Mental State
             (ARMS) and would be associated with symptom severity and
             disease progression. METHOD:We examined 87 ARMS and 37
             healthy participants using both resting-state functional
             magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging.
             Group differences in SN functional and structural
             connectivity were examined using a seed-based approach and
             tract-based spatial statistics. Subject-level functional
             connectivity measures and diffusion indices of disrupted
             regions were correlated with CAARMS scores and compared
             between ARMS with and without transition to psychosis.
             RESULTS:ARMS subjects exhibited reduced functional
             connectivity between the left ventral anterior insula and
             other SN regions. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and
             axial diffusivity were also found along white-matter tracts
             in close proximity to regions of disrupted functional
             connectivity, including frontal-striatal-thalamic circuits
             and the cingulum. FA measures extracted from these disrupted
             white-matter regions correlated with individual symptom
             severity in the ARMS group. Furthermore, functional
             connectivity between the bilateral insula and FA at the
             forceps minor were further reduced in subjects who
             transitioned to psychosis after 2 years. CONCLUSIONS:Our
             findings support the insular dysconnectivity of the proximal
             SN hypothesis in the early stages of psychosis. Further
             developed, the combined structural and functional SN assays
             may inform the prognosis of persons at-risk for
             psychosis.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0033291716001410},
   Key = {fds322122}
}

@article{fds323325,
   Author = {Kantrowitz, JT and Medalia, A and Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Bruder,
             G and Barch, DM and Choo, T and Lee, S and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Dr Kantrowitz and Colleagues Reply.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e1353},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.16lr10887a},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.16lr10887a},
   Key = {fds323325}
}

@article{fds323326,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Davis, VG and Atkins, AS and Vaughan, A and Patterson, T and Narasimhan, M and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {Validation of a Computerized test of Functional
             Capacity.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {175},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {90-96},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2016.03.038},
   Abstract = {Regulatory guidance for schizophrenia cognition clinical
             trials requires that the assessment of cognitive change is
             accompanied by a functionally meaningful endpoint. However,
             currently available measures are challenged by resistance to
             change, psychometric weaknesses, and for interview-based
             assessments, dependence upon the presence of an informant.
             The aims of the current study were to: 1) assess the
             validity, sensitivity, and reliability of the Virtual
             Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) as a
             measure of functional capacity; 2) determine the association
             between performance on the VRFCAT and performance on the
             MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB); and 3) compare
             the metrics of the VRFCAT with the UCSD Performance-based
             Skills Assessment (UPSA). 167 patients with schizophrenia
             and 166 healthy controls completed the VRFCAT, UPSA, and the
             MCCB at baseline. The VRFCAT and UPSA were completed again
             at follow-up. The VRFCAT, MCCB, and UPSA were very sensitive
             to impairment in schizophrenia (d=1.16 to 1.22). High
             test-retest reliability was demonstrated for VRFCAT total
             completion time and the UPSA total score in patients
             (ICC=0.81 and 0.78, respectively). The UPSA demonstrated
             significant practice effects in patients (d=0.35), while the
             VRFCAT did not (d=-0.04). VRFCAT total completion time was
             correlated with both UPSA (r=-0.56, p<0.0001 for patients
             and -0.58, p<0.0001 for controls) and MCCB Composite
             (r=-0.57, p<0.0001 for patients and -0.68, p<0.0001 for
             controls). The VRFCAT is a highly reliable and sensitive
             measure of functional capacity with associations to the UPSA
             and MCCB. These results provide encouraging support for a
             computerized functional capacity assessment for use in
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2016.03.038},
   Key = {fds323326}
}

@article{fds323327,
   Author = {Lim, J and Lee, S-A and Lam, M and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Keefe,
             RSE and Lee, J},
   Title = {The relationship between negative symptom subdomains and
             cognition.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2169-2177},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0033291716000726},
   Abstract = {Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia
             are partially overlapping. However, the nature of the
             relationship between negative symptoms and cognition remains
             equivocal. Recent reviews have demonstrated the presence of
             two negative symptom subdomains, diminished emotional
             expression (DEE) and avolition. In view of this, we sought
             to clarify the relationship between negative symptoms and
             cognitive domains.A total of 687 participants with
             schizophrenia were assessed on measures of psychopathology
             and cognition. Three cognitive factors, namely executive
             function, fluency/memory and speed/vigilance were computed
             from the cognitive tests. Confirmatory factor analysis was
             utilized to examine if a one-factor or two-factor negative
             model was applicable to our sample. Subsequently, the
             relationships between negative symptoms and cognition were
             examined using structural equation modeling.Results
             demonstrated that the two-factor model fitted the data well.
             While negative symptoms were mildly to moderately associated
             with cognition, we found that DEE had unique associations
             with cognition compared to social avolition, contributing to
             the validity of the constructs and suggesting the
             possibility of common underlying substrates in negative
             symptoms and cognition.Our study highlighted the need to
             classify DEE and social avolition separately as both are
             necessary in refining the complex relationship between
             negative symptoms and cognition as well as potentially
             guiding treatment and management of schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0033291716000726},
   Key = {fds323327}
}

@article{fds323333,
   Author = {Cruz, BF and Resende, CBD and Carvalhaes, CF and Cardoso, CS and Teixeira, AL and Keefe, RS and Rocha, FL and Salgado,
             JV},
   Title = {Interview-based assessment of cognition is a strong
             predictor of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia
             and severe negative symptoms.},
   Journal = {Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria (Sao Paulo, Brazil :
             1999)},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {216-221},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2015-1776},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To analyze the correlation between quality of
             life, symptoms, and cognition assessed by the
             interview-based Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS). METHODS:Seventy-nine outpatients diagnosed with
             schizophrenia were evaluated with the Quality of Life Scale
             - Brazilian version (QLS-BR), the SCoRS, and symptoms scales
             (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS]). After
             determining the potential explanatory variables using
             Spearman's correlation and Student's t test results, we ran
             simple, multivariate, and decision-tree regression analyses
             to assess the impact of SCoRS and PANSS ratings on mean
             overall quality of life. RESULTS:Cognitive deficits and
             negative symptoms were the best predictors of quality of
             life. A low degree of negative symptoms (PANSS negative <
             11) was a strong predictor of better quality of life (QLS
             ∼ 75), regardless of SCoRS rating. Among participants with
             more severe negative symptoms, elevated cognitive impairment
             (interviewer SCoRS ∼ 44) was a predictor of worse quality
             of life (QLS ∼ 44). CONCLUSIONS:Cognitive impairment
             determined by interview-based assessment seems to be a
             strong predictor of quality of life in subjects with severe
             negative symptoms. These results support the usefulness of
             SCoRS for cognitive assessment that is relevant to the
             everyday life of patients with schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1590/1516-4446-2015-1776},
   Key = {fds323333}
}

@article{fds323328,
   Author = {Kantrowitz, JT and Sharif, Z and Medalia, A and Keefe, RSE and Harvey,
             P and Bruder, G and Barch, DM and Choo, T and Lee, S and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {A Multicenter, Rater-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of
             Auditory Processing-Focused Cognitive Remediation Combined
             With Open-Label Lurasidone in Patients With Schizophrenia
             and Schizoaffective Disorder.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {799-806},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.15m09998},
   Abstract = {Small-scale studies of auditory processing cognitive
             remediation programs have demonstrated efficacy in
             schizophrenia. We describe a multicenter, rater-blinded,
             randomized, controlled study of auditory-focused cognitive
             remediation, conducted from June 24, 2010, to June 14, 2013,
             and approved by the local institutional review board at all
             sites.Prior to randomization, participants with
             schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR) were stabilized on a standardized
             antipsychotic regimen (lurasidone [40-160 mg/d]), followed
             by randomization to adjunctive cognitive remediation:
             auditory focused (Brain Fitness) versus control (nonspecific
             video games), administered 1-2 times weekly for 30 sessions.
             Coprimary outcome measures included MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and the University of California,
             San Diego, Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief
             scale.120 participants were randomized and completed at
             least 1 auditory-focused cognitive remediation (n = 56) or
             video game control session (n = 64). 74 participants
             completed ≥ 25 sessions and postrandomization assessments.
             At study completion, the change from prestabilization was
             statistically significant for MCCB composite score (d =
             0.42, P < .0001) across groups. Participants randomized to
             auditory-focused cognitive remediation had a trend-level
             higher mean MCCB composite score compared to participants
             randomized to control cognitive remediation (P = .08). After
             controlling for scores at the time of randomization, there
             were no significant between-treatment group differences at
             study completion.Auditory processing cognitive remediation
             combined with lurasidone did not lead to differential
             improvement over nonspecific video games. Across-group
             improvement from prestabilization baseline to study
             completion was observed, but since all participants were
             receiving lurasidone open label, it is difficult to
             interpret the source of these effects. Future studies
             comparing both pharmacologic and behavioral cognitive
             enhancers should consider a 2 × 2 design, using a control
             for both the medication and the cognitive
             remediation.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier:
             NCT01173874.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.15m09998},
   Key = {fds323328}
}

@article{fds323329,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Treating cognitive impairment in depression: an unmet
             need.},
   Journal = {The Lancet. Psychiatry},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {392-393},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366(16)00095-x},
   Doi = {10.1016/s2215-0366(16)00095-x},
   Key = {fds323329}
}

@article{fds323330,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Reichenberg, A},
   Title = {Predicting Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {441-442},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0138},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.0138},
   Key = {fds323330}
}

@article{fds327063,
   Author = {McCleery, A and Green, MF and Hellemann, GS and Baade, LE and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Kern, RS and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Seidman, LJ and Subotnik, KL and Ventura, J and Nuechterlein, KH},
   Title = {Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a
             confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery (MCCB).},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1119},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0033291715002433},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0033291715002433},
   Key = {fds327063}
}

@article{fds322123,
   Author = {Walling, D and Marder, SR and Kane, J and Fleischhacker, WW and Keefe,
             RSE and Hosford, DA and Dvergsten, C and Segreti, AC and Beaver, JS and Toler, SM and Jett, JE and Dunbar, GC},
   Title = {Phase 2 Trial of an Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist
             (TC-5619) in Negative and Cognitive Symptoms of
             Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {335-343},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv072},
   Abstract = {This trial was conducted to test the effects of an alpha7
             nicotinic receptor full agonist, TC-5619, on negative and
             cognitive symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia.In 64
             sites in the United States, Russia, Ukraine, Hungary,
             Romania, and Serbia, 477 outpatients (18-65 years; male 62%;
             55% tobacco users) with schizophrenia, treated with a
             new-generation antipsychotic, were randomized to 24 weeks of
             placebo (n = 235), TC-5619, 5mg (n = 121), or TC-5619, 50 mg
             (n = 121), administered orally once daily. The primary
             efficacy measure was the Scale for the Assessment of
             Negative Symptoms (SANS) composite score. Key secondary
             measures were the Cogstate Schizophrenia Battery (CSB)
             composite score and the University of California San Diego
             Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version (UPSA-B)
             total score. Secondary measures included: Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale in Schizophrenia (PANSS) total and
             subscale scores, SANS domain scores, CSB item scores,
             Clinical Global Impression-Global Improvement (CGI-I) score,
             CGI-Severity (CGI-S) score, and Subject Global
             Impression-Cognition (SGI-Cog) total score.SANS score showed
             no statistical benefit for TC-5619 vs placebo at week 24 (5
             mg, 2-tailed P = .159; 50 mg, P = .689). Likewise, no scores
             of CSB, UPSA-B, PANSS, CGI-I, CGI-S, or SGI-Cog favored
             TC-5619 (P > .05). Sporadic statistical benefit favoring
             TC-5619 in some of these outcome measures were observed in
             tobacco users, but these benefits did not show concordance
             by dose, country, gender, or other relevant measures.
             TC-5619 was generally well tolerated.These results do not
             support a benefit of TC-5619 for negative or cognitive
             symptoms in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbv072},
   Key = {fds322123}
}

@article{fds323331,
   Author = {Hochberger, WC and Hill, SK and Nelson, CLM and Reilly, JL and Keefe,
             RSE and Pearlson, GD and Keshavan, MS and Tamminga, CA and Clementz, BA and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Unitary construct of generalized cognitive ability
             underlying BACS performance across psychotic disorders and
             in their first-degree relatives.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {156-161},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2015.11.022},
   Abstract = {Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in
             psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive
             architecture across psychotic disorders and among their
             respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated.
             The present study examined the latent factor structure of
             the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)
             neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783
             psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective,
             psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and
             396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia
             Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium.
             Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated
             a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups
             and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory
             analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite
             score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their
             loadings on this unitary factor were very high in all groups
             (r≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary
             cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic
             disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy
             controls, and this factor is well measured by the test's
             standard composite score.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2015.11.022},
   Key = {fds323331}
}

@article{fds323332,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Haig, GM and Marder, SR and Harvey, PD and Dunayevich, E and Medalia, A and Davidson, M and Lombardo, I and Bowie, CR and Buchanan,
             RW and Bugarski-Kirola, D and Carpenter, WT and Csernansky, JT and Dago,
             PL and Durand, DM and Frese, FJ and Goff, DC and Gold, JM and Hooker, CI and Kopelowicz, A and Loebel, A and McGurk, SR and Opler, LA and Pinkham,
             AE and Stern, RG},
   Title = {Report on ISCTM Consensus Meeting on Clinical Assessment of
             Response to Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in
             Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-33},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv111},
   Abstract = {If treatments for cognitive impairment are to be utilized
             successfully, clinicians must be able to determine whether
             they are effective and which patients should receive them.
             In order to develop consensus on these issues, the
             International Society for CNS Clinical Trials and
             Methodology (ISCTM) held a meeting of experts on March 20,
             2014, in Washington, DC. Consensus was reached on several
             important issues. Cognitive impairment and functional
             disability were viewed as equally important treatment
             targets. The group supported the notion that sufficient data
             are not available to exclude patients from available
             treatments on the basis of age, severity of cognitive
             impairment, severity of positive symptoms, or the potential
             to benefit functionally from treatment. The group reached
             consensus that cognitive remediation is likely to provide
             substantial benefits in combination with procognitive
             medications, although a substantial minority believed that
             medications can be administered without nonpharmacological
             therapy. There was little consensus on the best methods for
             assessing cognitive change in clinical practice. Some
             participants supported the view that performance-based
             measures are essential for measurement of cognitive change;
             others pointed to their cost and time requirements as
             evidence of impracticality. Interview-based measures of
             cognitive and functional change were viewed as more
             practical, but lacking validity without informant
             involvement or frequent contact from clinicians. The lack of
             consensus on assessment methods was viewed as attributable
             to differences in experience and education among key
             stakeholders and significant gaps in available empirical
             data. Research on the reliability, validity, sensitivity,
             and practicality of competing methods will facilitate
             consensus.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbv111},
   Key = {fds323332}
}

@article{fds323334,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Meltzer, HA and Dgetluck, N and Gawryl, M and Koenig, G and Moebius, HJ and Lombardo, I and Hilt, DC},
   Title = {Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of
             Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor
             Agonist, as a Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in
             Schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3053-3060},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.176},
   Abstract = {Encenicline is a novel, selective α7 nicotinic
             acetylcholine receptor agonist in development for treating
             cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and Alzheimer's
             disease. A phase 2, double-blind, randomized,
             placebo-controlled, parallel-design, multinational study was
             conducted. Patients with schizophrenia on chronic stable
             atypical antipsychotics were randomized to encenicline 0.27
             or 0.9 mg once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary
             efficacy end point was the Overall Cognition Index (OCI)
             score from the CogState computerized battery. Secondary end
             points include MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
             (in US patients), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS) total score, SCoRS global rating, and Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total and subscale and
             cognition factor scores. Of 319 randomized patients, 317
             were included in the safety population, and 307 were
             included in the intent-to-treat population. Notable trends
             in improvement were demonstrated across all cognition
             scales. For the OCI score, the LS mean difference for
             encenicline 0.27 mg vs placebo was significant (Cohen's
             d=0.257; P=0.034). Mean SCoRS total scores decreased showing
             improvement in function over time, and the difference was
             significant for encenicline 0.9 mg vs placebo (P=0.011).
             Furthermore, the difference between encenicline 0.9 mg and
             placebo was significant for the PANSS Cognition Impairment
             Domain (P=0.0098, Cohen's d=0.40) and for the PANSS Negative
             scale (P=0.028, Cohen's d=0.33). Treatment-emergent adverse
             events were reported at similar frequencies across all
             treatment groups (39.0% with placebo, 23.4% with encenicline
             0.27 mg, and 33.3% with encenicline 0.9 mg). Overall,
             encenicline was generally well tolerated and demonstrated
             clinically meaningful improvements in cognition and function
             in patients with schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2015.176},
   Key = {fds323334}
}

@article{fds323335,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {Understanding symbol coding in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {744-746},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.09.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.09.005},
   Key = {fds323335}
}

@article{fds322124,
   Author = {Klauser, P and Zhou, J and Lim, JKW and Poh, JS and Zheng, H and Tng, HY and Krishnan, R and Lee, J and Keefe, RSE and Adcock, RA and Wood, SJ and Fornito, A and Chee, MWL},
   Title = {Lack of Evidence for Regional Brain Volume or Cortical
             Thickness Abnormalities in Youths at Clinical High Risk for
             Psychosis: Findings From the Longitudinal Youth at Risk
             Study.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1285-1293},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbv012},
   Abstract = {There is cumulative evidence that young people in an
             "at-risk mental state" (ARMS) for psychosis show structural
             brain abnormalities in frontolimbic areas, comparable to,
             but less extensive than those reported in established
             schizophrenia. However, most available data come from ARMS
             samples from Australia, Europe, and North America while
             large studies from other populations are missing. We
             conducted a structural brain magnetic resonance imaging
             study from a relatively large sample of 69 ARMS individuals
             and 32 matched healthy controls (HC) recruited from
             Singapore as part of the Longitudinal Youth At-Risk Study
             (LYRIKS). We used 2 complementary approaches: a voxel-based
             morphometry and a surface-based morphometry analysis to
             extract regional gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV)
             and cortical thickness (CT). At the whole-brain level, we
             did not find any statistically significant difference
             between ARMS and HC groups concerning total GMV and WMV or
             regional GMV, WMV, and CT. The additional comparison of 2
             regions of interest, hippocampal, and ventricular volumes,
             did not return any significant difference either. Several
             characteristics of the LYRIKS sample like Asian origins or
             the absence of current illicit drug use could explain, alone
             or in conjunction, the negative findings and suggest that
             there may be no dramatic volumetric or CT abnormalities in
             ARMS.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbv012},
   Key = {fds322124}
}

@article{fds273344,
   Author = {Graham, KA and Keefe, RS and Lieberman, JA and Calikoglu, AS and Lansing, KM and Perkins, DO},
   Title = {Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative
             and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Early Intervention in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {397-405},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1751-7885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12122},
   Abstract = {Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans
             of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its
             prevalence or associated problems among those with
             schizophrenia.Stored plasma from 20 recent onset
             schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison
             subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to
             measures of symptom severity and neurocognition.There was no
             significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the
             schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2
             standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD
             14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each
             group had insufficient levels (<30 ng mL(-1) ). Among
             psychosis subjects, greater severity of negative symptoms
             was correlated with lower vitamin D status (r = -0.55,
             P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity
             and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels
             approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and
             r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no
             relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among
             the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels
             were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits
             (r = 0.56, P = 0.019).This study found that lower
             vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated
             with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive
             deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any
             conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact
             causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive
             impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin
             D levels and depressive symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1111/eip.12122},
   Key = {fds273344}
}

@article{fds273304,
   Author = {Iwata, Y and Nakajima, S and Suzuki, T and Keefe, RSE and Plitman, E and Chung, JK and Caravaggio, F and Mimura, M and Graff-Guerrero, A and Uchida, H},
   Title = {Effects of glutamate positive modulators on cognitive
             deficits in schizophrenia: a systematic review and
             meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled
             trials.},
   Journal = {Molecular Psychiatry},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1151-1160},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1359-4184},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2015.68},
   Abstract = {Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has
             been proposed to have an important role in the cognitive
             impairments observed in schizophrenia. Although glutamate
             modulators may be effective in reversing such
             difficult-to-treat conditions, the results of individual
             studies thus far have been inconsistent. We conducted a
             systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether
             glutamate positive modulators have beneficial effects on
             cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. A
             literature search was conducted to identify double-blind
             randomized placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia or
             related disorders, using Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO (last
             search: February 2015). The effects of glutamate positive
             modulators on cognitive deficits were evaluated for overall
             cognitive function and eight cognitive domains by
             calculating standardized mean differences (SMDs) between
             active drugs and placebo added to antipsychotics. Seventeen
             studies (N=1391) were included. Glutamate positive
             modulators were not superior to placebo in terms of overall
             cognitive function (SMD=0.08, 95% confidence interval=-0.06
             to 0.23) (11 studies, n=858) nor each of eight cognitive
             domains (SMDs=-0.03 to 0.11) (n=367-940) in this population.
             Subgroup analyses by diagnosis (schizophrenia only studies),
             concomitant antipsychotics, or pathway of drugs to enhance
             the glutamatergic neurotransmission (glycine allosteric site
             of NMDA receptors or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic
             acid receptors) suggested no procognitive effect of
             glutamate positive modulators. Further, no effect was found
             in individual compounds on cognition. In conclusion,
             glutamate positive modulators may not be effective in
             reversing overall cognitive impairments in patients with
             schizophrenia as adjunctive therapies.},
   Doi = {10.1038/mp.2015.68},
   Key = {fds273304}
}

@article{fds273306,
   Author = {Kristian Hill and S and Buchholz, A and Amsbaugh, H and Reilly, JL and Rubin, LH and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Pearlson, GD and Keshavan, MS and Tamminga, CA and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Working memory impairment in probands with schizoaffective
             disorder and first degree relatives of schizophrenia
             probands extend beyond deficits predicted by generalized
             neuropsychological impairment.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {310-315},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.018},
   Abstract = {Working memory impairment is well established in psychotic
             disorders. However, the relative magnitude, diagnostic
             specificity, familiality pattern, and degree of independence
             from generalized cognitive deficits across psychotic
             disorders remain unclear.Participants from the Bipolar and
             Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP)
             study included probands with schizophrenia (N=289),
             psychotic bipolar disorder (N=227), schizoaffective disorder
             (N=165), their first-degree relatives (N=315, N=259, N=193,
             respectively), and healthy controls (N=289). All were
             administered the WMS-III Spatial Span working memory test
             and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (BACS) battery.All proband groups displayed significant
             deficits for both forward and backward span compared to
             controls. However, after covarying for generalized cognitive
             impairments (BACS composite), all proband groups showed a
             74% or greater effect size reduction with only
             schizoaffective probands showing residual backward span
             deficits compared to controls. Significant familiality was
             seen in schizophrenia and bipolar pedigrees. In relatives,
             both forward and backward span deficits were again
             attenuated after covarying BACS scores and residual backward
             span deficits were seen in relatives of schizophrenia
             patients.Overall, both probands and relatives showed a
             similar pattern of robust working memory deficits that were
             largely attenuated when controlling for generalized
             cognitive deficits.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2015.05.018},
   Key = {fds273306}
}

@article{fds273309,
   Author = {Kelly, DL and Sullivan, KM and McEvoy, JP and McMahon, RP and Wehring,
             HJ and Gold, JM and Liu, F and Warfel, D and Vyas, G and Richardson, CM and Fischer, BA and Keller, WR and Koola, MM and Feldman, SM and Russ, JC and Keefe, RSE and Osing, J and Hubzin, L and August, S and Walker, TM and Buchanan, RW},
   Title = {Adjunctive Minocycline in Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia
             Patients With Persistent Symptoms.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {374-381},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0271-0749},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000345},
   Abstract = {Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic for treatment
             refractory people with schizophrenia, yet many patients only
             partially respond. Accumulating preclinical and clinical
             data suggest benefits with minocycline. We tested adjunct
             minocycline to clozapine in a 10-week, double-blind,
             placebo-controlled trial. Primary outcomes tested were
             positive, and cognitive symptoms, while avolition,
             anxiety/depression, and negative symptoms were secondary
             outcomes.Schizophrenia and schizoaffective participants (n =
             52) with persistent positive symptoms were randomized to
             receive adjunct minocycline (100 mg oral capsule twice
             daily; n = 29) or placebo (n = 23).Brief Psychiatric Rating
             Scale (BPRS) psychosis factor (P = 0.098; effect size [ES],
             0.39) and BPRS total score (P = 0.075; ES, 0.55) were not
             significant. A change in total BPRS symptoms of more than or
             equal to 30% was observed in 7 (25%) of 28 among minocycline
             and 1 (4%) of 23 among placebo participants, respectively (P
             = 0.044). Global cognitive function (MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery) did not differ, although there was a
             significant variation in size of treatment effects among
             cognitive domains (P = 0.03), with significant improvement
             in working memory favoring minocycline (P = 0.023; ES,
             0.41). The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms
             total score did not differ, but significant improvement in
             avolition with minocycline was noted (P = 0.012; ES, 0.34).
             Significant improvement in the BPRS anxiety/depression
             factor was observed with minocycline (P = 0.028; ES, 0.49).
             Minocycline was well tolerated with significantly fewer
             headaches and constipation compared with
             placebo.Minocycline's effect on the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery composite score and positive symptoms were
             not statistically significant. Significant improvements with
             minocycline were seen in working memory, avolition, and
             anxiety/depressive symptoms in a chronic population with
             persistent symptoms. Larger studies are needed to validate
             these findings.},
   Doi = {10.1097/JCP.0000000000000345},
   Key = {fds273309}
}

@article{fds273308,
   Author = {Hill, SK and Reilly, JL and Ragozzino, ME and Rubin, LH and Bishop, JR and Gur, RC and Gershon, ES and Tamminga, CA and Pearlson, GD and Keshavan,
             MS and Keefe, RSE and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Regressing to Prior Response Preference After Set Switching
             Implicates Striatal Dysfunction Across Psychotic Disorders:
             Findings From the B-SNIP Study.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {940-950},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbu130},
   Abstract = {Difficulty switching behavioral response sets is established
             in psychotic disorders. In rodent models, prefrontal lesions
             cause difficulty initially switching to new response sets
             (perseverative errors) while striatal lesions cause
             difficulty suppressing responses to previous choice
             preferences (regressive errors). Studies of psychotic
             disorders have not previously assessed these 2 error types.
             Bipolar and Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes
             (B-SNIP) participants included probands with schizophrenia
             (N = 212), psychotic bipolar (N = 192), and schizoaffective
             disorder (N = 131), their first-degree relatives (N =
             267,226,165 respectively), and healthy controls (N = 258).
             Participants completed the Penn Conditional Exclusion Test
             (PCET) to assess cognitive set switching and the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess
             generalized neuropsychological dysfunction. All proband
             groups displayed elevated rates of perseverative and
             regressive errors compared to controls. After correcting for
             generalized cognitive deficits to identify specific deficits
             in set shifting and maintenance, there were no significant
             group differences for perseverative errors, while the
             increased rate of regressive errors remained significant.
             Level of regressive errors was similar across proband groups
             with minimal correlations with antipsychotic medication
             dose, clinical ratings, and demographic characteristics.
             Relatives of schizophrenia patients showed increased rates
             of regressive errors, but familiality of this trait was
             significant only in bipolar pedigrees. Regressive errors
             were partially independent of generalized cognitive
             deficits, suggesting a potentially informative and specific
             cognitive deficit across psychotic disorders. Preclinical
             data indicate that this deficit could be related to altered
             function in a neural system that may include the dorsal
             striatum or other elements of frontostriatal
             systems.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbu130},
   Key = {fds273308}
}

@article{fds273310,
   Author = {Mahableshwarkar, AR and Zajecka, J and Jacobson, W and Chen, Y and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Active-Reference,
             Double-Blind, Flexible-Dose Study of the Efficacy of
             Vortioxetine on Cognitive Function in Major Depressive
             Disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2025-2037},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2015.52},
   Abstract = {This multicenter, randomized, double-blind,
             placebo-controlled, active-referenced (duloxetine 60 mg),
             parallel-group study evaluated the short-term efficacy and
             safety of vortioxetine (10-20 mg) on cognitive function in
             adults (aged 18-65 years) diagnosed with major depressive
             disorder (MDD) who self-reported cognitive dysfunction.
             Efficacy was evaluated using ANCOVA for the change from
             baseline to week 8 in the digit symbol substitution test
             (DSST)-number of correct symbols as the prespecified primary
             end point. The patient-reported perceived deficits
             questionnaire (PDQ) and physician-assessed clinical global
             impression (CGI) were analyzed in a prespecified
             hierarchical testing sequence as key secondary end points.
             Additional predefined end points included the objective
             performance-based University of San Diego performance-based
             skills assessment (UPSA) (ANCOVA) to measure functionality,
             MADRS (MMRM) to assess efficacy in depression, and a
             prespecified multiple regression analysis (path analysis) to
             calculate direct vs indirect effects of vortioxetine on
             cognitive function. Safety and tolerability were assessed at
             all visits. Vortioxetine was statistically superior to
             placebo on the DSST (P < 0.05), PDQ (P < 0.01), CGI-I (P <
             0.001), MADRS (P < 0.05), and UPSA (P < 0.001). Path
             analysis indicated that vortioxetine's cognitive benefit was
             primarily a direct treatment effect rather than due to
             alleviation of depressive symptoms. Duloxetine was not
             significantly different from placebo on the DSST or UPSA,
             but was superior to placebo on the PDQ, CGI-I, and MADRS.
             Common adverse events (incidence ⩾ 5%) for vortioxetine
             were nausea, headache, and diarrhea. In this study of MDD
             adults who self-reported cognitive dysfunction, vortioxetine
             significantly improved cognitive function, depression, and
             functionality and was generally well tolerated.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2015.52},
   Key = {fds273310}
}

@article{fds327064,
   Author = {Atkins, AS and Stroescu, I and Spagnola, NB and Davis, VG and Patterson,
             TD and Narasimhan, M and Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Assessment of Age-Related Differences in Functional Capacity
             Using the Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment
             Tool (VRFCAT).},
   Journal = {The Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer'S
             Disease},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {121-127},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2015.61},
   Abstract = {Clinical trials for primary prevention and early
             intervention in preclinical AD require measures of
             functional capacity with improved sensitivity to deficits in
             healthier, non-demented individuals. To this end, the
             Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT)
             was developed as a direct performance-based assessment of
             functional capacity that is sensitive to changes in function
             across multiple populations. Using a realistic virtual
             reality environment, the VRFCAT assesses a subject's ability
             to complete instrumental activities associated with a
             shopping trip. The present investigation represents an
             initial evaluation of the VRFCAT as a potential co-primary
             measure of functional capacity in healthy aging and
             preclinical MCI/AD by examining test-retest reliability and
             associations with cognitive performance in healthy young and
             older adults. The VRFCAT was compared and contrasted with
             the UPSA-2-VIM, a traditional performance-based assessment
             utilizing physical props. Results demonstrated strong
             age-related differences in performance on each VRFCAT
             outcome measure, including total completion time, total
             errors, and total forced progressions. VRFCAT performance
             showed strong correlations with cognitive performance across
             both age groups. VRFCAT Total Time demonstrated good
             test-retest reliability (ICC=.80 in young adults; ICC=.64 in
             older adults) and insignificant practice effects, indicating
             the measure is suitable for repeated testing in healthy
             populations. Taken together, these results provide
             preliminary support for the VRFCAT as a potential measure of
             functionally relevant change in primary prevention and
             preclinical AD/MCI trials.},
   Doi = {10.14283/jpad.2015.61},
   Key = {fds327064}
}

@article{fds273312,
   Author = {Lim, J and Rekhi, G and Rapisarda, A and Lam, M and Kraus, M and Keefe,
             RSE and Lee, J},
   Title = {Impact of psychiatric comorbidity in individuals at Ultra
             High Risk of psychosis - Findings from the Longitudinal
             Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS).},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {8-14},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.007},
   Abstract = {Recent studies have reported a high prevalence of
             psychiatric comorbidities in Ultra High Risk (UHR) for
             psychosis populations. This study examined the prevalence of
             comorbidity and its impact on symptoms, functioning,
             cognition and transition to psychosis in the Longitudinal
             Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) sample. The Comprehensive
             Assessment of At-Risk Mental State (CAARMS) was used to
             identify UHR individuals and 163 participants were included
             in the study. Comorbid disorders were identified using the
             Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I
             Disorders. Participants were evaluated on the CAARMS,
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Calgary Depression
             Scale for Schizophrenia, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Global
             Assessment of Functioning and Brief Assessment of Cognition
             in Schizophrenia. Clinical, functioning and cognitive
             characteristics by lifetime and current comorbidity groups
             were compared using multivariate tests. Independent
             predictors of comorbidity were identified through logistic
             regression. Chi-squared tests were used to compare
             comorbidity rates between those who had developed psychosis
             at one year and those who had not. We found that 131 UHR
             participants (80.4%) had a lifetime comorbidity while 82
             (50.3%) had a current comorbidity with depressive disorders
             being the most common. UHR individuals with comorbidity had
             more severe symptoms, higher distress and lower functioning
             with no differences in general cognition. Lower functioning
             was associated with current comorbidity. Eleven participants
             (6.7%) had developed psychosis after one year and there were
             no differences in the comorbidity rates between those who
             developed psychosis and those who did not. Psychiatric
             comorbidities in the UHR group are associated with adverse
             clinical outcomes and warrant closer attention.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.007},
   Key = {fds273312}
}

@article{fds273311,
   Author = {Araújo, GE and Resende, CBD and Cardoso, ACA and Teixeira, AL and Keefe, RSE and Salgado, JV},
   Title = {Validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version
             of the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia).},
   Journal = {Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil)},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {278-282},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1807-5932},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2015(04)10},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To assess the validity and reliability of the
             Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia by examining its temporal
             stability, internal consistency, and discriminant and
             convergent validity. METHODS:The Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia was administered to 116 stable
             patients with schizophrenia and 58 matched control subjects.
             To assess concurrent validity, a subset of patients
             underwent a traditional neuropsychological assessment.
             RESULTS:The patients with schizophrenia performed
             significantly worse than the controls (p<0.001) on all
             subtests of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia and on the total score, which attests to the
             discriminant validity of the test. The global score of the
             Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was
             significantly correlated with all of the subtests and with
             the global score for the standard battery. The Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia also had good
             test-retest reliability (rho>0.8). The internal consistency
             of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was
             high (Cronbach's α  ϝ 0.874). CONCLUSION:The Brazilian
             Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia exhibits good reliability and discriminant and
             concurrent validity and is a promising tool for easily
             assessing cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and for
             comparing the performance of Brazilian patients with that of
             patients from other countries.},
   Doi = {10.6061/clinics/2015(04)10},
   Key = {fds273311}
}

@article{fds273314,
   Author = {Bauer, IE and Ouyang, A and Mwangi, B and Sanches, M and Zunta-Soares,
             GB and Keefe, RSE and Huang, H and Soares, JC},
   Title = {Reduced white matter integrity and verbal fluency impairment
             in young adults with bipolar disorder: a diffusion tensor
             imaging study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {62},
   Pages = {115-122},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-3956},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.01.008},
   Abstract = {Clinical evidence shows that bipolar disorder (BD) is
             characterized by white matter (WM) microstructural
             abnormalities. However, little is known about the biological
             mechanisms associated with these abnormalities and their
             relationship with cognitive functioning.49 adult BD patients
             ((M±SD): 29.27 ± 7.92 years; 17 males, 32 females; 34
             BD-I, 10 BD-II, and 5 BD-NOS) and 28 age-matched normal
             subjects ((M±SD): 29.19 ± 7.35 years; 10 males and 18
             females) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) imaging.
             DTI metrics were computed using whole-brain tract-based
             spatial statistics (TBSS) as part of the FMRIB Software
             Library. Measures of WM coherence (fractional anisotropy -
             FA) and axonal structure (mean, axial and radial diffusivity
             - MD, AD and RD) were employed to characterize the
             microstructural alterations in the limbic, commissural,
             association and projection fiber tracts. All participants
             performed the Brief Assessment of Cognition for Affective
             disorders (BAC-A).BD patients performed poorly on verbal
             fluency tasks and exhibited large clusters of altered FA, RD
             and MD values within the retrolenticular part of the
             internal capsule, the superior and anterior corona radiata,
             and the corpus callosum. Increased FA values in the left
             IFOF and the forceps minor correlated positively with verbal
             fluency scores. Altered RD parameters in the corticospinal
             tract and the forceps minor were associated with reduced
             visuomotor abilities.The reported verbal fluency deficits
             and FA, RD and MD alterations in WM structures are potential
             cognitive and neural markers of BD. Abnormal RD values may
             be associated with progressive demyelination.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.01.008},
   Key = {fds273314}
}

@article{fds273330,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Davis, VG and Spagnola, NB and Hilt, D and Dgetluck, N and Ruse, S and Patterson, TD and Narasimhan, M and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {Reliability, validity and treatment sensitivity of the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale.},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {176-184},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0924-977X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.06.009},
   Abstract = {Cognitive functioning can be assessed with performance-based
             assessments such as neuropsychological tests and with
             interview-based assessments. Both assessment methods have
             the potential to assess whether treatments for schizophrenia
             improve clinically relevant aspects of cognitive impairment.
             However, little is known about the reliability, validity and
             treatment responsiveness of interview-based measures,
             especially in the context of clinical trials. Data from two
             studies were utilized to assess these features of the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). One of the
             studies was a validation study involving 79 patients with
             schizophrenia assessed at 3 academic research centers in the
             US. The other study was a 32-site clinical trial conducted
             in the US and Europe comparing the effects of encenicline,
             an alpha-7 nicotine agonist, to placebo in 319 patients with
             schizophrenia. The SCoRS interviewer ratings demonstrated
             excellent test-retest reliability in several different
             circumstances, including those that did not involve
             treatment (ICC> 0.90), and during treatment (ICC>0.80).
             SCoRS interviewer ratings were related to cognitive
             performance as measured by the MCCB (r=-0.35), and
             demonstrated significant sensitivity to treatment with
             encenicline compared to placebo (P<.001). These data suggest
             that the SCoRS has potential as a clinically relevant
             measure in clinical trials aiming to improve cognition in
             schizophrenia, and may be useful for clinical practice. The
             weaknesses of the SCoRS include its reliance on informant
             information, which is not available for some patients, and
             reduced validity when patient's self-report is the sole
             information source.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.06.009},
   Key = {fds273330}
}

@article{fds273303,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Methods for delivering and evaluating the efficacy of
             cognitive enhancement.},
   Journal = {Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology},
   Volume = {228},
   Pages = {5-25},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0171-2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16522-6_1},
   Abstract = {Cognitive deficits are related to impaired everyday
             functioning in multiple conditions and in healthy
             individuals. Treatment of cognitive functioning can be
             facilitated through either pharmacological or remediation
             strategies. The critical goals of cognitive enhancement are
             to improve everyday functioning in multiple domains. This
             chapter describes the strategies that are most desirable for
             the treatment of cognitive impairments and detection of
             potential benefits of treatment in cognitive and functional
             domains. These strategies include the use of
             performance-based assessments of cognition and functioning
             and the appropriate use of observational strategies to
             detect changes. Finally, we define several outcome-related
             goals and discuss the practicality of their
             measurement.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-16522-6_1},
   Key = {fds273303}
}

@article{fds273305,
   Author = {McCleery, A and Green, MF and Hellemann, GS and Baade, LE and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Kern, RS and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Seidman, LJ and Subotnik, KL and Ventura, J and Nuechterlein, KH},
   Title = {Latent structure of cognition in schizophrenia: a
             confirmatory factor analysis of the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery (MCCB).},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2657-2666},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291715000641},
   Abstract = {The number of separable cognitive dimensions in
             schizophrenia has been debated. Guided by the extant factor
             analytic literature, the NIMH Measurement and Treatment
             Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)
             initiative selected seven cognitive domains relevant to
             treatment studies in schizophrenia: speed of processing,
             attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual
             learning, reasoning and problem solving, and social
             cognition. These domains are assessed in the MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The aim of this study
             was to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the
             beta battery of the MCCB to compare the fit of the MATRICS
             consensus seven-domain model to other models in the current
             literature on cognition in schizophrenia.Using data from 281
             schizophrenia outpatients, we compared the seven correlated
             factors model with alternative models. Specifically, we
             compared the 7-factor model to (a) a single-factor model,
             (b) a three correlated factors model including speed of
             processing, working memory, and general cognition, and (c) a
             hierarchical model in which seven first-order factors loaded
             onto a second-order general cognitive factor.Multiple fit
             indices indicated the seven correlated factors model was the
             best fit for the data and provided significant improvement
             in model fit beyond the comparison models.These results
             support the assessment of these seven cognitive dimensions
             in clinical trials of interventions to improve cognition in
             schizophrenia. Because these cognitive factors are separable
             to some degree, it is plausible that specific interventions
             may have differential effects on the domains.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0033291715000641},
   Key = {fds273305}
}

@article{fds273307,
   Author = {Kaneda, Y and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {An abbreviated version of the brief assessment of cognition
             in schizophrenia (BACS)},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-134},
   Publisher = {Instituto de Salud Carlos III/BNCS/SciELO
             Espana},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0213-6163},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/s0213-61632015000200004},
   Abstract = {© 2015, University of Zaragoza. All rights reserved.
             Background and Objectives: A short version of the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was derived.
             Methods: We calculated the corrected item-total correlation
             (CITC) for each test score relative to the composite score,
             and then computed the proportion of variance that each test
             shares with the global score excluding that test
             (R<inf>t</inf><sup>2</sup> = CITC<inf>t</inf><sup>2</sup>)
             and the variance explained per minute of administration time
             for each test (R<inf>t</inf><sup>2</sup>/mint). Results and
             Conclusions: The 3 tests with the highest
             R<inf>t</inf><sup>2</sup>/mint, Symbol Coding, Digit
             Sequencing, and Token Motor, were selected for the
             Abbreviated BACS.},
   Doi = {10.4321/s0213-61632015000200004},
   Key = {fds273307}
}

@article{fds273313,
   Author = {Jarskog, LF and Lowy, MT and Grove, RA and Keefe, RSE and Horrigan, JP and Ball, MP and Breier, A and Buchanan, RW and Carter, CS and Csernansky,
             JG and Goff, DC and Green, MF and Kantrowitz, JT and Keshavan, MS and Laurelle, M and Lieberman, JA and Marder, SR and Maruff, P and McMahon,
             RP and Seidman, LJ and Peykamian, MA},
   Title = {A Phase II study of a histamine H<inf>3</inf>
             receptor antagonist GSK239512 for cognitive impairment in
             stable schizophrenia subjects on antipsychotic
             therapy},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {136-142},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2015.01.041},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier B.V. This Phase II exploratory study
             assessed GSK239512, a brain penetrant histamine
             H<inf>3</inf> receptor antagonist, versus placebo on
             cognitive impairment in 50 stable outpatients with
             schizophrenia. Subjects were randomized to placebo or
             GSK239512 for 7weeks (4weeks titration). GSK239512 was
             associated with a small positive effect size (ES) on the
             CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSSB) Composite Score
             (ES=0.29, CI=-0.40, 0.99) relative to placebo (primary
             endpoint). GSK239512's ES on CSSB domains were generally
             positive or neutral except Processing Speed, which favored
             placebo (ES=-0.46). Effects on the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery were mostly neutral or favored placebo.
             GSK239512 was generally well tolerated with an adverse event
             profile consistent with the known class pharmacology. There
             was no evidence of overall beneficial effects of GSK239512
             for CIAS in this population.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2015.01.041},
   Key = {fds273313}
}

@article{fds273315,
   Author = {Healey, KM and Combs, DR and Gibson, CM and Keefe, RSE and Roberts, DL and Penn, DL},
   Title = {Observable Social Cognition--A Rating Scale: an
             interview-based assessment for schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Cognitive Neuropsychiatry},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {198-221},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1354-6805},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2014.999915},
   Abstract = {Individuals with schizophrenia consistently show impairments
             in social cognition (SC). SC has become a potential
             treatment target due to its association with functional
             outcomes. An alternative method of assessment is to
             administer an observer-based scale incorporating an
             informant's "first hand" impressions in ratings.The present
             study used the Observable Social Cognition: A Rating Scale
             (OSCARS) in 62 outpatients and 50 non-psychiatric controls
             (NPCs) to assess performance in domains of SC (e.g. emotion
             perception, theory of mind).The OSCARS demonstrated
             sufficient internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
             Construct validity was assessed through an exploratory
             factor analysis. Patient OSCARS indices were not
             significantly correlated with measures of SC with the
             exception of aggressive attributional style. Individuals
             with less impairment in SC reacted more aggressively to
             ambiguous situations. NPC OSCARS were significantly
             correlated with measures of theory of mind and attributional
             style. In a combined sample of patients and controls, six of
             eight items were significantly correlated with the SC task
             assessing the same domain, providing modest evidence of
             convergent validity. In patients, the OSCARS was
             significantly correlated with measures of functional outcome
             and neurocognition. Last, the OSCARS was found to be
             significantly associated with functional outcome after the
             influence of objective measures of SC was statistically
             removed.The present study provides preliminary evidence that
             the OSCARS may be useful for clinicians in collecting data
             about patients' potential real-world SC deficits, in turn
             increasing the degree to which these impairments may be
             targeted in treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13546805.2014.999915},
   Key = {fds273315}
}

@article{fds273318,
   Author = {Bauer, IE and Keefe, RSE and Sanches, M and Suchting, R and Green, CE and Soares, JC},
   Title = {Evaluation of cognitive function in bipolar disorder using
             the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders
             (BAC-A).},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
   Volume = {60},
   Pages = {81-86},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-3956},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.10.002},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Although cognitive impairment is a core feature
             of bipolar disorder (BD) there is no instrument of choice
             for the assessment of bipolar patients. The aim of this
             study is to assess cognitive performance using the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Affective Disorders (BAC-A), a
             comprehensive test battery developed specifically for BD,
             and determine its suitability to estimate global
             functioning. METHODS:The BAC-A was administered to 93 BD
             patients (M ± S.E: 35.18 ± 1.39 years) and 56 healthy
             controls (HC - M ± S.E: 36.17 ± 1.91 years). The scores of
             the BAC-A were combined in eight summary scores: visuomotor,
             immediate affective and non-affective memory, verbal
             fluency, delayed affective and non-affective memory,
             inhibition, and problem solving. Post hoc analyses were
             performed on subtests of the summary scores found to be
             significantly different between BD patients and HC.
             Correlational analyses explored the association between the
             Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score and cognitive
             functioning. RESULTS:Compared to HC, BD patients showed a
             significant impairment in short-term non-affective memory
             and verbal fluency. Poorer performance in verbal memory and
             verbal fluency summary scores correlated positively with
             reduced GAF. CONCLUSIONS:Our results are consistent with
             previous reports of verbal memory and verbal fluency
             impairment in BD. The deficits in short-term memory and
             semantic fluency may indicate inefficient learning
             strategies and/or difficulties in retrieving information.
             The BAC-A could be used to estimate global functioning in BD
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.10.002},
   Key = {fds273318}
}

@article{fds273335,
   Author = {Lui, S and Yao, L and Xiao, Y and Keedy, SK and Reilly, JL and Keefe, RS and Tamminga, CA and Keshavan, MS and Pearlson, GD and Gong, Q and Sweeney,
             JA},
   Title = {Resting-state brain function in schizophrenia and psychotic
             bipolar probands and their first-degree relatives.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-108},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S003329171400110X},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia (SCZ) and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD)
             share considerable overlap in clinical features, genetic
             risk factors and co-occurrence among relatives. The common
             and unique functional cerebral deficits in these disorders,
             and in unaffected relatives, remain to be identified.A total
             of 59 healthy controls, 37 SCZ and 57 PBD probands and their
             unaffected first-degree relatives (38 and 28, respectively)
             were studied using resting-state functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (rfMRI). Regional cerebral function was
             evaluated by measuring the amplitude of low-frequency
             fluctuations (ALFF). Areas with ALFF alterations were used
             as seeds in whole-brain functional connectivity analysis. We
             then tested whether abnormalities identified in probands
             were present in unaffected relatives.SCZ and PBD probands
             both demonstrated regional hypoactivity in the orbital
             frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus, as well as abnormal
             connectivity within striatal-thalamo-cortical networks. SCZ
             probands showed greater and more widely distributed ALFF
             alterations including the thalamus and bilateral
             parahippocampal gyri. Increased parahippocampal ALFF was
             related to positive symptoms and cognitive deficit. PBD
             patients showed uniquely increased functional connectivity
             between the thalamus and bilateral insula. Only PBD
             relatives showed abnormal connectivity within
             striatal-thalamo-cortical networks seen in both proband
             groups.The present findings reveal a common pattern of
             deficits in frontostriatal circuitry across SCZ and PBD, and
             unique regional and functional connectivity abnormalities
             that distinguish them. The abnormal network connectivity in
             PBD relatives that was present in both proband groups may
             reflect genetic susceptibility associated with risk for
             psychosis, but within-family associations of this measure
             were not high.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S003329171400110X},
   Key = {fds273335}
}

@article{fds273301,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Davis, VG and Spagnola, NB and Hilt, D and Dgetluck, N and Ruse, S and Patterson, TD and Narasimhan, M and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {Reliability, validity and treatment sensitivity of the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {176-184},
   Year = {2015},
   ISSN = {0924-977X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.06.009},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.Cognitive functioning can be
             assessed with performance-based assessments such as
             neuropsychological tests and with interview-based
             assessments. Both assessment methods have the potential to
             assess whether treatments for schizophrenia improve
             clinically relevant aspects of cognitive impairment.
             However, little is known about the reliability, validity and
             treatment responsiveness of interview-based measures,
             especially in the context of clinical trials. Data from two
             studies were utilized to assess these features of the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). One of the
             studies was a validation study involving 79 patients with
             schizophrenia assessed at 3 academic research centers in the
             US. The other study was a 32-site clinical trial conducted
             in the US and Europe comparing the effects of encenicline,
             an alpha-7 nicotine agonist, to placebo in 319 patients with
             schizophrenia. The SCoRS interviewer ratings demonstrated
             excellent test-retest reliability in several different
             circumstances, including those that did not involve
             treatment (ICC &gt; 0.90), and during treatment (ICC
             &gt;0.80). SCoRS interviewer ratings were related to
             cognitive performance as measured by the MCCB (r=-0.35), and
             demonstrated significant sensitivity to treatment with
             encenicline compared to placebo (P&lt;.001). These data
             suggest that the SCoRS has potential as a clinically
             relevant measure in clinical trials aiming to improve
             cognition in schizophrenia, and may be useful for clinical
             practice. The weaknesses of the SCoRS include its reliance
             on informant information, which is not available for some
             patients, and reduced validity when patient's self-report is
             the sole information source.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.06.009},
   Key = {fds273301}
}

@article{fds273302,
   Author = {Graham, KA and Keefe, RS and Lieberman, JA and Calikoglu, AS and Lansing, KM and Perkins, DO},
   Title = {Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative
             and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Early Intervention in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {397-405},
   Year = {2015},
   ISSN = {1751-7885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12122},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.Aim: Deficient vitamin
             D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and
             ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or
             associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Methods:
             Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects
             and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for
             25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity
             and neurocognition. Results: There was no significant
             difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia
             and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation
             (SD) 12.6ngmL&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt; vs. 29.9 SD
             14.3ngmL&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;), and about half the
             subjects in each group had insufficient levels
             (&lt;30ngmL&lt;sup&gt;-1&lt;/sup&gt;). Among psychosis
             subjects, greater severity of negative symptoms was
             correlated with lower vitamin D status (r=-0.55, P=0.012);
             the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive
             symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached
             significance (r=-0.42, P=0.07 and r=-0.36, P=0.12,
             respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with
             depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower
             25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe
             overall cognitive deficits (r=0.56, P=0.019). Conclusion:
             This study found that lower vitamin D levels in
             schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe
             negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However,
             the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about
             whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe
             negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship
             was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive
             symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1111/eip.12122},
   Key = {fds273302}
}

@article{fds273336,
   Author = {Lam, M and Collinson, SL and Eng, GK and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Lee,
             J and Chong, SA and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Refining the latent structure of neuropsychological
             performance in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {3557-3570},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0033291714001020},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Elucidating the cognitive architecture of
             schizophrenia promises to advance understanding of the
             clinical and biological substrates of the illness.
             Traditional cross-sectional neuropsychological approaches
             differentiate impaired from normal cognitive abilities but
             are limited in their ability to determine latent
             substructure. The current study examined the latent
             architecture of abnormal cognition in schizophrenia via a
             systematic approach. METHOD: Exploratory factor analysis
             (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were carried
             out on a large neuropsychological dataset including the
             Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Continuous
             Performance Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton
             Judgment of Line Orientation Test, and Wechsler Abbreviated
             Scale of Intelligence matrix reasoning derived from 1012
             English-speaking ethnic Chinese healthy controls and 707
             schizophrenia cases recruited from in- and out-patient
             clinics. RESULTS: An initial six-factor model fit cognitive
             data in healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Further
             modeling, which accounted for methodological variance
             between tests, resulted in a three-factor model of executive
             functioning, vigilance/speed of processing and memory that
             appeared to best discriminate schizophrenia cases from
             controls. Factor analytic-derived g estimands and
             conventionally calculated g showed similar case-control
             discrimination. However, agreement analysis suggested
             systematic differences between both g indices. CONCLUSIONS:
             Factor structures derived in the current study were broadly
             similar to those reported previously. However, factor
             structures between schizophrenia subjects and healthy
             controls were different. Roles of factor analytic-derived g
             estimands and conventional composite score g were further
             discussed. Cognitive structures underlying cognitive
             deficits in schizophrenia may prove useful for interrogating
             biological substrates and enriching effect sizes for
             subsequent work.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0033291714001020},
   Key = {fds273336}
}

@article{fds273316,
   Author = {Ethridge, LE and Soilleux, M and Nakonezny, PA and Reilly, JL and Hill,
             SK and Keefe, RSE and Gershon, ES and Pearlson, GD and Tamminga, CA and Keshavan, MS and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Behavioral response inhibition in psychotic disorders:
             diagnostic specificity, familiality and relation to
             generalized cognitive deficit.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {491-498},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.08.025},
   Abstract = {Difficulty inhibiting context-inappropriate behavior is a
             common deficit in psychotic disorders. The diagnostic
             specificity of this impairment, its familiality, and its
             degree of independence from the generalized cognitive
             deficit associated with psychotic disorders remain to be
             clarified. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar
             patients with history of psychosis (n=523), their available
             first-degree biological relatives (n=656), and healthy
             participants (n=223) from the multi-site B-SNIP study
             completed a manual Stop Signal task. A nonlinear mixed model
             was used to fit logistic curves to success rates on Stop
             trials as a function of parametrically varied Stop Signal
             Delay. While schizophrenia patients had greater generalized
             cognitive deficit than bipolar patients, their deficits were
             similar on the Stop Signal task. Further, only bipolar
             patients showed impaired inhibitory control relative to
             healthy individuals after controlling for generalized
             cognitive deficit. Deficits accounted for by the generalized
             deficit were seen in relatives of schizophrenia and
             schizoaffective patients, but not in relatives of bipolar
             patients. In clinically stable patients with psychotic
             bipolar disorder, impaired inhibitory behavioral control was
             a specific cognitive impairment, distinct from the
             generalized neuropsychological impairment associated with
             psychotic disorders. Thus, in bipolar disorder with
             psychosis, a deficit in inhibitory control may contribute to
             risk for impulsive behavior. Because the deficit was not
             familial in bipolar families and showed a lack of
             independence from the generalized cognitive deficit in
             schizophrenia spectrum disorders, it appears to be a trait
             related to illness processes rather than one tracking
             familial risk factors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.08.025},
   Key = {fds273316}
}

@article{fds273327,
   Author = {Gray, BE and McMahon, RP and Green, MF and Seidman, LJ and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Kern, RS and Nuechterlein, KH and Keefe, RS and Gold, JM},
   Title = {Detecting reliable cognitive change in individual patients
             with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {182-187},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.032},
   Abstract = {Clinicians often need to evaluate the treatment response of
             an individual person and to know that observed change is
             true improvement or worsening beyond usual week-to-week
             changes. This paper gives clinicians tools to evaluate
             individual changes on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive
             Battery (MCCB). We compare three different approaches: a
             descriptive analysis of MCCB test-retest performance with no
             intervention, a reliable change index (RCI) approach
             controlling for average practice effects, and a regression
             approach.Data were gathered as part of the MATRICS PASS
             study (Nuechterlein et al., 2008). A total of 159 people
             with schizophrenia completed the MCCB at baseline and 4weeks
             later. Data were analyzed using an RCI and a regression
             formula establishing confidence intervals.The RCI and
             regression approaches agree within one point when baseline
             values are close to the sample mean. However, the regression
             approach offers more accurate limits for expected change at
             the tails of the distribution of baseline scores.Although
             both approaches have their merits, the regression approach
             provides the most accurate measure of significant change
             across the full range of scores. As the RCI does not account
             for regression to the mean and has confidence limits that
             remain constant across baseline scores, the RCI approach
             effectively gives narrower confidence limits around an
             inaccurately predicted average change value. Further,
             despite the high test-retest reliability of the MCCB, a
             change in an individual's score must be relatively large to
             be confident that it is beyond normal month-to-month
             variation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.032},
   Key = {fds273327}
}

@article{fds273328,
   Author = {Hufford, MR and Davis, VG and Hilt, D and Dgetluck, N and Geffen, Y and Loebel, A and Haig, G and Santarelli, L and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Circadian rhythms in cognitive functioning among patients
             with schizophrenia: impact on signal detection in clinical
             trials of potential pro-cognitive therapies.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {205-210},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.018},
   Abstract = {Cognition is affected by circadian rhythms over the course
             of a day. Circadian rhythms in cognitive functioning are
             driven by a variety of both endogenous and exogenous
             factors. Patients with schizophrenia are known to have
             disturbed circadian rhythms that can affect their cognitive
             functioning. We examined the impact of time of day on
             cognitive test scores from subjects participating in
             clinical trials of potential pro-cognitive therapies for
             schizophrenia and then explored how this diurnal variation
             affected signal detection.Baseline data from 8 separate
             schizophrenia clinical trials using the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were aggregated (Total N=2032). The
             MCCB assessments were divided into five 2-hour time
             intervals based on the start-time of the assessments
             (varying from 8:00 am to 5:59 pm) and then analyzed for
             differences by time interval. Next, data from two Phase 2
             schizophrenia clinical trials of potential pro-cognitive
             therapies were analyzed to explore the impact of this
             diurnal variation on placebo separation.Time of day exerted
             a significant effect on baseline composite MCCB scores
             (p=.002). Follow-up comparisons revealed significant
             differences among multiple temporal epochs. In both Phase 2
             clinical trials, subjects whose cognitive functioning was
             assessed at consistent times of day between their baseline
             and endpoint visits showed a more robust treatment response
             as compared to subjects assessed at inconsistent times of
             day.Cognitive functioning ebbs and flows over the course of
             the day. Maintaining consistency in the time of day of
             cognitive test administrations between visits can help to
             reduce the noise introduced by circadian rhythms, thereby
             enhancing signal detection in clinical trials of potential
             pro-cognitive therapies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.018},
   Key = {fds273328}
}

@article{fds273299,
   Author = {Marx, CE and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Rapisarda, A and Bautista,
             DCT and Chan, E and Kilts, JD and Buchanan, RW and Wai, EP and Verma, S and Sim, K and Hariram, J and Jacob, R and Keefe, RSE and Chong,
             SA},
   Title = {Proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of pregnenolone
             in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {231},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {3647-3662},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3673-4},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Springer-Verlag. Rationale: Preclinical and clinical
             data suggest that pregnenolone may be a promising
             therapeutic in schizophrenia. Pregnenolone is
             neuroprotective and enhances learning and memory,
             myelination, and microtubule polymerization. Treatment with
             pregnenolone elevates allopregnanolone (a neurosteroid that
             enhances GABAA receptor responses) and pregnenolone sulfate
             (a positive NMDA receptor modulator). Pregnenolone could
             thus potentially mitigate GABA dysregulation and/or NMDA
             receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia via metabolism to
             other neurosteroids. Objective: The objective of this study
             is to conduct a randomized controlled trial of adjunctive
             pregnenolone in schizophrenia. Methods: Following a placebo
             lead-in, 120 participants were randomized to pregnenolone or
             placebo for 8 weeks (Institute for Mental Health,
             Singapore). Primary endpoints were changes in MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite scores
             (cognitive symptoms), UCSD Performance-based Skills
             Assessment - Brief (UPSA-B) composite scores (functional
             capacity), and Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms
             (SANS) total scores (negative symptoms). A modified
             intent-to-treat analysis approach was utilized. Results: No
             significant changes compared to placebo were demonstrated in
             composite MCCB scores. In contrast, participants randomized
             to pregnenolone (n=56) demonstrated greater improvements in
             functional capacity (UPSA-B composite changes) compared to
             placebo (n=55), p=0.03. Pregnenolone was also superior to
             placebo in the communication subscale of the UPSA-B (p <
             0.001). Serum pregnenolone changes post-treatment were
             correlated with UPSA-B composite score changes in females
             (rs=0.497, p<0.042, n=17) but not in males. Mean total SANS
             scores were very low at baseline and did not improve further
             post-treatment. Pregnenolone was well-tolerated.
             Conclusions: Pregnenolone improved functional capacity in
             participants with schizophrenia, but did not improve
             cognitive symptoms over an 8-week treatment period.
             Neurosteroid changes correlated with functional improvements
             in female participants. Neurosteroid interventions may
             exhibit promise as new therapeutic leads for
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00213-014-3673-4},
   Key = {fds273299}
}

@article{fds273320,
   Author = {Stout, JC and Queller, S and Baker, KN and Cowlishaw, S and Sampaio, C and Fitzer-Attas, C and Borowsky, B and HD-CAB Investigators},
   Title = {HD-CAB: a cognitive assessment battery for clinical trials
             in Huntington's disease 1,2,3.},
   Journal = {Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement
             Disorder Society},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1281-1288},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0885-3185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.25964},
   Abstract = {Cognitive dysfunction is central to Huntington's disease
             (HD) and undermines quality of life. Clinical trials are now
             targeting cognitive outcomes in HD; however, no cognitive
             battery has been optimized for HD clinical trials. We
             evaluated 16 cognitive tests in a 20-site, five-country,
             observational study designed to mimic aspects of a clinical
             trial (e.g., data collection managed by a contract research
             organization, repeated testing, prespecified statistical
             analyses). Fifty-five early HD, 103 premanifest HD (pre-HD),
             and 105 controls were tested at visit 1, visit 2 (1-3 days
             later), and visit 3 (5-7 weeks after visit 1). For inclusion
             in a recommended battery, tests were evaluated for
             sensitivity, practice effects, reliability, domain coverage,
             feasibility, and tolerability. Most tests differentiated
             controls from pre-HD and early HD and showed excellent
             psychometric properties. We selected six tests to constitute
             the Huntington's Disease Cognitive Assessment Battery
             (HD-CAB): Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Paced Tapping, One
             Touch Stockings of Cambridge (abbreviated), Emotion
             Recognition, Trail Making B, and the Hopkins Verbal Learning
             Test. These tests demonstrated sensitivity to disease status
             (Cohen's d effect sizes: early HD= -1.38 to -1.90 and
             pre-HD= -0.41 to -0.78), and acceptable reliability (r's
             0.73-0.93). A composite score yielded large effect sizes
             (early HD = -2.44 and pre-HD = -0.87) and high
             reliability (r = 0.95). HD-CAB is the first cognitive
             battery designed specifically for use in late premanifest
             and early HD clinical trials. Adoption of the HD-CAB will
             facilitate evaluation of treatments to improve cognition in
             HD.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mds.25964},
   Key = {fds273320}
}

@article{fds273325,
   Author = {Reilly, JL and Frankovich, K and Hill, S and Gershon, ES and Keefe, RSE and Keshavan, MS and Pearlson, GD and Tamminga, CA and Sweeney,
             JA},
   Title = {Elevated antisaccade error rate as an intermediate phenotype
             for psychosis across diagnostic categories.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1011-1021},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbt132},
   Abstract = {Elevated antisaccade error rate, reflecting problems with
             inhibitory behavioral control, is a promising intermediate
             phenotype for schizophrenia. Here, we consider whether it
             marks liability across psychotic disorders via common or
             different neurophysiological mechanisms and whether it
             represents a neurocognitive risk indicator apart from the
             generalized cognitive deficit.Schizophrenia (n = 267),
             schizoaffective (n = 150), and psychotic bipolar (n = 202)
             probands, their first-degree relatives (ns = 304, 193, 242,
             respectively), and healthy controls (n = 244), participating
             in the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate
             Phenotypes consortium, performed antisaccade and prosaccade
             tasks and completed a neuropsychological battery.Antisaccade
             error rate was elevated in proband groups with greatest
             deficit observed in schizophrenia and was unrelated to
             symptoms and antipsychotic treatment. Increased error rate
             was also observed among relatives, even those without
             history of psychosis or psychosis spectrum personality
             traits. Relatives' deficits were similar across proband
             diagnoses. Error rate was familial and remained elevated in
             proband and relative groups after accounting for generalized
             cognitive impairment. Speed of attentional shifting, indexed
             by prosaccade latency, was similarly influenced in all
             groups by manipulations that freed vs increasingly engaged
             attention systems and was inversely associated with
             antisaccade error rate in all but schizophrenia
             probands.These findings indicate that elevated antisaccade
             error rate represents an intermediate phenotype for
             psychosis across diagnostic categories, and that it tracks
             risk beyond that attributable to the generalized cognitive
             deficit. The greater severity of antisaccade impairment in
             schizophrenia and its independence from attention shifting
             processes suggest more severe and specific prefrontal
             inhibitory control deficits in this disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbt132},
   Key = {fds273325}
}

@article{fds273326,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognition and motivation as treatment targets in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {987-988},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {2168-622X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1281},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1281},
   Key = {fds273326}
}

@article{fds273331,
   Author = {Marx, CE and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Rapisarda, A and Bautista,
             DCT and Chan, E and Kilts, JD and Buchanan, RW and Wai, EP and Verma, S and Sim, K and Hariram, J and Jacob, R and Keefe, RSE and Chong,
             SA},
   Title = {Proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of pregnenolone
             in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {231},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {3647-3662},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-014-3673-4},
   Abstract = {Preclinical and clinical data suggest that pregnenolone may
             be a promising therapeutic in schizophrenia. Pregnenolone is
             neuroprotective and enhances learning and memory,
             myelination, and microtubule polymerization. Treatment with
             pregnenolone elevates allopregnanolone (a neurosteroid that
             enhances GABAA receptor responses) and pregnenolone sulfate
             (a positive NMDA receptor modulator). Pregnenolone could
             thus potentially mitigate GABA dysregulation and/or NMDA
             receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia via metabolism to
             other neurosteroids.The objective of this study is to
             conduct a randomized controlled trial of adjunctive
             pregnenolone in schizophrenia.Following a placebo lead-in,
             120 participants were randomized to pregnenolone or placebo
             for 8 weeks (Institute for Mental Health, Singapore).
             Primary endpoints were changes in MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite scores (cognitive
             symptoms), UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief
             (UPSA-B) composite scores (functional capacity), and Scale
             for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) total scores
             (negative symptoms). A modified intent-to-treat analysis
             approach was utilized.No significant changes compared to
             placebo were demonstrated in composite MCCB scores. In
             contrast, participants randomized to pregnenolone
             (n = 56) demonstrated greater improvements in functional
             capacity (UPSA-B composite changes) compared to placebo
             (n = 55), p = 0.03. Pregnenolone was also superior
             to placebo in the communication subscale of the UPSA-B
             (p < 0.001). Serum pregnenolone changes post-treatment
             were correlated with UPSA-B composite score changes in
             females (r s = 0.497, p < 0.042, n = 17) but not
             in males. Mean total SANS scores were very low at baseline
             and did not improve further post-treatment. Pregnenolone was
             well-tolerated.Pregnenolone improved functional capacity in
             participants with schizophrenia, but did not improve
             cognitive symptoms over an 8-week treatment period.
             Neurosteroid changes correlated with functional improvements
             in female participants. Neurosteroid interventions may
             exhibit promise as new therapeutic leads for
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00213-014-3673-4},
   Key = {fds273331}
}

@article{fds273334,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Fox, KH and Davis, VG and Kennel, C and Walker, TM and Burdick, KE and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {The Brief Assessment of Cognition In Affective Disorders
             (BAC-A):performance of patients with bipolar depression and
             healthy controls.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {166},
   Pages = {86-92},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0165-0327},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.002},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder are
             significant enough to impact everyday functioning. A key
             question for treatments aimed at cognition is which
             cognitive domains are most affected by bipolar disorder and
             which cognitive tests have the best psychometric
             characteristics for this population. METHOD: 432 patients
             assessed at study entry in a treatment study of bipolar
             depression were assessed with a version of a new cognitive
             measure - the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective
             Disorder (BAC-A), which assesses traditional cognitive
             constructs with six subtests measuring memory, processing
             speed, working memory, and reasoning and problem solving,
             and a new measure of affective processing. From the cohort
             of 432 patients, 309 were selected based upon their
             demographic similarities to a previously collected healthy
             control sample of 309 subjects. Patients and controls
             completed the traditional cognitive tests and the Affective
             Processing Test. Results. Patients with bipolar depression
             and healthy controls differed significantly on all cognitive
             measures (P<0.001). The two alternate forms of the Affective
             Processing Test were very similar in both groups. The most
             robust discriminator of the groups was a composite score
             that combined the six core cognitive subtests of the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition (BAC) with two of the measures from
             the Affective Processing Test. LIMITATIONS: Test-retest
             reliabilities of the individual Affective Processing Test
             measures were low. CONCLUSION: The BAC-A is sensitive to the
             cognitive impairments in bipolar disorder patients in
             traditional neuropsychological domains and in cognitive
             processes believed to be specifically impaired in affective
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jad.2014.05.002},
   Key = {fds273334}
}

@article{fds273321,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and McClintock, SM and Roth, RM and Doraiswamy, PM and Tiger,
             S and Madhoo, M},
   Title = {Cognitive effects of pharmacotherapy for major depressive
             disorder: a systematic review.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {864-876},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.13r08609},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment frequently accompanies major
             depressive disorder (MDD) and can persist during remission.
             This review examined pharmacotherapy effects on cognitive
             function in MDD. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and EMBASE searches
             were conducted on July 30, 2013, for English language
             reports of cognitive assessments following pharmacologic
             monotherapy or augmentation therapy in MDD. STUDY SELECTION:
             A total of 43 research reports were identified (31
             monotherapy [8 placebo-controlled, 11 active-comparator, 12
             open-label], 12 augmentation therapy [7 placebo-controlled,
             5 open-label]). DATA EXTRACTION: Results reported in each
             publication were examined for open-label and placebo- or
             active comparator-controlled studies. RESULTS: Studies
             varied widely in terms of size (median, 50 participants;
             interquartile range, 21-143 participants), populations
             examined, duration (median, 8 weeks; interquartile range,
             6-12 weeks), and neurocognitive assessments used. Most
             individual studies reported some benefit to cognition with
             pharmacotherapy, but there was no pattern of response in
             specific domains and only 12% of individually analyzed
             changes favored active treatment over placebo or untreated
             healthy controls. Sample weighted mean effect sizes revealed
             that verbal memory improved with monotherapy, while the
             largest treatment effect with augmentation therapy was for
             visual memory. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacotherapy may have benefit
             in reducing cognitive impairment in MDD, with augmentation
             therapy being a potential approach for addressing cognitive
             deficits that persist after monotherapy has brought about
             clinical response or remission. However, given the wide
             variability in study design and treatment duration across
             studies, these findings should be interpreted cautiously.
             More definitive research is required before firm conclusions
             can be reached.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.13r08609},
   Key = {fds273321}
}

@article{fds273341,
   Author = {Yong, E and Barbato, M and Penn, DL and Keefe, RSE and Woods, SW and Perkins, DO and Addington, J},
   Title = {Exploratory analysis of social cognition and neurocognition
             in individuals at clinical high risk for
             psychosis.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {218},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {39-43},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.003},
   Abstract = {Neurocognition and social cognition are separate but related
             constructs known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The aim of
             this study was to extend the current knowledge of the
             relationship between social cognition and neurocognition in
             individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing
             psychosis by examining, in a large sample, the associations
             between a wide range of neurocognitive tasks and social
             cognition. Participants included 136 young people at CHR.
             Specific domains within neurocognition and social cognition
             were compared using Spearman correlations. Results showed
             that poor theory of mind correlated with low ratings on a
             wide range of neurocognitive tasks. Facial affect was more
             often associated with low ratings on spatial working memory
             and attention. These results support a link between
             neurocognition and social cognition even at this early stage
             of potential psychosis, with indication that poorer
             performance on social cognition may be associated with
             deficits in attention and working memory. Understanding
             these early associations may have implications for early
             intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.003},
   Key = {fds273341}
}

@article{fds273332,
   Author = {Dandash, O and Fornito, A and Lee, J and Keefe, RSE and Chee, MWL and Adcock, RA and Pantelis, C and Wood, SJ and Harrison,
             BJ},
   Title = {Altered striatal functional connectivity in subjects with an
             at-risk mental state for psychosis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {904-913},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbt093},
   Abstract = {Recent functional imaging work in individuals experiencing
             an at-risk mental state (ARMS) for psychosis has implicated
             dorsal striatal abnormalities in the emergence of psychotic
             symptoms, contrasting with earlier findings implicating the
             ventral striatum. Our aims here were to characterize
             putative dorsal and ventral striatal circuit-level
             abnormalities in ARMS individuals using resting-state
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and to
             investigate their relationship to positive psychotic
             symptoms. Resting-state fMRI was acquired in 74 ARMS
             subjects and 35 matched healthy controls. An established
             method for mapping ventral and dorsal striatal functional
             connectivity was used to examine corticostriatal functional
             integrity. Positive psychotic symptoms were assessed using
             the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental State and the
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Compared with healthy
             controls, ARMS subjects showed reductions in functional
             connectivity between the dorsal caudate and right
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left rostral medial
             prefrontal cortex, and thalamus, and between the dorsal
             putamen and left thalamic and lenticular nuclei. ARMS
             subjects also showed increased functional connectivity
             between the ventral putamen and the insula, frontal
             operculum, and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally. No
             differences in ventral striatal (ie, nucleus accumbens)
             functional connectivity were found. Altered functional
             connectivity in corticostriatal circuits were significantly
             correlated with positive psychotic symptoms. Together, these
             results suggest that risk for psychosis is mediated by a
             complex interplay of alterations in both dorsal and ventral
             corticostriatal systems.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbt093},
   Key = {fds273332}
}

@article{fds273340,
   Author = {Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Tan, YW and Lam, M and Eng, GK and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Collinson, SL and Chong, SA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {The continuous performance test, identical pairs: norms,
             reliability and performance in healthy controls and patients
             with schizophrenia in Singapore.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {156},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {233-240},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016},
   Abstract = {To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic Chinese
             Singaporean population and a large sample of patients with
             schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance Task-Identical
             Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were collected on 1011
             healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients diagnosed with
             schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55 years of age.Data were
             stratified by age and gender. The effects of age, gender and
             education were explored in patients and controls.
             Performance indices were assessed in their ability to
             predict group inclusion. Controls' performance was compared
             with that reported in a US sample.Performance was affected
             by age, sex, and education, with youth, male sex and higher
             education providing a performance advantage. Patients'
             performance was lower than controls' by more than 1 standard
             deviation, with the 3-digit d' score most significantly
             discriminating between controls and patients. The effects of
             socio-demographic factors on performance were in line with
             those conducted in the US and previously reported in the
             literature.This is the largest norming study ever conducted
             on the CPT-IP. It will enable investigators and clinicians
             to select appropriate indices to assess severity of
             cognitive decline and/or evaluate cognitive remediation
             therapy outcomes after taking into account age, gender and
             education factors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016},
   Key = {fds273340}
}

@article{fds273345,
   Author = {Umbricht, D and Keefe, RSE and Murray, S and Lowe, DA and Porter, R and Garibaldi, G and Santarelli, L},
   Title = {A randomized, placebo-controlled study investigating the
             nicotinic α7 agonist, RG3487, for cognitive deficits in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1568-1577},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2014.17},
   Abstract = {Effective treatments for cognitive impairment associated
             with schizophrenia (CIAS) remain an unmet need. Nicotinic
             α7 receptor agonists may be effective in CIAS. This 8-week
             (week 1, inpatient; weeks 2-8, outpatient), double-blind,
             randomized study used Measurement And Treatment Research to
             Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) guidelines to
             investigate the nicotinic α7 partial agonist RG3487
             (formerly MEM3454) in CIAS; 215 patients with chronic stable
             schizophrenia received placebo or RG3487 (5, 15, or 50 mg)
             added to ongoing treatment with risperidone, paliperidone,
             or aripiprazole. Primary end point was baseline to week 8
             change in MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
             composite t-score. Secondary outcomes were change in MCCB
             domain and negative symptom assessment (NSA) scores. The
             study did not allow for evaluation of nonsmokers. Each
             RG3487 dose was evaluated using a mixed-effects model
             repeated measures approach. Mean (SD) baseline MCCB
             composite t-score was 28.3 (12.0). No significant effect on
             MCCB composite t-scores was observed with RG3487 (adjusted
             mean difference (SE) vs placebo: 5 mg: 0.11 (1.39); 15 mg:
             -1.95 (1.39); 50 mg: -1.13 (1.37); p = 0.2-0.9). RG3487 did
             not improve MCCB domain scores. In a post hoc analysis of
             patients with moderate negative symptoms, 5 and 50 mg RG3487
             vs placebo significantly improved NSA total (-4.45 (p =
             0.04) and -4.75 (p = 0.02), respectively) and global (-0.39
             (p = 0.04) and -0.55 (p = 0.003), respectively) scores. The
             MCCB did not lead to higher than expected patient
             withdrawal. RG3487 was generally well tolerated. In patients
             with stable schizophrenia, RG3487 did not improve cognitive
             deficits, as assessed by the MCCB; however, in patients with
             moderate negative symptoms, a post hoc analysis revealed
             significant improvement of negative symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2014.17},
   Key = {fds273345}
}

@article{fds273346,
   Author = {Madhoo, M and Keefe, RSE and Roth, RM and Sambunaris, A and Wu, J and Trivedi, MH and Anderson, CS and Lasser, R},
   Title = {Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation in adults with
             persistent executive dysfunction after partial or full
             remission of major depressive disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1388-1398},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.334},
   Abstract = {Evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) augmentation of
             antidepressant monotherapy for executive dysfunction in
             partially or fully remitted major depressive disorder (MDD).
             This randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT00985725)
             enrolled 143 adults (18-55 years) with mild MDD
             (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score
             ≤ 18) and executive dysfunction (Behavior Rating Inventory
             of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Self-Report
             Global Executive Composite (GEC) T score ≥ 60) on stable
             antidepressant monotherapy for ≥ 8 weeks. After 2 weeks of
             screening, participants were randomized to 9 weeks of
             double-blind LDX (20-70 mg/day) or placebo augmentation,
             followed by 2 weeks of single-blind placebo. The primary end
             point was change from baseline to week 9/end of study (EOS)
             in BRIEF-A Self-Report GEC T score; secondary assessments
             included the BRIEF-A Informant Report, MADRS, and
             treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Of 143 randomized
             participants, 119 completed double-blind treatment (placebo,
             n=59; LDX, n=60). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) BRIEF-A
             GEC T scores decreased from baseline (placebo, 74.2 ± 8.88;
             LDX, 76.8 ± 9.66) to week 9/EOS (placebo, 61.4 ± 14.61;
             LDX, 55.2 ± 16.15); the LS mean (95% CI) treatment
             difference significantly favored LDX (-8.0 (-12.7, -3.3);
             P=0.0009). The LS mean (95% CI) treatment difference for
             MADRS total score also significantly favored LDX (-1.9
             (-3.7, 0.0); P=0.0465). TEAE rates were 73.6% with placebo
             and 78.9% with LDX; serious TEAE rates were 4.2 and 2.8%. In
             this trial, LDX augmentation significantly improved
             executive dysfunction and depressive symptoms in
             participants with mild MDD. The safety profile of LDX was
             consistent with prior studies in adults with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.334},
   Key = {fds273346}
}

@article{fds273317,
   Author = {Ruse, SA and Davis, VG and Atkins, AS and Krishnan, KRR and Fox, KH and Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Development of a virtual reality assessment of everyday
             living skills.},
   Journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments : Jove},
   Number = {86},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/51405},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with
             schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term
             psychosocial outcomes.  Treatment studies aimed at
             cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only
             require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests,
             but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to
             clinically meaningful improvements.  Measures of
             "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals
             have the potential to perform skills required for real world
             functioning.  Current data do not support the
             recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of
             functional capacity.  The Virtual Reality Functional
             Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive
             gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a
             realistic simulated environment to recreate routine
             activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway
             to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity,
             reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure
             of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use,
             and has several features that improve validity and
             sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of
             patients with CNS disorders.},
   Doi = {10.3791/51405},
   Key = {fds273317}
}

@article{fds273329,
   Author = {Ruse, SA and Harvey, PD and Davis, VG and Atkins, AS and Fox, KH and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment In
             Schizophrenia: Preliminary Data Regarding Feasibility and
             Correlations with Cognitive and Functional Capacity
             Performance.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research. Cognition},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e21-e26},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {2215-0013},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scog.2014.01.004},
   Abstract = {Assessment of functional capacity is an intrinsic part of
             determining the functional relevance of response to
             treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Existing
             methods are highly and consistently correlated with
             performance on neuropsychological tests, but most current
             assessments of functional capacity are still paper and
             pencil simulations. We developed a computerized virtual
             reality assessment that contains all of the components of a
             shopping trip.We administered the Virtual Reality Functional
             Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) to 54 healthy controls and
             to 51 people with schizophrenia to test its feasibility.
             Dependent variables for the VRFCAT included time to
             completion and errors on 12 objectives and the number of
             times that an individual failed to complete an objective.
             The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and a
             standard functional capacity measure, the UCSD
             Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B) were
             administered to the patients with schizophrenia.Patients
             with schizophrenia performed more poorly than healthy
             controls on 10/11 of the time variables, as well as 2/12
             error scores and 2/12 failed objectives. Pearson
             correlations for 7 of 15 VRFCAT variables with MCCB
             composite scores were statistically significant.These
             results provide support for the possibility of computerized
             functional capacity assessment, but more substantial studies
             are required.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.scog.2014.01.004},
   Key = {fds273329}
}

@article{fds273319,
   Author = {Lam, M and Collinson, SL and Eng, GK and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Lee,
             J and Chong, SA and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Refining the latent structure of neuropsychological
             performance in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {3557-3570},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291714001020},
   Abstract = {Copyright © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Background.
             Elucidating the cognitive architecture of schizophrenia
             promises to advance understanding of the clinical and
             biological substrates of the illness. Traditional
             cross-sectional neuropsychological approaches differentiate
             impaired from normal cognitive abilities but are limited in
             their ability to determine latent substructure. The current
             study examined the latent architecture of abnormal cognition
             in schizophrenia via a systematic approach.Method.
             Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor
             analysis (CFA) were carried out on a large
             neuropsychological dataset including the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia, Continuous Performance Test,
             Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Benton Judgment of Line
             Orientation Test, and Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of
             Intelligence matrix reasoning derived from 1012
             English-speaking ethnic Chinese healthy controls and 707
             schizophrenia cases recruited from in- and out-patient
             clinics.Results. An initial six-factor model fit cognitive
             data in healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Further
             modeling, which accounted for methodological variance
             between tests, resulted in a three-factor model of executive
             functioning, vigilance/speed of processing and memory that
             appeared to best discriminate schizophrenia cases from
             controls. Factor analytic-derived g estimands and
             conventionally calculated g showed similar case-control
             discrimination. However, agreement analysis suggested
             systematic differences between both g indices.Conclusions.
             Factor structures derived in the current study were broadly
             similar to those reported previously. However, factor
             structures between schizophrenia subjects and healthy
             controls were different. Roles of factor analytic-derived g
             estimands and conventional composite score g were further
             discussed. Cognitive structures underlying cognitive
             deficits in schizophrenia may prove useful for interrogating
             biological substrates and enriching effect sizes for
             subsequent work.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0033291714001020},
   Key = {fds273319}
}

@article{fds273333,
   Author = {Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Tan, YW and Lam, M and Eng, GK and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Collinson, SL and Chong, SA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {The continuous performance test, identical pairs: Norms,
             reliability and performance in healthy controls and patients
             with schizophrenia in Singapore},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {156},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {233-240},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016},
   Abstract = {Aim: To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic
             Chinese Singaporean population and a large sample of
             patients with schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance
             Task-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were
             collected on 1011 healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients
             diagnosed with schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55. years
             of age. Methods: Data were stratified by age and gender. The
             effects of age, gender and education were explored in
             patients and controls. Performance indices were assessed in
             their ability to predict group inclusion. Controls'
             performance was compared with that reported in a US sample.
             Results: Performance was affected by age, sex, and
             education, with youth, male sex and higher education
             providing a performance advantage. Patients' performance was
             lower than controls' by more than 1 standard deviation, with
             the 3-digit d' score most significantly discriminating
             between controls and patients. The effects of
             socio-demographic factors on performance were in line with
             those conducted in the US and previously reported in the
             literature. Conclusions: This is the largest norming study
             ever conducted on the CPT-IP. It will enable investigators
             and clinicians to select appropriate indices to assess
             severity of cognitive decline and/or evaluate cognitive
             remediation therapy outcomes after taking into account age,
             gender and education factors. © 2014 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016},
   Key = {fds273333}
}

@article{fds273338,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {The longitudinal course of cognitive impairment in
             schizophrenia: an examination of data from premorbid through
             posttreatment phases of illness.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {75 Suppl 2},
   Pages = {8-13},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.13065su1.02},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia that
             is present across the course of the illness. However, due to
             complexities of studying cognitive decline in patients prior
             to the onset of illness, the longitudinal course is not
             fully understood. The cognitive effects in patients with
             schizophrenia are robust, with a 1.5 to 2.5 standard
             deviation gap between patients and healthy controls on
             composite scores. People with schizophrenia manifest a prior
             history of cognitive impairment in the premorbid phases of
             the illness. Examination of school records suggests that
             children who will eventually develop schizophrenia begin
             school at a level of functioning that is a full grade behind
             their peers, with the gap increasing by the time they finish
             high school. Epidemiologic work suggests that there are both
             static cognitive impairments and developmental lags in these
             patients during childhood, well before the illness is fully
             manifest. Although there was initial promise of improved
             cognitive function with second-generation antipsychotic
             treatment, more recent studies have suggested no differences
             among antipsychotics, with the initial appearance of
             improvement very likely attributable to practice effects,
             inappropriate medication dosing, and poor study design. Two
             large, prominent studies evaluating first- and
             second-generation antipsychotics suggested that, although
             there was slight to modest improvement in cognitive function
             for all treatments, there were no differences among
             medications, regardless of the generation of the agents. In
             summary, patients who develop schizophrenia, on average,
             demonstrate cognitive impairment beginning as early as the
             first grade, with deterioration seen across school years.
             Further, these patients had substantial cognitive deficits
             after the initiation of psychosis. Finally, while
             antipsychotic treatment improves symptoms, antipsychotics
             have little impact on cognition, and there appear to be no
             differences in the degree of cognitive improvement between
             first- and second-generation agents.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.13065su1.02},
   Key = {fds273338}
}

@article{fds273348,
   Author = {Meier, MH and Caspi, A and Reichenberg, A and Keefe, RSE and Fisher, HL and Harrington, H and Houts, R and Poulton, R and Moffitt,
             TE},
   Title = {Neuropsychological decline in schizophrenia from the
             premorbid to the postonset period: evidence from a
             population-representative longitudinal study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {171},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {91-101},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12111438},
   Abstract = {Despite the widespread belief that neuropsychological
             decline is a cardinal feature of the progression from the
             premorbid stage to the chronic form of schizophrenia, few
             longitudinal studies have examined change in
             neuropsychological functioning from before to after illness
             onset. The authors examined whether neuropsychological
             decline is unique to schizophrenia, whether it is
             generalized or confined to particular mental functions, and
             whether individuals with schizophrenia also have cognitive
             problems in everyday life.Participants were members of a
             representative cohort of 1,037 individuals born in Dunedin,
             New Zealand, in 1972 and 1973 and followed prospectively to
             age 38, with 95% retention. Assessment of IQ and specific
             neuropsychological functions was conducted at ages 7, 9, 11,
             and 13, and again at age 38. Informants also reported on any
             cognitive problems at age 38.Individuals with schizophrenia
             exhibited declines in IQ and in a range of mental functions,
             particularly those tapping processing speed, learning,
             executive function, and motor function. There was little
             evidence of decline in verbal abilities or delayed memory,
             however, and the developmental progression of deficits in
             schizophrenia differed across mental functions. Processing
             speed deficits increased gradually from childhood to beyond
             the early teen years, whereas verbal deficits emerged early
             but remained static thereafter. Neuropsychological decline
             was specific to schizophrenia, as no evidence of decline was
             apparent among individuals with persistent depression,
             children with mild cognitive impairment, individuals matched
             on childhood risk factors for schizophrenia, and
             psychiatrically healthy individuals. Informants also noticed
             more cognitive problems in individuals with
             schizophrenia.There is substantial neuropsychological
             decline in schizophrenia from the premorbid to the postonset
             period, but the extent and developmental progression of
             decline varies across mental functions. Findings suggest
             that different pathophysiological mechanisms may underlie
             deficits in different mental functions.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12111438},
   Key = {fds273348}
}

@article{fds273300,
   Author = {Ruse, SA and Davis, VG and Atkins, AS and Krishnan, KRR and Fox, KH and Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Development of a virtual reality assessment of everyday
             living skills},
   Journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments : Jove},
   Number = {86},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {1940-087X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/51405},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairments affect the majority of patients with
             schizophrenia and these impairments predict poor long term
             psychosocial outcomes.  Treatment studies aimed at
             cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia not only
             require demonstration of improvements on cognitive tests,
             but also evidence that any cognitive changes lead to
             clinically meaningful improvements.  Measures of
             "functional capacity" index the extent to which individuals
             have the potential to perform skills required for real world
             functioning.  Current data do not support the
             recommendation of any single instrument for measurement of
             functional capacity.  The Virtual Reality Functional
             Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is a novel, interactive
             gaming based measure of functional capacity that uses a
             realistic simulated environment to recreate routine
             activities of daily living. Studies are currently underway
             to evaluate and establish the VRFCAT's sensitivity,
             reliability, validity, and practicality. This new measure
             of functional capacity is practical, relevant, easy to use,
             and has several features that improve validity and
             sensitivity of measurement of function in clinical trials of
             patients with CNS disorders. },
   Doi = {10.3791/51405},
   Key = {fds273300}
}

@article{fds273322,
   Author = {Mazhari, S and Parvaresh, N and Shahrbabaki, ME and Sadeghi, MM and Nakhaee, N and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the Persian version of the brief assessment of
             cognition in schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia
             and healthy controls.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {160-166},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {1440-1819},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12107},
   Abstract = {The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is
             designed for assessment of cognitive function in patients
             with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English and
             other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to
             cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the
             advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The
             present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the
             Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). A group of 50
             patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a group
             of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a first
             session, and in a second session a standard neurocognitive
             battery. Cronbach's alpha for the Persian-BACS was 0.74. All
             the Persian-BACS subscales were significantly correlated
             with the corresponding standard neurocognitive subscales and
             the Pearson correlation of the composite scores from the two
             instruments was 0.71. Moreover, a one-factor solution was
             found that accounted for 67.9% of the variance. Finally, the
             Persian-BACS demonstrated high ability to discriminate
             patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Good
             psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it
             is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic
             patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013 The
             Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013
             Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.},
   Doi = {10.1111/pcn.12107},
   Key = {fds273322}
}

@article{fds273323,
   Author = {Gray, BE and McMahon, RP and Green, MF and Seidman, LJ and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Kern, RS and Nuechterlein, KH and Keefe, RS and Gold, JM},
   Title = {Detecting reliable cognitive change in individual patients
             with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {182-187},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.032},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Objective: Clinicians often need to
             evaluate the treatment response of an individual person and
             to know that observed change is true improvement or
             worsening beyond usual week-to-week changes. This paper
             gives clinicians tools to evaluate individual changes on the
             MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). We compare three
             different approaches: a descriptive analysis of MCCB
             test-retest performance with no intervention, a reliable
             change index (RCI) approach controlling for average practice
             effects, and a regression approach. Method: Data were
             gathered as part of the MATRICS PASS study (Nuechterlein et
             al., 2008). A total of 159 people with schizophrenia
             completed the MCCB at baseline and 4. weeks later. Data were
             analyzed using an RCI and a regression formula establishing
             confidence intervals. Results: The RCI and regression
             approaches agree within one point when baseline values are
             close to the sample mean. However, the regression approach
             offers more accurate limits for expected change at the tails
             of the distribution of baseline scores. Conclusions:
             Although both approaches have their merits, the regression
             approach provides the most accurate measure of significant
             change across the full range of scores. As the RCI does not
             account for regression to the mean and has confidence limits
             that remain constant across baseline scores, the RCI
             approach effectively gives narrower confidence limits around
             an inaccurately predicted average change value. Further,
             despite the high test-retest reliability of the MCCB, a
             change in an individual's score must be relatively large to
             be confident that it is beyond normal month-to-month
             variation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.032},
   Key = {fds273323}
}

@article{fds273324,
   Author = {Hufford, MR and Davis, VG and Hilt, D and Dgetluck, N and Geffen, Y and Loebel, A and Haig, G and Santarelli, L and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Circadian rhythms in cognitive functioning among patients
             with schizophrenia: Impact on signal detection in clinical
             trials of potential pro-cognitive therapies},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {205-210},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.018},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V.Objective: Cognition is affected by
             circadian rhythms over the course of a day. Circadian
             rhythms in cognitive functioning are driven by a variety of
             both endogenous and exogenous factors. Patients with
             schizophrenia are known to have disturbed circadian rhythms
             that can affect their cognitive functioning. We examined the
             impact of time of day on cognitive test scores from subjects
             participating in clinical trials of potential pro-cognitive
             therapies for schizophrenia and then explored how this
             diurnal variation affected signal detection. Method:
             Baseline data from 8 separate schizophrenia clinical trials
             using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were
             aggregated (Total N. =. 2032). The MCCB assessments were
             divided into five 2-hour time intervals based on the
             start-time of the assessments (varying from 8:00. am to
             5:59. pm) and then analyzed for differences by time
             interval. Next, data from two Phase 2 schizophrenia clinical
             trials of potential pro-cognitive therapies were analyzed to
             explore the impact of this diurnal variation on placebo
             separation. Results: Time of day exerted a significant
             effect on baseline composite MCCB scores (p. =. .002).
             Follow-up comparisons revealed significant differences among
             multiple temporal epochs. In both Phase 2 clinical trials,
             subjects whose cognitive functioning was assessed at
             consistent times of day between their baseline and endpoint
             visits showed a more robust treatment response as compared
             to subjects assessed at inconsistent times of day.
             Conclusion: Cognitive functioning ebbs and flows over the
             course of the day. Maintaining consistency in the time of
             day of cognitive test administrations between visits can
             help to reduce the noise introduced by circadian rhythms,
             thereby enhancing signal detection in clinical trials of
             potential pro-cognitive therapies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.018},
   Key = {fds273324}
}

@article{fds273337,
   Author = {Yong, E and Barbato, M and Penn, DL and Keefe, RSE and Woods, SW and Perkins, DO and Addington, J},
   Title = {Exploratory analysis of social cognition and neurocognition
             in individuals at clinical high risk for
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {218},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {39-43},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.003},
   Abstract = {Neurocognition and social cognition are separate but related
             constructs known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The aim of
             this study was to extend the current knowledge of the
             relationship between social cognition and neurocognition in
             individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing
             psychosis by examining, in a large sample, the associations
             between a wide range of neurocognitive tasks and social
             cognition. Participants included 136 young people at CHR.
             Specific domains within neurocognition and social cognition
             were compared using Spearman correlations. Results showed
             that poor theory of mind correlated with low ratings on a
             wide range of neurocognitive tasks. Facial affect was more
             often associated with low ratings on spatial working memory
             and attention. These results support a link between
             neurocognition and social cognition even at this early stage
             of potential psychosis, with indication that poorer
             performance on social cognition may be associated with
             deficits in attention and working memory. Understanding
             these early associations may have implications for early
             intervention. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2014.04.003},
   Key = {fds273337}
}

@article{fds273339,
   Author = {Madhoo, M and Keefe, RSE and Roth, RM and Sambunaris, A and Wu, J and Trivedi, MH and Anderson, CS and Lasser, R},
   Title = {Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation in adults with
             persistent executive dysfunction after partial or full
             remission of major depressive disorder},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1388-1398},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.334},
   Abstract = {Evaluate lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) augmentation of
             antidepressant monotherapy for executive dysfunction in
             partially or fully remitted major depressive disorder (MDD).
             This randomized, placebo-controlled study (NCT00985725)
             enrolled 143 adults (18-55 years) with mild MDD
             (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score
             ≤18) and executive dysfunction (Behavior Rating Inventory
             of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) Self-Report
             Global Executive Composite (GEC) T score ≥60) on stable
             antidepressant monotherapy for ≥8 weeks. After 2 weeks of
             screening, participants were randomized to 9 weeks of
             double-blind LDX (20-70 mg/day) or placebo augmentation,
             followed by 2 weeks of single-blind placebo. The primary end
             point was change from baseline to week 9/end of study (EOS)
             in BRIEF-A Self-Report GEC T score; secondary assessments
             included the BRIEF-A Informant Report, MADRS, and
             treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). Of 143 randomized
             participants, 119 completed double-blind treatment (placebo,
             n=59; LDX, n=60). Mean±standard deviation (SD) BRIEF-A GEC
             T scores decreased from baseline (placebo, 74.2±8.88; LDX,
             76.8±9.66) to week 9/EOS (placebo, 61.4±14.61; LDX,
             55.2±16.15); the LS mean (95% CI) treatment difference
             significantly favored LDX (-8.0 (-12.7, -3.3); P=0.0009).
             The LS mean (95% CI) treatment difference for MADRS total
             score also significantly favored LDX (-1.9 (-3.7, 0.0);
             P=0.0465). TEAE rates were 73.6% with placebo and 78.9% with
             LDX; serious TEAE rates were 4.2 and 2.8%. In this trial,
             LDX augmentation significantly improved executive
             dysfunction and depressive symptoms in participants with
             mild MDD. The safety profile of LDX was consistent with
             prior studies in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder. © 2014 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.334},
   Key = {fds273339}
}

@article{fds273342,
   Author = {Umbricht, D and Keefe, RSE and Murray, S and Lowe, DA and Porter, R and Garibaldi, G and Santarelli, L},
   Title = {A randomized, placebo-controlled study investigating the
             nicotinic 7 agonist, RG3487, for cognitive deficits in
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1568-1577},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2014.17},
   Abstract = {Effective treatments for cognitive impairment associated
             with schizophrenia (CIAS) remain an unmet need. Nicotinic 7
             receptor agonists may be effective in CIAS. This 8-week
             (week 1, inpatient; weeks 2-8, outpatient), double-blind,
             randomized study used Measurement And Treatment Research to
             Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) guidelines to
             investigate the nicotinic 7 partial agonist RG3487 (formerly
             MEM3454) in CIAS; 215 patients with chronic stable
             schizophrenia received placebo or RG3487 (5, 15, or 50 mg)
             added to ongoing treatment with risperidone, paliperidone,
             or aripiprazole. Primary end point was baseline to week 8
             change in MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB)
             composite t-score. Secondary outcomes were change in MCCB
             domain and negative symptom assessment (NSA) scores. The
             study did not allow for evaluation of nonsmokers. Each
             RG3487 dose was evaluated using a mixed-effects model
             repeated measures approach. Mean (SD) baseline MCCB
             composite t-score was 28.3 (12.0). No significant effect on
             MCCB composite t-scores was observed with RG3487 (adjusted
             mean difference (SE) vs placebo: 5 mg: 0.11 (1.39); 15 mg:
             -1.95 (1.39); 50 mg: -1.13 (1.37); p=0.2-0.9). RG3487 did
             not improve MCCB domain scores. In a post hoc analysis of
             patients with moderate negative symptoms, 5 and 50 mg RG3487
             vs placebo significantly improved NSA total (-4.45 (p=0.04)
             and -4.75 (p=0.02), respectively) and global (-0.39 (p=0.04)
             and -0.55 (p=0.003), respectively) scores. The MCCB did not
             lead to higher than expected patient withdrawal. RG3487 was
             generally well tolerated. In patients with stable
             schizophrenia, RG3487 did not improve cognitive deficits, as
             assessed by the MCCB; however, in patients with moderate
             negative symptoms, a post hoc analysis revealed significant
             improvement of negative symptoms. © 2014 American College
             of Neuropsychopharmacology.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2014.17},
   Key = {fds273342}
}

@article{fds273349,
   Author = {Abdul Rashid and NA and Lim, J and Lam, M and Chong, SA and Keefe, RSE and Lee, J},
   Title = {Unraveling the relationship between obesity, schizophrenia
             and cognition},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {151},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {107-112},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.020},
   Abstract = {Introduction: Previous studies investigating the
             relationship between obesity and cognition as well as gender
             differences in these relationships reported equivocal
             results. Here, we examined age, years of education,
             schizophrenia, and gender differences which might affect the
             relationship between obesity and cognition. Methods: 1012
             healthy controls and 707 participants with schizophrenia
             were recruited. Information on body mass index (BMI) was
             obtained and a neurocognitive battery was administered.
             Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine
             the relationship between BMI, schizophrenia, cognition and
             its covariates. Results: No significant direct effect of BMI
             on cognition was found when cognition was regressed on age,
             years of education, diagnosis of schizophrenia and BMI.
             Instead, two SEM models indicated that indirect effects
             between BMI and cognition exist. The indirect effect of BMI
             on cognition through schizophrenia was present in both
             genders, while the indirect effect of cognition on BMI
             through schizophrenia was only found in females. BMI
             affecting cognition through age, years of education and
             schizophrenia appears to be the most plausible model that
             explains the data. This indirect effect was larger in
             females and was masked by diagnosis of schizophrenia.
             Conclusion: With increased rates of obesity in
             schizophrenia, it is important to highlight the potentially
             deleterious effect of obesity on cognition. BMI could be
             used as a candidate risk marker to identify people at higher
             risk of cognitive deficits, and as an intervention target
             for modifications of cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.020},
   Key = {fds273349}
}

@article{fds273350,
   Author = {Lee, J and Rekhi, G and Mitter, N and Bong, YL and Kraus, MS and Lam, M and Rapisarda, A and Lee, TS and Subramaniam, M and Chong, SA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) - An Asian UHR
             perspective},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {151},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {279-283},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.025},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have been published on the psychosis
             prodrome and have explored a wide array of its many aspects.
             However, the set of risk factors identified by these various
             efforts is not homogenous across studies. This could be due
             to unique population factors or relatively small sample
             sizes. Only few studies were conducted on Asian populations,
             whose socio-cultural characteristics differ - in some cases
             remarkably - from those in western populations. Singapore is
             a highly dense city-state in South-east Asia, with low rates
             of substance abuse. The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study
             (LYRIKS) commenced in Singapore in 2008, designed to
             comprehensively assess a group of ultra high risk (UHR)
             individuals and identify clinical, social,
             neuropsychological and biological risk factors unique to the
             local population. 173 UHR individuals were recruited from
             this single-site study over 4. years. Here, we detail
             aspects of the study methodology and report on the baseline
             social and clinical characteristics of the sample
             population. 78% of the UHR sample suffered from a
             psychiatric disorder, with Major Depressive Disorder present
             in more than half of the sample. The mean Global Assessment
             of Functioning (GAF) score was 57.4, which indicated a
             moderate level of impairment. Although the recruited sample
             did not differ significantly by social and clinical
             characteristics when compared to previously published
             reports, the conversion rate to psychosis was 3.5% (n. = 6)
             at 6. months. Follow-up measures are currently underway to
             assess longitudinal incidence of psychosis and impact of
             risk factors on cognition, functioning and remission. ©
             2013 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.025},
   Key = {fds273350}
}

@article{fds273351,
   Author = {Eng, GK and Lam, M and Bong, YL and Subramaniam, M and Bautista, D and Rapisarda, A and Kraus, M and Lee, J and Collinson, SL and Chong, SA and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: Normative
             Data in an English-Speaking Ethnic Chinese
             Sample},
   Journal = {Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology : the Official Journal
             of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {845-858},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0887-6177},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000327718700012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1093/arclin/act060},
   Key = {fds273351}
}

@article{fds273352,
   Author = {Meier, MH and Shalev, I and Moffitt, TE and Kapur, S and Keefe, RSE and Wong, TY and Belsky, DW and Harrington, H and Hogan, S and Houts, R and Caspi, A and Poulton, R},
   Title = {Microvascular abnormality in schizophrenia as shown by
             retinal imaging.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1451-1459},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030514},
   Abstract = {Retinal and cerebral microvessels are structurally and
             functionally homologous, but unlike cerebral microvessels,
             retinal microvessels can be noninvasively measured in vivo
             by retinal imaging. The authors tested the hypothesis that
             individuals with schizophrenia exhibit microvascular
             abnormality and evaluated the utility of retinal imaging as
             a tool for schizophrenia research.Participants were members
             of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative cohort
             followed from birth with 95% retention. Study members
             underwent retinal imaging at age 38. The authors assessed
             retinal arteriolar and venular caliber for all members of
             the cohort, including individuals who developed
             schizophrenia.Study members who developed schizophrenia were
             distinguished by wider retinal venules, suggesting
             microvascular abnormality reflective of insufficient brain
             oxygen supply. Analyses that controlled for confounding
             health conditions suggested that wider retinal venules are
             not simply an artifact of co-occurring health problems in
             schizophrenia patients. Wider venules were also associated
             with a dimensional measure of adult psychosis symptoms and
             with psychosis symptoms reported in childhood.The findings
             provide initial support for the hypothesis that individuals
             with schizophrenia show microvascular abnormality. Moreover,
             the results suggest that the same vascular mechanisms
             underlie subthreshold symptoms and clinical disorder and
             that these associations may begin early in life. These
             findings highlight the promise of retinal imaging as a tool
             for understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13020234},
   Key = {fds273352}
}

@article{fds273359,
   Author = {Lee, J and Rekhi, G and Mitter, N and Bong, YL and Kraus, MS and Lam, M and Rapisarda, A and Lee, T-S and Subramaniam, M and Chong, SA and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS)--an Asian UHR
             perspective.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {151},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {279-283},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24139196},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have been published on the psychosis
             prodrome and have explored a wide array of its many aspects.
             However, the set of risk factors identified by these various
             efforts is not homogenous across studies. This could be due
             to unique population factors or relatively small sample
             sizes. Only few studies were conducted on Asian populations,
             whose socio-cultural characteristics differ - in some cases
             remarkably - from those in western populations. Singapore is
             a highly dense city-state in South-east Asia, with low rates
             of substance abuse. The Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study
             (LYRIKS) commenced in Singapore in 2008, designed to
             comprehensively assess a group of ultra high risk (UHR)
             individuals and identify clinical, social,
             neuropsychological and biological risk factors unique to the
             local population. 173 UHR individuals were recruited from
             this single-site study over 4 years. Here, we detail aspects
             of the study methodology and report on the baseline social
             and clinical characteristics of the sample population. 78%
             of the UHR sample suffered from a psychiatric disorder, with
             Major Depressive Disorder present in more than half of the
             sample. The mean Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
             score was 57.4, which indicated a moderate level of
             impairment. Although the recruited sample did not differ
             significantly by social and clinical characteristics when
             compared to previously published reports, the conversion
             rate to psychosis was 3.5% (n=6) at 6 months. Follow-up
             measures are currently underway to assess longitudinal
             incidence of psychosis and impact of risk factors on
             cognition, functioning and remission.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.025},
   Key = {fds273359}
}

@article{fds273357,
   Author = {Hill, SK and Reilly, JL and Keefe, RSE and Gold, JM and Bishop, JR and Gershon, ES and Tamminga, CA and Pearlson, GD and Keshavan, MS and Sweeney, JA},
   Title = {Neuropsychological impairments in schizophrenia and
             psychotic bipolar disorder: findings from the
             Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes
             (B-SNIP) study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1275-1284},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000326724300010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Familial neuropsychological deficits are well established in
             schizophrenia but remain less well characterized in other
             psychotic disorders. This study from the
             Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes
             (B-SNIP) consortium 1) compares cognitive impairment in
             schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis, 2) tests
             a continuum model of cognitive dysfunction in psychotic
             disorders, 3) reports familiality of cognitive impairments
             across psychotic disorders, and 4) evaluates cognitive
             impairment among nonpsychotic relatives with and without
             cluster A personality traits.Participants included probands
             with schizophrenia (N=293), psychotic bipolar disorder
             (N=227), schizoaffective disorder (manic, N=110; depressed,
             N=55), their first-degree relatives (N=316, N=259, N=133,
             and N=64, respectively), and healthy comparison subjects
             (N=295). All participants completed the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological
             battery.Cognitive impairments among psychotic probands,
             compared to healthy comparison subjects, were progressively
             greater from bipolar disorder (z=-0.77) to schizoaffective
             disorder (manic z=-1.08; depressed z=-1.25) to schizophrenia
             (z=-1.42). Profiles across subtests of the BACS were similar
             across disorders. Familiality of deficits was significant
             and comparable in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Of
             particular interest were similar levels of
             neuropsychological deficits in relatives with elevated
             cluster A personality traits across proband diagnoses.
             Nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenia probands without
             these personality traits exhibited significant cognitive
             impairments, while relatives of bipolar probands did
             not.Robust cognitive deficits are present and familial in
             schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Severity of
             cognitive impairments across psychotic disorders was
             consistent with a continuum model, in which more prominent
             affective features and less enduring psychosis were
             associated with less cognitive impairment. Cognitive
             dysfunction in first-degree relatives is more closely
             related to psychosis-spectrum personality disorder traits in
             psychotic bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12101298},
   Key = {fds273357}
}

@article{fds273358,
   Author = {Yaakub, SN and Dorairaj, K and Poh, JS and Asplund, CL and Krishnan, R and Lee, J and Keefe, RSE and Adcock, RA and Wood, SJ and Chee,
             MWL},
   Title = {Preserved working memory and altered brain activation in
             persons at risk for psychosis.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {170},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1297-1307},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000326724300012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments
             in working memory that often appear in attenuated form in
             persons at high risk for the illness. The authors
             hypothesized that deviations in task-related brain
             activation and deactivation would occur in persons with an
             at-risk mental state performing a working memory task that
             entailed the maintenance and manipulation of letters.
             METHOD: Participants at ultra high risk for developing
             psychosis (N=60), identified using the Comprehensive
             Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, and healthy comparison
             subjects (N=38) 14 to 29 years of age underwent functional
             MRI while performing a verbal working memory task. Group
             differences in brain activation were identified using
             analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The two groups did not show
             significant differences in speed or accuracy of performance,
             even after accounting for differences in education.
             Irrespective of task condition, at-risk participants
             exhibited significantly less activation than healthy
             comparison subjects in the left anterior insula. During
             letter manipulation, at-risk persons exhibited greater
             task-related deactivation within the default-mode network
             than comparison subjects. Region-of-interest analysis in the
             at-risk group revealed significantly greater right
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation during
             manipulation of letters. CONCLUSIONS: Despite comparable
             behavioral performance, at-risk participants performing a
             verbal working memory task exhibited altered brain
             activation compared with healthy subjects. These findings
             demonstrate an altered pattern of brain activation in
             at-risk persons that contains elements of reduced function
             as well as compensation.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12081135},
   Key = {fds273358}
}

@article{fds273361,
   Author = {Marder, SR and Alphs, L and Anghelescu, I-G and Arango, C and Barnes,
             TRE and Caers, I and Daniel, DG and Dunayevich, E and Fleischhacker, WW and Garibaldi, G and Green, MF and Harvey, PD and Kahn, RS and Kane, JM and Keefe, RSE and Kinon, B and Leucht, S and Lindenmayer, J-P and Malhotra,
             AK and Stauffer, V and Umbricht, D and Wesnes, K and Kapur, S and Rabinowitz, J},
   Title = {Issues and perspectives in designing clinical trials for
             negative symptoms in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {328-333},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.058},
   Abstract = {A number of pharmacological agents for treating negative
             symptoms in schizophrenia are currently in development.
             Unresolved questions regarding the design of clinical trials
             in this area were discussed at an international meeting in
             Florence, Italy in April 2012. Participants included
             representatives from academia, the pharmaceutical industry,
             and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Prior to the
             meeting, participants submitted key questions for debate and
             discussion. Responses to the questions guided the discussion
             during the meeting. The group reached agreement on a number
             of issues: (1) study subjects should be under the age of 65;
             (2) subjects should be excluded for symptoms of depression
             that do not overlap with negative symptoms; (3) functional
             measures should not be required as a co-primary in negative
             symptom trials; (4) information from informants should be
             included for ratings when available; (5) Phase 2 negative
             symptom trials should be 12weeks and 26weeks is preferred
             for Phase 3 trials; (6) prior to entry into a negative
             symptom study, subjects should demonstrate clinical
             stability for a period of 4 to 6months by collection of
             retrospective information; and (7) prior to entry, the
             stability of negative and positive symptoms should be
             confirmed prospectively for four weeks or longer. The
             participants could not reach agreement on whether
             predominant or prominent negative symptoms should be
             required for study subjects.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.058},
   Key = {fds273361}
}

@article{fds327065,
   Author = {Keefe, R and Mahableshwarkar, A and Olsen, C},
   Title = {P.2.f.013 Clinical evidence for improvement in cognitive
             dysfunction in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD)
             after treatment with vortioxetine},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {23},
   Pages = {S402-S403},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0924-977X(13)70636-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0924-977X(13)70636-9},
   Key = {fds327065}
}

@article{fds273360,
   Author = {Kahn, RS and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Schizophrenia is a cognitive illness: time for a change in
             focus.},
   Journal = {Jama Psychiatry},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1107-1112},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {2168-622X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000325184100016&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia is currently classified as a psychotic
             disorder. This article posits that this emphasis on
             psychosis is a conceptual fallacy that has greatly
             contributed to the lack of progress in our understanding of
             this illness and hence has hampered the development of
             adequate treatments. Not only have cognitive and
             intellectual underperformance consistently been shown to be
             risk factors for schizophrenia, several studies have found
             that a decline in cognitive functioning precedes the onset
             of psychosis by almost a decade. Although the question of
             whether cognitive function continues to decline after
             psychosis onset is still debated, it is clear that cognitive
             function in schizophrenia is related to outcome and little
             influenced by antipsychotic treatment. Thus, our focus on
             defining (and preventing) the disorder on the basis of
             psychotic symptoms may be too narrow. Not only should
             cognition be recognized as the core component of the
             disorder, our diagnostic efforts should emphasize the
             changes in cognitive function that occur earlier in
             development. Putting the focus back on cognition may
             facilitate finding treatments for the illness before
             psychosis ever emerges.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.155},
   Key = {fds273360}
}

@article{fds273367,
   Author = {Nutt, D and Gispen-de Wied and CC and Arango, C and Keefe, RSE and Penadés, R and Murphy, DG and Robbins, TW and Sahakian,
             BJ},
   Title = {Cognition in schizophrenia: summary Nice Consultation
             Meeting 2012.},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {769-778},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0924-977X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.03.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.03.005},
   Key = {fds273367}
}

@article{fds273377,
   Author = {Jarskog, LF and Dong, Z and Kangarlu, A and Colibazzi, T and Girgis, RR and Kegeles, LS and Barch, DM and Buchanan, RW and Csernansky, JG and Goff,
             DC and Harms, MP and Javitt, DC and Keefe, RS and McEvoy, JP and McMahon,
             RP and Marder, SR and Peterson, BS and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Effects of davunetide on N-acetylaspartate and choline in
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1245-1252},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.23},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia is associated with extensive neurocognitive
             and behavioral impairments. Studies indicate that
             N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity, and
             choline, a marker of cell membrane turnover and white matter
             integrity, may be altered in schizophrenia. Davunetide is a
             neurotrophic peptide that can enhance cognitive function in
             animal models of neurodegeneration. Davunetide has recently
             demonstrated modest functional improvement in a study of
             people with schizophrenia. In a subset of these subjects,
             proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was
             conducted to explore the effects of davunetide on change in
             NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (choline/Cr) over
             12 weeks of treatment. Of 63 outpatients with schizophrenia
             who received randomized davunetide (5 and 30 mg/day) or
             placebo in the parent clinical trial, 18 successfully
             completed (1)H-MRS in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
             at baseline and at 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed using
             the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). NAA/Cr was
             unchanged for combined high- and low-dose davunetide groups
             (N=11). NAA/Cr in the high-dose davunetide group (N=8)
             suggested a trend increase of 8.0% (P=0.072) over placebo
             (N=7). Choline/Cr for combined high- and low-dose davunetide
             groups suggested a 6.4% increase (P=0.069), while the
             high-dose group showed a 7.9% increase (P=0.040) over
             placebo. Baseline NAA/Cr correlated with the composite MCCB
             score (R=0.52, P=0.033), as did individual cognitive domains
             of attention/vigilance, verbal learning, and social
             cognition; however, neither metabolite correlated with
             functional capacity. In this exploratory study, 12 weeks of
             adjunctive davunetide appeared to produce modest increases
             in NAA/Cr and choline/Cr in DLPFC in people with
             schizophrenia. This is consistent with a potential
             neuroprotective mechanism for davunetide. The data also
             support use of MRS as a useful biomarker of baseline
             cognitive function in schizophrenia. Future clinical and
             preclinical studies are needed to fully define the mechanism
             of action and cognitive effects of davunetide in
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.23},
   Key = {fds273377}
}

@article{fds273354,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Kraemer, HC and Epstein, RS and Frank, E and Haynes, G and Laughren, TP and McNulty, J and Reed, SD and Sanchez, J and Leon,
             AC},
   Title = {Defining a clinically meaningful effect for the design and
             interpretation of randomized controlled trials.},
   Journal = {Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {5-6 Suppl A},
   Pages = {4S-19S},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {2158-8333},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This article captures the proceedings of a
             meeting aimed at defining clinically meaningful effects for
             use in randomized controlled trials for psychopharmacological
             agents. DESIGN: Experts from a variety of disciplines
             defined clinically meaningful effects from their
             perspectives along with viewpoints about how to design and
             interpret randomized controlled trials. SETTING: The article
             offers relevant, practical, and sometimes anecdotal
             information about clinically meaningful effects and how to
             interpret them. PARTICIPANTS: The concept for this session
             was the work of co-chairs Richard Keefe and the late Andy
             Leon. Faculty included Richard Keefe, PhD; James McNulty,
             AbScB; Robert S. Epstein, MD, MS; Shelby D. Reed, PhD; Juan
             Sanchez, MD; Ginger Haynes, PhD; Andrew C. Leon, PhD; Helena
             Chmura Kraemer, PhD; Ellen Frank, PhD, and Kenneth L. Davis,
             MD. RESULTS: The term clinically meaningful effect is an
             important aspect of designing and interpreting randomized
             controlled trials but can be particularly difficult in the
             setting of psychopharmacology where effect size may be
             modest, particularly over the short term, because of a
             strong response to placebo. Payers, regulators, patients,
             and clinicians have different concerns about clinically
             meaningful effects and may describe these terms differently.
             The use of moderators in success rate differences may help
             better delineate clinically meaningful effects. CONCLUSION:
             There is no clear consensus on a single definition for
             clinically meaningful differences in randomized controlled
             trials, and investigators must be sensitive to specific
             concerns of stakeholders in psychopharmacology in order to
             design and execute appropriate clinical trials.},
   Key = {fds273354}
}

@article{fds273370,
   Author = {Ventura, J and Reise, SP and Keefe, RSE and Hurford, IM and Wood, RC and Bilder, RM},
   Title = {The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): reliability and
             validity of a brief interview-based measure of
             cognition.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {583-591},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbs001},
   Abstract = {To obtain Food and Drug Administration approval for the
             treatment of cognitive impairments associated with
             schizophrenia, a drug will need to demonstrate benefits
             beyond those that may be documented on objective cognitive
             tests. Interview-based measures of cognition such as the
             Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) are candidate coprimary
             outcome measures.Psychiatrically stable schizophrenia
             outpatients (n=150) were studied using the CAI to obtain
             information about cognitive functioning from both the
             patient and an informant. Patients also received objective
             assessments of neurocognition, functional capacity,
             functional outcome, and symptoms, at baseline and 1 month
             later.The CAI had good internal consistency (Cronbach's
             alpha=.92) and good test-retest reliability (r=.83). The CAI
             was moderately correlated with objective neurocognitive test
             scores (r's=-.39 to -.41) and moderately correlated with
             social functioning (r=-.38), work functioning (r=-.48), and
             overall functional outcome (r=-.49). The correlations of CAI
             scores with external validity indicators did not differ
             significantly by source of information (patient alone
             ratings were valid). Overall functional outcome correlated
             more strongly with patient CAI scores (r=-.50) than with
             objective neurocognitive test scores (r=.29) or functional
             capacity (r=.29).Field testing of the CAI produced reliable
             ratings of cognitive functioning that were correlated with
             functional outcome. Patient ratings alone yielded scores
             with reliability and validity values appropriate for use in
             clinical trials. The CAI appears to provide useful
             complementary information and possesses practical advantages
             for rating cognitive functioning including an
             interview-based method of administration, brief assessment
             time (15 min for the patient assessment), little or no
             practice effects, and ease of scoring.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbs001},
   Key = {fds273370}
}

@article{fds273371,
   Author = {Sakurai, H and Bies, RR and Stroup, ST and Keefe, RSE and Rajji, TK and Suzuki, T and Mamo, DC and Pollock, BG and Watanabe, K and Mimura, M and Uchida, H},
   Title = {Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy and cognition in
             schizophrenia: analysis of the CATIE data.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {564-574},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbr189},
   Abstract = {Antipsychotic drugs exert antipsychotic effects by blocking
             dopamine D2 receptors in the treatment of schizophrenia.
             However, effects of D2 receptor blockade on neurocognitive
             function still remain to be elucidated. The objective of
             this analysis was to evaluate impacts of estimated dopamine
             D2 receptor occupancy with antipsychotic drugs on several
             domains of neurocognitive function in patients with
             schizophrenia in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials in
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) trial.The dataset from
             the CATIE trial was used in the present analysis. Data were
             extracted from 410 subjects who were treated with
             risperidone, olanzapine, or ziprasidone, received
             assessments for neurocognitive functions (verbal memory,
             vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory)
             and psychopathology, and provided plasma samples for the
             measurement of plasma antipsychotic concentrations. D2
             receptor occupancy levels on the day of neurocognitive
             assessment were estimated from plasma antipsychotic
             concentrations, using population pharmacokinetic analysis
             and our recently developed model. A multivariate general
             linear model was used to examine effects of clinical and
             demographic characteristics, including estimated D2
             occupancy levels, on neurocognitive functions.D2 occupancy
             levels showed significant associations with the vigilance
             and the summary scores. Neurocognitive functions, including
             vigilance, were especially impaired in subjects who showed
             D2 receptor occupancy level of >77%.These findings suggest a
             nonlinear relationship between prescribed antipsychotic
             doses and overall neurocognitive function and vigilance.
             This study shows that D2 occupancy above approximately 80%
             not only increases the risk for extrapyramidal side effects
             as consistently reported in the literature but also
             increases the risk for cognitive impairment.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbr189},
   Key = {fds273371}
}

@article{fds273378,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Buchanan, RW and Marder, SR and Schooler, NR and Dugar,
             A and Zivkov, M and Stewart, M},
   Title = {Clinical trials of potential cognitive-enhancing drugs in
             schizophrenia: what have we learned so far?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {417-435},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000315556900026&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {In light of the number of studies conducted to examine the
             treatment of cognitive impairment associated with
             schizophrenia (CIAS), we critically reviewed recent CIAS
             trials. Trials were identified through searches of the
             website "www.clinicaltrials.gov" using the terms
             "schizophrenia AND cognition," "schizophrenia AND
             neurocognition," "schizophrenia AND neurocognitive tests,"
             "schizophrenia AND MATRICS," "schizophrenia AND MCCB,"
             "schizophrenia AND BACS," "schizophrenia AND COGSTATE," and
             "schizophrenia AND CANTAB" and "first-episode schizophrenia
             AND cognition." The cutoff date was 20 April 2011. Included
             trials were conducted in people with schizophrenia, the
             effects on cognition were either a primary or secondary
             outcome, and the effect of a pharmacologically active
             substance was examined. Drug challenge, pharmacokinetic,
             pharmacodynamic, or prodrome of psychosis studies were
             excluded. We identified 118 trials, with 62% using an add-on
             parallel group design. The large majority of completed
             trials were underpowered to detect moderate effect sizes,
             had ≤8 weeks duration, and were performed in samples of
             participants with chronic stable schizophrenia. The ongoing
             add-on trials are longer, have larger sample sizes (with a
             number of them being adequately powered to detect moderate
             effect sizes), and are more likely to use a widely accepted
             standardized cognitive battery (eg, the MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery) and MATRICS guidelines. Ongoing studies
             performed in subjects with recent onset schizophrenia may
             help elucidate which subjects are most likely to show an
             effect in cognition. New insights into the demands of CIAS
             trial design and methodology may help increase the
             probability of identifying treatments with beneficial effect
             on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbr153},
   Key = {fds273378}
}

@article{fds273379,
   Author = {Lam, M and Eng, GK and Rapisarda, A and Subramaniam, M and Kraus, M and Keefe, RSE and Collinson, SL},
   Title = {Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and
             Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance},
   Journal = {Psychological Assessment},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-70},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1040-3590},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000315974000006&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0030548},
   Key = {fds273379}
}

@article{fds273343,
   Author = {Lee, T-S and Goh, SJA and Quek, SY and Phillips, R and Guan, C and Cheung,
             YB and Feng, L and Teng, SSW and Wang, CC and Chin, ZY and Zhang, H and Ng,
             TP and Lee, J and Keefe, R and Krishnan, KRR},
   Title = {A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system
             for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for
             usability and preliminary efficacy.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e79419},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079419},
   Abstract = {Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated
             with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in
             quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use
             of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in
             improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity
             disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system
             with a new game that incorporates memory training in
             improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy
             elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and
             acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an
             efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one
             healthy elderly were randomized into intervention
             (n = 15) and waitlist control arms (n = 16).
             Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24
             half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability
             questionnaire was administered at the end of training.
             Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse
             events after every session. Efficacy of the system was
             measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable
             Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status
             (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability
             and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse
             events were reported for all participants across all
             sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change
             scores between arms was not statistically significant, an
             effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential
             clinical utility according to Simon's randomized phase II
             trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that
             the median change in total scores pre and post-training was
             statistically significant (Mdn = 4.0; p<0.001).
             Specifically, there were significant improvements in
             immediate memory (p = 0.038), visuospatial/constructional
             (p = 0.014), attention (p = 0.039), and delayed
             memory (p<0.001) scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise
             in improving memory and attention in healthy elderly, and
             appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior
             users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is
             warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01661894.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0079419},
   Key = {fds273343}
}

@article{fds273347,
   Author = {Kim, JL and Rele, S and Marks, DM and Masand, PS and Yerramsetty, P and Millet, RA and Keefe, RS and Patkar, AA},
   Title = {Effects of milnacipran on neurocognition, pain, and fatigue
             in fibromyalgia: a 13-week, randomized, placebo-controlled,
             crossover trial.},
   Journal = {The Primary Care Companion for Cns Disorders},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {6},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2155-7772},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/PCC.13m01555},
   Abstract = {To investigate whether milnacipran is safe and effective in
             improving cognitive function in patients with
             fibromyalgia.Patients were randomly assigned to receive
             milnacipran or placebo for 6 weeks, followed by a 1-week
             washout and then crossover to the other arm for another 6
             weeks. The overall trial lasted 13 weeks and was conducted
             between July 2011 and May 2013. Assessments were performed
             at each visit. Neurocognition was measured by the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition (BAC) and MATRICS. Pain was assessed
             by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Global assessment
             of fibromyalgia symptoms was measured by the Fibromyalgia
             Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and tender point examination.
             Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory
             (BDI). Fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Severity Scale.
             Functional outcome was evaluated by the Health Assessment
             Questionnaire. The Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of
             Illness (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scales and the
             Patients Clinical Global Impression of Change were used to
             measure the global impression of severity and improvement.26
             subjects were screened, and 20 subjects completed the trial.
             The change in verbal memory (P = .001) and the composite T
             score (P = .044) of the BAC and the change in the
             attention-vigilance domain T score (P = .042) were
             significantly improved, but there were no differences
             between the drug and placebo groups. The changes in the
             CGI-S scores were not significant, but the changes in the
             Clinical Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scores showed
             worsening in the placebo group at week 1 (P = .032), week 2
             (P = .024), week 4 (P = .024), and week 6 (P = .60) compared
             to baseline. The change in FIQ scores was not
             significant.Milnacipran may have a potential role in the
             improvement of pain, disability, and mood. The effect of
             milnacipran on cognition in fibromyalgia needs further
             research.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01829243.},
   Doi = {10.4088/PCC.13m01555},
   Key = {fds273347}
}

@article{fds273363,
   Author = {Barbato, M and Colijn, MA and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Woods, SW and Hawkins, KA and Christensen, BK and Addington,
             J},
   Title = {The course of cognitive functioning over six months in
             individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {206},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {195-199},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1872-7123},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.013},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairment is common in psychosis and has recently
             been observed in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of
             developing psychosis. The purpose of this study was to
             characterize longitudinal change in cognition among CHR
             individuals, and compare cognition of CHR individuals who
             later convert to psychosis to that of CHR who do not
             convert. Participants were tested at baseline and
             followed-up after six months using a comprehensive cognitive
             test battery. Individuals who did not convert to psychosis
             either remained stable or significantly improved in their
             cognitive performance. At baseline participants who
             converted to psychosis compared to non-converters exhibited
             poorer performance in several cognitive tests, suggesting
             that some cognitive impairment is already present before
             conversion. Future longitudinal research should address if
             further decline takes place during the prodrome or after
             conversion to psychosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland
             Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.013},
   Key = {fds273363}
}

@article{fds273353,
   Author = {Mazhari, S and Parvaresh, N and Shahrbabaki, ME and Sadeghi, MM and Nakhaee, N and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the Persian version of the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia in patients with schizophrenia
             and healthy controls},
   Journal = {Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1323-1316},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12107},
   Abstract = {Aims: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (BACS) is designed for assessment of cognitive function in
             patients with schizophrenia. Versions of the BACS in English
             and other languages have been shown to be as sensitive to
             cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the
             advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The
             present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the
             Persian version of the BACS (Persian-BACS). Methods: A group
             of 50 patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and a
             group of 50 healthy controls received the Persian-BACS in a
             first session, and in a second session a standard
             neurocognitive battery. Results: Cronbach's alpha for the
             Persian-BACS was 0.74. All the Persian-BACS subscales
             weresignificantly correlated with the corresponding standard
             neurocognitive subscales and the Pearson correlation of the
             composite scores from the two instruments was 0.71.
             Moreover, a one-factor solution was found that accounted for
             67.9% of the variance. Finally, the Persian-BACS
             demonstrated high ability to discriminate patients with
             schizophrenia from healthy controls. Conclusion: Good
             psychometric properties of the Persian-BACS suggest that it
             is a useful tool for assessing cognition in schizophrenic
             patients with Persian as their primary language. © 2013
             Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.},
   Doi = {10.1111/pcn.12107},
   Key = {fds273353}
}

@article{fds273355,
   Author = {Barbato, M and Liu, L and Penn, DL and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Woods, SW and Addington, J},
   Title = {Social cognition as a mediator between neurocognition and
             functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {542-546},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.015},
   Abstract = {In schizophrenia, neurocognition, social cognition and
             functional outcome are all inter-related, with social
             cognition mediating the impact that impaired neurocognition
             has on functional outcome. Less clear is the nature of the
             relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and
             functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk
             (CHR) for psychosis. 137 CHR participants completed a
             neurocognitive test battery, a battery of social cognition
             tasks and the Social Functioning Scale. Confirmatory factor
             analysis showed that all social cognition tasks were
             reliable and valid measures of the latent variable. The path
             from neurocognition to functioning was statistically
             significant (standardized coefficient β= 0.22, p&lt; 0.01).
             The path from social cognition to functioning was also
             statistically significant (β= 0.27, p&lt; 0.05). In the
             mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a
             nonsignificant indirect effect that was the association of
             social cognition with neurocognition and with functional
             outcome (β= 0.20, 95% CI=-0.07 to 0.52, p= 0.11). However,
             social cognition was significantly associated with
             neurocognition (β= 0.80, p&lt; 0.001) and the path from
             neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as
             soon as the mediator (social cognition) was entered into the
             mediation model (β= 0.02, p= 0.92). All of the model fit
             indices were very good. Unlike what has been observed with
             psychotic patients, social cognition does not seem to
             mediate the pathway from neurocognition to functional
             outcome when assessed with a measure of social attainment in
             individuals at CHR for psychosis. © 2013 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.015},
   Key = {fds273355}
}

@article{fds273356,
   Author = {Marder, SR and Alphs, L and Anghelescu, I-G and Arango, C and Barnes,
             TRE and Caers, I and Daniel, DG and Dunayevich, E and Fleischhacker, WW and Garibaldi, G and al, E},
   Title = {Issues and perspectives in designing clinical trials for
             negative symptoms in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {150},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {328-333},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.058},
   Abstract = {A number of pharmacological agents for treating negative
             symptoms in schizophrenia are currently in development.
             Unresolved questions regarding the design of clinical trials
             in this area were discussed at an international meeting in
             Florence, Italy in April 2012. Participants included
             representatives from academia, the pharmaceutical industry,
             and the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Prior to the
             meeting, participants submitted key questions for debate and
             discussion. Responses to the questions guided the discussion
             during the meeting. The group reached agreement on a number
             of issues: (1) study subjects should be under the age of 65;
             (2) subjects should be excluded for symptoms of depression
             that do not overlap with negative symptoms; (3) functional
             measures should not be required as a co-primary in negative
             symptom trials; (4) information from informants should be
             included for ratings when available; (5) Phase 2 negative
             symptom trials should be 12. weeks and 26. weeks is
             preferred for Phase 3 trials; (6) prior to entry into a
             negative symptom study, subjects should demonstrate clinical
             stability for a period of 4 to 6. months by collection of
             retrospective information; and (7) prior to entry, the
             stability of negative and positive symptoms should be
             confirmed prospectively for four weeks or longer. The
             participants could not reach agreement on whether
             predominant or prominent negative symptoms should be
             required for study subjects. © 2013.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.058},
   Key = {fds273356}
}

@article{fds273362,
   Author = {Rashid, NAA and Lim, J and Lam, M and Chong, S-A and Keefe, RSE and Lee,
             J},
   Title = {Unraveling the relationship between obesity, schizophrenia
             and cognition},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.020},
   Abstract = {Introduction: Previous studies investigating the
             relationship between obesity and cognition as well as gender
             differences in these relationships reported equivocal
             results. Here, we examined age, years of education,
             schizophrenia, and gender differences which might affect the
             relationship between obesity and cognition. Methods: 1012
             healthy controls and 707 participants with schizophrenia
             were recruited. Information on body mass index (BMI) was
             obtained and a neurocognitive battery was administered.
             Structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed to examine
             the relationship between BMI, schizophrenia, cognition and
             its covariates. Results: No significant direct effect of BMI
             on cognition was found when cognition was regressed on age,
             years of education, diagnosis of schizophrenia and BMI.
             Instead, two SEM models indicated that indirect effects
             between BMI and cognition exist. The indirect effect of BMI
             on cognition through schizophrenia was present in both
             genders, while the indirect effect of cognition on BMI
             through schizophrenia was only found in females. BMI
             affecting cognition through age, years of education and
             schizophrenia appears to be the most plausible model that
             explains the data. This indirect effect was larger in
             females and was masked by diagnosis of schizophrenia.
             Conclusion: With increased rates of obesity in
             schizophrenia, it is important to highlight the potentially
             deleterious effect of obesity on cognition. BMI could be
             used as a candidate risk marker to identify people at higher
             risk of cognitive deficits, and as an intervention target
             for modifications of cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.09.020},
   Key = {fds273362}
}

@article{fds273364,
   Author = {Barbato, M and Liu, L and Penn, DL and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Woods, SW and Addington, J},
   Title = {Social cognition as a mediator between neurocognition and
             functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk for
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.015},
   Abstract = {In schizophrenia, neurocognition, social cognition and
             functional outcome are all inter-related, with social
             cognition mediating the impact that impaired neurocognition
             has on functional outcome. Less clear is the nature of the
             relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and
             functional outcome in individuals at clinical high risk
             (CHR) for psychosis. 137 CHR participants completed a
             neurocognitive test battery, a battery of social cognition
             tasks and the Social Functioning Scale. Confirmatory factor
             analysis showed that all social cognition tasks were
             reliable and valid measures of the latent variable. The path
             from neurocognition to functioning was statistically
             significant (standardized coefficient β = 0.22, p &lt;
             0.01). The path from social cognition to functioning was
             also statistically significant (β = 0.27, p &lt; 0.05). In
             the mediation model the bootstrapping estimate revealed a
             nonsignificant indirect effect that was the association of
             social cognition with neurocognition and with functional
             outcome (β = 0.20, 95% CI = - 0.07 to 0.52, p = 0.11).
             However, social cognition was significantly associated with
             neurocognition (β = 0.80, p &lt; 0.001) and the path from
             neurocognition to functioning was no longer significant as
             soon as the mediator (social cognition) was entered into the
             mediation model (β = 0.02, p = 0.92). All of the model fit
             indices were very good. Unlike what has been observed with
             psychotic patients, social cognition does not seem to
             mediate the pathway from neurocognition to functional
             outcome when assessed with a measure of social attainment in
             individuals at CHR for psychosis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.08.015},
   Key = {fds273364}
}

@article{fds273365,
   Author = {Nutt, D and Wied, CCG-D and Arango, C and Keefe, RSE and Penadés, R and Murphy, DG and Robbins, TW and Sahakian, BJ},
   Title = {Cognition in schizophrenia: Summary nice consultation
             meeting 2012},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {769-778},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0924-977X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.03.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.03.005},
   Key = {fds273365}
}

@article{fds273366,
   Author = {Jarskog, LF and Dong, Z and Kangarlu, A and Colibazzi, T and Girgis, RR and Kegeles, LS and Barch, DM and Buchanan, RW and Csernansky, JG and Goff,
             DC and Harms, MP and Javitt, DC and Keefe, RS and McEvoy, JP and McMahon,
             RP and Marder, SR and Peterson, BS and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Effects of davunetide on N-acetylaspartate and choline in
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1245-1252},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2013.23},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia is associated with extensive neurocognitive
             and behavioral impairments. Studies indicate that
             N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of neuronal integrity, and
             choline, a marker of cell membrane turnover and white matter
             integrity, may be altered in schizophrenia. Davunetide is a
             neurotrophic peptide that can enhance cognitive function in
             animal models of neurodegeneration. Davunetide has recently
             demonstrated modest functional improvement in a study of
             people with schizophrenia. In a subset of these subjects,
             proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) was
             conducted to explore the effects of davunetide on change in
             NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) and choline/creatine (choline/Cr) over
             12 weeks of treatment. Of 63 outpatients with schizophrenia
             who received randomized davunetide (5 and 30 mg/day) or
             placebo in the parent clinical trial, 18 successfully
             completed 1 H-MRS in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)
             at baseline and at 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed using
             the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). NAA/Cr was
             unchanged for combined high-and low-dose davunetide groups
             (N=11). NAA/Cr in the high-dose davunetide group (N=8)
             suggested a trend increase of 8.0% (P=0.072) over placebo
             (N=7). Choline/Cr for combined high-and low-dose davunetide
             groups suggested a 6.4% increase (P=0.069), while the
             high-dose group showed a 7.9% increase (P=0.040) over
             placebo. Baseline NAA/Cr correlated with the composite MCCB
             score (R=0.52, P=0.033), as did individual cognitive domains
             of attention/vigilance, verbal learning, and social
             cognition; however, neither metabolite correlated with
             functional capacity. In this exploratory study, 12 weeks of
             adjunctive davunetide appeared to produce modest increases
             in NAA/Cr and choline/Cr in DLPFC in people with
             schizophrenia. This is consistent with a potential
             neuroprotective mechanism for davunetide. The data also
             support use of MRS as a useful biomarker of baseline
             cognitive function in schizophrenia. Future clinical and
             preclinical studies are needed to fully define the mechanism
             of action and cognitive effects of davunetide in
             schizophrenia. © 2013 American College of
             Neuropsychopharmacology.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.23},
   Key = {fds273366}
}

@article{fds273368,
   Author = {Cruz, BF and Resende, CBD and Abreu, MN and Rocha, FL and Teixeira, AL and Keefe, RSE and Salgado, JV},
   Title = {How specific are negative symptoms and cognitive impairment
             in schizophrenia? An analysis of PANSS and
             SCoRS},
   Journal = {Cognitive Neuropsychiatry},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {243-251},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1354-6805},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2012.730995},
   Abstract = {Introduction. Interview-based scales can be used as
             coprimary measures to complement the assessment of cognitive
             impairment in schizophrenia. One major question that arises
             from the use of such tools is how specific they are in
             relation to other psychopathological domains. We analyse the
             specificity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             (PANSS) negative subscale and the Schizophrenia Cognition
             Rating Scale (SCoRS). Methods. We performed a principal
             component analysis (PCA) of PANSS negative subscale, rated
             by the interviewer, and SCoRS ratings from three different
             sources (patient, informant, and interviewer) in 101
             patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, we correlated
             mean SCoRS ratings to PANSS negative subscale items to
             determine whether any PANSS item is particularly related to
             cognition. Results. The PCA showed that the two first
             components, which explained approximately 40% of the total
             variance of the scales, represent the SCoRS ratings and the
             PANSS negative subscale ratings, respectively. The mean
             interviewer SCoRS was significantly correlated with the
             PANSS negative Item 5 (difficulty in abstract thinking) and
             with the mean PANSS negative subscale. The latter
             correlation was no longer significant when "difficulty in
             abstract thinking" was eliminated from PANSS negative
             subscale. Conclusions. In general, SCoRS and PANSS negative
             subscale scores address different constructs; however, the
             PANSS negative item "difficulty in abstract thinking" seems
             to address a cognitive dimension. © 2013 Taylor and Francis
             Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13546805.2012.730995},
   Key = {fds273368}
}

@article{fds273369,
   Author = {Rapisarda, A and Lim, TF and Lim, M and Collinson, SL and Kraus, MS and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Applicability of the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in
             Singapore},
   Journal = {The Clinical Neuropsychologist},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {455-469},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1385-4046},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2012.762120},
   Abstract = {The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed
             to provide a reliable, valid, and standard battery for
             clinical trials on cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia. In
             this study we tested the applicability of the MCCB to
             Singapores English speakers. Healthy ethnic Chinese, Malay,
             and Indian English speakers (N = 171) of both genders were
             recruited within three age groups and three levels of
             education to match as closely as possible the US norming
             sample, and were administered the MCCB. Descriptive data, T
             scores, age, gender, education, and ethnicity effects on
             performance were explored and compared with the US norming
             study. Age, education, and ethnicity affected the batterys
             composite scores, with young and highly educated
             participants generally outperforming the old, less-educated
             ones. Male participants outperformed their female
             counterparts in two out of seven cognitive domains. Although
             generally lower when compared to the US norming sample,
             Singaporean scores reflected the same relationship with age,
             education, and gender, with the exception of a substantially
             worse performance in the social cognition domain.
             Differences among the ethnic groups in Singapore - and the
             poorer performance measured in these groups with respect to
             the US sample - call for the necessity of an extended
             norming study in Singapore. © 2013 Taylor &amp;
             Francis.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13854046.2012.762120},
   Key = {fds273369}
}

@article{fds273372,
   Author = {Vita, A and Deste, G and Barlati, S and Peri, LD and Giambra, A and Poli,
             R and Keefe, RSE and Sacchetti, E},
   Title = {Interview-based assessment of cognition in schizophrenia:
             Applicability of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS) in different phases of illness and settings of
             care},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {217-223},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.035},
   Abstract = {Introduction: The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS), an interview-based assessment of cognition, has
             proved to be a valid measure of cognitive performance in
             patients with schizophrenia. Objective: The aims of this
             study were to analyze the validity of this scale in a
             naturalistic setting representative of the Italian system of
             psychiatric care, and to test whether the SCoRS could be
             appropriately used in different phases of illness and
             contexts of care. Methods: Eighty-six patients with
             schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) (N = 59 clinically
             stabilized patients; N = 27 recently hospitalized patients)
             were administered the SCoRS. The reliability of SCoRS was
             assessed and global ratings were correlated with
             neurocognitive, clinical, and psychosocial functioning
             measures. Results: SCoRS inter-rater and test-retest
             reliability were high. In clinically stabilized patients,
             SCoRS global ratings were significantly correlated with
             composite scores of cognitive performance (global cognitive
             index: r = - 0.570, P &lt; 0.001), symptoms (Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score: r = 0.602, P
             &lt;. 0.001), and psychosocial functioning (Global
             Assessment of Functioning (GAF): r = - 0.532, P &lt; 0.001;
             Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS): r = 0.433, P
             &lt; 0.001). On the other hand, no such correlations were
             found in recently hospitalized patients. Correlations with
             neuropsychological and functional measures were less
             significant as the severity of the patients' symptoms,
             especially positive symptoms, increased. Conclusion: The
             SCoRS is a valid measure of cognitive performance and is
             related to psychosocial functioning, especially in
             clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. The
             usefulness of the SCoRS in patients recently admitted to
             hospital for an acute phase of illness is uncertain. © 2013
             Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.035},
   Key = {fds273372}
}

@article{fds273375,
   Author = {Rapisarda, A and Lim, TF and Lim, M and Collinson, SL and Kraus, MS and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Applicability of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery in
             Singapore},
   Journal = {The Clinical Neuropsychologist},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1385-4046},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2012.762120},
   Abstract = {The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) was developed
             to provide a reliable, valid, and standard battery for
             clinical trials on cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia.In
             this study we tested the applicability of the MCCB to
             Singapore's English speakers. Healthy ethnic Chinese, Malay,
             and Indian English speakers (N = 171) of both genders were
             recruited within three age groups and three levels of
             education to match as closely as possible the US norming
             sample, and were administered the MCCB. Descriptive data, T
             scores, age, gender, education, and ethnicity effects on
             performance were explored and compared with the US norming
             study. Age, education, and ethnicity affected the battery's
             composite scores, with young and highly educated
             participants generally outperforming the old, less-educated
             ones. Male participants outperformed their female
             counterparts in two out of seven cognitive domains. Although
             generally lower when compared to the US norming sample,
             Singaporean scores reflected the same relationship with age,
             education, and gender, with the exception of a substantially
             worse performance in the social cognition domain.
             Differences among the ethnic groups in Singapore-and the
             poorer performance measured in these groups with respect to
             the US sample-call for the necessity of an extended norming
             study in Singapore. © 2013 Copyright Psychology Press, an
             imprint of the Taylor &amp; Francis group, an Informa
             Business.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13854046.2012.762120},
   Key = {fds273375}
}

@article{fds273376,
   Author = {Vita, A and Deste, G and Barlati, S and Peri, LD and Giambra, A and Poli,
             R and Keefe, RSE and Sacchetti, E},
   Title = {Interview-based assessment of cognition in schizophrenia:
             Applicability of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS) in different phases of illness and settings of
             care},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.035},
   Abstract = {Introduction: The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS), an interview-based assessment of cognition, has
             proved to be a valid measure of cognitive performance in
             patients with schizophrenia. Objective: The aims of this
             study were to analyze the validity of this scale in a
             naturalistic setting representative of the Italian system of
             psychiatric care, and to test whether the SCoRS could be
             appropriately used in different phases of illness and
             contexts of care. Methods: Eighty-six patients with
             schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) (N = 59 clinically
             stabilized patients; N = 27 recently hospitalized patients)
             were administered the SCoRS. The reliability of SCoRS was
             assessed and global ratings were correlated with
             neurocognitive, clinical, and psychosocial functioning
             measures. Results: SCoRS inter-rater and test-retest
             reliability were high. In clinically stabilized patients,
             SCoRS global ratings were significantly correlated with
             composite scores of cognitive performance (global cognitive
             index: r = - 0.570, P &lt; 0.001), symptoms (Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score: r = 0.602, P
             &lt; 0.001), and psychosocial functioning (Global Assessment
             of Functioning (GAF): r = - 0.532, P &lt; 0.001; Health of
             the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS): r = 0.433, P &lt; 0.001).
             On the other hand, no such correlations were found in
             recently hospitalized patients. Correlations with
             neuropsychological and functional measures were less
             significant as the severity of the patients' symptoms,
             especially positive symptoms, increased. Conclusion: The
             SCoRS is a valid measure of cognitive performance and is
             related to psychosocial functioning, especially in
             clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. The
             usefulness of the SCoRS in patients recently admitted to
             hospital for an acute phase of illness is uncertain. © 2013
             Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2013.02.035},
   Key = {fds273376}
}

@article{fds273373,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RS},
   Title = {Technology, society, and mental illness: Challenges and
             opportunities for assessment and treatment},
   Journal = {Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {11-12},
   Pages = {47-50},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2158-8333},
   Abstract = {Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities
             now require the ability to use technology. This situation
             has the potential to lead to problems for several
             populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and
             people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review
             the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We
             then review previous efforts to use technology positively
             for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric
             conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and
             severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based
             interventions and assessment strategies have the potential
             to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those
             with severe mental illness, including reaching people who
             would not have had access otherwise.},
   Key = {fds273373}
}

@article{fds273523,
   Author = {Kahn, PV and Walker, TM and Williams, TS and Cornblatt, BA and Mohs, RC and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Standardizing the use of the Continuous Performance Test in
             schizophrenia research: a validation study.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {142},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {153-158},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.09.009},
   Abstract = {The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) has emerged as the
             most commonly administered measure of sustained attention,
             but use of discrepant versions reduces the ability of
             researchers and clinicians to accurately draw cross-study
             conclusions. In an effort to standardize use of the CPT,
             this study compared four versions of the Identical Pairs CPT
             for their reliability and ability to discriminate between
             patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers. The
             relationship of performance on the different versions of the
             CPT with measures of psychopathology, functioning, and other
             aspects of cognition was also examined.Performance on the
             2-digit, 3-digit, 4-digit, and Shapes Identical Pairs CPT
             was assessed at three test sessions over five weeks, during
             which subjects also completed the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and questionnaires
             assessing psychopathology and functioning.All four CPTs
             discriminated between patients with schizophrenia and
             healthy volunteers, but there were no statistical
             differences in sensitivity among the versions. The 3-digit
             CPT showed non-statistical advantages in that it had high
             test-retest reliability, low potential for a ceiling effect,
             and a very low rate of false alarms. There were also
             moderate correlations between CPT performance and
             performance of the BACS subtests, but no significant
             correlations between CPT performance and measures of
             psychopathology and functioning.While all versions of the
             CPT tested here had good psychometric characteristics, the
             3-digit CPT-IP has some advantages in repeated measures
             studies such as clinical trials.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2012.09.009},
   Key = {fds273523}
}

@article{fds327066,
   Author = {Madhoo, M and Roth, RM and Keefe, RSE and Sambunaris, A and Scheckner,
             B and Nielsen, J and Adeyi, B and Wu, J and Lasser, R},
   Title = {P.2.a.017 Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation effects
             on executive function in major depressive disorder based on
             depressive symptom levels},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {22},
   Pages = {S233-S234},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0924-977x(12)70346-2},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0924-977x(12)70346-2},
   Key = {fds327066}
}

@article{fds273562,
   Author = {Meier, MH and Caspi, A and Ambler, A and Harrington, H and Houts, R and Keefe, RSE and McDonald, K and Ward, A and Poulton, R and Moffitt,
             TE},
   Title = {Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline
             from childhood to midlife.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {40},
   Pages = {E2657-E2664},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22927402},
   Abstract = {Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that
             regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly,
             adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and
             more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The
             purpose of the present study was to test the association
             between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological
             decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among
             adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members
             of the Dunedin Study, a prospective study of a birth cohort
             of 1,037 individuals followed from birth (1972/1973) to age
             38 y. Cannabis use was ascertained in interviews at ages 18,
             21, 26, 32, and 38 y. Neuropsychological testing was
             conducted at age 13 y, before initiation of cannabis use,
             and again at age 38 y, after a pattern of persistent
             cannabis use had developed. Persistent cannabis use was
             associated with neuropsychological decline broadly across
             domains of functioning, even after controlling for years of
             education. Informants also reported noticing more cognitive
             problems for persistent cannabis users. Impairment was
             concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users, with
             more persistent use associated with greater decline.
             Further, cessation of cannabis use did not fully restore
             neuropsychological functioning among adolescent-onset
             cannabis users. Findings are suggestive of a neurotoxic
             effect of cannabis on the adolescent brain and highlight the
             importance of prevention and policy efforts targeting
             adolescents.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1206820109},
   Key = {fds273562}
}

@article{fds273521,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Vinogradov, S and Medalia, A and Buckley, PF and Caroff,
             SN and D'Souza, DC and Harvey, PD and Graham, KA and Hamer, RM and Marder,
             SM and Miller, DD and Olson, SJ and Patel, JK and Velligan, D and Walker,
             TM and Haim, AJ and Stroup, TS},
   Title = {Feasibility and pilot efficacy results from the multisite
             Cognitive Remediation in the Schizophrenia Trials Network
             (CRSTN) randomized controlled trial.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1016-1022},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.11m07100},
   Abstract = {The true benefit of pharmacologic intervention to improve
             cognition in schizophrenia may not be evident without
             regular cognitive enrichment. Clinical trials assessing the
             neurocognitive effects of new medications may require
             engagement in cognitive remediation exercises to stimulate
             the benefit potential. However, the feasibility of
             large-scale multisite studies using cognitive remediation at
             clinical trials sites has not been established.53 adult
             patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia from 9
             university-affiliated sites were randomized to a cognitive
             remediation condition that included the Posit Science Brain
             Fitness auditory training program with weekly
             Neuropsychological and Educational Approach to Remediation
             (NEAR) "bridging groups" or a control condition of computer
             games and weekly healthy lifestyles groups. Patients were
             expected to complete 3 to 5 one-hour sessions weekly for 40
             sessions or 12 weeks, whichever came first. The primary
             outcomes were feasibility results as measured by rate of
             enrollment, retention, and completion rate of primary
             outcome measures. The study was conducted from July 2009
             through January 2010.During a 3-month enrollment period, 53
             (of a projected 54) patients were enrolled, and 41 (77%) met
             criteria for study completion. Thirty-one patients completed
             all 40 sessions, and all patients completed all primary
             outcome measures. Preliminary efficacy results indicated
             that, after 20 sessions, patients in the cognitive
             remediation condition demonstrated mean MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery composite score improvements that were 3.7
             (95% CI, 0.05-7.34) T-score points greater than in patients
             in the computer-games control group (F(1,46) = 4.16, P =
             .047). At the end of treatment, a trend favoring cognitive
             remediation was not statistically significant (F(1,47) =
             2.26, P = .14).Multisite clinical trials of cognitive
             remediation using the Posit Science Brain Fitness auditory
             training program with the NEAR method of weekly bridging
             groups at traditional clinical sites appear to be
             feasible.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00930150.},
   Doi = {10.4088/JCP.11m07100},
   Key = {fds273521}
}

@article{fds327067,
   Author = {Madhoo, M and Keefe, RSE and Roth, RM and Sambunaris, A and Wu, J and Trivedi, MH and Anderson, CS and Lasser, R},
   Title = {Efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults
             with executive dysfunction and partial or full remission of
             major depressive disorder},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {15},
   Pages = {189-189},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds327067}
}

@article{fds327068,
   Author = {Supina, D and Endicott, J and Madhoo, M and Keefe, RSE and Trivedi, M and Wu, J and Scheckner, B and Lasser, R},
   Title = {EFFECTS OF LISDEXAMFETAMINE DIMESYLATE AUGMENTATION ON
             FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES IN ADULTS WITH PARTIALLY OR FULLY
             REMITTED MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER},
   Journal = {Value in Health},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {A93-A93},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2012.03.506},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jval.2012.03.506},
   Key = {fds327068}
}

@article{fds326766,
   Author = {Jarskog, FF and Grove, RA and McEvoy, JP and Keefe, RSE and Lowy, MT and Horrigan, JP and Peykamian, MA},
   Title = {Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Parallel Group
             Exploratory Study of GSK239512 for Cognitive Impairment in
             Stable Schizophrenia Subjects on Background Antipsychotic
             Therapy},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {63S-64S},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds326766}
}

@article{fds327069,
   Author = {Uchida, H and Sakurai, H and Bies, RR and Stroup, S and Keefe, RSE and Suzuki, T and Tsuboi, T and Mimura, M and Pollock, BG and Mamo,
             DC},
   Title = {DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTOR OCCUPANCY AND COGNITION IN
             SCHIZOPHRENIA: ANALYSIS OF THE CATIE DATA},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {136},
   Pages = {S359-S359},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327069}
}

@article{fds327070,
   Author = {Colijn, MA and Barbato, M and Keefe, RS and Perkins, DO and Woods, SW and Addington, J},
   Title = {Poster #143 AT RISK FOR PSYCHOSIS: THE ROLE OF
             COGNITION},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {136},
   Pages = {S237-S237},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(12)70715-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(12)70715-6},
   Key = {fds327070}
}

@article{fds327071,
   Author = {Keefe, RS and Buchanan, RW and Marder, SR and Schooler, NR and Dugar, A and Zivkov, M and Stewart, M},
   Title = {Poster #199 CLINICAL TRIALS OF POTENTIAL COGNITIVE-ENHANCING
             DRUGS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED SO
             FAR?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {136},
   Pages = {S352-S352},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(12)71031-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(12)71031-9},
   Key = {fds327071}
}

@article{fds273518,
   Author = {Javitt, DC and Buchanan, RW and Keefe, RSE and Kern, R and McMahon, RP and Green, MF and Lieberman, J and Goff, DC and Csernansky, JG and McEvoy,
             JP and Jarskog, F and Seidman, LJ and Gold, JM and Kimhy, D and Nolan, KS and Barch, DS and Ball, MP and Robinson, J and Marder,
             SR},
   Title = {Effect of the neuroprotective peptide davunetide (AL-108) on
             cognition and functional capacity in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {136},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {25-31},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2011.11.001},
   Abstract = {Cognitive dysfunction is a key predictor of functional
             disability in schizophrenia. Davunetide (AL-108, NAP) is an
             intranasally administered peptide currently being developed
             for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.
             This study investigates effects of davunetide on cognition
             in schizophrenia.Sixty-three subjects with schizophrenia
             received davunetide at one of two different doses (5, 30 mg)
             or placebo for 12 weeks in a multicenter, double-blind,
             parallel-group randomized clinical trial. The MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) assessed cognitive
             effects. The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA)
             and the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS)
             assessed functional capacity. Subjects continued their
             current antipsychotic treatment during the trial.There were
             no significant differences in MCCB change between davunetide
             and placebo over the three treatment arms (p=.45). Estimated
             effect-size (d) values were .34 and .21 favoring the 5 and
             30 mg doses vs. placebo, respectively. For UPSA, there was a
             significant main effect of treatment across study arms
             (p=.048). Between-group effect size (d) values were.74 and
             .48, favoring the 5 and 30 mg doses, respectively. No
             significant effects were observed on the SCoRS or on symptom
             ratings. No significant side effects or adverse events were
             observed.Davunetide was well tolerated. Effects of
             davunetide on MCCB-rated cognition were not significant
             relative to placebo. In contrast, a significant beneficial
             effect was detected for the UPSA. Based upon effect-size
             considerations, sample sizes of at least 45-50
             subjects/group would be required to obtain significant
             effects on both MCCB and UPSA, providing guidance for
             continued clinical development in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2011.11.001},
   Key = {fds273518}
}

@article{fds273382,
   Author = {Matza, LS and Phillips, GA and Revicki, DA and Ascher-Svanum, H and Malley, KG and Palsgrove, AC and Faries, DE and Stauffer, V and Kinon,
             BJ and Awad, AG and Keefe, RS and Naber, D},
   Title = {Validation of a patient interview for assessing reasons for
             antipsychotic discontinuation and continuation.},
   Journal = {Patient Preference and Adherence},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {521-532},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1177-889X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000306468600001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: The Reasons for Antipsychotic Discontinuation
             Interview (RAD-I) was developed to assess patients'
             perceptions of reasons for discontinuing or continuing an
             antipsychotic. The current study examined reliability and
             validity of domain scores representing three factors
             contributing to these treatment decisions: treatment
             benefits, adverse events, and distal reasons other than
             direct effects of the medication. METHODS: Data were
             collected from patients with schizophrenia or
             schizoaffective disorder and their treating clinicians. For
             approximately 25% of patients, a second rater completed the
             RAD-I for assessment of inter-rater reliability. RESULTS:
             All patients (n = 121; 81 discontinuation, 40 continuation)
             reported at least one reason for discontinuation or
             continuation (mean = 2.8 reasons for discontinuation; 3.4
             for continuation). Inter-rater reliability was supported
             (kappas = 0.63-1.0). Validity of the discontinuation domain
             scores was supported by associations with symptom measures
             (the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia,
             the Clinical Global Impression - Schizophrenia Scale; r =
             0.30 to 0.51; all P < 0.01), patients' primary reasons for
             discontinuation, and adverse events. However, the
             continuation domain scores were not significantly associated
             with these other indicators. DISCUSSION: Results support the
             reliability, convergent validity, and known-groups validity
             of the RAD-I for assessing patients' reasons for
             antipsychotic discontinuation. Further research is needed to
             examine validity of the RAD-I continuation
             section.},
   Doi = {10.2147/PPA.S25635},
   Key = {fds273382}
}

@article{fds273514,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology},
   Volume = {213},
   Number = {213},
   Pages = {11-37},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0171-2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25758-2_2},
   Abstract = {Cognitive functioning is moderately to severely impaired in
             patients with schizophrenia. This impairment is the prime
             driver of the significant disabilities in occupational,
             social, and economic functioning in patients with
             schizophrenia and an important treatment target. The profile
             of deficits in schizophrenia includes many of the most
             important aspects of human cognition: attention, memory,
             reasoning, and processing speed. While various efforts are
             under way to identify specific aspects of neurocognition
             that may lie closest to the neurobiological etiology and
             pathophysiology of the illness, and may provide relevant
             convergence with animal models of cognition, standard
             neuropsychological measures continue to demonstrate the
             greatest sensitivity to functionally relevant cognitive
             impairment.The effects of antipsychotic medications on
             cognition in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis
             appear to be minimal. Important work on the effects of
             add-on pharmacologic treatments is ongoing. Very few of the
             studies completed to date have had sufficient statistical
             power to generate firm conclusions; recent studies examining
             novel add-on treatments have produced some encouraging
             findings. Cognitive remediation programs have generated
             considerable interest as these methods are far less costly
             than pharmacologic treatment and are likely to be safer. A
             growing consensus suggests that these interventions produce
             modest gains for patients with schizophrenia, but the
             efficacy of the various methods used has not been
             empirically investigated.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-25758-2_2},
   Key = {fds273514}
}

@article{fds273517,
   Author = {Krishnan, RR and Fivaz, M and Kraus, MS and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Erratum: Hierarchical temporal processing deficit model of
             reality distortion and psychoses (Molecular Psychiatry
             (2011) 16, (129-144) DOI: 10.1038/mp.2010.63)},
   Journal = {Molecular Psychiatry},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {470},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1359-4184},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2011.54},
   Doi = {10.1038/mp.2011.54},
   Key = {fds273517}
}

@article{fds273374,
   Author = {Matza, LS and Phillips, GA and Revicki, DA and Ascher-Svanum, H and Malley, KG and Palsgrove, AC and Faries, DE and Stauffer, V and Kinon,
             BJ and Awad, AG and Keefe, RSE and Naber, D},
   Title = {Validation of a clinician questionnaire to assess reasons
             for antipsychotic discontinuation and continuation among
             patients with schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {200},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {835-842},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.05.005},
   Abstract = {The Reasons for Antipsychotic Discontinuation Questionnaire
             (RAD-Q) was designed to assess clinicians' perceptions of
             reasons for antipsychotic discontinuation or continuation.
             The current study examined psychometric properties of this
             instrument and patterns of antipsychotic discontinuation.
             The sample of 121 patients (81 discontinuation, 40
             continuation) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
             was 66.9% male, with a mean age of 41.6 years. Treating
             clinicians reported a mean of 4.1 reasons for
             discontinuation and 7.5 reasons for continuation. RAD-Q
             domain scores were derived to quantify the impact of three
             factors on the decision to discontinue or continue:
             treatment benefits, adverse events, and distal reasons other
             than direct effects of the medication. Analysis of
             inter-rater reliability indicated an acceptable degree of
             agreement between clinicians (weighted Kappa for
             discontinuation scores=0.70-0.78). Correlations with symptom
             measures (Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale
             (CGI-SCH), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS))
             supported convergent validity of the benefits domain score
             (r=0.28-0.47; all p&lt;0.05). Domain scores discriminated
             among groups of patients differing in clinician and
             patient-reported clinical variables. Results suggest that
             the RAD-Q is a useful detailed measure of reasons for
             antipsychotic discontinuation and continuation. Findings
             indicate that clinicians usually report multiple reasons for
             discontinuation, rather than a single reason for each
             patient. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2012.05.005},
   Key = {fds273374}
}

@article{fds273513,
   Author = {Matza, LS and Phillips, GA and Revicki, DA and Ascher-Svanum, H and Malley, KG and Palsgrove, AC and Faries, DE and Stauffer, V and Kinon,
             BJ and Awad, AG and al, E},
   Title = {Validation of a clinician questionnaire to assess reasons
             for antipsychotic discontinuation and continuation among
             patients with schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.05.005},
   Abstract = {The Reasons for Antipsychotic Discontinuation Questionnaire
             (RAD-Q) was designed to assess clinicians' perceptions of
             reasons for antipsychotic discontinuation or continuation.
             The current study examined psychometric properties of this
             instrument and patterns of antipsychotic discontinuation.
             The sample of 121 patients (81 discontinuation, 40
             continuation) with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
             was 66.9% male, with a mean age of 41.6 years. Treating
             clinicians reported a mean of 4.1 reasons for
             discontinuation and 7.5 reasons for continuation. RAD-Q
             domain scores were derived to quantify the impact of three
             factors on the decision to discontinue or continue:
             treatment benefits, adverse events, and distal reasons other
             than direct effects of the medication. Analysis of
             inter-rater reliability indicated an acceptable degree of
             agreement between clinicians (weighted Kappa for
             discontinuation scores=0.70-0.78). Correlations with symptom
             measures (Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia Scale
             (CGI-SCH), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS))
             supported convergent validity of the benefits domain score
             (r=0.28-0.47; all p&lt;0.05). Domain scores discriminated
             among groups of patients differing in clinician and
             patient-reported clinical variables. Results suggest that
             the RAD-Q is a useful detailed measure of reasons for
             antipsychotic discontinuation and continuation. Findings
             indicate that clinicians usually report multiple reasons for
             discontinuation, rather than a single reason for each
             patient. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2012.05.005},
   Key = {fds273513}
}

@article{fds273515,
   Author = {Barbato, M and Colijn, MA and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Woods, SW and Hawkins, KA and Christensen, BK and Addington,
             J},
   Title = {The course of cognitive functioning over six months in
             individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.013},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairment is common in psychosis and has recently
             been observed in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) of
             developing psychosis. The purpose of this study was to
             characterize longitudinal change in cognition among CHR
             individuals, and compare cognition of CHR individuals who
             later convert to psychosis to that of CHR who do not
             convert. Participants were tested at baseline and
             followed-up after six months using a comprehensive cognitive
             test battery. Individuals who did not convert to psychosis
             either remained stable or significantly improved in their
             cognitive performance. At baseline participants who
             converted to psychosis compared to non-converters exhibited
             poorer performance in several cognitive tests, suggesting
             that some cognitive impairment is already present before
             conversion. Future longitudinal research should address if
             further decline takes place during the prodrome or after
             conversion to psychosis. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2012.10.013},
   Key = {fds273515}
}

@article{fds273516,
   Author = {Cruz, BF and Resende, CBD and Abreu, MN and Fá, FLR and Teixeira, AL and Keefe, RSE and SalgadoJoã, JV},
   Title = {How specific are negative symptoms and cognitive impairment
             in schizophrenia? An analysis of PANSS and
             SCoRS},
   Journal = {Cognitive Neuropsychiatry},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1354-6805},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2012.730995},
   Abstract = {Introduction. Interview-based scales can be used as
             coprimary measures to complement the assessment of cognitive
             impairment in schizophrenia. One major question that arises
             from the use of such tools is how specific they are in
             relation to other psychopathological domains. We analyse the
             specificity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
             (PANSS) negative subscale and the Schizophrenia Cognition
             Rating Scale (SCoRS).Methods. We performed a principal
             component analysis (PCA) of PANSS negative subscale, rated
             by the interviewer, and SCoRS ratings from three different
             sources (patient, informant, and interviewer) in 101
             patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, we correlated
             mean SCoRS ratings to PANSS negative subscale items to
             determine whether any PANSS item is particularly related to
             cognition.Results. The PCA showed that the two first
             components, which explained approximately 40% of the total
             variance of the scales, represent the SCoRS ratings and the
             PANSS negative subscale ratings, respectively. The mean
             interviewer SCoRS was significantly correlated with the
             PANSS negative Item 5 (difficulty in abstract thinking) and
             with the mean PANSS negative subscale. The latter
             correlation was no longer significant when "difficulty in
             abstract thinking" was eliminated from PANSS negative
             subscale.Conclusions. In general, SCoRS and PANSS negative
             subscale scores address different constructs; however, the
             PANSS negative item "difficulty in abstract thinking" seems
             to address a cognitive dimension. © 2012 Copyright Taylor
             and Francis Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13546805.2012.730995},
   Key = {fds273516}
}

@article{fds273519,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Kraus, MS},
   Title = {Clues to the cognitive and perceptual origins of social
             isolation and psychosis in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {354-357},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010042},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12010042},
   Key = {fds273519}
}

@article{fds273520,
   Author = {Weiser, M and Gershon, AA and Rubinstein, K and Petcu, C and Ladea, M and Sima, D and Podea, D and Keefe, RSE and Davis, JM},
   Title = {A randomized controlled trial of allopurinol vs. placebo
             added on to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia or
             schizoaffective disorder},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {138},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-38},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.014},
   Abstract = {Adenosine agonists produce behavioral effects similar to
             dopamine antagonists, hence increasing adenosine levels
             might improve symptoms of schizophrenia. This hypothesis is
             supported by three single-site studies indicating that
             allopurinol, which increases adenosine levels, improved
             symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a
             multi-center, 8-week RCT of allopurinol vs. placebo added to
             anti-psychotic medications in 248 patients with
             schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Both groups
             showed improvement in the PANSS (effect size 1.13) and in
             clinical and cognitive measures. No difference was observed
             between groups in primary (t = 0.01, p = 0.992) or secondary
             outcome measures. These findings do not support allopurinol
             as a treatment for schizophrenia. © 2012 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.014},
   Key = {fds273520}
}

@article{fds273522,
   Author = {Geffen, Y and Keefe, R and Rabinowitz, J and Anand, R and Davidson,
             M},
   Title = {BL-1020, a new γ-aminobutyric acid-enhanced antipsychotic:
             Results of 6-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled,
             efficacy and safety study},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {e1168-e1174},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.12m07642},
   Abstract = {Objective: BL-1020 is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enhanced
             antipsychotic that combines dopamine antagonism with GABA
             agonist activity. On the basis of animal models, we tested
             the hypotheses that BL-1020 would be effective in
             ameliorating both psychotic symptoms and cognitive
             impairments, with a favorable safety profile in acutely ill
             schizophrenia patients. Method: 363 hospital-based
             psychiatric patients in India, Romania, and United States
             aged 18 to 65 years and meeting criteria for DSM-IV-TR
             diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were randomized
             double-blind to receive BL-1020 10 mg/d, BL-1020 20-30 mg/d,
             placebo, or risperidone (2-8 mg/d) for 6 weeks. The main
             outcome measures were the Positive and Negative Syndrome
             Scale (PANSS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia, Readiness for Discharge Questionnaire,
             Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) , and Extrapyramidal
             Symptom Rating Scale. The study ran from July 2008 to June
             2009. Results: BL-1020 20-30 mg was significantly better
             than placebo on PANSS (P = .02) and CGI (P &lt; .001)
             measurements, with no significant differences noted between
             BL-1020 20-30 mg and risperidone. There were no significant
             differences in the maximum change on Extrapyramidal Symptom
             Rating Scale between risperidone and BL-1020 20-30 mg, and
             both were significantly worse (P &lt; .001) than placebo.
             BL-1020 20-30 mg was associated with significantly greater
             improvements on cognitive functioning as measured by the
             Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia composite
             score when compared to placebo (effect size = 0.50, P =
             .009), risperidone (effect size = 0.43, P = .019), and
             BL-1020 10 mg (effect size = 0.42, P = .013) after 6 weeks.
             Conclusions: BL-1020 appears to be an effective
             antipsychotic with possible procognitive effects that will
             need to be further tested for short- and long-term effects.
             A further randomized controlled trial using the US Food and
             Drug Administration-recommended Measurement and Treatment
             Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia cognitive
             battery is ongoing. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov
             identifier: NCT00567710. © Copyright 2012 Physicians
             Postgraduate Press, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.4088/JCP.12m07642},
   Key = {fds273522}
}

@article{fds273509,
   Author = {Buchanan, RW and Keefe, RSE and Umbricht, D and Green, MF and Laughren,
             T and Marder, SR},
   Title = {The FDA-NIMH-MATRICS guidelines for clinical trial design of
             cognitive-enhancing drugs: what do we know 5 years
             later?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1209-1217},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbq038},
   Abstract = {The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-National Institute of
             Mental Health (NIMH)-Measurement and Treatment Research to
             Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) clinical trial
             guidelines for cognitive-enhancing drugs in schizophrenia
             and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were
             designed to facilitate novel compound development in the
             treatment of cognitive impairments. Several studies have
             recently utilized the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS guidelines and MCCB
             and allow an evaluation of the feasibility of guideline
             implementation and MCCB performance. In light of the study
             results, we would recommend the following inclusion criteria
             revisions-(1) clinical status and symptom inclusion
             criteria: maximum allowed score for hallucinations and
             delusions should be increased from moderate to moderately
             severe and the negative symptom criterion should be dropped
             in phase 2 studies; (2) antipsychotic medication inclusion
             criteria: first-generation antipsychotics should be allowed,
             but only in the context of no concomitant anticholinergic
             agents and minimal extrapyramidal symptoms, and
             antipsychotic polypharmacy should be allowed in the absence
             of pertinent pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic
             considerations; and (3) people who use illicit substances
             should not be allowed in phase 1B or 2A proof-of-concept
             studies but may be included in phase 2B and 3 studies in
             which proof of effectiveness and generalizability of results
             become more important goals. These revisions are recommended
             to enhance recruitment while maintaining sufficient
             methodological rigor to ensure the validity of study
             results. The MCCB has been shown to have excellent
             psychometric characteristics, including reliability for
             multisite clinical trials, clinical relevance for real-world
             functioning, and possible sensitivity to behavioral
             treatment, and should continue to serve as the standard
             outcome measure for cognitive enhancement studies in
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbq038},
   Key = {fds273509}
}

@article{fds273511,
   Author = {Chong, S-A and Campbell, A and Chee, M and Liu, J and Marx, C and McGorry,
             P and Subramaniam, M and Yung, A and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {The Singapore flagship programme in translational and
             clinical research in psychosis.},
   Journal = {Early Intervention in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {290-300},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1751-7885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00304.x},
   Abstract = {AIM: This paper describes the rationale, aims and
             development of the Singapore Translational and Clinical
             Research in Psychosis, which is a 5-year programme. METHODS:
             The authors provide a selective review of the pertinent
             findings from the clinical, neuropsychological, genetics and
             neuroimaging studies on high-risk population and how they
             were factored in the hypotheses and design of this
             translational clinical research programme. RESULTS: This
             programme, which draws upon the previous work of various
             groups and the experience of the investigators of this
             consortium, comprises three interlinked studies. The first
             is a genome-wide association and copy number variation
             analysis using the diagnostic phenotype of schizophrenia and
             cognitive phenotypes, and a joint genome-wide analysis
             performed by combining our data with other datasets to
             increase the power to detect genetic risk factors. The
             second is a prospective study of a large group of
             individuals who are assessed to be at ultra-high risk of
             psychosis, and the third is a randomized controlled trial to
             improve neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia.
             CONCLUSION: The convergence of various factors including the
             unique structured characteristics of the Singaporean
             society, the presence of political will with availability of
             funding and the established research infrastructure make it
             possible to accrue the sample size for adequate power to
             elucidate biomarkers of disease risk and
             resilience.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00304.x},
   Key = {fds273511}
}

@article{fds273508,
   Author = {Vigen, CLP and Mack, WJ and Keefe, RSE and Sano, M and Sultzer, DL and Stroup, TS and Dagerman, KS and Hsiao, JK and Lebowitz, BD and Lyketsos,
             CG and Tariot, PN and Zheng, L and Schneider, LS},
   Title = {Cognitive effects of atypical antipsychotic medications in
             patients with Alzheimer's disease: outcomes from
             CATIE-AD.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {831-839},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.08121844},
   Abstract = {The impact of the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine,
             quetiapine, and risperidone on cognition in patients with
             Alzheimer's disease is unclear. The authors assessed the
             effects of time and treatment on neuropsychological
             functioning during the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness-Alzheimer's Disease study
             (CATIE-AD).CATIE-AD included 421 outpatients with
             Alzheimer's disease and psychosis or agitated/aggressive
             behavior who were randomly assigned to receive masked,
             flexible-dose olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or
             placebo. Based on their clinicians' judgment, patients could
             discontinue the originally assigned medication and receive
             another randomly assigned medication. Patients were followed
             for 36 weeks, and cognitive assessments were obtained at
             baseline and at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Outcomes were compared
             for 357 patients for whom data were available for at least
             one cognitive measure at baseline and one follow-up
             assessment that took place after they had been on their
             prescribed medication or placebo for at least 2
             weeks.Overall, patients showed steady, significant declines
             over time in most cognitive areas, including in scores on
             the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; -2.4 points over 36
             weeks) and the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease
             Assessment Scale (-4.4 points). Cognitive function declined
             more in patients receiving antipsychotics than in those
             given placebo on multiple cognitive measures, including the
             MMSE, the cognitive subscale of the Brief Psychiatric Rating
             Scale, and a cognitive summary score summarizing change on
             18 cognitive tests.In CATIE-AD, atypical antipsychotics were
             associated with worsening cognitive function at a magnitude
             consistent with 1 year's deterioration compared with
             placebo. Further cognitive impairment is an additional risk
             of treatment with atypical antipsychotics that should be
             considered when treating patients with Alzheimer's
             disease.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.08121844},
   Key = {fds273508}
}

@article{fds273502,
   Author = {Hurford, IM and Marder, SR and Keefe, RSE and Reise, SP and Bilder,
             RM},
   Title = {A brief cognitive assessment tool for schizophrenia:
             construction of a tool for clinicians.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {538-545},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbp095},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is often severe,
             enduring, and contributes significantly to chronic
             disability. But clinicians have difficulty in assessing
             cognition due to a lack of brief instruments. We evaluated
             whether a brief battery of cognitive tests derived from
             larger batteries could generate a summary score representing
             global cognitive function. Using data from 3 previously
             published trials, we calculated the corrected item-total
             correlations (CITCs) or the correlation of each test with
             the battery total score. We computed the proportion of
             variance that each test shares with the global score
             excluding that test (R(t)(2)=CITC(2)) and the variance
             explained per minute of administration time for each test
             (R(t)(2)/min). The 3 tests with the highest R(t)(2)/min were
             selected for the brief battery. The composite score from the
             trail making test B, category fluency, and digit symbol
             correlated .86 with the global score of the larger battery
             in 2 of the studies and correlated between .73 and .82 with
             the total battery scores excluding these 3 tests. A Brief
             Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS) using
             the above 3 tests can be administered in 10-11 min. The full
             batteries of the larger studies have administration times
             ranging from 90 to 210 min. Given prior research suggesting
             that a single factor of global cognition best explains the
             pattern of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, an instrument
             like B-CATS can provide clinicians with meaningful data
             regarding their patients' cognitive function. It can also
             serve researchers who want an estimate of global cognitive
             function without requiring a full neuropsychological
             battery.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbp095},
   Key = {fds273502}
}

@article{fds273495,
   Author = {Buchanan, RW and Keefe, RSE and Lieberman, JA and Barch, DM and Csernansky, JG and Goff, DC and Gold, JM and Green, MF and Jarskog, LF and Javitt, DC and Kimhy, D and Kraus, MS and McEvoy, JP and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Seidman, LJ and Ball, MP and McMahon, RP and Kern, RS and Robinson, J and Marder, SR},
   Title = {A randomized clinical trial of MK-0777 for the treatment of
             cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {442-449},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.052},
   Abstract = {In a previous pilot study, MK-0777--a γ-aminobutyric acid
             (GABA)(A) α2/α3 partial agonist--was reported to improve
             delayed memory and cognitive measures of prefrontal cortical
             function in people with schizophrenia. The current study was
             designed to further examine the efficacy and safety of
             MK-0777 for the treatment of cognitive impairments in
             schizophrenia.Sixty people with DSM-IV schizophrenia entered
             a 4-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
             randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized to:
             MK-0777 3 mg b.i.d. (n = 18); MK-0777 8 mg b.i.d. (n = 21);
             or placebo (n = 21). Participants were clinically stable.
             The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery,
             AX-Continuous Performance Test, and N-Back were used to
             assess cognition. The University of California San Diego
             (UCSD) Performance Based Skills Assessment-2 and the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale assessed functional
             capacity and served as functional outcome coprimary
             measures.There were no significant group differences on the
             primary outcome measure, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive
             Battery composite score. Secondary analyses suggested that
             participants randomized to placebo performed significantly
             better on visual memory and reasoning/problem-solving tests
             than participants assigned to either MK-0777 dose. There
             were no significant group differences on the AX-Continuous
             Performance Test or N-Back d prime scores or UCSD
             Performance-Based Skills Assessment-2 and Schizophrenia
             Cognition Rating Scale total scores. In general, MK-0777 was
             well-tolerated with minimal side effects.The study results
             suggest that MK-0777 has little benefit for cognitive
             impairments in people with schizophrenia. The GABA(A)
             receptor remains a promising target, but a more potent
             partial agonist with greater intrinsic activity at the
             GABA(A) α2 site might be needed for cognitive enhancement
             in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.09.052},
   Key = {fds273495}
}

@article{fds273497,
   Author = {Kern, RS and Gold, JM and Dickinson, D and Green, MF and Nuechterlein,
             KH and Baade, LE and Keefe, RSE and Mesholam-Gately, RI and Seidman, LJ and Lee, C and Sugar, CA and Marder, SR},
   Title = {The MCCB impairment profile for schizophrenia outpatients:
             results from the MATRICS psychometric and standardization
             study.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {124-131},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.008},
   Abstract = {The MATRICS Psychometric and Standardization Study was
             conducted as a final stage in the development of the MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The study included 176
             persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and
             300 community residents. Data were analyzed to examine the
             cognitive profile of clinically stable schizophrenia
             patients on the MCCB. Secondarily, the data were analyzed to
             identify which combination of cognitive domains and
             corresponding cut-off scores best discriminated patients
             from community residents, and patients competitively
             employed vs. those not. Raw scores on the ten MCCB tests
             were entered into the MCCB scoring program which provided
             age- and gender-corrected T-scores on seven cognitive
             domains. To test for between-group differences, we conducted
             a 2 (group)×7 (cognitive domain) MANOVA with follow-up
             independent t-tests on the individual domains.
             Classification and regression trees (CART) were used for the
             discrimination analyses. Examination of patient T-scores
             across the seven cognitive domains revealed a relatively
             compact profile with T-scores ranging from 33.4 for speed of
             processing to 39.3 for reasoning and problem-solving. Speed
             of processing and social cognition best distinguished
             individuals with schizophrenia from community residents;
             speed of processing along with visual learning and
             attention/vigilance optimally distinguished patients
             competitively employed from those who were not. The
             cognitive profile findings provide a standard to which
             future studies can compare results from other schizophrenia
             samples and related disorders; the classification results
             point to specific areas and levels of cognitive impairment
             that may advance work rehabilitation efforts.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.008},
   Key = {fds273497}
}

@article{fds273498,
   Author = {Marder, SR and Daniel, DG and Alphs, L and Awad, AG and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Methodological issues in negative symptom
             trials.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {250-254},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbq161},
   Abstract = {Individuals from academia, the pharmaceutical industry, and
             the US Food and Drug Administration used a workshop format
             to discuss important methodological issues in the design of
             trials of pharmacological agents for improving negative
             symptoms in schizophrenia. The issues addressed included the
             need for a coprimary functional measure for registration
             trials; the characteristics of individuals who should enter
             negative symptom trials; the optimal duration for a
             proof-of-concept or registration trial; the optimal design
             of a study of a broad-spectrum agent that treats both
             positive and negative symptoms or a co-medication that is
             added to an antipsychotic; the relative strengths and
             weaknesses of available instruments for measuring negative
             symptoms; the definition of clinically meaningful
             improvement for these trials; and whether drugs can be
             approved for a subdomain of negative symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbq161},
   Key = {fds273498}
}

@article{fds273499,
   Author = {Caroff, SN and Davis, VG and Miller, DD and Davis, SM and Rosenheck, RA and McEvoy, JP and Campbell, EC and Saltz, BL and Riggio, S and Chakos, MH and Swartz, MS and Keefe, RSE and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and CATIE
             Investigators},
   Title = {Treatment outcomes of patients with tardive dyskinesia and
             chronic schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {295-303},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20816031},
   Abstract = {We compared the response to antipsychotic treatment between
             patients with and without tardive dyskinesia (TD) and
             examined the course of TD.This analysis compared 200
             patients with DSM-IV-defined schizophrenia and TD and 997
             patients without TD, all of whom were randomly assigned to
             receive one of 4 second-generation antipsychotics. The
             primary clinical outcome measure was time to all-cause
             treatment discontinuation, and the primary measure for
             evaluating the course of TD was change from baseline in
             Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) score.
             Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards
             regression models were used to compare treatment
             discontinuation between groups. Changes in Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and neurocognitive scores
             were compared using mixed models and analysis of variance.
             Treatment differences between drugs in AIMS scores and
             all-cause discontinuation were examined for those with TD at
             baseline. Percentages of patients meeting criteria for TD
             postbaseline or showing changes in AIMS scores were
             evaluated with χ(2) tests. Data were collected from January
             2001 to December 2004.Time to treatment discontinuation for
             any cause was not significantly different between the TD and
             non-TD groups (χ(2)(1) = 0.11, P = .743). Changes in PANSS
             scores were not significantly different (F(1,974) = 0.82, P
             = .366), but patients with TD showed less improvement in
             neurocognitive scores (F(1,359) = 6.53, P = .011). Among
             patients with TD, there were no significant differences
             between drugs in the decline in AIMS scores (F(3,151) =
             0.32, P = .811); 55% met criteria for TD at 2 consecutive
             visits postbaseline, 76% met criteria for TD at some or all
             postbaseline visits, 24% did not meet criteria for TD at any
             subsequent visit, 32% showed a ≥ 50% decrease in AIMS
             score, and 7% showed a ≥ 50% increase in AIMS
             score.Schizophrenia patients with and without TD were
             similar in time to discontinuation of treatment for any
             cause and improvement in psychopathology, but differed in
             neurocognitive response. There were no significant
             differences between treatments in the course of TD, with
             most patients showing either persistence of or fluctuation
             in observable symptoms.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00014001.},
   Doi = {10.4088/JCP.09m05793yel},
   Key = {fds273499}
}

@article{fds273500,
   Author = {Reise, SP and Ventura, J and Keefe, RSE and Baade, LE and Gold, JM and Green, MF and Kern, RS and Mesholam-Gately, R and Nuechterlein, KH and Seidman, LJ and Bilder, R},
   Title = {Bifactor and item response theory analyses of interviewer
             report scales of cognitive impairment in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychological Assessment},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {245-261},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1040-3590},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021501},
   Abstract = {A psychometric analysis of 2 interview-based measures of
             cognitive deficits was conducted: the 21-item Clinical
             Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS;
             Ventura et al., 2008), and the 20-item Schizophrenia
             Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS; Keefe et al., 2006), which
             were administered on 2 occasions to a sample of people with
             schizophrenia. Traditional psychometrics, bifactor analysis,
             and item response theory methods were used to explore item
             functioning and dimensionality and to compare instruments.
             Despite containing similar item content, responses to the
             CGI-CogS demonstrated superior psychometric properties
             (e.g., higher item intercorrelations, better spread of
             ratings across response categories) relative to the SCoRS.
             The authors argue that these differences arise mainly from
             the differential use of prompts and how the items are
             phrased and scored. Bifactor analysis demonstrated that
             although both measures capture a broad range of cognitive
             functioning (e.g., working memory, social cognition), the
             common variance on each is overwhelmingly explained by a
             single general factor. Item response theory analyses of the
             combined pool of 41 items showed that measurement precision
             is peaked in the mild to moderate range of cognitive
             impairment. Finally, simulated adaptive testing revealed
             that only about 10 to 12 items are necessary to achieve
             latent trait level estimates with reasonably small standard
             errors for most individuals. This suggests that these
             interview-based measures of cognitive deficits could be
             shortened without loss of measurement precision.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0021501},
   Key = {fds273500}
}

@article{fds273491,
   Author = {McClay, JL and Adkins, DE and Aberg, K and Bukszár, J and Khachane, AN and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and McEvoy, JP and Stroup, TS and Vann, RE and Beardsley, PM and Lieberman, JA and Sullivan, PF and van den Oord,
             EJCG},
   Title = {Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of neurocognition as an
             indicator of antipsychotic treatment response in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {616-626},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.193},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia
             and, therefore, represent potentially critical outcome
             variables for assessing antipsychotic treatment response. We
             performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with 492K
             single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of 738
             patients with schizophrenia from the Clinical Antipsychotic
             Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. Outcome
             variables consisted of a neurocognitive battery administered
             at multiple time points over an 18-month period, measuring
             processing speed, verbal memory, vigilance, reasoning, and
             working memory domains. Genetic mediation of improvements in
             each of these five domains plus a composite neurocognitive
             measure was assessed for each of five antipsychotics
             (olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, and
             ziprasidone). Six SNPs achieved genome-wide significance
             using a pre-specified threshold that ensures, on average,
             only 1 in 10 findings is a false discovery. These six SNPs
             were located within, or in close proximity to, genes EHF,
             SLC26A9, DRD2, GPR137B, CHST8, and IL1A. The more robust
             findings, that is those significant across multiple
             neurocognitive domains and having adjacent SNPs showing
             evidence for association, were rs286913 at the EHF gene
             (p-value 6.99 × 10(-8), q-value 0.034, mediating the
             effects of ziprasidone on vigilance), rs11240594 at SLC26A9
             (p-value 1.4 × 10(-7), q-value 0.068, mediating the effects
             of olanzapine on processing speed), and rs11677416 at IL1A
             (p-value 6.67 × 10(-7), q-value 0.081, mediating the
             effects of olanzapine on working memory). This study has
             generated several novel candidate genes for antipsychotic
             response. However, our findings will require replication and
             functional validation. To facilitate replication efforts, we
             provide all GWAS p-values for download.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2010.193},
   Key = {fds273491}
}

@article{fds273492,
   Author = {Krishnan, RR and Fivaz, M and Kraus, MS and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Hierarchical temporal processing deficit model of reality
             distortion and psychoses.},
   Journal = {Molecular Psychiatry},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {129-144},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1359-4184},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/mp.2010.63},
   Abstract = {We posit in this article that hierarchical temporal
             processing deficit is the underlying basis of reality
             distortion and psychoses. Schizophrenia is a prototypical
             reality distortion disorder in which the patient manifests
             with auditory hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech
             and thinking, cognitive impairment, avolition and social and
             occupational dysfunction. Reality distortion can be present
             in many other disorders including bipolar disorder, major
             depression and even dementia. Conceptually, schizophrenia is
             a heterogeneous entity likely to be because of numerous
             causes similar to dementia. Although no single symptom or
             set of symptoms is pathognomonic, a cardinal feature in all
             patients with schizophrenia is chronic distortion of
             reality. The model that we have proposed accounts for the
             varied manifestations of reality distortion including
             hallucinations and delusions. In this paper we consider the
             implications of this model for the underlying biology of
             psychoses and also for the neurobiology of schizophrenia and
             suggest potential targets to consider for the etiology and
             pathophysiology of reality distortion, especially in the
             context of schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/mp.2010.63},
   Key = {fds273492}
}

@article{fds273493,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Fox, KH and Harvey, PD and Cucchiaro, J and Siu, C and Loebel, A},
   Title = {Characteristics of the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery
             in a 29-site antipsychotic schizophrenia clinical
             trial.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {161-168},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.09.015},
   Abstract = {The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Project produced a battery of
             tests, the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB),
             designed to assess cognitive treatment effects in clinical
             trials of patients with schizophrenia. In validation
             studies, the MCCB demonstrated excellent reliability,
             minimal practice effects and significant correlations with
             measures of functional capacity. This study addresses
             whether the MCCB demonstrates these favorable
             characteristics when administered in the context of the type
             of large multi-site industry trial for which it was
             designed.In a clinical trial comparing risperidone and
             lurasidone, 323 clinically-stable outpatients with
             schizophrenia at 29 sites were assessed with MCCB at
             screening and a median of 15days later at baseline. A
             measure of functional capacity, the UCSD Performance-based
             Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B) was administered at
             baseline.All 323 (100%) patients had sufficient data for
             computing a composite score according to the MCCB criteria.
             The test-retest reliability of the MCCB composite score was
             excellent (ICC=0.88). The severity of cognitive impairment
             was T=24.7 (SD=12.1) at screening and T=26.7 (SD=12.4) at
             baseline. The MCCB composite score demonstrated a large
             correlation with the UPSA-B composite score (r=.60, df=304,
             p<.001). The practice effect on the composite score was
             small (z=0.18).In the context of a 29-site antipsychotic
             trial in stable outpatients with schizophrenia, the MCCB is
             sensitive to cognitive deficits in all domains, demonstrates
             excellent test-retest reliability and small practice
             effects, and is strongly correlated with a leading measure
             of functional capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2010.09.015},
   Key = {fds273493}
}

@article{fds273490,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Kraus, MS and Krishnan, RR},
   Title = {Failures in learning-dependent predictive perception as the
             key cognitive vulnerability to psychosis in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {367-368},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.153},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2010.153},
   Key = {fds273490}
}

@article{fds327072,
   Author = {Sarkisyan, G and Gurovich, I and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {NORMATIVE DATA FOR RUSSIAN POPULATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF
             THE SCALE "BRIEF ASSESSMENT OF COGNITION IN
             SCHIZOPHRENIA"},
   Journal = {European Psychiatry},
   Volume = {26},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds327072}
}

@article{fds273494,
   Author = {Sachs, G and Winklbaur, B and Jagsch, R and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the German version of the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) - Preliminary
             results},
   Journal = {European Psychiatry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {74-77},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0924-9338},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.10.006},
   Abstract = {The German version of the BACS showed high test-retest
             reliability. Sensitivity and specificity scores demonstrated
             good ability to differentiate between patients and controls.
             The study suggests that the German Version of the BACS is a
             useful scale to evaluate cognitive functioning. © 2009
             Elsevier Masson SAS.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.10.006},
   Key = {fds273494}
}

@article{fds273496,
   Author = {Segarra, N and Bernardo, M and Gutierrez, F and Justicia, A and Fernadez-Egea, E and Allas, M and Safont, G and Contreras, F and Gascon,
             J and Soler-Insa, PA and Menchon, JM and Junque, C and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Spanish validation of the Brief Assessment in Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS) in patients with schizophrenia and
             healthy controls},
   Journal = {European Psychiatry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {69-73},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0924-9338},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.11.001},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia
             and is closely associated with functional outcome. The
             importance of cognitive assessment is broadly accepted
             today, and an easy-to-use, internationality validated
             cognitive assessment tool is needed by researchers and in
             daily clinical practice. The Brief Assessment of Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (BACS) has been validated in English,
             French, Japanese and Italian. It is as sensitive to
             cognitive dysfunction as a standard test battery, with the
             advantage of requiring less than 35. minutes to complete. In
             our study, we tested the psychometric characteristics of a
             Spanish version of the BACS in 117 patients with
             schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and 36 healthy controls.
             All BACS cognitive subtests discriminated between patients
             and controls (P&lt; .001), and the concurrent validity
             between the BACS and a traditional neuropsychological test
             battery was similar to that reported in other languages. We
             conclude that the BACS can facilitate the comparison of the
             cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia in many
             different countries. © 2010 Elsevier Masson
             SAS.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.eurpsy.2009.11.001},
   Key = {fds273496}
}

@article{fds273501,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Ogasa, M and Cucchiaro, J and Loebel, A and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Performance and interview-based assessments of cognitive
             change in a randomized, double-blind comparison of
             lurasidone vs. ziprasidone},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {127},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {188-194},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2011.01.004},
   Abstract = {Background: Improving cognitive functioning in people with
             schizophrenia is a major treatment goal. In addition,
             interview-based measures have been developed to supplement
             performance-based assessments. However, few data are
             available regarding whether interview-based measures are
             sensitive to treatment-related changes. Methods: Adult
             outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or
             schizoaffective disorder were randomized to 21 days of
             double-blind treatment with lurasidone 120 mg once daily (N
             = 150) or ziprasidone 80 mg BID (N = 151). A similar
             proportion of patients completed the study on lurasidone
             (67.5%) and ziprasidone (69.3%). Study participants were
             assessed with the majority of the tests from the MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and an interview-based
             assessment of cognitive functioning, the Schizophrenia
             Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS). SCoRS ratings were based on
             the interviewer's best judgment, after interviews with the
             patient and a caregiver when available. The study was
             conducted from April 2006 to January 2007. Results: There
             were no between-group treatment differences in performance
             on the MCCB or the SCoRS ratings. Lurasidone patients
             demonstrated significant within group-improvement from
             baseline on the MCCB composite score (p = 0.026) and on the
             SCoRS (p &lt; 0.001), but ziprasidone patients did not
             improve on either the MCCB composite (p = 0.254) or the
             SCoRS (p = 0.185). At endpoint there was a statistical trend
             (p = 0.058) for lurasidone to demonstrate greater
             improvement from baseline in SCoRS ratings. Improvements in
             interview-based aspects of cognition were not related to
             MCCB test changes, and had minimal correlations with changes
             in symptoms. Conclusions: These data suggest that
             interview-based cognitive measures such as the SCoRS may be
             sensitive to changes after 3 weeks of treatment in patients
             with schizophrenia. Lurasidone is being assessed further in
             ongoing clinical trials with additional outcome measures. ©
             2011 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2011.01.004},
   Key = {fds273501}
}

@article{fds273503,
   Author = {Krishnan, RR and Kraus, MS and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Comprehensive model of how reality distortion and symptoms
             occur in schizophrenia: Could impairment in
             learning-dependent predictive perception account for the
             manifestations of schizophrenia?},
   Journal = {Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {305-317},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1323-1316},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02203.x},
   Abstract = {Conventional wisdom has not laid out a clear and uniform
             profile of schizophrenia as a unitary entity. One of the key
             first steps in elucidating the neurobiology of this entity
             would be to characterize the essential and common elements
             in the group of entities called schizophrenia. Kraepelin in
             his introduction notes 'the conviction seems to be more and
             more gaining ground that dementia praecox on the whole
             represents, a well characterized form of disease, and that
             we are justified in regarding the majority of the clinical
             pictures which are brought together here as the expression
             of a single morbid process, though outwardly they often
             diverge very far from one another'. But what is that single
             morbid process? We suggest that just as the uniform defect
             in all types of cancer is impaired regulation of cell
             proliferation, the primary defect in the group of entities
             called schizophrenia is persistent defective hierarchical
             temporal processing. This manifests in the form of chronic
             memory-prediction errors or deficits in learning-dependent
             predictive perception. These deficits account for the
             symptoms that present as reality distortion (delusions,
             thought disorder and hallucinations). This constellation of
             symptoms corresponds with the profile of most patients
             currently diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia. In this
             paper we describe how these deficits can lead to the various
             symptoms of schizophrenia. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry
             and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of
             Psychiatry and Neurology.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02203.x},
   Key = {fds273503}
}

@article{fds273504,
   Author = {Sim, K and Lee, J and Subramaniam, M and Liu, JJ and Keefe, R and Zhang,
             XD and Lee, TS and Chong, SA},
   Title = {Integrated genetic and genomic approach in the Singapore
             translational and clinical research in psychosis study: An
             overview},
   Journal = {Early Intervention in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {91-99},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1751-7885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00272.x},
   Abstract = {Aims: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with onset
             frequently in adolescence and followed by a chronic and
             disabling course. Although the exact pathophysiology of this
             devastating disorder has not been clearly elucidated, a
             large part of it has been attributed to genetic influences.
             This article seeks to provide an overview on what our group
             has embarked on - to elucidate genetic risk factors for
             schizophrenia within the Chinese ethnic group. Methods: We
             plan to conduct an integrated approach to interrogate
             comprehensively the genome from different angles and in
             stages. The first stage involves a genome-wide association
             study of 1000 cases of schizophrenia-control pairs, with a
             follow-up replication study in another 1000 cases of
             schizophrenia and in 1000 controls, and combination analyses
             with groups from other places including China and Hong Kong.
             Other than the genome-wide association study, gene
             sequencing for purported candidate genes and copy number
             variation analysis will be performed. Neurocognitive
             intermediate phenotypes will be employed to deconstruct the
             complex schizophrenia phenotype in a bid to improve
             association findings. Promising leads from longitudinal gene
             and protein expression in ultra-high-risk subjects who
             develop psychosis and schizophrenia (in a parallel study)
             will be followed up as candidate genes and sequenced in the
             genetic analysis. Functional analysis forms the last stage
             of this integrated approach. Conclusion: This integrated
             genetic and genomic approach will hopefully help in further
             characterizing and deepening our understanding of molecular
             pathophysiological mechanisms underlying schizophrenia. ©
             2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1751-7893.2011.00272.x},
   Key = {fds273504}
}

@article{fds273505,
   Author = {Stroup, TS and Appelbaum, PS and Gu, H and Hays, S and Swartz, MS and Keefe, RSE and Kim, SY and Manschreck, TC and Boshes, RA and McEvoy, JP and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Longitudinal consent-related abilities among research
             participants with schizophrenia: Results from the CATIE
             study},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {130},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {47-52},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2011.04.012},
   Abstract = {Objective: Research participants must have adequate
             consent-related abilities to provide informed consent at the
             time of study enrollment. We sought to determine if research
             participants with schizophrenia maintain adequate
             consent-related abilities during a longitudinal study. If
             participants lose abilities during a trial they may not be
             able to judge and protect their interests. If reduced
             abilities are common or can be predicted, special
             protections can be targeted appropriately. Method: We
             examined longitudinal consent-related abilities of
             participants in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study using
             the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research
             (MacCAT-CR) at protocol-specified times over 18. months.
             Results: Of 1158 research participants in this analysis,
             most (n = 650, 56%) had a stable pattern of MacCAT-CR
             Understanding scores, 235 (20%) improved substantially with
             no evidence of decline, 273 (24%) had at least one
             assessment with substantial worsening. During the course of
             the trial, 43 (4%) fell below the initial threshold for
             adequate capacity, which was predicted by lower
             Understanding scores, more severe positive symptoms, and
             poorer neurocognitive functioning at baseline, and by
             increases in negative symptoms and deteriorating global
             status. Conclusions: Most participants in this long-term
             study had stable or improved consent-related abilities, but
             almost one-fourth experienced substantial worsening and 4%
             of participants fell below the study's capacity threshold
             for enrollment. Clinical investigators should monitor with
             special care individuals with marginal capacity or higher
             levels of psychotic symptoms at study entry and those who
             exhibit clinical worsening during a study. © 2011 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2011.04.012},
   Key = {fds273505}
}

@article{fds273506,
   Author = {Burdick, KE and Goldberg, TE and Cornblatt, BA and Keefe, RS and Gopin,
             CB and Derosse, P and Braga, RJ and Malhotra, AK},
   Title = {The MATRICS consensus cognitive battery in patients with
             bipolar i disorder},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1587-1592},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2011.36},
   Abstract = {The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was devised to
             identify a neurocognitive battery to be used in clinical
             trials targeting cognition in schizophrenia, a process,
             which resulted in the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery
             (MCCB). The MCCB has been selected by the United States Food
             and Drug Administration to be used as the primary outcome
             measure in registry trials for cognitive agents in
             schizophrenia. Given the clinical and cognitive overlap
             between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BPD), it is
             likely that any compound shown to have cognitive benefits in
             schizophrenia will subsequently be tested in BPD. Unlike the
             MCCB for schizophrenia, there remains no consensus regarding
             outcome measures if cognitive trials were to be undertaken
             in BPD. The utility of the MCCB in BPD has not yet been
             systematically investigated. We administered the MCCB to 80
             bipolar I patients; 37 were strictly euthymic and 43 were
             symptomatic. We compared their performance with a
             demographically matched healthy sample (n148) on seven MCCB
             domains, and the composite. BPD patients were statistically
             significantly impaired on five of seven MCCB domains at
             levels consistent with meta-analytic studies of cognition in
             BPD. In contrast, patients performance was less impaired on
             the Reasoning and Problem-solving and Social Cognition
             domains, differences that did not survive statistical
             correction for multiple testing. Symptomatic status only
             modestly influenced performance. These data suggest that the
             MCCB, devised for use in schizophrenia, may also represent a
             useful outcome measure in cognitive trials for BPD.
             Additional studies should address important psychometric
             features such as repeatability and potential practice and/or
             ceiling effects. © 2011 American College of
             Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2011.36},
   Key = {fds273506}
}

@article{fds273507,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Vinogradov, S and Medalia, A and Silverstein, SM and Bell, MD and Dickinson, D and Ventura, J and Marder, SR and Stroup,
             TS},
   Title = {Report from the working group conference on multisite trial
             design for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1057-1065},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbq010},
   Abstract = {The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-Measurement
             and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (MATRICS) Project and related efforts have stimulated the
             initiation of several studies of pharmacologic treatments
             for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Cognitive
             remediation may provide an excellent platform for the
             provision of new learning opportunities and the acquisition
             of new skills for patients who are engaged in pharmacologic
             trials to improve cognition. However, it is not clear how a
             cognitive remediation intervention would be employed in
             multisite clinical trials. A meeting of experts on cognitive
             remediation and related methodological topics was convened
             to address the feasibility and study design issues for the
             development of a multisite trial of cognitive remediation in
             schizophrenia called the Cognitive Remediation in the
             Schizophrenia Trials Network study. This report details the
             findings from this meeting, which included the following 4
             conclusions. (1) A multisite trial of a cognitive
             remediation intervention using a network of diverse research
             sites would be of great scientific value. (2) Various
             interventions could be employed for this multisite trial.
             (3) Programs that do not address key motivational and
             interpersonal aspects of cognitive remediation may benefit
             from supplementation with "bridging groups" that allows
             patients to meet with others and to apply their newly
             acquired cognitive skills to everyday life. (4) Before a
             multisite efficacy trial is initiated, a pilot study could
             demonstrate the feasibility of conducting a trial using a
             cognitive remediation intervention. © 2011 The
             Author.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbq010},
   Key = {fds273507}
}

@article{fds273510,
   Author = {Kerfoot, KE and Rosenheck, RA and Petrakis, IL and Swartz, MS and Keefe,
             RSE and McEvoy, JP and Stroup, TS},
   Title = {Substance use and schizophrenia: Adverse correlates in the
             CATIE study sample},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {132},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {177-182},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2011.07.032},
   Abstract = {Objective: This study examined the relationship between
             severity of illicit substance use at the time of study entry
             in a sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and
             18-month longitudinal outcomes, including psychopathology,
             depression, neurocognition, and quality of life. Methods:
             Subjects in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (N = 1432) were divided into
             three groups according to baseline data: (1) those with
             moderate/severe drug use, (2) those with mild drug use, and
             (3) non-users of illicit substances. The groups were
             compared on other baseline characteristics. Mixed model
             analysis was used to compare outcomes between the groups
             using all available outcome data over 18. months,
             controlling for potential confounding baseline
             characteristics. Least square means were compared between
             pairs of groups in the mixed models. Results: Significantly
             poorer outcomes were observed in the domains of psychosis,
             symptoms of depression, and quality of life for
             moderate/severe drug users in comparison with both mild
             users and abstainers. No significant differences were found
             on neurocognitive functioning or days of employment.
             Conclusions: This study suggests that drug use-related
             impairment co-morbid with schizophrenia may not be a
             function of use per se but rather, of the severity of use.
             It highlights the importance of comprehensive assessment and
             treatment of illicit substance abuse in schizophrenia.
             Long-term treatment approaches that integrate harm reduction
             strategies may offer promise in maximizing positive outcomes
             for such dually diagnosed patients. © 2011.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2011.07.032},
   Key = {fds273510}
}

@article{fds273512,
   Author = {Greenberg, G and Rosenheck, RA and Erickson, SK and Desai, RA and Stefanovics, EA and Swartz, M and Keefe, RSE and McEvoy, J and Stroup,
             TS},
   Title = {Criminal justice system involvement among people with
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Community Mental Health Journal},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {727-736},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0010-3853},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-010-9362-9},
   Abstract = {There is growing concern that people with schizophrenia and
             other severe mental illnesses are increasingly at risk for
             unnecessary criminal justice system (CJS) involvement. There
             has been limited examination, however, of which individual
             characteristics predict future CJS involvement. This study
             uses data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness on sociodemograhic
             characteristics, baseline clinical status, and service use
             among patients diagnosed with schizophrenia to prospectively
             identify predictors of CJS involvement during the following
             year. A series of bivariate chi-square and F tests were
             conducted to examine whether significant relationships
             existed between CJS involvement during the first 12 months
             of the trial and baseline measures of sociodemographic
             characteristics, psychiatric status, substance abuse, and
             other patient characteristics. Multivariate logistic
             regression analysis was then used to identify the
             independent strength of the relationship between 12-month
             CJS involvement and potential risk factors that were found
             to be significant in bivariate analyses. Multivariate
             logistic regression analyses indicated that past adolescent
             conduct disorder, being younger and male, symptoms of
             Akathisia (movement disorder, most often develops as a side
             effect of antipsychotic medications), and particularly drug
             abuse increase the risk for CJS involvement. Since CJS
             involvement among people with schizophrenia was most
             strongly associated with drug abuse, treatment of co-morbid
             drug abuse could reduce the risk of stigma, pain, and other
             adverse consequences of CJS involvement as well as save CJS
             expenditures. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
             (Outside the USA).},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10597-010-9362-9},
   Key = {fds273512}
}

@article{fds273489,
   Author = {Kane, JM and D'Souza, DC and Patkar, AA and Youakim, JM and Tiller, JM and Yang, R and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Armodafinil as adjunctive therapy in adults with cognitive
             deficits associated with schizophrenia: a 4-week,
             double-blind, placebo-controlled study.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1475-1481},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20816042},
   Abstract = {To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of armodafinil,
             the longer-lasting isomer of modafinil, as adjunctive
             therapy in patients with schizophrenia.This 4-week,
             randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,
             proof-of-concept study was conducted between July and
             December 2007. Patients had a history of stable
             schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR criteria) for ≥ 8 weeks and were
             treated with oral risperidone, olanzapine, or paliperidone
             for ≥ 6 weeks at stable doses for ≥ 4 weeks. Patients
             were randomly assigned to once-daily placebo or armodafinil
             50, 100, or 200 mg. The primary efficacy measure was the
             Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery.
             Secondary outcome measures included the Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for Assessment
             of Negative Symptoms (SANS).Sixty patients were randomly
             assigned (15 in each group). No apparent differences between
             groups in the MATRICS composite score were observed (mean ±
             SD change from baseline to final visit: armodafinil 50 mg,
             1.9 ± 6.22; 100 mg, 2.8 ± 7.98; 200 mg, 2.9 ± 4.72;
             placebo, 2.2 ± 5.06). The mean ± SD changes in PANSS total
             scores were -6.3 ± 7.25 for armodafinil 200 mg and -1.7 ±
             4.89 for placebo at final visit (effect size=0.73; 95% CI,
             -0.08 to 1.54) and PANSS negative symptoms scores were -3.4
             ± 2.07 and 0.1 ± 1.93 (effect size=1.69; 95% CI, 0.78 to
             2.60), respectively. Although reductions in SANS total score
             were observed with both armodafinil and placebo at final
             visit, no between-group difference was shown. Armodafinil
             was generally well tolerated, with diarrhea and headache the
             most commonly reported adverse events. There was no evidence
             of worsening of psychosis with adjunctive armodafinil.In
             this 4-week study, adjunctive armodafinil was not associated
             with an improvement in cognitive measures, but armodafinil
             200 mg/d appeared to mitigate the negative symptoms of
             schizophrenia. Treatment was generally well
             tolerated.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00487942.},
   Doi = {10.4088/jcp.09m05950gry},
   Key = {fds273489}
}

@article{fds273380,
   Author = {LaMonica, HM and Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Gold, JM and Goldberg,
             TE},
   Title = {Differential effects of emotional information on
             interference task performance across the life
             span},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience},
   Volume = {2},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1663-4365},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000208561300001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnagi.2010.00141},
   Key = {fds273380}
}

@article{fds327073,
   Author = {Kern, RS and Gold, JM and Dickinson, D and Green, MF and Nuechterlein,
             KH and Keefe, RSE and Marder, SR and Sugar, CA},
   Title = {COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND COMMUNITY FUNCTIONING IN
             SCHIZOPHRENIA: RESULTS FROM THE MATRICS PSYCHOMETRIC AND
             STANDARDIZATION STUDY (PASS)},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {323-324},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.02.551},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2010.02.551},
   Key = {fds327073}
}

@article{fds273482,
   Author = {Goldberg, TE and Keefe, RSE and Goldman, RS and Robinson, DG and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {Circumstances under which practice does not make perfect: a
             review of the practice effect literature in schizophrenia
             and its relevance to clinical treatment studies.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1053-1062},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2009.211},
   Abstract = {In this article, we review the literature on practice
             effects in schizophrenia, an underappreciated confound in
             interpreting cognitive improvement in clinical trials. We
             first examine claims regarding first- and second-generation
             antipsychotic medications as cognitive enhancers, and follow
             it with a discussion of recent studies demonstrating how
             practice or placebo effects may drive 'positive' findings.
             Thus, this review suggests that many previous findings can
             be reinterpreted in this light. Critically, we also make
             several suggestions about test construction, study design,
             and statistical analyses that the field might use to
             overcome this potential confound. Our suggestions may also
             have implications for drug discovery and regulatory approval
             of cognitive-enhancing adjunctive agents, in terms of study
             design and/or test psychometric characteristics, including
             the development of tests that are relatively insensitive to
             practice-related changes. Such advances might be important
             for improving the methodology involved in the assessment of
             cognitive change in treatment studies.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2009.211},
   Key = {fds273482}
}

@article{fds273529,
   Author = {Polanczyk, G and Moffitt, TE and Arseneault, L and Cannon, M and Ambler,
             A and Keefe, RSE and Houts, R and Odgers, CL and Caspi,
             A},
   Title = {Etiological and clinical features of childhood psychotic
             symptoms: results from a birth cohort.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {328-338},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20368509},
   Abstract = {It has been reported that childhood psychotic symptoms are
             common in the general population and may signal
             neurodevelopmental processes that lead to schizophrenia.
             However, it is not clear whether these symptoms are
             associated with the same extensive risk factors established
             for adult schizophrenia.To examine the construct validity of
             children's self-reported psychotic symptoms by testing
             whether these symptoms share the risk factors and clinical
             features of adult schizophrenia.Prospective, longitudinal
             cohort study of a nationally representative birth cohort in
             Great Britain.A total of 2232 twelve-year-old children
             followed up since age 5 years (retention, 96%). Main Outcome
             Measure Children's self-reported hallucinations and
             delusions.Children's psychotic symptoms are familial and
             heritable and are associated with social risk factors (eg,
             urbanicity); cognitive impairments at age 5; home-rearing
             risk factors (eg, maternal expressed emotion); behavioral,
             emotional, and educational problems at age 5; and comorbid
             conditions, including self-harm.The results provide a
             comprehensive picture of the construct validity of
             children's self-reported psychotic symptoms. For
             researchers, the findings indicate that children who have
             psychotic symptoms can be recruited for neuroscience
             research to determine the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. For
             clinicians, the findings indicate that psychotic symptoms in
             childhood are often a marker of an impaired developmental
             process and should be actively assessed.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.14},
   Key = {fds273529}
}

@article{fds273528,
   Author = {Reichenberg, A and Caspi, A and Harrington, H and Houts, R and Keefe,
             RSE and Murray, RM and Poulton, R and Moffitt, TE},
   Title = {Static and dynamic cognitive deficits in childhood preceding
             adult schizophrenia: a 30-year study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {160-169},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048021},
   Abstract = {Premorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well
             documented and have been interpreted as supporting a
             neurodevelopmental etiological model. The authors
             investigated the following three unresolved questions about
             premorbid cognitive deficits: What is their developmental
             course? Do all premorbid cognitive deficits follow the same
             course? Are premorbid cognitive deficits specific to
             schizophrenia or shared by other psychiatric
             disorders?Participants were members of a representative
             cohort of 1,037 males and females born between 1972 and 1973
             in Dunedin, New Zealand. Cohort members underwent follow-up
             evaluations at specific intervals from age 3 to 32 years,
             with a 96% retention rate. Cognitive development was
             analyzed and compared in children who later developed
             schizophrenia or recurrent depression as well as in healthy
             comparison subjects.Children who developed adult
             schizophrenia exhibited developmental deficits (i.e., static
             cognitive impairments that emerge early and remain stable)
             on tests indexing verbal and visual knowledge acquisition,
             reasoning, and conceptualization. In addition, these
             children exhibited developmental lags (i.e., growth that is
             slower relative to healthy comparison subjects) on tests
             indexing processing speed, attention, visual-spatial problem
             solving ability, and working memory. These two premorbid
             cognitive patterns were not observed in children who later
             developed recurrent depression.These findings suggest that
             the origins of schizophrenia include two interrelated
             developmental processes evident from childhood to early
             adolescence (ages 7-13 years). Children who will grow up to
             develop adult schizophrenia enter primary school struggling
             with verbal reasoning and lag further behind their peers in
             working memory, attention, and processing speed as they get
             older.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09040574},
   Key = {fds273528}
}

@article{fds273298,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Neurocognition},
   Pages = {97-119},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511712265.007},
   Abstract = {© Cambridge University Press 2010. Neurocognition is
             commonly impaired in patients with schizophrenia in all
             stages of the illness and varying levels of severity. While
             these impairments may appear prior to the onset of
             psychosis, their severity in chronic schizophrenia patients
             is about 1.5 to 2.0 standard deviations below the healthy
             population. Neurocognitive impairment is a central clinical
             feature of schizophrenia, as it is associated with
             pre-morbid history, concurrent brain functioning, and
             functional outcomes, and is under consideration as a
             possible component of the diagnosis for schizophrenia in
             DSM-V and ICD-11. Despite the centrality of cognition in
             schizophrenia, there are no proven pharmacologic treatments
             currently available. Spurred by the NIMH Measurement and
             Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (MATRICS) initiative, a pathway for FDA approval of
             compounds to improve cognition is being established
             including an approved battery of tests, the MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), and numerous clinical
             trials are underway to identify new treatments. While these
             studies utilize newly established methods primarily
             developed to assess cognition in stable patients with
             schizophrenia, the methods for assessing cognition in
             patients who require a change in antipsychotic may differ.
             Most published studies of cognition have used samples of
             convenience that have included groups of patients who can
             complete extensive research protocols due to their chronic
             institutionalization or who are available because they have
             entered a clinical trial or other specialized research
             study, and have thus been carefully screened with extensive
             exclusion criteria, such as the absence of substance abuse
             and medical co-morbidities.},
   Doi = {10.1017/CBO9780511712265.007},
   Key = {fds273298}
}

@article{fds273481,
   Author = {Barch, DM and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Anticipating DSM-V: opportunities and challenges for
             cognition and psychosis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-47},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbp139},
   Abstract = {The current debate regarding the role that cognitive
             function should play in the diagnostic criteria for
             schizophrenia in the DSM-V has been a healthy one that has
             engendered much useful discussion and potentially
             interesting pathways for future research. At this point,
             there is little support for the idea that cognition should
             be included as a criterion A-type symptom that would
             differentiate those individuals with schizophrenia from
             individuals with other psychiatric illnesses. However, there
             continues to be much interest in including assessments of
             cognition in the DSM-V as a means of highlighting the
             importance of cognitive function for understanding
             functional status and outcome and to facilitate attention to
             cognitive function in treatment planning. However, as
             discussed here and in the Bora commentary, these suggestions
             do raise important theoretical and practical challenges as
             to how to best accomplish these goals and to provide a means
             of assessment of cognition that is viable across a wide
             range of contexts. In order to accomplish these goals, the
             structure of DSM-V will need to be modified to facilitate
             the inclusion of treatment-relevant domains that may not be
             part of the diagnostic criteria such as including
             assessments of one more domains for all disorders (eg,
             suicidality and perhaps even cognition) or assessments of
             domains that may be specific to certain classes of disorders
             (eg, cognition for psychotic and mood disorders). Bora et al
             suggest either using specifiers to indicate which
             individuals with schizophrenia have cognitive impairment or
             using a dimensional assessment of cognition. We tend to
             favor a dimensional approach as one that preserves the most
             information and does not necessitate placing what may be
             arbitrary thresholds on the level of cognitive dysfunction
             that would be sufficient to warrant a specifier of cognitive
             impairment. Furthermore, it is becoming increasingly
             apparent from the work of Bora and others that cognition may
             also deserve attention in the assessment of individuals with
             affective as well as nonaffective psychosis, and thus,
             whatever approach is adopted in the DSM-V for assessing
             cognition in schizophrenia may also need to be applicable to
             individuals with other disorders as well. These are solvable
             challenges and well worth the effort in terms of their
             potential payoff for enhancing the quality of life of people
             with mental illnesses and reducing demands on public health
             resources.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbp139},
   Key = {fds273481}
}

@article{fds327074,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Fenton, WS},
   Title = {HOW SHOULD DSM-V CRITERIA FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA INCLUDE
             COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT?},
   Journal = {DECONSTRUCTING PSYCHOSIS: REFINING THE RESEARCH AGENDA FOR
             DSM-V},
   Pages = {83-98},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds327074}
}

@article{fds273483,
   Author = {Seidman, LJ and Giuliano, AJ and Meyer, EC and Addington, J and Cadenhead, KS and Cannon, TD and McGlashan, TH and Perkins, DO and Tsuang, MT and Walker, EF and Woods, SW and Bearden, CE and Christensen,
             BK and Hawkins, K and Heaton, R and Keefe, RSE and Heinssen, R and Cornblatt, BA},
   Title = {Neuropsychology of the prodrome to psychosis in the NAPLS
             Consortium: Relationship to family history and conversion to
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {578-588},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.66},
   Abstract = {Context: Early detection and prospective evaluation of
             clinical high-risk (CHR) individuals who may develop
             schizophrenia or other psychotic disorders is critical for
             predicting psychosis onset and for testing preventive
             interventions. Objectives: To elucidate the neuropsychology
             of the CHR syndrome, to determine the association of
             neuropsychological function with conversion to psychosis and
             family history of psychosis, and to examine whether baseline
             neuropsychological functioning predicts subsequent
             psychosis. Design: Longitudinal study with 21?2 years of
             follow-up. Setting: Eight centers participating in the North
             American Prodrome Longitudinal Study. Participants: Three
             hundred four prospectively identified CHR individuals
             meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes
             criteria, 52 non-CHR persons with a family history of
             psychosis in first- or second-degree relatives (family
             high-risk group), and 193 normal controls with neither a
             family history of psychosis nor a CHR syndrome, all of whom
             underwent baseline neuropsychological evaluations. Main
             Outcome Measures: A neurocognitive composite score, 8
             individual neuropsychological measures, an IQ estimate, and
             high-risk status. Results: Global ("composite")
             neuropsychological functioning was comparably impaired in
             the CHR and family high-risk groups compared with controls,
             but profiles differed significantly between groups.
             Neuropsychological functioning in the CHR group was
             significantly lower in persons who progressed to psychosis
             than in those who did not and was worst in the subgroup with
             a family history of psychosis. Tests of processing speed and
             verbal learning and memory were most sensitive in
             discriminating CHR individuals from controls, although
             reductions were less severe than in established
             schizophrenia. Neuropsychological functioning did not
             contribute uniquely to the prediction of psychosis beyond
             clinical criteria, but worse verbal memory predicted more
             rapid conversion. Conclusions: These findings document that
             CHR individuals have significant neuropsychological
             difficulties, particularly those who later develop
             psychosis. This dysfunction is generally of moderate
             severity but less than in first-episode schizophrenia,
             suggesting that further decline may occur after baseline CHR
             assessment. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.66},
   Key = {fds273483}
}

@article{fds273484,
   Author = {Chan, W-Y and Yang, G-L and Chia, M-Y and Woon, P-S and Lee, J and Keefe,
             R and Sitoh, Y-Y and Nowinski, WL and Sim, K},
   Title = {Cortical and subcortical white matter abnormalities in
             adults with remitted first-episode mania revealed by
             Tract-Based Spatial Statistics},
   Journal = {Bipolar Disorders},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {383-389},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1398-5647},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00829.x},
   Abstract = {Objectives: Abnormalities of brain white matter have been
             noted in structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion
             tensor imaging (DTI) studies of bipolar disorder, but there
             are fewer investigations specifically examining white matter
             integrity early in the course of illness. In this study, we
             employed DTI to elucidate white matter changes in adult
             patients with remitted first-episode mania and hypothesized
             that first-episode mania was associated with decreased
             fractional anisotropy in cortical (frontal) and subcortical
             (thalamus, striatum) white matter as well as white matter
             tracts (cingulum, corpus callosum). Methods: Diffusion
             tensor images were acquired from 16 patients with remitted
             first-episode mania and 16 healthy controls matched for age,
             gender, handedness, and years of education. Fractional
             anisotropy and radial and axial diffusivities were analyzed
             using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. Results: Patients had
             lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity in
             the left anterior frontal white matter, right posterior
             thalamic radiation, left cingulum, and bilateral sagittal
             striatum. In addition, increased radial diffusivity was
             found in the left corpus callosum. Conclusion: Our findings
             highlighted that white matter abnormalities were present by
             the time of remission of first-episode mania. The widespread
             occurrence of these white matter abnormalities both in
             first-episode mania and chronic bipolar disorder suggested
             that disruption of white matter cortical-subcortical
             networks as well as projection, associative, and commissural
             tracts is a hallmark of the illness. © 2010 The Authors.
             Journal compilation © 2010 John Wiley &amp; Sons
             A/S.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00829.x},
   Key = {fds273484}
}

@article{fds273485,
   Author = {Konneker, TI and Crowley, JJ and Quackenbush, CR and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and Oord, EVD and Sullivan,
             PF},
   Title = {No association of the serotonin transporter polymorphisms
             5-HTTLPR and rs25531 with schizophrenia or
             neurocognition},
   Journal = {American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B,
             Neuropsychiatric Genetics : the Official Publication of the
             International Society of Psychiatric Genetics},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1115-1117},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1552-4841},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.31077},
   Abstract = {Apromoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene has
             been widely studied in neuropsychiatry. We genotyped the
             5-HTTLPR/rs25531 triallelic polymorphism in 728
             schizophrenia cases from the CATIE study and 724 control
             subjects. In a logistic regression with case/control status
             as dependent variable and 7 ancestry-informative principal
             components as covariates, the effect of 5-HTTLPR/rs25531
             composite genotype was not significant (odds ratio = 1.008,
             95% CI 0.868-1.172, P = 0.91). In cases only,
             5-HTTLPR/rs25531 was not associated with neurocognition
             (summary neurocognitive index P = 0.21, working memory P =
             0.32) or symptomatology (PANSS positive P = 0.67 and
             negative symptoms P = 0.46). We were unable to identify
             association of the triallelic 5-HTTLPR with schizophrenia,
             neurocognition, or core psychotic symptoms even at levels of
             significance unadjusted for multiple comparisons. © 2010
             Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajmg.b.31077},
   Key = {fds273485}
}

@article{fds273486,
   Author = {Chia, MY and Chan, WY and Chua, KY and Lee, H and Lee, J and Lee, R and Lim,
             C and Tay, E and Woon, PS and Keefe, RSE and Sim, K},
   Title = {The Schizophrenia cognition Rating Scale: Validation of an
             interview-based assessment of cognitive functioning in Asian
             patients with schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {178},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33-38},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2010.03.020},
   Abstract = {Growing interest in cognitive deficits associated with
             schizophrenia has led to the need for a clinicianfriendly
             cognitive instrument. The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating
             Scale (SCoRS), recognized for its brevity and ease of
             administration, has proven to be a valid and reliable
             measure of overall cognition in schizophrenia patients.
             However, there has been no such validation in an Asian
             context. This SCoRS validation study involved 103 patient
             and 48 control subjects within an Asian population.
             Test-retest reliability, sensitivity of the instrument to
             cognitive differences between patients with schizophrenia
             and healthy controls as well as validity by comparing with a
             standardised performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) were
             assessed. Our findings indicated that SCoRS is highly
             reliable (ICC=0.984) and sensitive to cognitive dysfunction.
             SCoRS is significantly correlated with BACS composite scores
             and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global
             Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health
             Organisation-Quality of Life (WHO QOL) within an Asian
             population. SCoRS represents a clinician-friendly cognitive
             assessment tool that incorporates third-party feedback and
             might be employed in clinical practice to better evaluate
             and manage schizophrenia. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.psychres.2010.03.020},
   Key = {fds273486}
}

@article{fds273487,
   Author = {Ventura, J and Reise, SP and Keefe, RSE and Baade, LE and Gold, JM and Green, MF and Kern, RS and Mesholam-Gately, R and Nuechterlein, KH and Seidman, LJ and Bilder, RM},
   Title = {The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Development and
             validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based
             measure of cognition},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {121},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {24-31},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.04.016},
   Abstract = {Background: Practical, reliable "real world" measures of
             cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive
             performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs
             targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia.
             Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one
             possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176)
             were used to examine the psychometric properties of the
             Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the
             Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (CGI-CogS). Method: We used classical test theory methods
             and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive
             Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS
             ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI
             ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity
             analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and
             objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate
             measures of cognition, and functional outcome. Results: The
             rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items)
             correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of
             the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82)
             and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with
             the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with
             objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional
             capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which
             was comparable to the parent instruments. Conclusions: The
             CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's
             cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with
             neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and
             functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and
             potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in
             schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical
             trials. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2010.04.016},
   Key = {fds273487}
}

@article{fds273488,
   Author = {Ascher-Svanum, H and Nyhuis, AW and Stauffer, V and Kinon, BJ and Faries, DE and Phillips, GA and Schuh, K and Awad, AG and Keefe, R and Naber, D},
   Title = {Reasons for discontinuation and continuation of
             antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia from
             patient and clinician perspectives},
   Journal = {Current Medical Research and Opinion},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2403-2410},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0300-7995},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2010.515900},
   Abstract = {Objective: To identify reasons for discontinuation and
             continuation of antipsychotic medications in the treatment
             of schizophrenia from the patients' and their clinicians'
             perspectives. Research design and methods: Two measures were
             previously developed to assess the Reasons for Antipsychotic
             Discontinuation/Continuation (RAD), one from the patient's
             perspective and another from the clinician's perspective.
             These measures were administered to acutely ill
             schizophrenia patients enrolled in a 12-week study of
             antipsychotic medications (N596) and to their clinicians.
             The RAD was assessed at baseline and at endpoint. Reasons
             were rated on a 5-point scale from 'primary reason' to 'not
             a reason.' The single most important reason was also
             identified. The 'single most important reason' and the
             'primary reasons' for discontinuing the drug used prior to
             enrollment, and for discontinuing or continuing the study
             drug were identified. Levels of concordance between
             patients' and clinicians' reasons were assessed. Clinical
             trial registration: The data source for this study is a
             clinical trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov
             (NCT00337662). Main outcome measures: Reasons for
             Antipsychotic Discontinuation/Continuation (RAD). Results:
             Patients and clinicians identified several reasons for
             medication discontinuation and continuation (2.3 to 6.3
             reasons, on average). The top 'single most important' reason
             for discontinuing the drug used prior to enrollment and for
             discontinuing the study drug was 'positive symptoms not
             sufficiently improved or made worse,' followed by
             'medication-related adverse events.' The most frequent
             'single most important' reason for medication continuation
             was 'improved positive symptoms,' followed by 'patient's
             perception of improvement,' and 'functional improvement.' A
             high level of concordance was observed between patients' and
             clinicians' ratings. Conclusions: Medication efficacy
             appears to be the core driver of medication discontinuation
             and continuation, especially with regard to positive
             symptoms. There was a high level of concordance between
             patients' and clinicians' perspectives. Limitations include
             the study requirement that patients be at least moderately
             ill and experiencing acute psychotic exacerbation, a
             potential selection bias in the readiness to respond to
             measures, and small sample sizes for some analyses. Further
             research is needed to replicate findings in patients who are
             not acutely ill. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1185/03007995.2010.515900},
   Key = {fds273488}
}

@article{fds273465,
   Author = {Pinheiro, AP and Keefe, RSE and Skelly, T and Olarte, M and Leviel, K and Lange, LA and Lange, EM and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, J and Sullivan,
             PF},
   Title = {Erratum: AKT1 and neurocognition in schizophrenia
             (Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2007) 41
             (169-177))},
   Journal = {The Australian and New Zealand Journal of
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {983},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0004-8674},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048670903228991},
   Doi = {10.1080/00048670903228991},
   Key = {fds273465}
}

@article{fds273480,
   Author = {Fox, KH and Burdick, KE and Lombardo, I and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar
             disorder},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Times},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {66-68},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0893-2905},
   Key = {fds273480}
}

@article{fds273478,
   Author = {Penn, DL and Keefe, RSE and Davis, SM and Meyer, PS and Perkins, DO and Losardo, D and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {The effects of antipsychotic medications on emotion
             perception in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the
             CATIE trial.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {17-23},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2009.08.016},
   Abstract = {Few pharmacological intervention studies have examined the
             impact of medication on social cognition, particularly
             emotion perception. The goal of this randomized,
             double-blind study is to compare the effects of several
             second generation antipsychotics and a first generation
             antipsychotic, perphenazine, on emotion perception in
             individuals with schizophrenia. Patients were assigned to
             receive treatment with olanzapine, queitapine fumarate,
             risperidone, ziprasidone or perphenazine for up to 18
             months. Eight hundred and seventy three patients completed
             an emotion perception test immediately prior to
             randomization and after 2 months of treatment. We also
             examined baseline predictors of emotion perception change.
             Most treatments were associated with a small,
             non-statistically significant improvement in emotion
             perception at two months, although they did not differ from
             one another. Greater improvement in emotion perception at 2
             months was significantly predicted by lower baseline emotion
             perception and higher baseline neurocognitive functioning,
             and marginally predicted by less time on an
             antipsychotic.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2009.08.016},
   Key = {fds273478}
}

@article{fds273479,
   Author = {Pinheiro, AP and Keefe, RSE and Skelly, T and Olarte, M and Leviel, K and Lange, LA and Lange, EM and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, J and Sullivan,
             PF},
   Title = {Erratum: Rates of depressive and anxiety disorders in a
             residential mother-infant unit for unsettled infants
             (Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (2007) 41
             (836-842))},
   Journal = {The Australian and New Zealand Journal of
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1087},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0004-8674},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048670903270266},
   Doi = {10.1080/00048670903270266},
   Key = {fds273479}
}

@article{fds273467,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Seidman, LJ and Christensen, BK and Hamer, RM and Sharma,
             T and Sitskoorn, MM and Lewine, RRJ and Yurgelun-Todd, DA and Gur, RC and Tohen, M and Tollefson, GD and Sanger, TM and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Comparative effect of atypical and conventional
             antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition in first-episode
             psychosis: A randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine
             versus low doses of haloperidol (American Journal of
             Psychiatry (2004) 161, (985-995))},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {942},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Key = {fds273467}
}

@article{fds273477,
   Author = {Lipkovich, IA and Deberdt, W and Csernansky, JG and Sabbe, B and Keefe,
             RS and Kollack-Walker, S},
   Title = {Relationships among neurocognition, symptoms and functioning
             in patients with schizophrenia: a path-analytic approach for
             associations at baseline and following 24 weeks of
             antipsychotic drug therapy.},
   Journal = {Bmc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {44},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1471-244X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-44},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms have been
             associated with deficits in psychosocial and occupational
             functioning in patients with schizophrenia. This post-hoc
             analysis evaluates the relationships among cognition,
             psychopathology, and psychosocial functioning in patients
             with schizophrenia at baseline and following sustained
             treatment with antipsychotic drugs.Data were obtained from a
             clinical trial assessing the cognitive effects of selected
             antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. Patients
             were randomly assigned to 24 weeks of treatment with
             olanzapine (n = 159), risperidone (n = 158), or haloperidol
             (n = 97). Psychosocial functioning was assessed with the
             Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life Scale [QLS], cognition
             with a standard battery of neurocognitive tests; and
             psychiatric symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome
             Scale [PANSS]. A path-analytic approach was used to evaluate
             the effects of changes in cognitive functioning on
             subdomains of quality of life, and to determine whether such
             effects were direct or mediated via changes in psychiatric
             symptoms.At baseline, processing speed affected functioning
             mainly indirectly via negative symptoms. Positive symptoms
             also affected functioning at baseline although independent
             of cognition. At 24 weeks, changes in processing speed
             affected changes in functioning both directly and indirectly
             via PANSS negative subscale scores. Positive symptoms no
             longer contributed to the path-analytic models. Although a
             consistent relationship was observed between processing
             speed and the 3 functional domains, variation existed as to
             whether the paths were direct and/or indirect. Working
             memory and verbal memory did not significantly contribute to
             any of the path-analytic models studied.Processing speed
             demonstrated direct and indirect effects via negative
             symptoms on three domains of functioning as measured by the
             QLS at baseline and following 24 weeks of antipsychotic
             treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1471-244X-9-44},
   Key = {fds273477}
}

@article{fds273524,
   Author = {Need, AC and Keefe, RSE and Ge, D and Grossman, I and Dickson, S and McEvoy, JP and Goldstein, DB},
   Title = {Pharmacogenetics of antipsychotic response in the CATIE
             trial: a candidate gene analysis.},
   Journal = {European Journal of Human Genetics : Ejhg},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {946-957},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19156168},
   Abstract = {The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE) Phase 1 Schizophrenia trial compared
             the effectiveness of one typical and four atypical
             antipsychotic medications. Although trials such as CATIE
             present important opportunities for pharmacogenetics
             research, the very richness of the clinical data presents
             challenges for statistical interpretation, and in particular
             the risk that data mining will lead to false-positive
             discoveries. For this reason, it is both misleading and
             unhelpful to perpetuate the current practice of reporting
             association results for these trials one gene at a time,
             ignoring the fact that multiple gene-by-phenotype tests are
             being carried out on the same data set. On the other hand,
             suggestive associations in such trials may lead to new
             hypotheses that can be tested through both replication
             efforts and biological experimentation. The appropriate
             handling of these forms of data therefore requires
             dissemination of association statistics without undue
             emphasis on select findings. Here we attempt to illustrate
             this approach by presenting association statistics for 2769
             polymorphisms in 118 candidate genes evaluated for 21
             pharmacogenetic phenotypes. On current evidence it is
             impossible to know which of these associations may be real,
             although in total they form a valuable resource that is
             immediately available to the scientific community.},
   Doi = {10.1038/ejhg.2008.264},
   Key = {fds273524}
}

@article{fds273530,
   Author = {Marx, CE and Keefe, RSE and Buchanan, RW and Hamer, RM and Kilts, JD and Bradford, DW and Strauss, JL and Naylor, JC and Payne, VM and Lieberman,
             JA and Savitz, AJ and Leimone, LA and Dunn, L and Porcu, P and Morrow, AL and Shampine, LJ},
   Title = {Proof-of-concept trial with the neurosteroid pregnenolone
             targeting cognitive and negative symptoms in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1885-1903},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19339966},
   Abstract = {The neurosteroid pregnenolone and its sulfated derivative
             enhance learning and memory in rodents. Pregnenolone sulfate
             also positively modulates NMDA receptors and could thus
             ameliorate hypothesized NMDA receptor hypofunction in
             schizophrenia. Furthermore, clozapine increases pregnenolone
             in rodent hippocampus, possibly contributing to its superior
             efficacy. We therefore investigated adjunctive pregnenolone
             for cognitive and negative symptoms in patients with
             schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder receiving stable
             doses of second-generation antipsychotics in a pilot
             randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.
             Following a 2-week single-blind placebo lead-in, patients
             were randomized to pregnenolone (fixed escalating doses to
             500 mg/day) or placebo, for 8 weeks. Primary end points were
             changes in BACS and MCCB composite and total SANS scores. Of
             21 patients randomized, 18 completed at least 4 weeks of
             treatment (n=9/group). Pregnenolone was well tolerated.
             Patients receiving pregnenolone demonstrated significantly
             greater improvements in SANS scores (mean change=10.38)
             compared with patients receiving placebo (mean change=2.33),
             p=0.048. Mean composite changes in BACS and MCCB scores were
             not significantly different in patients randomized to
             pregnenolone compared with placebo. However, serum
             pregnenolone increases predicted BACS composite scores at 8
             weeks in the pregnenolone group (r(s)=0.81, p=0.022).
             Increases in allopregnanolone, a GABAergic pregnenolone
             metabolite, also predicted BACS composite scores (r(s)=0.74,
             p=0.046). In addition, baseline pregnenolone (r(s)=-0.76,
             p=0.037), pregnenolone sulfate (r(s)=-0.83, p=0.015), and
             allopregnanolone levels (r(s)=-0.83, p=0.015) were inversely
             correlated with improvements in MCCB composite scores,
             further supporting a possible role for neurosteroids in
             cognition. Mean BACS and MCCB composite scores were
             correlated (r(s)=0.74, p<0.0001). Pregnenolone may be a
             promising therapeutic agent for negative symptoms and merits
             further investigation for cognitive symptoms in
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2009.26},
   Key = {fds273530}
}

@article{fds273474,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE and Patterson, TL and Heaton, RK and Bowie,
             CR},
   Title = {Abbreviated neuropsychological assessment in schizophrenia:
             prediction of different aspects of outcome.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {462-471},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1380-3395},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390802251386},
   Abstract = {The aim of this study was to identify the best subset of
             neuropsychological tests for prediction of several different
             aspects of functioning in a large (n = 236) sample of older
             people with schizophrenia. While the validity of abbreviated
             assessment methods has been examined before, there has never
             been a comparative study of the prediction of different
             elements of cognitive impairment, real-world outcomes, and
             performance-based measures of functional capacity. Scores on
             10 different tests from a neuropsychological assessment
             battery were used to predict global neuropsychological (NP)
             performance (indexed with averaged scores or calculated
             general deficit scores), performance-based indices of
             everyday-living skills and social competence, and
             case-manager ratings of real-world functioning. Forward
             entry stepwise regression analyses were used to identify the
             best predictors for each of the outcomes measures. Then, the
             analyses were adjusted for estimated premorbid IQ, which
             reduced the magnitude, but not the structure, of the
             correlations. Substantial amounts (over 70%) of the variance
             in overall NP performance were accounted for by a limited
             number of NP tests. Considerable variance in measures of
             functional capacity was also accounted for by a limited
             number of tests. Different tests constituted the best
             predictor set for each outcome measure. A substantial
             proportion of the variance in several different NP and
             functional outcomes can be accounted for by a small number
             of NP tests that can be completed in a few minutes, although
             there is considerable unexplained variance. However, the
             abbreviated assessments that best predict different outcomes
             vary across outcomes. Future studies should determine
             whether responses to pharmacological and remediation
             treatments can be captured with brief assessments as
             well.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13803390802251386},
   Key = {fds273474}
}

@article{fds326767,
   Author = {Tiller, J and D'Souza, DC and Keefe, RSE and Kane, JM and Patkar, AA and Youakim, JM},
   Title = {Effects of Adjunctive Armodafinil on Patients with
             Schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Neurology},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {A336-A336},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds326767}
}

@article{fds273525,
   Author = {Need, AC and Ge, D and Weale, ME and Maia, J and Feng, S and Heinzen, EL and Shianna, KV and Yoon, W and Kasperaviciūte, D and Gennarelli, M and Strittmatter, WJ and Bonvicini, C and Rossi, G and Jayathilake, K and Cola, PA and McEvoy, JP and Keefe, RSE and Fisher, EMC and St Jean and PL and Giegling, I and Hartmann, AM and Möller, H-J and Ruppert, A and Fraser,
             G and Crombie, C and Middleton, LT and St Clair and D and Roses, AD and Muglia, P and Francks, C and Rujescu, D and Meltzer, HY and Goldstein,
             DB},
   Title = {A genome-wide investigation of SNPs and CNVs in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Plos Genetics},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e1000373},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19197363},
   Abstract = {We report a genome-wide assessment of single nucleotide
             polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNVs) in
             schizophrenia. We investigated SNPs using 871 patients and
             863 controls, following up the top hits in four independent
             cohorts comprising 1,460 patients and 12,995 controls, all
             of European origin. We found no genome-wide significant
             associations, nor could we provide support for any
             previously reported candidate gene or genome-wide
             associations. We went on to examine CNVs using a subset of
             1,013 cases and 1,084 controls of European ancestry, and a
             further set of 60 cases and 64 controls of African ancestry.
             We found that eight cases and zero controls carried
             deletions greater than 2 Mb, of which two, at 8p22 and
             16p13.11-p12.4, are newly reported here. A further
             evaluation of 1,378 controls identified no deletions greater
             than 2 Mb, suggesting a high prior probability of disease
             involvement when such deletions are observed in cases. We
             also provide further evidence for some smaller, previously
             reported, schizophrenia-associated CNVs, such as those in
             NRXN1 and APBA2. We could not provide strong support for the
             hypothesis that schizophrenia patients have a significantly
             greater "load" of large (>100 kb), rare CNVs, nor could we
             find common CNVs that associate with schizophrenia. Finally,
             we did not provide support for the suggestion that
             schizophrenia-associated CNVs may preferentially disrupt
             genes in neurodevelopmental pathways. Collectively, these
             analyses provide the first integrated study of SNPs and CNVs
             in schizophrenia and support the emerging view that rare
             deleterious variants may be more important in schizophrenia
             predisposition than common polymorphisms. While our analyses
             do not suggest that implicated CNVs impinge on particular
             key pathways, we do support the contribution of specific
             genomic regions in schizophrenia, presumably due to
             recurrent mutation. On balance, these data suggest that very
             few schizophrenia patients share identical genomic
             causation, potentially complicating efforts to personalize
             treatment regimens.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pgen.1000373},
   Key = {fds273525}
}

@article{fds273470,
   Author = {Kern, RS and Green, MF and Nuechterlein, KH and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Commentary on O'Halloran et al},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {327-329},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.015},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.015},
   Key = {fds273470}
}

@article{fds273464,
   Author = {Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and McEvoy, JP and Davis, SM and Swartz,
             MS and Keefe, RSE and Miller, AL and Rosenheck, RA and Hsiao, JK and CATIE
             Investigators},
   Title = {Results of phase 3 of the CATIE schizophrenia
             trial.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19027269},
   Abstract = {The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE) study examined the comparative
             effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments for individuals
             with chronic schizophrenia. Patients who had discontinued
             antipsychotic treatment in phases 1 and 2 were eligible for
             phase 3, in which they selected one of nine antipsychotic
             regimens with the help of their study doctor. We describe
             the characteristics of the patients who selected each
             treatment option and their outcomes.Two hundred and seventy
             patients entered phase 3. The open-label treatment options
             were monotherapy with oral aripiprazole, clozapine,
             olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone,
             ziprasidone, long-acting injectable fluphenazine decanoate,
             or a combination of any two of these treatments.Few patients
             selected fluphenazine decanoate (n=9) or perphenazine (n=4).
             Similar numbers selected each of the other options (range
             33-41). Of the seven common choices, those who selected
             clozapine and combination antipsychotic treatment were the
             most symptomatic, and those who selected aripiprazole and
             ziprasidone had the highest body mass index. Symptoms
             improved for all groups, although the improvements were
             modest for the groups starting with relatively mild levels
             of symptoms. Side effect profiles of the medications varied
             considerably but medication discontinuations due to
             intolerability were rare (7% overall).Patients and their
             doctors made treatment selections based on clinical factors,
             including severity of symptoms, response to prior
             treatments, and physical health status. Fluphenazine
             decanoate was rarely used among those with evidence of
             treatment non-adherence and clozapine was underutilized for
             those with poor previous response. Combination antipsychotic
             treatment warrants further study.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.011},
   Key = {fds273464}
}

@article{fds327075,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Increasing sensitivity of early detection of psychosis with
             cognitive measures},
   Journal = {International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical
             Practice},
   Volume = {13},
   Pages = {7-7},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds327075}
}

@article{fds273466,
   Author = {Kraus, MS and Keefe, RSE and Krishnan, RKR},
   Title = {Memory-prediction errors and their consequences in
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Neuropsychology Review},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {336-352},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1040-7308},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11065-009-9106-1},
   Abstract = {Cognitive deficits play a central role in the onset of
             schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment precedes the onset of
             psychosis in at least a subgroup of patients, and accounts
             for considerable dysfunction. Yet cognitive deficits as
             currently measured are not significantly related to
             hallucinations and delusions. Part of this counterintuitive
             absence of a relationship may be caused by the lack of an
             organizing principle of cognitive impairment in
             schizophrenia research. We review literature suggesting that
             a system of memory-based prediction is central to human
             perception, thought and action, and forward the notion that
             many of the symptoms of schizophrenia are a result of a
             failure of this system. © 2009 Springer Science+Business
             Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11065-009-9106-1},
   Key = {fds273466}
}

@article{fds273468,
   Author = {Kern, RS and Green, MF and Nuechterlein, KH and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Commentary on O'Halloran et al},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {327-329},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.015},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.015},
   Key = {fds273468}
}

@article{fds273469,
   Author = {Kleinman, L and Lieberman, J and Dube, S and Mohs, R and Zhao, Y and Kinon,
             B and Carpenter, W and Harvey, PD and Green, MF and Keefe, RSE and Frank,
             L and Bowman, L and Revicki, DA},
   Title = {Development and psychometric performance of the
             schizophrenia objective functioning instrument: An
             interviewer administered measure of function},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {275-285},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.002},
   Abstract = {Existing measures for functional assessment do not
             adequately address the relationship between cognitive
             impairment and function. The Schizophrenia Outcomes
             Functioning Interview (SOFI) was developed to measure
             community functioning related to cognitive impairment and
             psychopathology. Following review of existing measures and
             discussion with experts, caregivers, and patients, content
             was generated for four domains: 1) living situation; 2)
             IADLs; 3) productive activities; and 4) social functioning.
             The final SOFI was constructed with items informing domain
             scores, and an interviewer-completed global rating for each
             domain. Psychometric characteristics of the SOFI were
             evaluated in a sample of 104 community residing patients
             with schizophrenia and their informants. Test-retest
             reliability was evaluated in a sub-sample of
             patient-informant dyads using ICC; all values were &gt; 0.70
             for both patient-interviews (SOFI-P) and
             informant-interviews (SOFI-I). Inter-rater reliability ICCs
             ranged from 0.50 to 0.79 on a different sub-sample. The SOFI
             demonstrated adequate construct validity based on
             correlations with the PSP (range 0.58 to 0.76; p &lt;
             0.0001) and the QLS (p &lt; 0.001). Some correlations
             between SOFI and PETiT scores were low to moderate (p &lt;
             0.05). Discriminant validity was supported based on SOFI
             score comparisons for patient groups based on PANSS and BACS
             scores (p &lt; 0.05); SOFI scores differed between
             borderline and moderately ill patients as measured by the
             CGI-S (p &lt; 0.05). The SOFI expands on existing measures
             and more comprehensively captures functioning of patients in
             the real world than other performance-based (proxy)
             measures. The SOFI has good evidence supporting reliability
             and construct validity, and may be a useful measure of
             functional outcomes in schizophrenia. © 2008 Elsevier B.V.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.10.002},
   Key = {fds273469}
}

@article{fds273471,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Kraus, MS},
   Title = {Measuring memory-prediction errors and their consequences in
             youth at risk for schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {414-419},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0304-4602},
   Abstract = {The largely consistent columnar circuitry observed
             throughout the cortex may serve to continuously predict
             bottom-up activation based on invariant memories. This
             "memory-prediction" function is essential to efficient and
             accurate perception. Many of the defined cognitive deficits
             associated with schizophrenia suggest a breakdown of
             memory-prediction function. As deficits in memory-prediction
             function are proposed to lie more proximal to the biological
             causes of schizophrenia than deficits in standard cognitive
             constructs, tests that more directly probe memory-prediction
             function may be especially sensitive predictors of
             conversion in individuals at high-risk for schizophrenia. In
             this article, we review the conceptual basis for this
             hypothesis, and outline how it may be tested with specific
             cognitive paradigms. The accurate identification of
             cognitive processes that precede the onset of psychosis will
             not only be useful for clinicians to predict which young
             people are at greatest risk for schizophrenia, but will also
             help determine the neurobiology of psychosis onset, thus
             leading to new and effective treatments for preventing
             schizophrenia and other psychoses.},
   Key = {fds273471}
}

@article{fds273472,
   Author = {Lim, C and Chong, S-A and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Psychosocial factors in the neurobiology of schizophrenia: A
             selective review},
   Journal = {Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {402-407},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0304-4602},
   Abstract = {Aim: Various forms of social adversity have been implicated
             in the development and emergence of psychosis. However, how
             and when these events exert their influences are not clear.
             In this paper, we attempt to examine these putative
             psychosocial factors and place them in a temporal context
             and propose a neurobiological mechanism linking these
             factors. Methods: Medline databases were searched between
             1966 and 2007 followed by the crosschecking of references
             using the following keywords: psychosocial, stress,
             stressors, life events, psychological, combined with
             psychosis and schizophrenia. Results: While some findings
             are conflicting, there are a number of positive studies
             which suggest that factors like prenatal stress, urban birth
             and childhood trauma accentuate the vulnerability for
             schizophrenia and other psychoses while other factors like
             life events, migration particularly being a minority group,
             and high expressed emotions, which occur later in the
             vulnerable individual may move the individual towards the
             tipping point for psychosis. Conclusion: Overall, there is
             evidence to implicate psychosocial factors in the
             pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These factors may act via
             a common pathway, which involves stress-induced
             dysregulation of the HPA axis and the dopaminergic systems.
             To establish the causal relationship of the various factors
             would require prospective studies that are adequately
             powered.},
   Key = {fds273472}
}

@article{fds273473,
   Author = {Krishnan, RR and Keefe, R and Kraus, M},
   Title = {Schizophrenia is a disorder of higher order hierarchical
             processing},
   Journal = {Medical Hypotheses},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {740-744},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0306-9877},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2008.12.039},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which the patient
             manifests with auditory hallucinations, paranoid or bizarre
             delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. It is
             associated with significant social dysfunction. There are
             many hypotheses regarding schizophrenia. Most of these focus
             on schizophrenia as a manifestation of abnormalities from
             genetic [Mulle JG. Genomic structural variation and
             schizophrenia. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008;10(2):171-7], viral
             [Fruntes V, Limosin F. Schizophrenia and viral infection
             during neurodevelopment: a pathogenesis model? Med Sci Monit
             2008;14(6):RA71-7], neurochemical [e.g. dopamine (Lewis DA,
             Akil M. Cortical dopamine in schizophrenia: strategies for
             postmortem studies. J Psychiatr Res 1997;31(2):175-95) or
             interactions between neurotransmitters (Duncan GE, Sheitman
             BB, Lieberman JA. An integrated view of pathophysiological
             models of schizophrenia. Brain Res Brain Res Rev
             1999;29(2):250-64)] or brain structural [Kotrla KJ,
             Weinberger DR. Brain imaging in schizophrenia. Annu Rev Med
             1995;46:113-22] origins. Most of these hypotheses do not
             account for how or why these presumed causes lead to the
             manifestations of schizophrenia. We argue that brain
             structure and function is compatible with a hierarchical
             processing structure that forms the basis for perception and
             thought in healthy humans. We propose that perturbations of
             the types listed above lead to disruption of higher levels
             of perception and hierarchical temporal processing by the
             brain and that this constitutes the core deficit in
             schizophrenia. We present evidence that this model explains
             many of the features of schizophrenia and we make a series
             of predictions about schizophrenia. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mehy.2008.12.039},
   Key = {fds273473}
}

@article{fds273475,
   Author = {Sim, K and Yang, GL and Loh, D and Poon, LY and Sitoh, YY and Verma, S and Keefe, R and Collinson, S and Chong, SA and Heckers, S and Nowinski, W and Pantelis, C},
   Title = {White matter abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits
             associated with the passivity phenomenon in schizophrenia: A
             diffusion tensor imaging study},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {121-127},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0925-4927},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.02.003},
   Abstract = {The passivity phenomenon is a distressing Schneiderian first
             rank symptom in patients with schizophrenia. Based on extant
             data of functional and structural cerebral changes
             underlying passivity, we sought to examine cerebral white
             matter integrity in our subjects. We hypothesised that the
             passivity phenomenon would be associated with white matter
             changes in specific cortical (frontal, parietal cortices,
             and cingulate gyrus) and subcortical regions (thalamus and
             basal ganglia) and correlated with relevant neurocognitive
             deficits, compared with characteristics in those without the
             passivity phenomenon. Thirty-six subjects (11 with passivity
             and 25 without passivity) with schizophrenia were compared
             with 32 age-, gender- and handedness-matched healthy
             controls using diffusion tensor imaging. Neuropsychological
             testing was administered. Patients with passivity were
             associated with increased fractional anisotropy within the
             frontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia and
             decreased fractional anisotropy within the thalamus when
             compared with patients without passivity. Within patients
             with passivity, fractional anisotropy in the frontal cortex
             correlated with the age of onset of illness and
             neurocognitive deficits related to attention and executive
             functioning. The findings suggest distributed involvement of
             cortical and subcortical regions underlying passivity and
             support the notion of neural network models underlying
             specific psychiatric symptoms such as passivity. © 2009
             Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.02.003},
   Key = {fds273475}
}

@article{fds273476,
   Author = {Davidson, M and Galderisi, S and Weiser, M and Werbeloff, N and Fleischhacker, WW and Keefe, RS and Boter, H and Keet, IPM and Prelipceanu, D and Rybakowski, JK and Libiger, J and Hummer, M and Dollfus, S and López-Ibor, JJ and Hranov, LG and Gaebel, W and Peuskens, J and Lindefors, N and Riecher-Rössler, A and Kahn,
             RS},
   Title = {Cognitive effects of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode
             schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: A randomized,
             open-label clinical trial (EUFEST)},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {675-682},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08060806},
   Abstract = {Objective: Cognitive impairment, manifested as mild to
             moderate deviations from psychometric norms, is present in
             many but not all schizophrenia patients. The purpose of the
             present study was to compare the effect of haloperidol with
             that of second-generation antipsychotic drugs on the
             cognitive performance of patients with schizophreniform
             disorder or first-episode schizophrenia. Methods: Subjects
             were 498 patients with schizophreniform disorder or
             first-episode schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to
             open-label haloperidol (1 to 4 mg/day [N=103]), amisulpride
             (200 to 800 mg/day [N=104]), olanzapine (5 to 20 mg/day
             [N=105]), quetiapine (200 to 750 mg/day [N=104]), or
             ziprasidone (40 to 160 mg/day [N=82]). The Rey Auditory
             Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test Part A and Part B,
             WAIS Digit Symbol Test, and Purdue Pegboard Test were
             administered at baseline and the 6-month follow-up
             evaluation. Results: Compared with scores at baseline,
             composite cognitive test scores improved for all five
             treatment groups at the 6-month follow-up evaluation.
             However, there were no overall differences among the
             treatment groups. In addition, there was a weak correlation
             between the degree of cognitive improvement and changes in
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Conclusion:
             Treatment with antipsychotic medication is associated with
             moderate improvement in the cognitive test performance of
             patients who have schizophreniform disorder or who are in
             their first episode of schizophrenia. The magnitude of
             improvement does not differ between treatment with
             haloperidol and treatment with second-generation
             antipsychotics. Moreover, cognitive improvement is weakly
             related to symptom change.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08060806},
   Key = {fds273476}
}

@article{fds336081,
   Author = {Pinheiro, AP and Keefe, RSE and Skelly, T and Olarte, M and Leviel, K and Lange, LA and Lange, EM and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, J and Sullivan,
             PF},
   Title = {AKT1 and neurocognition in schizophrenia (vol 41, pg 169,
             2007)},
   Journal = {The Australian and New Zealand Journal of
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {983-983},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds336081}
}

@article{fds327076,
   Author = {Targum, SD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognition and schizophrenia: is there a role for cognitive
             assessments in diagnosis and treatment?},
   Journal = {Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {55-59},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds327076}
}

@article{fds273461,
   Author = {Hawkins, KA and Keefe, RSE and Christensen, BK and Addington, J and Woods, SW and Callahan, J and Zipursky, RB and Perkins, DO and Tohen, M and Breier, A and McGlashan, TH},
   Title = {Neuropsychological course in the prodrome and first episode
             of psychosis: findings from the PRIME North America Double
             Blind Treatment Study.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.07.008},
   Abstract = {There is uncertainty regarding the onset timing of the
             cognitive deficiencies of schizophrenia. We investigated
             whether conversion to psychosis and/or olanzapine altered
             the neuropsychological course of subjects within the
             first-ever double blind medication study of the putative
             schizophrenia first episode prodrome.Sixty participants in a
             double blind trial of olanzapine as a treatment for putative
             prodromal states were assessed at entry (pre-randomization),
             and again at 6 and 12 months (if they remained
             non-psychotic), or at any of these points prior to psychosis
             followed by post-psychosis and 6 months post-psychosis
             assessments.Participants who converted to psychosis did not
             differ from placebo non-converters in pre-randomization
             global neuropsychological status. Early converters did not
             differ from later converters in entry neuropsychological
             status. Subjects who converted after 6 months did not show
             neuropsychological declines during the initial,
             pre-psychosis, 6 months. Neuropsychological course did not
             differ between converters to psychosis and non-converters,
             or between olanzapine and placebo-assigned subjects.Neither
             the onset of frank psychosis nor olanzapine treatment of the
             prodrome significantly alters neuropsychological course in
             persons considered to be at high risk at their initial
             (pre-psychosis) assessment. These findings suggest that the
             neuropsychological deficiencies associated with psychotic
             conditions largely pre-exist the first frank psychotic
             episode.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.07.008},
   Key = {fds273461}
}

@article{fds273462,
   Author = {Miller, DD and Caroff, SN and Davis, SM and Rosenheck, RA and McEvoy,
             JP and Saltz, BL and Riggio, S and Chakos, MH and Swartz, MS and Keefe,
             RSE and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and Clinical Antipsychotic
             Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE)
             Investigators},
   Title = {Extrapyramidal side-effects of antipsychotics in a
             randomised trial.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental
             Science},
   Volume = {193},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {279-288},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18827289},
   Abstract = {There are claims that second-generation antipsychotics
             produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) compared
             with first-generation drugs.To compare the incidence of
             treatment-emergent EPS between second-generation
             antipsychotics and perphenazine in people with
             schizophrenia.Incidence analyses integrated data from
             standardised rating scales and documented use of concomitant
             medication or treatment discontinuation for EPS events.
             Mixed model analyses of change in rating scales from
             baseline were also conducted.There were no significant
             differences in incidence or change in rating scales for
             parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia or tardive dyskinesia when
             comparing second-generation antipsychotics with perphenazine
             or comparing between second-generation antipsychotics.
             Secondary analyses revealed greater rates of concomitant
             antiparkinsonism medication among individuals on risperidone
             and lower rates among individuals on quetiapine, and lower
             rates of discontinuation because of parkinsonism among
             people on quetiapine and ziprasidone. There was a trend for
             a greater likelihood of concomitant medication for akathisia
             among individuals on risperidone and perphenazine.The
             incidence of treatment-emergent EPS and change in EPS
             ratings indicated that there are no significant differences
             between second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine or
             between second-generation antipsychotics in people with
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1192/bjp.bp.108.050088},
   Key = {fds273462}
}

@article{fds273460,
   Author = {Mohamed, S and Rosenheck, R and Swartz, M and Stroup, S and Lieberman,
             JA and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Relationship of cognition and psychopathology to functional
             impairment in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {978-987},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111713},
   Abstract = {This study evaluated the association of neurocognition and
             symptoms with measures of social and occupational
             functioning in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE).CATIE was an 18-month
             study of individuals with schizophrenia. Symptoms of 1,386
             patients were measured with the positive syndrome scale of
             the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and a PANSS
             negative symptom scale that eliminated items that most
             overlap with measures of community functioning or
             neurocognition. The Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality of Life
             Scale, which a rater completes on the basis of the patient's
             self-report, and recent employment were used to assess
             community functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses and
             mixed models tested the association of neurocognition and
             symptoms with social/occupational functioning as well as
             changes in these measures during treatment.Both symptoms and
             neurocognition were associated with quality of life in
             bivariate correlation analyses. Symptoms contributed more to
             the incremental explained variance in quality of life than
             did neurocognitive functioning, but both kinds of measures
             were significantly related to quality of life. In an
             analysis including only the positive syndrome scale, the
             increased explained variance in quality of life was about
             equal to that associated with neurocognition. Neurocognition
             and both symptom measures were independently associated with
             quality of life in the cross-sectional mixed-model analysis.
             Changes in neurocognition and both symptom measures during
             treatment were also significantly associated with change in
             the quality of life.Both psychotic symptoms and
             neurocognitive deficits appear to contribute independently
             to decreased quality of life in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07111713},
   Key = {fds273460}
}

@article{fds273454,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Malhotra, AK and Meltzer, HY and Kane, JM and Buchanan,
             RW and Murthy, A and Sovel, M and Li, C and Goldman,
             R},
   Title = {Efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients with
             schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: significant
             placebo/practice effects in a 12-week, randomized,
             double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1217-1228},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17625502},
   Abstract = {Altered expression of central muscarinic and nicotinic
             acetylcholine receptors in hippocampal and cortical regions
             may contribute to the cognitive impairment exhibited in
             patients with schizophrenia. Increasing cholinergic activity
             through the use of a cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI)
             therefore represents a possible strategy for cognitive
             augmentation in schizophrenia. We examined the efficacy and
             safety of the ChEI donepezil as cotreatment for mild to
             moderate cognitive impairment in schizophrenia or
             schizoaffective disorder in a prospective, 12-week,
             placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group study. In
             total, 250 patients (18-55 years) with schizophrenia or
             schizoaffective disorder who were clinically stabilized on
             risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, or
             aripiprazole, alone or in combination, were enrolled at 38
             outpatient psychiatric clinics in the United States.
             Patients were randomized to donepezil 5 mg q.d. for 6 weeks
             then 10 mg q.d. for 6 weeks, or placebo administered as oral
             tablets. The primary outcome measure was the Clinical
             Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE)
             neurocognitive battery composite score. In the
             intent-to-treat sample (donepezil, n=121; placebo, n=124),
             both treatments showed improvement in the composite score
             from baseline to week 12. At week 12, cognitive improvement
             with donepezil was similar to that with placebo
             (last-observation-carried-forward effect size, 0.277 vs
             0.411; p=0.1182) and statistically significantly inferior
             for the observed-cases analysis (0.257 vs 0.450; p=0.044).
             There was statistically significant improvement in the
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Assessment Scale negative
             symptoms score for placebo compared with donepezil, while
             total and positive symptom scores were similar between both
             treatments. Statistically significant improvements in
             positive symptoms score and Clinical Global
             Impression-Improvement for donepezil compared with placebo
             were noted at Week 6. Treatment-emergent adverse events
             (AEs) were observed for 54.5% of donepezil- and 61.3% of
             placebo-treated patients; most AEs were rated as mild to
             moderate in severity. Donepezil was safe and well-tolerated
             but was not effective compared with placebo as a cotreatment
             for the improvement of cognitive impairment in this patient
             population. A significant and surprisingly large
             placebo/practice effect was observed among placebo-treated
             patients, and is a serious consideration in future clinical
             trial study designs for potential cognitive enhancing
             compounds in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/sj.npp.1301499},
   Key = {fds273454}
}

@article{fds273456,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, JP and Davis, SM and Rosenheck,
             RA and Keefe, RSE and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {What CATIE found: results from the schizophrenia
             trial.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {500-506},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1075-2730},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18451005},
   Abstract = {The authors provide an overview of the Clinical
             Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE)
             sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health. CATIE
             was designed to compare a proxy first-generation
             antipsychotic, perphenazine, to several newer drugs. In
             phase 1 of the trial, consenting patients were randomly
             assigned to receive olanzapine, perphenazine, quetiapine,
             risperidone, or ziprasidone for up to 18 months on a
             double-blind basis. Patients with tardive dyskinesia were
             excluded from being randomly assigned to perphenazine and
             were assigned to one of the four second-generation
             antipsychotics in phase 1A. Clozapine was included in phase
             2 of the study. Overall, olanzapine had the longest time to
             discontinuation in phase 1, but it was associated with
             significant weight and metabolic concerns. Perphenazine was
             not significantly different in overall effectiveness,
             compared with quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone.
             Also, perphenazine was found to be the most cost-effective
             drug. Clozapine was confirmed as the most effective drug for
             individuals with a poor symptom response to previous
             antipsychotic drug trials, although clozapine was also
             associated with troublesome adverse effects. There were no
             differences in neurocognitive or psychosocial functioning in
             response to medications. Subsequent randomizations suggest
             that a poor response to an initial medication may mean that
             a different medication will be more effective or better
             tolerated. Although the CATIE results are controversial,
             they are broadly consistent with most previous antipsychotic
             drug trials and meta-analyses; however, the results may not
             generalize well to patients at high risk of tardive
             dyskinesia. Patient characteristics and clinical
             circumstances affected drug effectiveness; these patient
             factors are important in making treatment
             choices.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ps.2008.59.5.500},
   Key = {fds273456}
}

@article{fds273457,
   Author = {Lieberman, JA and Drake, RE and Sederer, LI and Belger, A and Keefe, R and Perkins, D and Stroup, S},
   Title = {Science and recovery in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {487-496},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1075-2730},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18451003},
   Abstract = {Mental health advocates and policy makers are increasingly
             attuned to the importance of the recovery concept, and
             psychiatrists and neuroscientists increasingly emphasize the
             medical model and neurobiological mechanisms in relation to
             schizophrenia. Studies have shown that people with
             schizophrenia are tremendously heterogeneous in each domain
             of recovery, and the various domains of recovery are
             themselves relatively independent from one another. Studies
             have also shown that current interventions are effective for
             specific dimensions of the illness and functions, are
             usually ameliorative rather than curative, and are effective
             only for a proportion of patients. Hence, the authors
             suggest defining recovery in terms of improvements in
             specific domains rather than globally -- for example,
             "recovery of cognitive functioning" or "recovery of
             vocational functioning" -- to signify improvements in
             specific areas. This definition realistically emphasizes
             states of relative and partial recovery that patients can
             achieve in response to treatment. The emphasis on a range of
             improvements in specific areas should allow clinicians to
             communicate more clearly regarding the current findings and
             goals of treatment. The article also examines current
             research on various aspects of recovery, including the
             effects of treatment on pathophysiology, symptoms, cognitive
             impairments, quality of life, and self-agency. An
             operational definition of recovery allows for bridging hope
             and recovery with important advances in the science of the
             brain. Future clinical and neuroscience research and service
             development should emphasize measures of recovery as
             outcomes for people with schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ps.2008.59.5.487},
   Key = {fds273457}
}

@article{fds273453,
   Author = {Hill, SK and Sweeney, JA and Hamer, RM and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Gu, H and McEvoy, JP and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Efficiency of the CATIE and BACS neuropsychological
             batteries in assessing cognitive effects of antipsychotic
             treatments in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society :
             Jins},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {209-221},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1355-6177},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617708080570},
   Abstract = {Efficient and reliable assessments of cognitive treatment
             effects are essential for the comparative evaluation of
             procognitive effects of pharmacologic therapies. Yet, no
             studies have addressed the sensitivity and efficiency with
             which neurocognitive batteries evaluate cognitive abilities
             before and after treatment. Participants were primarily
             first episode schizophrenia patients who completed baseline
             (n = 367) and 12-week (n = 219) assessments with the BACS
             (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) and CATIE
             (Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness) neuropsychological batteries in a clinical
             trial comparing olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone.
             Exploratory factor analysis revealed that performance on
             both batteries was characterized by a single factor of
             generalized cognitive deficit for both baseline performance
             and cognitive change after treatment. Both batteries
             estimated similar levels of change following treatment,
             although the BACS battery required half the administration
             time. Because a unitary factor characterized baseline
             cognitive abilities in early psychosis as well as cognitive
             change after treatment with atypical antipsychotic
             medications, short batteries such as the BACS may
             efficiently provide sufficient assessment of procognitive
             treatment effects with antipsychotic medications. Assessment
             of cognitive effects of adjunctive therapies targeting
             specific cognitive domains or impairments may require more
             extensive testing of the domains targeted to maximize
             sensitivity for detecting specific predicted cognitive
             outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1355617708080570},
   Key = {fds273453}
}

@article{fds273449,
   Author = {Nuechterlein, KH and Green, MF and Kern, RS and Baade, LE and Barch, DM and Cohen, JD and Essock, S and Fenton, WS and Frese, FJ and Gold, JM and Goldberg, T and Heaton, RK and Keefe, RSE and Kraemer, H and Mesholam-Gately, R and Seidman, LJ and Stover, E and Weinberger, DR and Young, AS and Zalcman, S and Marder, SR},
   Title = {The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, part 1: test
             selection, reliability, and validity.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {203-213},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010042},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The lack of an accepted standard for measuring
             cognitive change in schizophrenia has been a major obstacle
             to regulatory approval of cognition-enhancing treatments. A
             primary mandate of the National Institute of Mental Health's
             Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative was to develop a
             consensus cognitive battery for clinical trials of
             cognition-enhancing treatments for schizophrenia through a
             broadly based scientific evaluation of measures. METHOD: The
             MATRICS Neurocognition Committee evaluated more than 90
             tests in seven cognitive domains to identify the 36 most
             promising measures. A separate expert panel evaluated the
             degree to which each test met specific selection criteria.
             Twenty tests were selected as a beta battery. The beta
             battery was administered to 176 individuals with
             schizophrenia and readministered to 167 of them 4 weeks
             later so that the 20 tests could be compared directly.
             RESULTS: The expert panel ratings are presented for the
             initially selected 36 tests. For the beta battery tests,
             data on test-retest reliability, practice effects,
             relationships to functional status, practicality, and
             tolerability are presented. Based on these data, 10 tests
             were selected to represent seven cognitive domains in the
             MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. CONCLUSIONS: The
             structured consensus method was a feasible and fair
             mechanism for choosing candidate tests, and direct
             comparison of beta battery tests in a common sample allowed
             selection of a final consensus battery. The MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery is expected to be the standard
             tool for assessing cognitive change in clinical trials of
             cognition-enhancing drugs for schizophrenia. It may also aid
             evaluation of cognitive remediation strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010042},
   Key = {fds273449}
}

@article{fds273450,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Should cognitive impairment be included in the diagnostic
             criteria for schizophrenia?},
   Journal = {World Psychiatry : Official Journal of the World Psychiatric
             Association (Wpa)},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {22-28},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1723-8617},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2051-5545.2008.tb00142.x},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive impairment is considered a core component of
             schizophrenia, and is increasingly under investigation as a
             potential treatment target. On average, cognitive impairment
             is severe to moderately severe compared to healthy controls,
             and almost all patients with schizophrenia demonstrate
             cognitive decrements compared to their expected level if
             they had not developed the illness. Compared to patients
             with affective disorders, cognitive impairment in
             schizophrenia appears earlier, is more severe, and is more
             independent of clinical symptoms. Although the DSM-IV-TR and
             ICD-10 descriptions of schizophrenia include several
             references to cognitive impairment, neither the diagnostic
             criteria nor the subtypology of schizophrenia include a
             requirement of cognitive impairment. This paper forwards for
             consideration a proposal that the diagnostic criteria
             include a specific criterion of "a level of cognitive
             functioning suggesting a consistent severe impairment and/or
             a significant decline from premorbid levels considering the
             patient's educational, familial, and socioeconomic
             background". The inclusion of this criterion may increase
             the "point of rarity" with affective psychoses and may
             increase clinicians' awareness of cognitive impairment,
             potentially leading to more accurate prognosis, better
             treatment outcomes, and a clearer diagnostic signal for
             genetic and biological studies. Future research will need to
             address the validity of these possibilities. The reliable
             determination of cognitive impairment as part of a standard
             diagnostic evaluation will present challenges to
             diagnosticians with limited resources or insufficient
             expertise. Cognitive assessment methods for clinicians,
             including brief assessments and interview-based assessments,
             are discussed. Given the current emphasis on the development
             of cognitive treatments, the evaluation of cognition in
             schizophrenia is an essential component of mental health
             education.},
   Doi = {10.1002/j.2051-5545.2008.tb00142.x},
   Key = {fds273450}
}

@article{fds273451,
   Author = {Green, MF and Nuechterlein, KH and Kern, RS and Baade, LE and Fenton,
             WS and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Mesholam-Gately, R and Seidman, LJ and Stover, E and Marder, SR},
   Title = {Functional co-primary measures for clinical trials in
             schizophrenia: results from the MATRICS Psychometric and
             Standardization Study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {221-228},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010089},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: During the consensus meetings of the National
             Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment
             Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (NIMH-MATRICS) Initiative, the U.S. Food and Drug
             Administration took the position that a drug for this
             purpose should show changes on 1) an accepted consensus
             cognitive performance measure and 2) an additional measure
             (i.e., a co-primary) that is considered functionally
             meaningful. The goal of the current study was to describe
             steps to evaluate four potential co-primary measures for
             psychometric properties and validity. METHOD: As part of the
             five-site MATRICS Psychometric and Standardization Study
             (PASS), two measures of functional capacity and two
             interview-based measures of cognition were evaluated in 176
             patients with schizophrenia (167 of these patients were
             retested 4 weeks later). RESULTS: Data are presented for
             each co-primary measure for test-retest reliability, utility
             as a repeated measure, relationship to cognitive
             performance, relationship to functioning,
             tolerability/practicality, and number of missing data.
             CONCLUSIONS: Psychometric properties of all of the measures
             were considered acceptable, and the measures were generally
             comparable across the various criteria, except that the
             functional capacity measures had stronger relationships to
             cognitive performance and fewer missing data. The
             development and evaluation of potential co-primary measures
             is still at an early stage, and it was decided not to
             endorse a single measure for clinical trials at this point.
             The current findings offer the initial steps to identify
             functionally meaningful co-primary measures in this area and
             will help to guide further evaluation of such
             measures.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010089},
   Key = {fds273451}
}

@article{fds273452,
   Author = {Kern, RS and Nuechterlein, KH and Green, MF and Baade, LE and Fenton,
             WS and Gold, JM and Keefe, RSE and Mesholam-Gately, R and Mintz, J and Seidman, LJ and Stover, E and Marder, SR},
   Title = {The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery, part 2: co-norming
             and standardization.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {214-220},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010043},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The consensus cognitive battery developed by the
             National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH's) Measurement
             and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (MATRICS) initiative includes 10 independently developed
             tests that are recommended as the standard battery for
             clinical trials of cognition-enhancing interventions for
             schizophrenia. To facilitate interpretation of results from
             the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery using a common
             scaling across tests, normative data were obtained from a
             single representative U.S. community sample with the battery
             administered as a unit. METHOD: The MATRICS Consensus
             Cognitive Battery was administered to 300 individuals from
             the general community at five sites in differing geographic
             regions. For each site, recruitment was stratified by age,
             gender, and education. A scientific survey sampling method
             was used to help avoid sampling bias. The battery was
             administered in a standard order to each participant in a
             single session lasting approximately 60 minutes. Descriptive
             data were generated, and age, gender, and education effects
             on performance were examined. RESULTS: Prominent age and
             education effects were observed across tests. The results
             for gender differed by measure, suggesting the need for age
             and gender corrections in clinical trials. The MATRICS
             Consensus Cognitive Battery components were co-normed, with
             allowance for demographic corrections. CONCLUSIONS:
             Co-norming a battery such as the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive
             Battery, comprising tests from independent test developers
             each with their own set of norms, facilitates valid
             interpretation of test scores and communication of findings
             across studies. These normative data will aid in estimating
             the magnitude of change during clinical trials of
             cognition-enhancing agents and make it possible to derive
             more directly interpretable composite scores.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07010043},
   Key = {fds273452}
}

@article{fds273455,
   Author = {Resnick, SG and Rosenheck, RA and Canive, JM and Souza, CD and Stroup,
             TS and McEvoy, J and Davis, S and Keefe, RSE and Swartz, M and Lieberman,
             J},
   Title = {Employment outcomes in a randomized trial of
             second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine in the
             treatment of individuals with schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The Journal of Behavioral Health Services &
             Research},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {215-225},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1094-3412},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11414-007-9101-3},
   Abstract = {Employment has been increasingly recognized as an important
             goal for individuals with schizophrenia. Previous research
             has shown mixed results on the relationship of specific
             antipsychotic medications to employment outcomes, with some
             studies finding greater benefits for second-generation
             antipsychotic medications (SGAs) over first-generation
             antipsychotic medication (FGAs). A randomized controlled
             trial (CATIE) examined medication assignment and both
             employment outcomes and participation in psychosocial
             rehabilitation (PSR) among 1,121 individuals with a
             diagnosis of schizophrenia randomized to SGAs (olanzapine,
             quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone) or one FGA
             (perphenazine). Service use and employment were assessed at
             quarterly interviews. There were no differences between
             medication groups on employment outcomes or participation in
             PSR. Consistent with other CATIE results, there were no
             differences in employment or participation in PSR among
             these five medications, including the FGA perphenazine. ©
             2007 National Council for Community Behavioral
             Healthcare.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11414-007-9101-3},
   Key = {fds273455}
}

@article{fds273458,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Goldberg, TE and Gold, JM and Walker, TM and Kennel, C and Hawkins, K},
   Title = {Norms and standardization of the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {108-115},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.024},
   Abstract = {According to the recommendations of the Measurement and
             Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia
             (MATRICS) Neurocognition Committee, one of the desired
             characteristics of a cognitive battery for assessing
             cognition in schizophrenia studies and clinical trials is
             the availability of normative data. This report describes
             normative data collected on the Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) from 404 healthy controls
             with demographic characteristics matching the 2005 United
             States Census of English-speakers. The six test measures
             demonstrated the expected pattern of correlations with age,
             gender, and education. Individual test scores were converted
             into standardized (T and z) scores and composite scores that
             were corrected for age and gender. An education-correction
             factor was calculated and recommended only for
             non-schizophrenia patients. Eight different verbal memory
             tests were found to have equivalent levels of difficulty. ©
             2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2008.03.024},
   Key = {fds273458}
}

@article{fds273459,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {Implementation considerations for multisite clinical trials
             with cognitive neuroscience tasks},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {656-663},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbn042},
   Abstract = {Multisite clinical trials aimed at cognitive enhancement
             across various neuropsychiatric conditions have employed
             standard neuropsychological tests as outcome measures. While
             these tests have enjoyed wide clinical use and have proven
             reliable and predictive of functional disability, a number
             of implementation challenges have arisen when these tests
             are used in clinical trials. These issues are likely to be
             magnified in future studies when cognitive neuroscience (CN)
             procedures are explored in these trials, because in their
             current forms CN procedures are less standardized and more
             difficult to teach and monitor. For multisite trials, we
             anticipate that the most challenging issues will include
             assuring tester competence, monitoring tester performance,
             specific challenges with complex assessment methods, and
             having resources available for adequate monitoring of data
             quality. Suggestions for overcoming these implementation
             challenges are offered. © The Author 2008. Published by
             Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland
             Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbn042},
   Key = {fds273459}
}

@article{fds273463,
   Author = {Crowley, JJ and Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Stroup, TS and Lieberman,
             JA and Sullivan, PF},
   Title = {The neuregulin 1 promoter polymorphism rs6994992 is not
             associated with chronic schizophrenia or
             neurocognition},
   Journal = {American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B,
             Neuropsychiatric Genetics : the Official Publication of the
             International Society of Psychiatric Genetics},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1298-1300},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1552-4841},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.b.30727},
   Abstract = {The neuregulin 1 (NRG1) promoter single nucleotide
             polymorphism (SNP) rs6994992 has shown association with
             decreased activation of frontal and temporal lobe regions,
             increased risk of psychosis, and decreased premorbid IQ.
             This SNP is part of a putative schizophrenia risk-associated
             haplotype and was associated with increased expression of
             the type IV transcript in postmortem tissue. We tested for
             association between rs6994992 and chronic schizophrenia by
             genotyping 738 cases from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials
             of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and 733 matched
             controls. We further tested for associations with age at
             onset and baseline neurocognition in cases with
             schizophrenia reasoning that these phenotypes might yield
             results similar to those seen for premorbid IQ. Affection
             status was weakly associated with rs6994992 genotypes and
             trended towards association under a recessive model. This
             association did not survive correction for multiple
             comparisons and was in the opposite direction than has been
             reported. There was no association between rs6994992 and age
             at onset, an estimate of premorbid IQ, or neurocognition at
             study baseline. We were unable to replicate previous
             associations of rs6994992 with schizophrenia and, moreover,
             did not find significant associations with age of onset, an
             estimate of pre-morbid IQ, or neurocognition. © 2008
             Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajmg.b.30727},
   Key = {fds273463}
}

@article{fds273447,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Sweeney, JA and Gu, H and Hamer, RM and Perkins, DO and McEvoy, JP and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Dr. Keefe and colleagues reply},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1911-1912},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07071086r},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07071086r},
   Key = {fds273447}
}

@article{fds273448,
   Author = {Goff, DC and Keefe, R and Citrome, L and Davy, K and Krystal, JH and Large,
             C and Thompson, TR and Volavka, J and Webster, EL},
   Title = {Lamotrigine as add-on therapy in schizophrenia: results of 2
             placebo-controlled trials.},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {582-589},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0271-0749},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/jcp.0b013e31815abf34},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: : Lamotrigine previously was found to attenuate
             ketamine-induced behavioral changes and, in 2
             placebo-controlled trials, to improve psychosis when added
             to antipsychotic medication. We sought to evaluate the
             potential role of lamotrigine augmentation in schizophrenia
             patients resistant to atypical antipsychotic medication.
             METHODS: : Two multicenter, randomized, double-blind,
             12-week, parallel-group trials were conducted to compare
             flexibly dosed lamotrigine (100-400 mg/d) with placebo as
             add-on treatment in schizophrenia patients with stable,
             residual psychotic symptoms. The primary end point was
             changed in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score
             at week 12. RESULTS: : Two hundred seventeen patients were
             enrolled in study 1 and 212 in study 2; completion rates in
             the intent-to-treat samples were 71% and 74%, respectively,
             and did not differ between treatment groups. Overall, mean
             Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores improved
             in both studies and did not differ between treatment groups.
             In study 1, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms
             total score and Clinical Global Impression improved more
             with placebo than with lamotrigine; in study 2, the
             cognitive composite score improved more with lamotrigine
             than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: : Results from these 2
             studies do not support the use of lamotrigine as an adjunct
             to atypical antipsychotics in patients with refractory
             psychosis. It is unclear why positive results from previous
             lamotrigine trials were not replicated. The positive effect
             of lamotrigine on cognition in one trial, while of uncertain
             significance, may merit further study.},
   Doi = {10.1097/jcp.0b013e31815abf34},
   Key = {fds273448}
}

@article{fds273440,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Fenton, WS},
   Title = {How should DSM-V criteria for schizophrenia include
             cognitive impairment?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {912-920},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbm046},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive impairment is considered a core component of
             schizophrenia and is increasingly under investigation as a
             potential treatment target. On average, cognitive impairment
             is severe to moderately severe compared with healthy
             controls, and almost all patients with schizophrenia
             demonstrate cognitive decrements compared with their
             expected level if they had not developed the illness.
             Compared with patients with affective disorders, cognitive
             impairment in schizophrenia appears earlier, is more severe,
             and tends to be more independent of clinical symptoms. While
             the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
             Fourth Edition, Text Revision, description of schizophrenia
             includes several references to cognitive impairment, neither
             the diagnostic criteria nor the subtypology of schizophrenia
             include a requirement of cognitive impairment. We forward
             for consideration a proposal that the Diagnostic and
             Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition,
             criteria include a specific criterion of "a level of
             cognitive functioning suggesting a consistent severe
             impairment and/or a significant decline from premorbid
             levels considering the patient's educational, familial, and
             socioeconomic background." The inclusion of this criterion
             may increase the "point of rarity" with affective psychoses
             and may increase clinicians' awareness of cognitive
             impairment, potentially leading to more accurate prognosis
             and better treatment outcomes. Future research will need to
             address the validity of these possibilities. The reliable
             determination of cognitive impairment as part of a standard
             diagnostic evaluation may present challenges to
             diagnosticians with limited resources or insufficient
             expertise. Various cognitive assessment methods for
             clinicians, including brief assessments and interview-based
             assessments, are discussed. Given the current emphasis on
             the development of cognitive treatments, the evaluation of
             cognition in schizophrenia is an essential component of
             mental health education.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbm046},
   Key = {fds273440}
}

@article{fds273443,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Sweeney, JA and Gu, H and Hamer, RM and Perkins, DO and McEvoy, JP and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on
             neurocognitive function in early psychosis: a randomized,
             double-blind 52-week comparison.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1061-1071},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17606658},
   Abstract = {The authors sought to compare the effects of olanzapine,
             quetiapine, and risperidone on neurocognitive function in
             patients with early psychosis.In a 52-week double-blind,
             multicenter study, 400 patients early in the course of
             psychotic illness (<5 years) were randomly assigned to
             treatment with olanzapine (2.5-20 mg/day), quetiapine
             (100-800 mg/day), or risperidone (0.5-4 mg/day). The mean
             modal daily dose was 11.7 mg (SD=5.3) for olanzapine, 506 mg
             (SD=215) for quetiapine, and 2.4 mg (SD=1.0) for
             risperidone. A total of 224 patients completed
             neurocognitive assessments at baseline and at 12 weeks, and
             81 patients also completed them at 52 weeks. Neurocognitive
             composite scores were calculated from the neurocognitive
             battery used in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) and from the Brief
             Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia.At week 12, there
             was significant improvement in neurocognition for each
             treatment (p<0.01), but no significant overall difference
             between treatments. Composite z score improvements on the
             CATIE neurocognitive battery were 0.17 for olanzapine, 0.33
             for quetiapine, and 0.32 for risperidone. Composite z score
             improvements on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia were 0.19 for olanzapine, 0.34 for quetiapine,
             and 0.22 for risperidone. Statistically significant
             relationships between improvements in neurocognition and
             functional outcome were observed at weeks 12 and
             52.Olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone all produced
             significant improvements in neurocognition in
             early-psychosis patients. Although cognitive improvements
             were modest, their clinical importance was suggested by
             relationships with improvements in functional
             outcome.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.2007.164.7.1061},
   Key = {fds273443}
}

@article{fds327077,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Goldberg, TE and Gold, JM and Walker,
             TM},
   Title = {General and specific cognitive deficits in bipolar
             depression: the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Affective
             Disorders (BAC-A)},
   Journal = {Bipolar Disorders},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {9-9},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds327077}
}

@article{fds273439,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Bilder, RM and Davis, SM and Harvey, PD and Palmer, BW and Gold, JM and Meltzer, HY and Green, MF and Capuano, G and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, JP and Swartz, MS and Rosenheck, RA and Perkins, DO and Davis,
             CE and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, JA and CATIE Investigators, and Neurocognitive Working Group},
   Title = {Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in
             patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE
             Trial.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {633-647},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17548746},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia is severe and is
             an important predictor of functional outcome. The relative
             effect of the second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic
             drugs and older agents on neurocognition has not been
             comprehensively determined.To compare the neurocognitive
             effects of several second-generation antipsychotics and a
             first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine.Randomized,
             double-blind study of patients with schizophrenia assigned
             to receive treatment with olanzapine, perphenazine,
             quetiapine fumarate, or risperidone for up to 18 months as
             reported previously by Lieberman et al. Ziprasidone
             hydrochloride was included after its approval by the Food
             and Drug Administration.Fifty-seven sites participated,
             including academic sites and treatment mental health
             facilities representative of the community.From a cohort of
             1460 patients in the treatment study, 817 completed
             neurocognitive testing immediately prior to randomization
             and then after 2 months of treatment.The primary outcome was
             change in a neurocognitive composite score after 2 months of
             treatment. Secondary outcomes included neurocognitive
             composite score change at 6 months and 18 months after
             continued treatment and changes in neurocognitive domains.At
             2 months, treatment resulted in small neurocognitive
             improvements of z = 0.13 for olanzapine (P<.002), 0.25 for
             perphenazine (P<.001), 0.18 for quetiapine (P<.001), 0.26
             for risperidone (P<.001), and 0.12 for ziprasidone (P<.06),
             with no significant differences between groups. Results at 6
             months were similar. After 18 months of treatment,
             neurocognitive improvement was greater in the perphenazine
             group than in the olanzapine and risperidone groups.
             Neurocognitive improvement predicted longer time to
             treatment discontinuation, independently from symptom
             improvement, in patients treated with quetiapine or
             ziprasidone.After 2 months of antipsychotic treatment, all
             groups had a small but significant improvement in
             neurocognition. There were no differences between any pair
             of agents, including the typical drug perphenazine. These
             results differ from the majority of previous studies, and
             the possible reasons are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.64.6.633},
   Key = {fds273439}
}

@article{fds327078,
   Author = {Nasrallah, HA and Keefe, RSE and Davis, S and Mcevoy, J and Goff, D and Meyer, J and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Cognitive improvement correlates with weight gain in
             schizophrenia subjects receiving quetiapine but not other
             antipsychotics: Data from the CATIE trial},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {247S-248S},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327078}
}

@article{fds273437,
   Author = {Sullivan, PF and Keefe, RSE and Lange, LA and Lange, EM and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, J and Maness, PF},
   Title = {NCAM1 and neurocognition in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {902-910},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.036},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Alterations in neurocognition may be fundamental
             to schizophrenia and may be endophenotypes. Neural cell
             adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1, aliases NCAM and CD56) may be a
             candidate gene for schizophrenia or for neurocognition in
             schizophrenia as supported by linkage and functional
             findings. METHODS: Subjects were 641 patients with
             schizophrenia who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic
             Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) clinical trial.
             Neurocognition was assessed at study baseline. Nine NCAM1
             single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were blindly
             genotyped. Analysis of covariance was used to test for
             single SNP associations and haplotype regression for
             multilocus associations. RESULTS: As there were suggestions
             of population stratification, all analyses were conducted
             stratified by inferred ancestry. In the "Europe only"
             stratum, there were nominally significant associations with
             five contiguous SNPs (rs1943620, rs1836796, rs1821693,
             rs686050, rs584427) with the strongest association at
             rs1836796 (p = .007). Via permutation testing, the
             probability of obtaining five consecutive statistically
             significant SNPs with p-values <or= .05 was p = .0044. These
             results were robust to examination of model assumptions.
             Haplotype analyses did not identify significant haplotype
             associations. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is essential to see
             if these findings replicate in additional samples, we
             suggest that NCAM1 deserves further scrutiny for its
             relevance to clinical and etiological aspects of
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.07.036},
   Key = {fds273437}
}

@article{fds273441,
   Author = {Rosenheck, R and Swartz, M and McEvoy, J and Stroup, TS and Davis, S and Keefe, RS and Hsiao, J and Lieberman, J},
   Title = {Second-generation antipsychotics: reviewing the
             cost-effectiveness component of the CATIE
             trial.},
   Journal = {Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes
             Research},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {103-111},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1473-7167},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737167.7.2.103},
   Abstract = {The cost-effectiveness component of the 18-month CATIE trial
             of schizophrenia pharmacotherapy (n = 1460) showed that the
             first-generation antipsychotic perphenazine was US$300-600
             per month less expensive than each of four second-generation
             antipsychotics, and no less effective across multiple
             measures. We consider whether or not each of eight potential
             methodological limitations could weaken this conclusion:
             follow-up rates, study duration, sample characteristics, the
             choice of outcome measures, exclusion of patients with
             tardive dyskinesia from assignment to perphenazine, choice
             of study drugs and doses, reliance on intention-to-treat
             analysis, and differences in prestudy treatment. We conclude
             that results of CATIE are robust to these limitations.
             Perphenazine seems to have been a more representative choice
             for first-generation antipsychotic comparison treatment than
             haloperidol.},
   Doi = {10.1586/14737167.7.2.103},
   Key = {fds273441}
}

@article{fds336082,
   Author = {Rosenheck, R and Stroup, TS and Swartz, M and McEvoy, J and Davis, SM and Keefe, RSE and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, J},
   Title = {Cost-effectiveness of schizophrenia pharmacotherapy -
             Reply},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {678-680},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.164.4.678-a},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.164.4.678-a},
   Key = {fds336082}
}

@article{fds273435,
   Author = {Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and McEvoy, JP and Swartz, MS and Davis,
             SM and Capuano, GA and Rosenheck, RA and Keefe, RSE and Miller, AL and Belz, I and Hsiao, JK and CATIE Investigators},
   Title = {Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in
             patients with chronic schizophrenia after discontinuing
             perphenazine: a CATIE study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {415-427},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17329466},
   Abstract = {The relative effectiveness of newly started antipsychotic
             drugs for individuals with schizophrenia may depend on
             multiple factors, including each patient's previous
             treatment response and the reason for a new medication
             trial. This randomized, double-blind study compared
             olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients who had
             just discontinued the older antipsychotic
             perphenazine.Subjects with schizophrenia (N=114) who had
             been randomly assigned to and then discontinued perphenazine
             in phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study were
             reassigned randomly to double-blinded treatment with
             olanzapine, 7.5-30.0 mg/day (N=38); quetiapine, 200-800
             mg/day (N=38); or risperidone, 1.5-6.0 mg/day (N=38). The
             primary aim was to determine whether there were differences
             among these three treatments in effectiveness, as measured
             by time to treatment discontinuation for any reason.
             Secondary outcomes included reasons for treatment
             discontinuation and measures of drug tolerability.The time
             to treatment discontinuation was longer for patients treated
             with quetiapine (median, 9.9 months) and olanzapine (7.1
             months) than with risperidone (3.6 months). There were no
             significant differences between treatments on
             discontinuation due to inefficacy, intolerability, or
             patient decision.Among this group of patients with chronic
             schizophrenia who had just discontinued the older
             antipsychotic perphenazine, quetiapine and olanzapine were
             more effective than risperidone, as reflected by longer time
             to discontinuation for any reason. In the context of other
             results from the CATIE study, the effectiveness and
             acceptability of antipsychotic drugs appears to vary
             considerably according to clinical circumstances.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.2007.164.3.415},
   Key = {fds273435}
}

@article{fds273436,
   Author = {Swartz, MS and Perkins, DO and Stroup, TS and Davis, SM and Capuano, G and Rosenheck, RA and Reimherr, F and McGee, MF and Keefe, RSE and McEvoy,
             JP and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, JA and CATIE Investigators},
   Title = {Effects of antipsychotic medications on psychosocial
             functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia: findings
             from the NIMH CATIE study.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {428-436},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17329467},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relative effects of the
             second-generation antipsychotic drugs and an older
             representative agent on psychosocial functioning in patients
             with chronic schizophrenia.Consenting patients were enrolled
             in the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE) project. In phase 1, patients were
             randomly assigned to receive olanzapine, perphenazine,
             quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone for up to 18 months.
             Clozapine was included for patients who chose this pathway
             after discontinuing phase 1 due to inefficacy; all other
             patients received another second-generation antipsychotic.
             Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of
             Life Scale.Psychosocial functioning modestly improved for
             the one-third of phase 1 patients who reached the primary
             Quality of Life Scale analysis endpoint of 12 months
             (average effect size 0.19 SD units). Although for several of
             the drugs individually there were significant changes from
             baseline, overall there were no significant differences
             between the different agents. Results were similar at 6 and
             18 months. There were no significant differences among the
             treatment groups in the amount of change in the Quality of
             Life Scale total score or subscale scores at 6, 12, or 18
             months. Patients treated with clozapine in the efficacy
             pathway made comparable gains. Early treatment
             discontinuations, especially among patients most impaired at
             baseline, limited the ability to achieve more substantial
             functional gains.All antipsychotic treatment groups in all
             phases made modest improvements in psychosocial functioning.
             There were no differences among them after 6, 12, or 18
             months. More substantial improvements would likely require
             more intensive adjunctive psychosocial rehabilitation
             interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.2007.164.3.428},
   Key = {fds273436}
}

@article{fds273433,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia: effects
             and treatment.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {68 Suppl 14},
   Number = {SUPPL. 14},
   Pages = {8-13},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   Abstract = {The average patient with schizophrenia performs on cognitive
             tests at the lowest 5% to 10% of the general population.
             Cognitive impairments impact patients on virtually every
             aspect of functioning, interfere with patients' ability to
             engage in real-world tasks, and affect long-term outcome.
             Therefore, cognitive deficits should be included in the
             diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Clinicians need to
             focus treatment options on helping patients to regain
             premorbid levels of cognitive functioning.},
   Key = {fds273433}
}

@article{fds273438,
   Author = {Rosenheck, R and Stroup, TS and Swartz, M and McEvoy, J and Davis, SM and Keefe, RSE and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, J},
   Title = {Dr. Rosenheck and colleagues reply [2]},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {164},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {678-680},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2007.164.4.678a},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.2007.164.4.678a},
   Key = {fds273438}
}

@article{fds273434,
   Author = {Pinheiro, AP and Keefe, RSE and Skelly, T and Olarte, M and Leviel, K and Lange, LA and Lange, EM and Stroup, TS and Lieberman, J and Sullivan,
             PF},
   Title = {AKT1 and neurocognition in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The Australian and New Zealand Journal of
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {169-177},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0004-8674},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048670601109956},
   Abstract = {Objective: Previous research has shown conflicting results
             for the significance of five v-akt murine thymoma viral
             oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms
             (SNPs) to the aetiology of schizophrenia. Neurocognition is
             a plausible endophenotype for schizophrenia and it was
             reasoned that the lack of agreement might be due to
             variability in neurocognition across studies. Therefore, the
             association of genetic variation in AKT1 with neurocognition
             was investigated in patients with schizophrenia. Methods:
             The same five SNPs used in previous studies of the etiology
             of schizophrenia (rs2494732, rs2498799, rs3730358,
             rs1130241, and rs3803300) were genotyped in 641 individuals
             with schizophrenia who had participated in the Clinical
             Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE)
             project. The primary dependent variable was a neurocognitive
             composite score and exploratory analyses investigated five
             domain scores (processing speed, reasoning, verbal memory,
             working memory, and vigilance). Results: There were no
             significant asymptotic or empirical associations between any
             SNP and the neurocognitive composite score. The authors also
             investigated the association of five-SNP haplotypes with the
             neurocognitive composite score. A marginally significant
             association was observed for the neurocognitive composite
             score with one of the five-SNP haplotypes (global score
             statistic 19.51, df = 9, permutation p = 0.02). Exploratory
             analyses of five domain scores (processing speed, reasoning,
             verbal memory, working memory, and vigilance) were
             non-significant for all five SNPs. Conclusion: Results
             published to date for an association between genetic
             variation in AKT1 with schizophrenia are inconsistent. The
             results suggest that the AKT1 markers studied are not
             associated with neurocognition in schizophrenia, and do not
             support unassessed variation in neurocognitive scores as a
             reason for this discrepancy.},
   Doi = {10.1080/00048670601109956},
   Key = {fds273434}
}

@article{fds273442,
   Author = {Pandina, GJ and Bilder, R and Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE and Aman, MG and Gharabawi, G},
   Title = {Risperidone and Cognitive Function in Children With
             Disruptive Behavior Disorders},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {226-234},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.036},
   Abstract = {Background: Effects of risperidone on cognitive function in
             children with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) and
             subaverage intelligence quotient (IQ) were assessed.
             Methods: Data from two 6-week, double-blind,
             placebo-controlled studies (n = 228) were combined, as were
             three 1-year, open-label studies (n = 688). Patients with
             DBDs and subaverage IQ, 5 to14 years, received placebo or
             risperidone .02 to .06 mg/kg/day. Cognitive measures
             included the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Verbal
             Learning Test for Children (VLT-C). Efficacy was assessed
             using the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form (NCBRF).
             Adverse events were collected via spontaneous report;
             sedation was assessed using visual analog scale. Results:
             Improvements on the NCBRF Conduct Problem subscale were
             significantly greater for risperidone- versus
             placebo-treated patients (-15.8 vs. -6.4, p &lt; .0001) in
             short-term studies; significant reductions were observed in
             long-term studies (-16.3, p &lt; .0001). No overall decline
             and some significant improvement in attention (CPT) and
             memory (VLT-C) were noted regardless of treatment in
             short-term studies. VLT-C improved significantly (p &lt;
             .0001) for both groups, with no difference between treatment
             groups. Improvements in memory (VLT-C) and attention (CPT)
             were noted in long-term studies. Somnolence/sedation did not
             affect cognitive function. Conclusions: Cognitive function
             was not altered by risperidone in short-term studies and was
             maintained or improved with one year of treatment in
             children with DBDs and subaverage IQ, potentially
             representing age-appropriate gains. © 2007 Society of
             Biological Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.036},
   Key = {fds273442}
}

@article{fds273444,
   Author = {Bralet, M-C and Falissard, B and Neveu, X and Lucas-Ross, M and Eskenazi, A-M and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief
             assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French
             schizophrenic patients},
   Journal = {European Psychiatry},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {365-370},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0924-9338},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.02.001},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several
             key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are
             correlated with important aspects of functional outcome.
             While assessment of these cognition disorders is
             increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research
             practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily
             administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of
             Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English
             language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP,
             Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with
             a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res
             2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to
             cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with
             the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We
             developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study
             tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity.
             Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a
             standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable
             schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the
             BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard
             battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of
             the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the
             BACS French version was 36 min (S.D. = 5.56). A correlation
             analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the
             standard battery global score showed a significant result (r
             = 0.81, p &lt; 0.0001). The correlation analysis between the
             BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery
             sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory,
             working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of
             information processing and executive functions (p &lt;
             0.001) and for motor speed (p &lt; 0.05). The French Version
             of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic
             patients compared to a standard battery (administration
             shorter and completion rate better) and its good
             psychometric properties suggest that the French Version of
             the BACS may be a useful tool for assessing cognition in
             schizophrenic patients with French as their primary
             language. © 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.02.001},
   Key = {fds273444}
}

@article{fds273445,
   Author = {Kraus, MS and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognition as an outcome measure in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental
             Science},
   Volume = {191},
   Number = {SUPPL. 50},
   Pages = {s46-s51},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0007-1250},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.191.50.s46},
   Abstract = {Background: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of
             schizophrenia. These deficits are not caused by medication
             or symptoms, and have a dramatic negative effect on
             real-world functioning. Aims: To critically examine a
             selection of the most common batteries used to assess
             cognition in schizophrenia. Method: Literature review of
             cognitive assessment batteries for use in schizophrenia.
             Results: A wide variety of neurocognitive test batteries
             have been developed or adapted to assess cognition in
             schizophrenia. These differ in time requirements,
             repeatability, ease of administration, degree of face
             validity, availability of co-normative data and degree to
             which results can be parsed into separate domains of
             cognitive functioning. The most appropriate depends on the
             setting and the question being addressed. Conclusions:
             Cognitive outcome measures have reshaped our understanding
             of schizophrenia and will be essential tools for unravelling
             the aetiology of the disease and designing more effective
             interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1192/bjp.191.50.s46},
   Key = {fds273445}
}

@article{fds273446,
   Author = {Kaneda, Y and Sumiyoshi, T and Keefe, R and Ishimoto, Y and Numata, S and Ohmori, T},
   Title = {Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: Validation
             of the Japanese version},
   Journal = {Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {602-609},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1323-1316},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01725.x},
   Abstract = {This preliminary study was performed to test the reliability
             and validity of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS) as an assessment tool in a
             Japanese-language version (BACS-J). The subjects for the
             present study were 30 outpatients with chronic
             schizophrenia. Each subject gave written informed consent to
             participate in the research. Cronbach's alpha for the BACS-J
             was 0.77. The BACS-J composite score was significantly
             correlated with all primary measures of BACS-J (verbal
             memory, working memory, motor speed, verbal fluency,
             attention, and executive function). All BACS-J primary
             measures and the composite score were significantly
             correlated between two assessments. The mean score of the
             Digit Sequencing Task and composite score on the second
             assessment were significantly larger than those on the first
             assessment. All BACS-J primary measures except the Symbol
             Coding Task were significantly correlated with relevant
             standard neurocognitive tests. Also, the BACS-J composite
             score was significantly correlated with all standard
             neurocognitive tests except the Continuous Performance Test.
             A principal components analysis with varimax rotation
             resulted in a three-factor solution (executive function and
             memory; motor speed and general cognitive functions; and
             working memory). This preliminary study indicates that the
             BACS-J is a reliable and practical scale to evaluate
             cognitive function. © 2007 The Authors.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1440-1819.2007.01725.x},
   Key = {fds273446}
}

@article{fds273431,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Perkins, DO and Gu, H and Zipursky, RB and Christensen,
             BK and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {A longitudinal study of neurocognitive function in
             individuals at-risk for psychosis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {26-35},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16930949},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION:Clinically defined prodromal diagnostic
             criteria identify at-risk individuals with a 35-40%
             likelihood of developing a psychotic disorder within a year.
             The time course and predictive value of cognitive deficits
             in the development of psychosis has not been established.
             METHODS:A comprehensive neurocognitive battery and clinical
             assessments were administered to 37 subjects meeting
             Criteria of Prodromal States (COPS) criteria for being at
             risk for psychosis, and two comparison groups: 59 first
             episode and 47 healthy subjects. Subjects were also
             evaluated at 6-month and 1-year follow-up periods. Primary
             analyses used a neurocognitive composite score derived from
             individual neurocognitive measures, including measures of
             vigilance, verbal memory, working memory, and processing
             speed. RESULTS:At-risk subjects performed more poorly than
             healthy subjects (t=2.93, P=0.01), but better than first
             episode subjects (t=4.72, p<0.0001). At-risk subjects were
             particularly impaired on measures of vigilance and
             processing speed. Cognitive composite scores were
             significantly lower in at-risk subjects who progressed to
             psychosis (N=11; z=-1.2), while those at-risk subjects who
             did not progress to psychosis (N=17) performed better
             (z=-0.5), and not significantly different from controls.
             Poor CPT performance combined with better WAIS-R digit
             symbol performance predicted progression to psychosis.
             Severity of neurocognitive deficits was not related to
             duration of prodrome or to time to development of psychosis
             and neurocognitive function improved in all subjects except
             those who progressed to psychosis. CONCLUSION:Neurocognitive
             impairment emerges early in the course of psychotic illness.
             Performance on tests of neurocognition may prove to be an
             early risk predictor for subsequent development of psychotic
             disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2006.06.041},
   Key = {fds273431}
}

@article{fds273432,
   Author = {Rosenheck, RA and Leslie, DL and Sindelar, J and Miller, EA and Lin, H and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, J and Davis, SM and Keefe, RSE and Swartz, M and Perkins, DO and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, J and CATIE Study
             Investigators},
   Title = {Cost-effectiveness of second-generation antipsychotics and
             perphenazine in a randomized trial of treatment for chronic
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2080-2089},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.12.2080},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Second-generation antipsychotics have largely
             replaced first-generation antipsychotics for the treatment
             of schizophrenia, but a large-scale cost/effectiveness
             analysis has not been attempted. METHOD: Patients with
             schizophrenia (N=1,493) were assigned to treatment with a
             first-generation antipsychotic (perphenazine) or one of four
             second-generation drugs (olanzapine, quetia-pine,
             risperidone, or ziprasidone) and followed for up to 18
             months. Patients with tardive dyskinesia were prohibited
             from assignment to perphenazine. Patients could be
             reassigned at any time to another second-generation drug,
             including clozapine, but not to perphenazine. The cost
             analysis included medications plus health services use.
             Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) ratings were assessed on
             the basis of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)
             subscale scores and side effects. An intention-to-treat
             analysis included all available observations, classified by
             initial drug assignment, and costs of reassignment of most
             patients to another second-generation drug. The analysis was
             repeated considering only treatment on initially assigned
             medications. RESULTS: Although QALY ratings, PANSS scores,
             and other quality of life measures indicated modest
             improvement over 18 months, there were no significant
             differences between perphenazine and any second-generation
             medication. Average total monthly health care costs were 300
             dollars-600 dollars (20%-30%) lower for perphenazine than
             for second-generation antipsychotics because of lower drug
             cost. Differences in costs remained when maximally
             discounted drug prices were used for all patients and when
             only observations during treatment with the first medication
             were included. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with perphenazine was
             less costly than treatment with second-generation
             antipsychotics with no significant differences in measures
             of effectiveness. However, the trial was limited by a high
             dropout rate, and longer-term neurological and metabolic
             side effects require further study.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.2006.163.12.2080},
   Key = {fds273432}
}

@article{fds273430,
   Author = {McEvoy, JP and Johnson, J and Perkins, D and Lieberman, JA and Hamer,
             RM and Keefe, RSE and Tohen, M and Glick, ID and Sharma,
             T},
   Title = {Insight in first-episode psychosis.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1385-1393},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16740175},
   Abstract = {We report here a study examining the relationships between
             insight and psychopathology, cognitive performance, brain
             volume and co-morbid depression in 251 patients experiencing
             a first episode of psychosis, who were then randomly
             assigned to 2 years of double-blind treatment with either
             olanzapine or haloperidol.Repeated measures of insight were
             obtained at baseline and 12, 24, 52 and 104 weeks by the
             Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire (ITAQ).Older
             age, female gender and white ethnicity were associated with
             more insight. Higher total, positive, negative and general
             psychopathology scores on the Positive and Negative
             Syndromes Scale (PANSS) were associated with less insight.
             Higher depression scores were associated with more insight.
             Better neurocognitive function and large brain volumes were
             associated with more insight. More insight throughout the
             study was associated with longer time to medication
             non-adherence. However, baseline insight was not
             significantly related to the probability of discontinuing
             the study before 2 years. Insight improved significantly
             over the course of the study, but the improvement in insight
             was not significantly different between the two
             antipsychotic treatment groups.Multiple factors contribute
             to insight. Patients experiencing a first episode of
             psychosis who have little insight are at increased risk of
             discontinuing their medication.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0033291706007793},
   Key = {fds273430}
}

@article{fds273428,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Bilder, RM and Harvey, PD and Davis, SM and Palmer, BW and Gold, JM and Meltzer, HY and Green, MF and Miller, DD and Canive, JM and Adler, LW and Manschreck, TC and Swartz, M and Rosenheck, R and Perkins,
             DO and Walker, TM and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, JP and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Baseline neurocognitive deficits in the CATIE schizophrenia
             trial.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2033-2046},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16641947},
   Abstract = {Neurocognition is moderately to severely impaired in
             patients with schizophrenia. However, the factor structure
             of the various neurocognitive deficits, the relationship
             with symptoms and other variables, and the minimum amount of
             testing required to determine an adequate composite score
             has not been determined in typical patients with
             schizophrenia. An 'all-comer' approach to cognition is
             needed, as provided by the baseline assessment of an
             unprecedented number of patients in the CATIE (Clinical
             Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness)
             schizophrenia trial. From academic sites and treatment
             providers representative of the community, 1493 patients
             with chronic schizophrenia were entered into the study,
             including those with medical comorbidity and substance
             abuse. Eleven neurocognitive tests were administered,
             resulting in 24 individual scores reduced to nine
             neurocognitive outcome measures, five domain scores and a
             composite score. Despite minimal screening procedures, 91.2%
             of patients provided meaningful neurocognitive data.
             Exploratory principal components analysis yielded one factor
             accounting for 45% of the test variance. Confirmatory factor
             analysis showed that a single-factor model comprised of five
             domain scores was the best fit. The correlations among the
             factors were medium to high, and scores on individual
             factors were very highly correlated with the single
             composite score. Neurocognitive deficits were modestly
             correlated with negative symptom severity (r=0.13-0.27), but
             correlations with positive symptom severity were near zero
             (r<0.08). Even in an 'all-comer' clinical trial,
             neurocognitive deficits can be assessed in the overwhelming
             majority of patients, and the severity of impairment is
             similar to meta-analytic estimates. Multiple analyses
             suggested that a broad cognitive deficit characterizes this
             sample. These deficits are modestly related to negative
             symptoms and essentially independent of positive symptom
             severity.},
   Doi = {10.1038/sj.npp.1301072},
   Key = {fds273428}
}

@article{fds273426,
   Author = {Chakos, MH and Glick, ID and Miller, AL and Hamner, MB and Miller, DD and Patel, JK and Tapp, A and Keefe, RSE and Rosenheck,
             RA},
   Title = {Baseline use of concomitant psychotropic medications to
             treat schizophrenia in the CATIE trial.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1094-1101},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1075-2730},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.57.8.1094},
   Abstract = {This study examined the prevalence and correlates of
             concomitant psychotropic medications and use of
             anticholinergic drugs to treat schizophrenia.Concomitant
             medication use was studied at baseline for participants in
             the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE) trial.Of the 1,380 patients with
             baseline medication data, 82 percent were taking
             psychotropic medications. Of this group, 6 percent were
             taking two antipsychotics (one first generation and one
             second generation); 38 percent, antidepressants; 22 percent,
             anxiolytics; 4 percent, lithium, and 15 percent, other mood
             stabilizers. The strongest predictors of taking several
             medications were having anxiety or depression, being female,
             and taking second-generation antipsychotics. Conversely,
             African Americans and those with better neurocognitive
             functioning were less likely to be taking several
             concomitant psychotropic medications. In some cases symptoms
             that were likely targets of polypharmacy, such as
             depression, remained prominent, suggesting only partial
             response.Concomitant use of psychotropic medications to
             treat people with schizophrenia is common. Empirical data
             demonstrating the effectiveness of many of these agents for
             this population are lacking.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ps.57.8.1094},
   Key = {fds273426}
}

@article{fds273429,
   Author = {Chwastiak, LA and Rosenheck, RA and McEvoy, JP and Keefe, RS and Swartz,
             MS and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Interrelationships of psychiatric symptom severity, medical
             comorbidity, and functioning in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1102-1109},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1075-2730},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16870960},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the
             interrelationships of psychiatric symptom severity, medical
             comorbidity, and psychosocial functioning in a sample of
             patients with schizophrenia by utilizing the baseline data
             from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE). METHODS: This study utilized baseline
             data from a multisite trial of antipsychotic
             pharmacotherapy, which collected data from 1,460 patients
             with schizophrenia at more than 50 sites in the United
             States between 2001 and 2003. Bivariate correlations were
             used to evaluate associations between schizophrenia symptoms
             and medical comorbidity, and multivariate regression models
             were used to determine the independent association between
             medical comorbidity and psychosocial functioning. RESULTS:
             Of the 1,424 participants in the study sample, 58 percent
             had at least one medical condition: 20 percent had
             hypertension, 11 percent had diabetes mellitus, and 9
             percent had four or more medical conditions. Medical
             comorbidity was associated with poorer neurocognitive
             functioning and greater depressive symptoms. The number of
             medical conditions was not associated with more severe
             schizophrenia symptoms. Both the number of medical
             conditions and physical health status were only weak
             correlates of psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSIONS: In this
             sample of persons with schizophrenia, medical comorbidity
             was associated with depression and neurocognitive impairment
             but was a weaker correlate of psychosocial functioning or
             employment status than psychotic symptoms, depression, and
             neurocognitive impairment.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ps.2006.57.8.1102},
   Key = {fds273429}
}

@article{fds327080,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Measures of cognitive change in schizophrenia clinical
             trials},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {S48-S48},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {fds327080}
}

@article{fds327079,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Missing the sweet spot disengagement in schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township))},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {36-41},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   Abstract = {The extent to which an individual engages in a cognitive
             task is associated with performance in laboratory
             settings(1) and a variety of domains of functioning, such as
             athletic activity and artistic expression.(2) The neural
             circuitry associated with task engagement is in the process
             of being elucidated by cognitive neuroscience
             investigations. These newly acquired data provide an
             opportunity to understand the cognitive, social, and
             functional disabilities that lie at the core of dysfunction
             in patients with schizophrenia. This article describes the
             importance of task engagement in human functioning, its
             impairment in schizophrenia, and the possibility that
             disengagement during late adolescence may herald future
             development of schizophrenia.(3,4) Since treatment studies
             suggest that improvement in this aspect of cognitive
             functioning has the potential to improve the functioning of
             patients with schizophrenia in various domains, it is
             possible that these improvements may be mediated by improved
             engagement with external processes, including social
             processes and patient-clinician relationships, leading to
             improved therapeutic alliance and increased treatment
             adherence.},
   Key = {fds327079}
}

@article{fds327081,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Hongbin, GU and Sweeney, JA and Perkins, DO and McEvoy,
             JP and Hamer, RM and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {The effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on
             neurocognitive function in first-episode psychosis: A
             double-blind, 52-week comparison},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {231S-232S},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327081}
}

@article{fds273424,
   Author = {McEvoy, JP and Lieberman, JA and Stroup, TS and Davis, SM and Meltzer,
             HY and Rosenheck, RA and Swartz, MS and Perkins, DO and Keefe, RSE and Davis, CE and Severe, J and Hsiao, JK and CATIE Investigators},
   Title = {Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine,
             and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who
             did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic
             treatment.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {600-610},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16585434},
   Abstract = {When a schizophrenia patient has an inadequate response to
             treatment with an antipsychotic drug, it is unclear what
             other antipsychotic to switch to and when to use clozapine.
             In this study, the authors compared switching to clozapine
             with switching to another atypical antipsychotic in patients
             who had discontinued treatment with a newer atypical
             antipsychotic in the context of the Clinical Antipsychotic
             Trials for Interventions Effectiveness (CATIE)
             investigation.Ninety-nine patients who discontinued
             treatment with olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or
             ziprasidone in phase 1 or 1B of the trials, primarily
             because of inadequate efficacy, were randomly assigned to
             open-label treatment with clozapine (N=49) or blinded
             treatment with another newer atypical antipsychotic not
             previously received in the trial (olanzapine [N=19],
             quetiapine [N=15], or risperidone [N=16]).Time until
             treatment discontinuation for any reason was significantly
             longer for clozapine (median=10.5 months) than for
             quetiapine (median=3.3), or risperidone (median=2.8), but
             not for olanzapine (median=2.7). Time to discontinuation
             because of inadequate therapeutic effect was significantly
             longer for clozapine than for olanzapine, quetiapine, or
             risperidone. At 3-month assessments, Positive and Negative
             Syndrome Scale total scores had decreased more in patients
             treated with clozapine than in patients treated with
             quetiapine or risperidone but not olanzapine. One patient
             treated with clozapine developed agranulocytosis, and
             another developed eosinophilia; both required treatment
             discontinuation.For these patients with schizophrenia who
             prospectively failed to improve with an atypical
             antipsychotic, clozapine was more effective than switching
             to another newer atypical antipsychotic. Safety monitoring
             is necessary to detect and manage clozapine's serious side
             effects.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.4.600},
   Key = {fds273424}
}

@article{fds273427,
   Author = {Stroup, TS and Lieberman, JA and McEvoy, JP and Swartz, MS and Davis,
             SM and Rosenheck, RA and Perkins, DO and Keefe, RSE and Davis, CE and Severe, J and Hsiao, JK and CATIE Investigators},
   Title = {Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and
             ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following
             discontinuation of a previous atypical antipsychotic.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {611-622},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16585435},
   Abstract = {In the treatment of schizophrenia, changing antipsychotics
             is common when one treatment is suboptimally effective, but
             the relative effectiveness of drugs used in this strategy is
             unknown. This randomized, double-blind study compared
             olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in
             patients who had just discontinued a different atypical
             antipsychotic.Subjects with schizophrenia (N=444) who had
             discontinued the atypical antipsychotic randomly assigned
             during phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) investigation were
             randomly reassigned to double-blind treatment with a
             different antipsychotic (olanzapine, 7.5-30 mg/day [N=66];
             quetiapine, 200-800 mg/day [N=63]; risperidone, 1.5-6.0
             mg/day [N=69]; or ziprasidone, 40-160 mg/day [N=135]). The
             primary aim was to determine if there were differences
             between these four treatments in effectiveness measured by
             time until discontinuation for any reason.The time to
             treatment discontinuation was longer for patients treated
             with risperidone (median: 7.0 months) and olanzapine (6.3
             months) than with quetiapine (4.0 months) and ziprasidone
             (2.8 months). Among patients who discontinued their previous
             antipsychotic because of inefficacy (N=184), olanzapine was
             more effective than quetiapine and ziprasidone, and
             risperidone was more effective than quetiapine. There were
             no significant differences between antipsychotics among
             those who discontinued their previous treatment because of
             intolerability (N=168).Among this group of patients with
             chronic schizophrenia who had just discontinued treatment
             with an atypical antipsychotic, risperidone and olanzapine
             were more effective than quetiapine and ziprasidone as
             reflected by longer time until discontinuation for any
             reason.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.4.611},
   Key = {fds273427}
}

@article{fds273421,
   Author = {Perkins, DO and Johnson, JL and Hamer, RM and Zipursky, RB and Keefe,
             RS and Centorrhino, F and Green, AI and Glick, IB and Kahn, RS and Sharma,
             T and Tohen, M and McEvoy, JP and Weiden, PJ and Lieberman, JA and HGDH
             Research Group},
   Title = {Predictors of antipsychotic medication adherence in patients
             recovering from a first psychotic episode.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {53-63},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.10.016},
   Abstract = {Many patients recovering from a first psychotic episode will
             discontinue medication against medical advice, even before a
             1-year treatment course is completed. Factors associated
             with treatment adherence in patients with chronic
             schizophrenia include beliefs about severity of illness and
             need for treatment, treatment with typical versus atypical
             antipsychotic and medication side effects.In this 2-year
             prospective study of 254 patients recovering from a first
             episode of schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or
             schizoaffective disorder we examined the relationship
             between antipsychotic medication non-adherence and patient
             beliefs about: need for treatment, antipsychotic medication
             benefits, and negative aspects of antipsychotic medication
             treatment. We also examined the relationship between
             medication non-adherence and treatment with either
             haloperidol or olanzapine, and objective measures of symptom
             response and side effects.The likelihood of becoming
             medication non-adherent for 1 week or longer was greater in
             subjects whose belief in need for treatment was less
             (HR=1.75, 95% CI 1.16, 2.65, p=0.0077) or who believed
             medications were of low benefit (HR=2.88, 95 CI 1.79-4.65,
             p<0.0001). Subjects randomized to haloperidol were more
             likely to become medication non-adherent for >or=1 week than
             subjects randomized to olanzapine (HR-1.51, 95% CI 1.01,
             2.27, p=0.045).Beliefs about need for treatment and the
             benefits of antipsychotic medication may be intervention
             targets to improve likelihood of long-term medication
             adherence in patients recovering from a first episode of
             schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophreniform
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.10.016},
   Key = {fds273421}
}

@article{fds273422,
   Author = {Rosenheck, R and Leslie, D and Keefe, R and McEvoy, J and Swartz, M and Perkins, D and Stroup, S and Hsiao, JK and Lieberman, J and CATIE Study
             Investigators Group},
   Title = {Barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {411-417},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.411},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: There is growing interest in identifying and
             surmounting barriers to employment for people with
             schizophrenia. The authors examined factors associated with
             participation in competitive employment or other vocational
             activities in a large group of patients with schizophrenia
             who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, a multisite
             clinical trial comparing the effects of first- and
             second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline data on
             more than 1,400 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia
             were collected before their entry into the CATIE study.
             Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the
             relationship between participation in either competitive
             employment or other vocational activities and
             sociodemographic characteristics, schizophrenia symptoms,
             neurocognitive functioning, intrapsychic functioning,
             availability of psychosocial rehabilitation services, and
             local unemployment rates. RESULTS: Altogether, 14.5% of the
             patients reported participating in competitive employment in
             the month before the baseline assessment, 12.6% reported
             other (noncompetitive) employment activity, and 72.9%
             reported no employment activity. Participation in either
             competitive or noncompetitive employment was associated with
             having less severe symptoms, better neurocognitive
             functioning, and higher scores on a measure of intrapsychic
             functioning that encompassed motivation, empathy, and other
             psychological characteristics. Competitive employment, in
             contrast to other employment or no employment, was
             negatively associated with receipt of disability payments as
             well as with being black. Greater access to rehabilitation
             services was associated with greater participation in both
             competitive and noncompetitive employment. CONCLUSIONS:
             Overall employment of persons with schizophrenia seems to be
             impeded by clinical problems, including symptoms of
             schizophrenia and poorer neurocognitive and intrapsychic
             functioning. However, participation in competitive
             employment may be specifically impeded by the potentially
             adverse incentives of disability payments and by race and
             may be promoted by the availability of rehabilitation
             services.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.411},
   Key = {fds273422}
}

@article{fds273423,
   Author = {Lieberman, JA and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, JP and Swartz, MS and Rosenheck, RA and Perkins, DO and Keefe, RSE and Davis, SM and Davis,
             CE and Hsiao, J and Severe, J and Lebowitz, BD},
   Title = {Dr. Lieberman and Colleagues reply [17]},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {555-556},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.555-a},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.555-a},
   Key = {fds273423}
}

@article{fds273561,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Poe, M and Walker, TM and Kang, JW and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale: an interview-based
             assessment and its relationship to cognition, real-world
             functioning, and functional capacity.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {426-432},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.426},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Interview-based measures of cognition may serve
             as potential coprimary measures in clinical trials of
             cognitive-enhancing drugs for schizophrenia. However, there
             is no such valid scale available. Interviews of patients and
             their clinicians are not valid in that they are unrelated to
             patients' levels of cognitive impairment as assessed by
             cognitive performance tests. This study describes the
             reliability and validity of a new interview-based assessment
             of cognition, the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale
             (SCoRS), that involves interviews with patients and
             informants. METHOD: Sixty patients with schizophrenia were
             assessed with the SCoRS and three potential validators of an
             interview-based measure of cognition: cognitive performance,
             as measured by the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS); real-world functioning, as measured by
             the Independent Living Skills Inventory; and functional
             capacity, as measured by the University of California, San
             Diego, Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA). RESULTS:
             The SCoRS global ratings were significantly correlated with
             composite scores of cognitive performance and functional
             capacity and with ratings of real-world functioning.
             Multiple regression analyses suggested that SCoRS global
             ratings predicted unique variance in real-world functioning
             beyond that predicted by the performance measures.
             CONCLUSIONS: An interview-based measure of cognition that
             included informant reports was related to cognitive
             performance as well as real-world functioning.
             Interview-based measures of cognition, such as the SCoRS,
             may be valid coprimary measures for clinical trials
             assessing cognitive change and may also aid clinicians
             desiring to assess patients' level of cognitive
             impairment.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.426},
   Key = {fds273561}
}

@article{fds336083,
   Author = {LIEBERMAN, JEFFREYA and STROUP, TSCOTT and McEVOY, JOSEPHP and SWARTZ, MARVINS and ROSENHECK, ROBERTA and PERKINS, DIANAO and KEEFE,
             RICHARDSE and DAVIS, SONIAM and DAVIS, CLARENCEE and HSIAO, JOHN and SEVERE, JOANNE and LEBOWITZ, BARRYD and the CATIE
             Investigators},
   Title = {Dr. Lieberman and Colleagues Reply},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {163},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {555-556},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.555-a},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.163.3.555-a},
   Key = {fds336083}
}

@article{fds327082,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Gu, H and Perkins, D and Hamer, RM and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {The effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone on
             neurocognitive function in first-episode psychosis: A
             double-blind, 52-week comparison},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {81},
   Pages = {54-54},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds327082}
}

@article{fds273558,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Young, CA and Rock, SL and Purdon, SE and Gold, JM and Breier, A and HGGN Study Group},
   Title = {One-year double-blind study of the neurocognitive efficacy
             of olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-15},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.038},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia can reach 1 to 2
             standard deviations below healthy controls. The comparative
             effect of typical and atypical antipsychotic medications on
             neurocognition is controversial, and based primarily on
             studies with small samples and large doses of typical
             comparator medications. The present study assessed
             neurocognitive efficacy. It was hypothesized that olanzapine
             treatment would improve neurocognitive deficits to a greater
             degree than either risperidone or haloperidol treatment.
             This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel
             study with neurocognition assessed at baseline, and 8, 24,
             and 52 weeks. Per protocol, the haloperidol arm was
             discontinued. Four hundred and fourteen inpatients or
             outpatients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder
             were treated with oral olanzapine (n = 159), risperidone (n
             = 158), or haloperidol (n = 97). Individual domains
             (executive function, learning and memory, processing speed,
             attention/vigilance, verbal working memory, verbal fluency,
             motor function, and visuospatial ability) were transformed
             into composite scores and compared between treatment groups.
             At the 52-week endpoint, neurocognition significantly
             improved in each group (p < 0.01 for olanzapine and
             risperidone, p = 0.04 for haloperidol), with no significant
             differences between groups. Olanzapine- and
             risperidone-treated patients significantly (p < 0.05)
             improved on domains of executive function, learning/memory,
             processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal working
             memory, and motor functions. Additionally,
             risperidone-treated patients improved on domains of
             visuospatial memory. Haloperidol-treated patients improved
             only on domains of learning/memory. However, patients able
             to remain in treatment for the entire 52 weeks benefited
             more from olanzapine or risperidone treatment than
             haloperidol treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.038},
   Key = {fds273558}
}

@article{fds273559,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Seidman, LJ and Christensen, BK and Hamer, RM and Sharma,
             T and Sitskoorn, MM and Rock, SL and Woolson, S and Tohen, M and Tollefson,
             GD and Sanger, TM and Lieberman, JA and HGDH Research
             Group},
   Title = {Long-term neurocognitive effects of olanzapine or low-dose
             haloperidol in first-episode psychosis.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {97-105},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16140282},
   Abstract = {Neurocognitive deficits are severe in first-episode
             psychosis.Patients (N = 263) with first-episode psychosis
             (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophreniform
             disorders) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment
             with olanzapine (mean 11.30 mg/day) or haloperidol (mean
             4.87 mg/day) for 104 weeks. A neurocognitive battery was
             administered at baseline (n = 246) and 12 (n = 167), 24 (n =
             126), 52 (n = 89), and 104 (n = 46) weeks during treatment.
             Weighted principal component and unweighted composite scores
             were derived from individual tests.Both treatment groups
             demonstrated significant improvement on both composite
             scores. On the basis of the weighted composite score,
             olanzapine had greater improvement than haloperidol only at
             12 (p = .014) and 24 (p = .029) weeks. For the unweighted
             composite, olanzapine had significantly better improvement
             compared with haloperidol only at week 12 (p = .044). At
             week 12 only, olanzapine improved performance on the Digit
             Symbol and Continuous Performance Test significantly more
             than haloperidol.Both antipsychotic agents appeared to
             improve neurocognitive functioning among first-episode
             psychosis patients with schizophrenia. A significantly
             greater benefit in terms of neurocognitive improvement was
             found with olanzapine than with haloperidol at weeks 12 and
             24.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.022},
   Key = {fds273559}
}

@article{fds273425,
   Author = {Woodward, TS and Menon, M and Hu, X and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Optimization of a multinomial model for investigating
             hallucinations and delusions with source
             monitoring},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {106-112},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2006.03.008},
   Abstract = {Studies of source monitoring have played an important role
             in cognitive investigations of the inner/outer confusions
             that characterize hallucinations and delusions in
             schizophrenia, and multinomial modelling is a
             statistical/cognitive modelling technique that provides a
             powerful method for analyzing source monitoring data. The
             purpose of the current work is to describe how multinomial
             models can be optimized to answer direct questions about
             hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenia research. To
             demonstrate this, we present a reanalysis of previously
             published source monitoring data, comparing a group of
             patients with schneiderian first rank symptoms to a group
             without schneiderian first rank symptoms. The main findings
             of this analysis were (1) impaired recognition of
             self-generated items and (2) evidence that impaired source
             discrimination of perceived items is accompanied by an
             internalization bias in the target symptom group.
             Statistical and cognitive interpretations of the findings
             are discussed. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2006.03.008},
   Key = {fds273425}
}

@article{fds273560,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Poe, M and Walker, TM and Harvey, PD},
   Title = {The relationship of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in
             Schizophrenia (BACS) to functional capacity and real-world
             functional outcome},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {260-269},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1380-3395},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390500360539},
   Abstract = {The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS)
             assesses five different domains of cognitive function with
             six tests, and takes about 30-35 minutes to complete in
             patients with schizophrenia. Previous work has demonstrated
             the reliability of this measure, and its sensitivity to the
             deficits of schizophrenia. However, the relationship of this
             brief cognitive measure to functional outcome has not been
             determined. Further, future registration trials for
             potentially cognitive enhancing compounds may not only
             assess efficacy with cognitive performance measures, but
             with assessments of real-world functional outcome and
             functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to
             determine the relationship between the BACS and a potential
             co-primary measure for treatment studies of cognition in
             schizophrenia, and to determine if such a measure accounts
             for significant variance in functioning beyond that provided
             by cognitive function. The current study assessed 60
             patients with schizophrenia over the course of six months.
             Cognitive functions were measured with the BACS. Functional
             capacity was measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills
             Assessment (UPSA). Real-world functional outcome was
             measured with the Independent Living Skills Inventory
             (ILSI). BACS composite scores were significantly correlated
             with functional capacity as measured by the UPSA (r = .65,
             df = 55, p &lt; .001), and real-world functional outcome as
             assessed by the ILSI (r = .37, df = 56, p = .005). In
             multiple regression analyses, UPSA scores did not account
             for additional variance in real-world functioning beyond
             that accounted for by the BACS. These data suggest that
             brief cognitive assessments such as the BACS are able to
             assess aspects of cognition that are related to important
             functional measures in clinical trials of cognitive
             enhancement. They also suggest that the measures being
             considered as potential co-primary indicators of cognitive
             function for registration trials are significantly
             correlated with cognition as assessed by brief cognitive
             assessments. Copyright © Taylor &amp; Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13803390500360539},
   Key = {fds273560}
}

@article{fds273417,
   Author = {Miller, DD and McEvoy, JP and Davis, SM and Caroff, SN and Saltz, BL and Chakos, MH and Swartz, MS and Keefe, RSE and Rosenheck, RA and Stroup,
             TS and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Clinical correlates of tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia:
             baseline data from the CATIE schizophrenia
             trial.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33-43},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16171976},
   Abstract = {To examine the clinical characteristics of individuals with
             schizophrenia that develop tardive dyskinesia (TD)
             associated with antipsychotic treatment.Baseline data on
             1460 patients with schizophrenia were collected as part of
             the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness schizophrenia study. Subjects who met
             Schooler-Kane criteria for probable TD were compared to
             those without TD. Multiple regression analyses were used to
             examine the relationship between TD and clinical
             variables.212 subjects met the Schooler-Kane criteria for
             probable TD and 1098 had no history or current evidence of
             TD. Subjects with TD were older, had a longer duration of
             receiving antipsychotic medication, and were more likely to
             have been receiving a conventional antipsychotic and an
             anticholinergic agent. After controlling for important
             baseline covariates, diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension
             did not predict TD, whereas substance abuse significantly
             predicted TD. Differences in cognitive functioning were not
             significantly different after controlling for baseline
             covariates. The TD subjects also had higher ratings of
             psychopathology, EPSE, and akathisia.Our results confirm the
             established relationships between the presence of TD and
             age, duration of treatment with antipsychotics, treatment
             with a conventional antipsychotic, treatment with
             anticholinergics, the presence of EPS and akathisia, and
             substance abuse. Subjects with TD had higher ratings of
             psychopathology as measured by the PANSS. We found no
             support for DM or hypertension increasing the risk of TD, or
             for TD being associated with cognitive impairment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.034},
   Key = {fds273417}
}

@article{fds273420,
   Author = {Rosenheck, R and Stroup, S and Keefe, RSE and McEvoy, J and Swartz, M and Perkins, D and Hsiao, J and Shumway, M and Lieberman,
             J},
   Title = {Measuring outcome priorities and preferences in people with
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental
             Science},
   Volume = {187},
   Number = {DEC.},
   Pages = {529-536},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0007-1250},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.187.6.529},
   Abstract = {Measures have not taken account of the relative importance
             patients place on various outcomes.To construct and evaluate
             a multidimensional, preference-weighted mental health
             index.Each of over 1200 patients identified the relative
             importance of improvement in six domains: social life,
             energy, work, symptoms, confusion and side-effects. A mental
             health index was created in which measures of well-being in
             these six domains were weighted for their personal
             importance.The strongest preference was placed on reducing
             confusion and the least on reducing side-effects. There was
             no significant difference between the unweighted and
             preference-weighted mental health status measures and they
             had similar correlations with global health status measures.
             Patients with greater preference for functional activities
             such as work had less preference for medical model goals
             such as reducing symptoms and had less symptoms.A
             preference-weighted mental health index demonstrated no
             advantage over an unweighted index.},
   Doi = {10.1192/bjp.187.6.529},
   Key = {fds273420}
}

@article{fds273527,
   Author = {Strakowski, SM and Johnson, JL and Delbello, MP and Hamer, RM and Green,
             AI and Tohen, M and Lieberman, JA and Glick, I and Patel, JK and HGDH
             Research Group},
   Title = {Quality of life during treatment with haloperidol or
             olanzapine in the year following a first psychotic
             episode.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {161-169},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.04.017},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia causes significant impairments of quality of
             life. As treatment approaches have advanced, more attention
             has been given to re-integrating patients into their
             psychosocial environments, rather than simply monitoring
             psychotic symptoms. The development of the second-generation
             antipsychotics raised hope that these medications would
             provide better quality of life improvement than conventional
             antipsychotics. This improvement is particularly relevant
             early in the course of schizophrenia.To address these
             considerations, improvements in measures of general health
             and social function (determined using the SF-36) were
             assessed in 195 patients with first-episode schizophrenia
             for up to one year following randomization to either
             olanzapine or haloperidol in a double blind clinical trial.
             We hypothesized that olanzapine would demonstrate better
             improvement on these measures than haloperidol. In order to
             test this hypothesis, we used a repeated measure model with
             SF-36 scores as the outcome, and treatment group, time,
             time2, time-by-treatment group interaction, and
             time2-by-treatment group interaction as fixed effects.Both
             treatments demonstrated similar changes on the SF-36.
             Independent of treatment, patients demonstrated significant
             improvements in most of the SF-36 subscales, which
             approached normative scores by the end of one year of
             treatment. Forty-six of 100 olanzapine-treated patients and
             37 of 95 haloperidol-treated patients completed the one year
             of this study (p<.4).These results suggest an important
             initial treatment goal for patients with new onset
             schizophrenic disorders, namely that they can expect to
             recover significant quality of life and social function at
             least initially in treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.04.017},
   Key = {fds273527}
}

@article{fds273416,
   Author = {Lieberman, JA and Stroup, TS and McEvoy, JP and Swartz, MS and Rosenheck, RA and Perkins, DO and Keefe, RSE and Davis, SM and Davis,
             CE and Lebowitz, BD and Severe, J and Hsiao, JK and Clinical
             Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE)
             Investigators},
   Title = {Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with
             chronic schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {353},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1209-1223},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16172203},
   Abstract = {The relative effectiveness of second-generation (atypical)
             antipsychotic drugs as compared with that of older agents
             has been incompletely addressed, though newer agents are
             currently used far more commonly. We compared a
             first-generation antipsychotic, perphenazine, with several
             newer drugs in a double-blind study.A total of 1493 patients
             with schizophrenia were recruited at 57 U.S. sites and
             randomly assigned to receive olanzapine (7.5 to 30 mg per
             day), perphenazine (8 to 32 mg per day), quetiapine (200 to
             800 mg per day), or risperidone (1.5 to 6.0 mg per day) for
             up to 18 months. Ziprasidone (40 to 160 mg per day) was
             included after its approval by the Food and Drug
             Administration. The primary aim was to delineate differences
             in the overall effectiveness of these five
             treatments.Overall, 74 percent of patients discontinued the
             study medication before 18 months (1061 of the 1432 patients
             who received at least one dose): 64 percent of those
             assigned to olanzapine, 75 percent of those assigned to
             perphenazine, 82 percent of those assigned to quetiapine, 74
             percent of those assigned to risperidone, and 79 percent of
             those assigned to ziprasidone. The time to the
             discontinuation of treatment for any cause was significantly
             longer in the olanzapine group than in the quetiapine
             (P<0.001) or risperidone (P=0.002) group, but not in the
             perphenazine (P=0.021) or ziprasidone (P=0.028) group. The
             times to discontinuation because of intolerable side effects
             were similar among the groups, but the rates differed
             (P=0.04); olanzapine was associated with more
             discontinuation for weight gain or metabolic effects, and
             perphenazine was associated with more discontinuation for
             extrapyramidal effects.The majority of patients in each
             group discontinued their assigned treatment owing to
             inefficacy or intolerable side effects or for other reasons.
             Olanzapine was the most effective in terms of the rates of
             discontinuation, and the efficacy of the conventional
             antipsychotic agent perphenazine appeared similar to that of
             quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Olanzapine was
             associated with greater weight gain and increases in
             measures of glucose and lipid metabolism.},
   Doi = {10.1056/nejmoa051688},
   Key = {fds273416}
}

@article{fds273526,
   Author = {Lieberman, JA and Tollefson, GD and Charles, C and Zipursky, R and Sharma, T and Kahn, RS and Keefe, RSE and Green, AI and Gur, RE and McEvoy,
             J and Perkins, D and Hamer, RM and Gu, H and Tohen, M and HGDH Study
             Group},
   Title = {Antipsychotic drug effects on brain morphology in
             first-episode psychosis.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {361-370},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.4.361},
   Abstract = {Pathomorphologic brain changes occurring as early as
             first-episode schizophrenia have been extensively described.
             Longitudinal studies have demonstrated that these changes
             may be progressive and associated with clinical outcome.
             This raises the possibility that antipsychotics might alter
             such pathomorphologic progression in early-stage
             schizophrenia.To test a priori hypotheses that
             olanzapine-treated patients have less change over time in
             whole brain gray matter volumes and lateral ventricle
             volumes than haloperidol-treated patients and that gray
             matter and lateral ventricle volume changes are associated
             with changes in psychopathology and neurocognition.Longitudinal,
             randomized, controlled, multisite, double-blind study.
             Patients treated and followed up for up to 104 weeks.
             Neurocognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
             assessments performed at weeks 0 (baseline), 12, 24, 52, and
             104. Mixed-models analyses with time-dependent covariates
             evaluated treatment effects on MRI end points and explored
             relationships between MRI, psychopathologic, and
             neurocognitive outcomes.Fourteen academic medical centers
             (United States, 11; Canada, 1; Netherlands, 1; England,
             1).Patients with first-episode psychosis (DSM-IV) and
             healthy volunteers.Random allocation to a conventional
             antipsychotic, haloperidol (2-20 mg/d), or an atypical
             antipsychotic, olanzapine (5-20 mg/d).Brain volume changes
             assessed by MRI.Of 263 randomized patients, 161 had baseline
             and at least 1 postbaseline MRI evaluation.
             Haloperidol-treated patients exhibited significant decreases
             in gray matter volume, whereas olanzapine-treated patients
             did not. A matched sample of healthy volunteers (n = 58)
             examined contemporaneously showed no change in gray matter
             volume.Patients with first-episode psychosis exhibited a
             significant between-treatment difference in MRI volume
             changes. Haloperidol was associated with significant
             reductions in gray matter volume, whereas olanzapine was
             not. Post hoc analyses suggested that treatment effects on
             brain volume and psychopathology of schizophrenia may be
             associated. The differential treatment effects on brain
             morphology could be due to haloperidol-associated toxicity
             or greater therapeutic effects of olanzapine.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.62.4.361},
   Key = {fds273526}
}

@article{fds273415,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Eesley, CE and Poe, MP},
   Title = {Defining a cognitive function decrement in
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {688-691},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.003},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Although cognitive impairment is described as a
             core component of the characterization of schizophrenia, a
             sizable percentage of patients are classified as unimpaired
             by traditional definitions of impairment. The purpose of
             this study was to determine the percentage of patients with
             schizophrenia meeting criteria for a "cognitive function
             decrement" defined as a current level of cognitive function
             that falls below the level predicted by premorbid estimates.
             METHODS: Linear regression analyses were performed on a
             healthy control population to determine a predicted
             composite cognitive score based on maternal education,
             paternal education, and reading score as indicators of
             premorbid intellectual function. The percentages of patients
             with current cognitive function above and below predicted
             values were calculated. RESULTS: When the Wide Range
             Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3) score and maternal education are
             both used to predict current cognitive performance, as
             expected, about half (42%) of control subjects fall below
             expectations. However, 98.1 % of patients fall below
             expectations. CONCLUSIONS: When cognitive function decrement
             is defined as a failure to reach the expected level of
             cognitive functioning, almost all patients with
             schizophrenia meet this definition.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.003},
   Key = {fds273415}
}

@article{fds273414,
   Author = {Buchanan, RW and Davis, M and Goff, D and Green, MF and Keefe, RSE and Leon, AC and Nuechterlein, KH and Laughren, T and Levin, R and Stover,
             E and Fenton, W and Marder, SR},
   Title = {A summary of the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS workshop on clinical trial
             design for neurocognitive drugs for schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {5-19},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbi020},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: On April 23, 2004, a joint meeting of the FDA,
             NIMH, MATRICS investigators, and experts from academia and
             the pharmaceutical industry was convened to develop
             guidelines for the design of clinical trials of
             cognitive-enhancing drugs for neurocognitive impairments in
             patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: Experts were asked to
             address specific questions relating to clinical trial design
             of adjunctive/co-treatment and broad spectrum agents. At the
             workshop, experts reviewed relevant evidence before offering
             the discussion panel proposed guidelines for a given subset
             of questions. The discussion panel, which consisted of
             presenters and representatives from FDA, NIMH, academia, and
             industry, deliberated to reach consensus on suggested
             guidelines. When evidence was insufficient, suggested
             guidelines represent the opinion of a cross-section of the
             presenters and discussion panel. RESULTS: Guidelines were
             developed for inclusion criteria, the use of co-primary
             outcome measures, and statistical approaches for study
             design. Consensus was achieved regarding diagnostic and
             concomitant medication inclusion criteria and on the use of
             cognitive screening measures. A key guideline was to limit
             the trial to patients in the residual phase of their
             illness, who have a predefined level of positive, negative,
             and affective symptoms. The most difficult issues were the
             feasibility of including a co-primary measure of functional
             improvement and the choice of comparator agent for a trial
             of a broad spectrum agent (with antipsychotic and
             cognitive-enhancing effects). CONCLUSIONS: The suggested
             guidelines represent reasonable starting points for trial
             design of cognitive-enhancing drugs, with the understanding
             that new data, subsequent findings, or other methodological
             considerations may lead to future modifications.},
   Doi = {10.1093/schbul/sbi020},
   Key = {fds273414}
}

@article{fds273418,
   Author = {Meyer, JM and Nasrallah, HA and McEvoy, JP and Goff, DC and Davis, SM and Chakos, M and Patel, JK and Keefe, RSE and Stroup, TS and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention
             Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial: Clinical
             comparison of subgroups with and without the metabolic
             syndrome},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-18},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.015},
   Abstract = {The metabolic syndrome (MS) is highly prevalent among
             patients with schizophrenia (current estimates 35-40%), yet
             no data exist on the correlation of this diagnosis with
             illness severity, neurocognitive or quality of life measures
             in this population. Methods: Using baseline data from the
             Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness
             (CATIE) Schizophrenia Trial, assignment of MS status was
             performed using an updated definition derived from the
             National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria.
             Those with and without MS were compared on the basis of
             primary and secondary variables of interest from baseline
             data encompassing psychiatric, neurocognitive and quality of
             life measures. Results: Of 1460 subjects enrolled at
             baseline, MS status could be reliably assigned for 1231
             subjects, with a prevalence of 35.8% using the NCEP derived
             criteria. After adjustment for age, gender, race, ethnicity
             and site variance, those with MS rated themselves
             significantly lower on physical health by SF-12 (p &lt;
             .001), and scored higher on somatic preoccupation (PANSS
             item G1) (p = .03). There were no significant differences
             between the two cohorts on measures of symptom severity,
             depression, quality of life, neurocognition, or self-rated
             mental health. Neither years of antipsychotic exposure nor
             alcohol usage were significant predictors of MS status when
             adjusted for age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Conclusions:
             The metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in this large
             cohort of schizophrenia patients and is strongly associated
             with a poor self-rating of physical health and increased
             somatic preoccupation. These results underscore the need for
             mental health practitioners to take an active role in the
             health monitoring of patients with schizophrenia to minimize
             the impact of medical comorbidity on long-term mortality and
             on daily functioning. Outcomes data from CATIE will provide
             important information on the metabolic and clinical impact
             of antipsychotic treatment for those subjects with MS and
             other medical comorbidities. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.07.015},
   Key = {fds273418}
}

@article{fds273419,
   Author = {Stroup, S and Appelbaum, P and Swartz, M and Patel, M and Davis, S and Jeste, D and Kim, S and Keefe, R and Manschreck, T and McEvoy, J and Lieberman, J},
   Title = {Decision-making capacity for research participation among
             individuals in the CATIE schizophrenia trial},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2005.08.007},
   Abstract = {Objective: Uncertainty regarding the degree to which persons
             with schizophrenia may lack decision-making capacity, and
             what the predictors of capacity may be led us to examine the
             relationship between psychopathology, neurocognitive
             functioning, and decision-making capacity in a large sample
             of persons with schizophrenia at entry into a clinical
             trial. Method: In the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of
             Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial, a
             clinical trial sponsored by the National Institute of Mental
             Health designed to compare the effectiveness of
             antipsychotic drugs, subjects were administered the
             MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Clinical Research
             (MacCAT-CR) and had to demonstrate adequate decision-making
             capacity before randomization. The MacCAT-CR, the Positive
             and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and an extensive
             neurocognitive battery were completed for 1447 study
             participants. Results: The neurocognitive composite score
             and all 5 neurocognitive subscores (verbal memory,
             vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory)
             were positive correlates of the MacCAT-CR understanding,
             appreciation, and reasoning scales at baseline. Higher
             levels of negative symptoms, but not positive symptoms, were
             inversely correlated with these three MacCAT-CR scales.
             Linear regression models of all three MacCAT-CR scales
             identified working memory as a predictor; negative symptoms
             made a small contribution to the understanding and
             appreciation scores. Conclusions: Negative symptoms and
             aspects of neurocognitive functioning were correlated with
             decision-making capacity in this large sample of moderately
             ill subjects with schizophrenia. In multiple regression
             models predicting performance on the MacCAT-CR scales,
             working memory was the only consistent predictor of the
             components of decision-making capacity. Individuals with
             schizophrenia who have prominent cognitive dysfunction,
             especially memory impairment, may warrant particular
             attention when participating in research. © 2005 Elsevier
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2005.08.007},
   Key = {fds273419}
}

@article{fds273556,
   Author = {Fortuny, LAI and Garolera, M and Romo, DH and Feldman, E and Barillas,
             HF and Keefe, R and Lemaêtre, MJ and Martín, AO and Mirsky, A and Monguió, I and Morote, G and Parchment, S and Parchment, LJ and Pena,
             ED and Politis, DG and Sedó, MA and Taussik, I and Valdivia, F and Valdivia, LED and Maestre, KV},
   Title = {Research with Spanish-speaking populations in the United
             States: Lost in the translation - A commentary and a
             plea},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {555-564},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803390490918282},
   Abstract = {Verbal material used to assess the cognitive abilities of
             Spanish-speakers in the the United States is frequently of
             linguistically unacceptable quality. The use of these
             materials in research settings is thought to pose a serious
             threat to test validity and hence to the validity of claimed
             results or conclusions. The authors explain how and why
             incorrect language finds its way into cognitive tests used
             in research and other settings and suggest solutions to this
             serious problem. Copyright © Taylor &amp; Francis
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13803390490918282},
   Key = {fds273556}
}

@article{fds273557,
   Author = {Narendran, R and Frankle, WG and Keefe, R and Gil, R and Martinez, D and Slifstein, M and Kegeles, LS and Talbot, PS and Huang, Y and Hwang, D-R and Khenissi, L and Cooper, TB and Laruelle, M and Abi-Dargham,
             A},
   Title = {Altered prefrontal dopaminergic function in chronic
             recreational ketamine users},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2352-2359},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2352},
   Abstract = {Objective: Ketamine is a noncompetitive antagonist at the
             glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor that is
             used in human and animal medicine as an injectable
             anesthetic. The illegal use of ketamine as a recreational
             drug is rapidly growing. Very little is currently known
             about the consequences of repeated ketamine exposure in the
             human brain. Animal studies indicate that the prefrontal
             dopaminergic system is particularly vulnerable to the toxic
             effects of repeated administration of NMDA antagonists. In
             this study, dopamine D- 1 receptor availability was assessed
             by using positron emission tomography and the selective D-1
             receptor radioligand [ 11C]NNC 112 in a group of 14
             recreational chronic ketamine users and matched healthy
             subjects. Method: History of ketamine abuse was confirmed in
             subjects by hair analysis. [11C]NNC 112 binding potential
             was measured with kinetic analysis using the arterial input
             function. Results: Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex D-1
             receptor availability was significantly up-regulated in
             chronic ketamine users ([11C]NNC 112 binding potential:
             mean= 1.68 ml/g, SD=0.40) relative to comparison subjects
             (mean=1.35 ml/g, SD=0.35). No significant differences were
             noted in other cortical, limbic, or striatal regions. In the
             chronic ketamine user group, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
             [11C]NNC 112 binding potential up-regulation was
             significantly correlated with the number of vials of
             ketamine (with a vial representing approximately 200-300 mg
             of ketamine) used per week. Conclusions: Chronic ketamine
             users exhibited a regionally selective up-regulation of D-1
             receptor availability in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,
             a phenomenon observed following chronic dopamine depletion
             in animal studies. These data suggest that the repeated use
             of ketamine for recreational purposes affects prefrontal
             dopaminergic transmission, a system critically involved in
             working memory and executive function.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2352},
   Key = {fds273557}
}

@article{fds327083,
   Author = {Sethuraman, G and Ahmed, S and Rock, SL and Young, CA and Marquez, EM and Purdon, SE and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {P.2.137 Can the PANSS cognitive factor be a validsurrogate
             for neurocognon in schizophrenia?},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {S292-S293},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0924-977x(04)80357-2},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0924-977x(04)80357-2},
   Key = {fds327083}
}

@article{fds273411,
   Author = {Green, MF and Nuechterlein, KH and Gold, JM and Barch, DM and Cohen, J and Essock, S and Fenton, WS and Frese, F and Goldberg, TE and Heaton, RK and Keefe, RSE and Kern, RS and Kraemer, H and Stover, E and Weinberger, DR and Zalcman, S and Marder, SR},
   Title = {Approaching a consensus cognitive battery for clinical
             trials in schizophrenia: the NIMH-MATRICS conference to
             select cognitive domains and test criteria.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {301-307},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.06.023},
   Abstract = {To stimulate the development of new drugs for the cognitive
             deficits of schizophrenia, the National Institute of Mental
             Health (NIMH) established the Measurement and Treatment
             Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS)
             initiative. This article presents an overview of decisions
             from the first MATRICS consensus conference. The goals of
             the meeting were to 1) identify the cognitive domains that
             should be represented in a consensus cognitive battery and
             2) prioritize key criteria for selection of tests for the
             battery. Seven cognitive domains were selected based on a
             review of the literature and input from experts: working
             memory, attention/vigilance, verbal learning and memory,
             visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving,
             speed of processing, and social cognition. Based on
             discussions at this meeting, five criteria were considered
             essential for test selection: good test-retest reliability,
             high utility as a repeated measure, relationship to
             functional outcome, potential response to pharmacologic
             agents, and practicality/tolerability. The results from this
             meeting constitute the initial steps for reaching a
             consensus cognitive battery for clinical trials in
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.06.023},
   Key = {fds273411}
}

@article{fds327084,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Treatment of cognitive deficits in first episode
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {S87-S87},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds327084}
}

@article{fds327085,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognition as a key to alliance, adherence, and functional
             outcomes},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {S106-S106},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds327085}
}

@article{fds273413,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Goldberg, TE and Harvey, PD and Gold, JM and Poe, MP and Coughenour, L},
   Title = {The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia:
             reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard
             neurocognitive battery.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {283-297},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2003.09.011},
   Abstract = {Studies of neurocognitive function in patients with
             schizophrenia use widely variable assessment techniques.
             Clinical trials assessing the cognitive enhancing effect of
             new medications have used neurocognitive assessment
             batteries that differed in content, length and
             administration procedures. The Brief Assessment of Cognition
             in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a newly developed instrument that
             assesses the aspects of cognition found to be most impaired
             and most strongly correlated with outcome in patients with
             schizophrenia. The BACS requires less than 35 min to
             complete in patients with schizophrenia, yields a high
             completion rate in these patients, and has high reliability.
             The BACS was found to be as sensitive to cognitive
             impairment in patients with schizophrenia as a standard
             battery of tests that required over 2 h to administer.
             Compared to healthy controls matched for age and parental
             education, patients with schizophrenia performed 1.49
             standard deviations lower on a composite score calculated
             from the BACS and 1.61 standard deviations lower on a
             composite score calculated from the standard battery. The
             BACS composite scores were highly correlated with the
             standard battery composite scores in patients (r=0.76) and
             healthy controls (r=0.90). These psychometric properties
             make the BACS a promising tool for assessing cognition
             repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia, especially in
             clinical trials of cognitive enhancement.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2003.09.011},
   Key = {fds273413}
}

@article{fds327086,
   Author = {Sharma, T and Harvey, PD and Kumari, V and Keefe,
             RSE},
   Title = {Cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia: Ending the
             therapeutic nihilism},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {55},
   Pages = {151S-151S},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327086}
}

@article{fds327087,
   Author = {Hawkins, KA and Addington, J and Keefe, RSE and Christensen, BK and Woods, SW and Miller, TJ and Trzaskoma, QN and Breier, A and Zipursky,
             RB and Perkins, DO and McGlashan, TH},
   Title = {Effect of olanzapine versus placebo on the
             neuropsychological status of prodromal subjects},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {55},
   Pages = {27S-27S},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327087}
}

@article{fds327088,
   Author = {Marquez, E and Keefe, RSE and Purdon, SE and Rock, SL and Alaka, KJ and Ahmed, S and Mohs, RC},
   Title = {The relationship of cognition changes and other symptoms
             following antipsychotic treatment},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {55},
   Pages = {175S-175S},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327088}
}

@article{fds327089,
   Author = {Narendran, R and Frankle, WG and Keefe, RSE and Gil, RB and Martinez, D and Kegeles, LS and Talbot, PS and Huang, YY and Hwang, DR and Keilp, JG and Khenissi, L and Cooper, TB and Caton, C and Laruelle, M and Abi-Dargham,
             A},
   Title = {PET imaging of prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in chronic
             ketamine human abusers: A model for schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {55},
   Pages = {19S-20S},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327089}
}

@article{fds327090,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognition and the concept of schizotaxia},
   Journal = {European Psychiatry},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {114S-114S},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327090}
}

@article{fds337109,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Goldberg, TE and Harvey, PD and Gold, JM and Poe, M and Coughenour, L},
   Title = {The brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia:
             Reliability, sensitivity, and comparison with a standard
             neurocognitive battery},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {263-263},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds337109}
}

@article{fds327091,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Seidman, LJ and Christensen, B and Hamer, RM and Yurgelun-Todd, D},
   Title = {Neurocognitive effects of olanzapine and low-dose
             haloperidol: A two-year treatment study in first episode
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {206-206},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds327091}
}

@article{fds327092,
   Author = {Marquez, EM and Keefe, RSE and Purdon, SE and Rock, SL and Alaka, KJ and Ahmed, S and Mohs, RC},
   Title = {Is cognitive improvement with antipsychotic treatment
             pseudospecific?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {207-207},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds327092}
}

@article{fds327093,
   Author = {Mohs, RC and Alaka, KJ and Keefe, RSE and Purdon, SE and Rock, SL and Wei,
             H and Marquez, EM and Ahmed, S},
   Title = {Functional outcomes and characteristics of olanzapine
             cognitive super-responders},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {207-208},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds327093}
}

@article{fds327094,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {The functional hurdle: Connecting through
             cognition},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {277-277},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds327094}
}

@article{fds273409,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Green, MF and Keefe, RSE and Velligan,
             DI},
   Title = {Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia: A consensus
             statement on its role in the definition and evaluation of
             effective treatments for the illness},
   Journal = {The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {361-372},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0160-6689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v65n0312},
   Abstract = {Background: Truly effective treatments for schizophrenia
             require much more than clinical efficacy. Symptom
             improvement is all that is required to demonstrate clinical
             efficacy. However, for a treatment to be effective in a
             wide-ranging manner, improvement in various life domains,
             such as social functioning, independent living, and
             employment, should also be found. Thus, a much wider range
             of improvements, not widely produced by previous treatments,
             is required to take treatment for schizophrenia to a new
             level of effectiveness. Consensus Process: A teleconference
             consensus meeting was held with the bylined authors on
             December 10, 2002, to explore the factors that hinder the
             most effective treatments for schizophrenia. We argue that a
             possible unifying factor underlying these apparently
             disparate domains of effective treatment is cognitive
             functioning, which is impaired in people with schizophrenia.
             Treatment of cognitive dysfunction may have a central role
             in increasing the breadth of effective treatment for
             schizophrenia. Conclusions: Novel antipsychotics and
             specific cognitive-enhancing medications have preliminarily
             been shown to have cognitive benefits that might lead to
             broader effectiveness of treatments, eventually reflected in
             improvements in the daily lives of patients. These
             treatments may have their greatest impact when combined with
             focused psychological interventions. While the research to
             date does not provide a large number of successes, this area
             will be one of considerable research interest for the next
             decade, with developments likely to be very important to
             clinicians treating patients with schizophrenia. ©
             Copyright 2004 Physicians Postgraduate Press,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.4088/JCP.v65n0312},
   Key = {fds273409}
}

@article{fds273410,
   Author = {Hawkins, KA and Addington, J and Keefe, RSE and Christensen, B and Perkins, DO and Zipurksy, R and Woods, SW and Miller, TJ and Marquez, E and Breier, A and McGlashan, TH},
   Title = {Neuropsychological status of subjects at high risk for a
             first episode of psychosis},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {115-122},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2003.08.007},
   Abstract = {Thirty-six subjects aged 16 years or older judged at risk
             for a first episode of psychosis within a North American
             multi-site study of the schizophrenia prodrome [McGlashan et
             al., Schizophr. Res. (2003); Miller et al., Schizophr. Res.
             (2003)] performed at levels intermediate to population norms
             and data reported for schizophrenia samples on a
             comprehensive neuropsychological exam. In the context of
             normal intelligence, this intermediate status suggests that,
             as a group, these subjects are not fully normal in
             neuropsychological functioning. Conversely, the finding that
             they do not show the levels of impairment commonly observed
             in schizophrenia, including within the first episode,
             suggests that prodromal interventions might conceivably
             prevent, delay, or lessen the severity of declines
             associated with first psychotic episodes. © 2003 Elsevier
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.schres.2003.08.007},
   Key = {fds273410}
}

@article{fds273412,
   Author = {KEEFE, R},
   Title = {Comparative effect of atypical and conventional
             antipsychotic drugs on neurocognition in first-episode
             psychosis : a randomized. double-blind trial of olanzapine
             versus low doses of haloperidol},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {161},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {985-995},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15169686},
   Abstract = {The effect of antipsychotic medication on neurocognitive
             function remains controversial, especially since most
             previous work has compared the effects of novel
             antipsychotic medications with those of high doses of
             conventional medications. This study compares the
             neurocognitive effects of olanzapine and low doses of
             haloperidol in patients with first-episode
             psychosis.Patients with a first episode of schizophrenia,
             schizoaffective disorder, or schizophreniform disorder
             (N=167) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment
             with olanzapine (mean modal dose= 9.63 mg/day) or
             haloperidol (mean modal dose=4.60 mg/day) for the 12-week
             acute phase of a 2-year study. The patients were assessed
             with a battery of neurocognitive tests at baseline and 12
             weeks after beginning treatment.An unweighted neurocognitive
             composite score, composed of measures of verbal fluency,
             motor functions, working memory, verbal memory, and
             vigilance, improved significantly with both haloperidol and
             olanzapine treatment (effect sizes of 0.20 and 0.36,
             respectively, no significant difference between groups). A
             weighted composite score developed from a
             principal-component analysis of the same measures improved
             to a significantly greater degree with olanzapine, compared
             with haloperidol. Anticholinergic use, extrapyramidal
             symptoms, and estimated IQ had little effect on the
             statistical differentiation of the medications, although
             duration of illness had a modest effect. The correlations of
             cognitive improvement with changes in clinical
             characteristics and with side effects of treatment were
             significant for patients who received haloperidol but not
             for patients who received olanzapine.Olanzapine has a
             beneficial effect on neurocognitive function in patients
             with a first episode of psychosis. However, in a comparison
             of the effects of olanzapine and low doses of haloperidol,
             the difference in benefit is small.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.161.6.985},
   Key = {fds273412}
}

@article{fds273407,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Poe, MP and McEvoy, JP and Vaughan,
             A},
   Title = {Source monitoring improvement in patients with schizophrenia
             receiving antipsychotic medications.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {383-389},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12759802},
   Abstract = {RATIONALE: The absence of a relationship between cognitive
             deficit treatment response and positive symptom treatment
             response is often assumed, and few data have shed light on
             this issue. Most of these data have been collected using
             standard neuropsychological measures, which are ill-designed
             to assess the types of neurocognitive disturbances
             associated with psychotic symptoms. This study investigates
             the effect of treatment on source monitoring performance and
             its relation to the reduction of certain psychotic symptoms
             associated with the inability to identify self-generated
             mental events, known as "autonoetic agnosia". OBJECTIVES: To
             determine whether risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol
             were differentially effective in reducing autonoetic agnosia
             and whether changes in this aspect of cognition were related
             to reduction of specific symptoms of psychosis. METHODS:
             From a cohort of 49 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia by
             DSM-IV criteria and randomly assigned to double-blind
             treatment with risperidone, olanzapine, or haloperidol, 16
             patients were identified with symptoms believed to reflect
             autonoetic agnosia ("target symptoms") as assessed with the
             Schneiderian Symptom Rating Scale, and then evaluated during
             a baseline period, and then at 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Autonoetic
             agnosia was assessed as the ability of a patient to
             distinguish self-generated words from both
             experimenter-generated words and pictorially presented
             words. RESULTS: Analysis of patients from all treatment
             groups found a significant reduction in the number of
             "target" Schneiderian symptoms. Discrimination for items
             from the self-generated and heard sources significantly
             improved with treatment, as did the number of self-generated
             items that patients remembered as coming from the heard
             source ("self-hear errors"). The correlation between
             improvement in recognition of self-generated items and
             reduction in target Schneiderian symptoms after 2 weeks of
             treatment suggested a modest relationship between symptom
             improvement and changes in autonoetic agnosia. CONCLUSIONS:
             While the differences between medications were not
             statistically significant, antipsychotic medication in
             general was associated with improvements in symptoms and
             cognitive deficits that may underlie autonoetic agnosia.
             Improvement of autonoetic agnosia was a weak predictor of
             positive symptom improvement in a limited
             sample.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00213-003-1476-0},
   Key = {fds273407}
}

@article{fds327095,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Seidman, LJ and Christensen, BK and Hamer, RM and Yurgelun-Todd, DA and Lewine, RRJ and Sitskoorn, MM and Sharma, T and Tohen, M and Lieberman, JA},
   Title = {Neurocognitive effects of olanzapine and low-dose
             haloperidol: A two-year treatment study in first episode
             psychosis},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {26S-26S},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327095}
}

@article{fds326768,
   Author = {Yurgelun-Todd, DA and Renshaw, PF and Wei, H and Keefe, RSE and Charles,
             HC and Tohen, M and Seidman, LJ and Christensen, BK and Hamer, RM and Sharma, T and Sitskoorn, MM and Gur, RC and Tollefson, GD and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {Improved attention is associated with reductions in frontal
             lobe lactate levels in first episode psychosis},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {156S-156S},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds326768}
}

@article{fds273408,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Mohs, RC and Bilder, RM and Harvey, PD and Green, MF and Meltzer, HY and Gold, JM and Sano, M},
   Title = {Neurocognitive assessment in the Clinical Antipsychotic
             Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) project
             schizophrenia trial: development, methodology, and
             rationale.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {45-55},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a006990},
   Abstract = {Patients with schizophrenia are severely impaired in crucial
             aspects of neurocognitive function. This impairment is the
             strongest clinical correlate of poor long-term outcome and
             adaptive dysfunction. Reports of neurocognitive enhancement
             with second generation antipsychotic medications have thus
             offered promise for improvement in the long-term outcome of
             patients with schizophrenia. However, the majority of these
             studies have had serious weaknesses in methodology, such as
             open-label design, small samples, or inappropriate dosing of
             medications. More recent studies have addressed these
             methodological issues but have been of short duration and
             have largely been sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. The
             Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness
             (CATIE) project is a unique opportunity to address the
             comparative neurocognitive effectiveness of available
             antipsychotic medications. This article describes the
             neurocognitive methods used in the schizophrenia trial of
             the CATIE project, including the selection and training of
             neurocognitive raters, patient inclusion criteria for
             assessment, rationale for the choice of neurocognitive
             instruments, and methodology for each neurocognitive
             test.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a006990},
   Key = {fds273408}
}

@article{fds273405,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Arnold, MC and Bayen, UJ and McEvoy, JP and Wilson,
             WH},
   Title = {Source-monitoring deficits for self-generated stimuli in
             schizophrenia: multinomial modeling of data from three
             sources.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {51-67},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165376},
   Abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia patients, particularly those
             with specific types of hallucinations and delusions, may
             have a deficit in monitoring the generation of thought. This
             deficit, termed autonoetic agnosia, may result in the
             conclusion that self-generated thoughts come from an
             external source. METHODS: This study assessed autonoetic
             agnosia in 29 schizophrenic patients and 19 controls by
             applying a recently developed technique from cognitive
             science: multinomial modeling of source-monitoring data.
             RESULTS: Schizophrenic patients demonstrated deficits in
             monitoring the source of self-generated information, yet
             performed similarly to controls in monitoring the source of
             visual and auditory information. Schizophrenic patients with
             specific "target" symptoms such as auditory hallucinations
             and thought insertion had greater deficits than other
             patients in recognizing self-generated information.
             CONCLUSION: This study offers partial support for the notion
             that schizophrenic patients manifest autonoetic
             agnosia.},
   Key = {fds273405}
}

@article{fds273404,
   Author = {Conway, CR and Bollini, AM and Graham, BG and Keefe, RSE and Schiffman,
             SS and McEvoy, JP},
   Title = {Sensory acuity and reasoning in delusional
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {175-178},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0010-440X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11994833},
   Abstract = {Systematic research on delusional disorder (DD) is limited.
             The goal of this study was to assess DD patients in the
             following areas: sensory capacities, decision-making style,
             and complex reasoning. Ten DD patients and 10 matched normal
             controls completed the following (1) smell, taste, and
             vision testing; (2) a probabilistic inference test in which
             subjects made probability decisions; and (3) a gambling task
             assessing complex reasoning. No significant difference was
             found between DD subjects and normals for taste acuity,
             olfactory acuity, or olfactory discrimination. No difference
             in visual acuity was noted, but sample size was limited. In
             addition, DD subjects required significantly less data to
             make probability decisions than normal controls. Despite
             using less data, DD subjects were as certain as controls
             regarding the accuracy of their decisions. As for complex
             reasoning, DD subjects performed as well as normal controls,
             but tended to surmise the purpose of the task sooner than
             normals, a difference that approached significance. In
             conclusion, these results suggest no differences between DD
             and normal subjects regarding olfaction, taste, and vision.
             The reasoning studies suggest that DD subjects may have a
             "cognitive set" that predisposes them to make conclusions
             with significantly less data than normals. Further, the
             study suggests that this reasoning difference generalizes to
             events outside the DD subjects' delusional realm and can be
             evoked in an experimental environment.},
   Key = {fds273404}
}

@article{fds273406,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Evaluation of cognitive dysfunctions in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {L'Encephale},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {5 II},
   Pages = {11-13},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0013-7006},
   Key = {fds273406}
}

@article{fds273403,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Studies of cognitive change in patients with schizophrenia
             following novel antipsychotic treatment},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {158},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {176-184},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.2.176},
   Abstract = {Objective: Novel antipsychotic medications have been
             reported to have beneficial effects on cognitive functioning
             in patients with schizophrenia. However, these effects have
             been assessed in studies with considerable variation in
             methodology. A large number of investigator-initiated and
             industry-sponsored clinical trials are currently underway to
             determine the effect of various novel antipsychotics on
             cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. The
             ability to discriminate between high- and low-quality
             studies will be required to understand the true implications
             of these studies and their relevance to clinical practice.
             Method: This article addresses several aspects of research
             on cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, emphasizing how
             the assessment of cognitive function in clinical trials
             requires certain standards of study design to lead to
             interpretable results. Results: Novel antipsychotic
             medications appear to have preliminary promise for the
             enhancement of cognitive functioning. However, the
             methodology for assessing the treatment of cognitive
             deficits is still being developed. Conclusions: Researchers
             and clinicians alike need to approach publications in this
             area with a watchful eye toward methodological weaknesses
             that limit the interpretability of findings.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.158.2.176},
   Key = {fds273403}
}

@article{fds273400,
   Author = {Roitman, SEL and Mitropoulou, V and Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Serby, M and Harvey, PD and Reynolds, DA and Mohs, RC and Siever,
             LJ},
   Title = {Visuospatial working memory in schizotypal personality
             disorder patients},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {447-455},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(99)00085-7},
   Abstract = {Background: Cognitive processing deficits have been
             identified as an abnormality that schizotypal personality
             disorder (SPD) individuals share with schizophrenic
             patients. It has been hypothesized that impaired working
             memory may be a critical component of several of the more
             complex cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia spectrum
             patients. Method: 18 DSM-III-R SPD patients, and 17 normal
             comparison subjects were compared on a pen and paper
             visuospatial working memory task. Moreover, we identified a
             second psychiatric comparison group comprised of nine
             patients with other, non-odd cluster personality disorder
             diagnoses who met no more than one of the SPD criteria and
             were also tested on the same task. Each person was given 14
             immediate recall trials and 10 trials using a 10 s delay.
             Results: SPD patients performed significantly worse than
             normal control subjects on the working memory task. SPD
             patients also performed significantly worse compared to the
             non-schizophrenia-related personality disorder psychiatric
             comparison group. Conclusions: Like schizophrenic patients,
             SPD patients demonstrate working memory impairment compared
             to normal controls. This impairment may be specific to the
             schizophrenia-related personality disorders. (C) 2000
             Elsevier Science B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(99)00085-7},
   Key = {fds273400}
}

@article{fds273402,
   Author = {Bollini, AM and Arnold, MC and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Test-retest reliability of the Dot Test of Visuospatial
             Working Memory in patients with schizophrenia and
             controls},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {169-173},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(99)00216-9},
   Abstract = {To determine the test-retest reliability of the Dot Test of
             Visuospatial Working Memory, this task was administered to
             29 patients with schizophrenia and 19 normal controls on two
             consecutive days. The test involved 'copying' trials
             followed by 'delay' recall trials. For 'copying' trials,
             subjects saw a dot and then drew it on a blank sheet of
             paper. For 'delay' trials, subjects drew the dot following a
             10-, 20-, or 30-s delay. The distance between the stimulus
             and the drawn dot was measured for each trial. The composite
             score, termed 'working memory deficit,' is calculated by
             subtracting the average of the copying trials from the
             average of the delay trials. Pearson correlations revealed
             that overall performance in each group was comparable for
             days 1 and 2. Intra-class correlations of 'working memory
             deficit' on days 1 and 2 were moderate in patients and
             controls, suggesting that task performance for each subject
             was similar on the testing days. Test- retest reliability
             tended to be higher for 10-s delay performance in patients
             and controls than for longer delay periods. Further analyses
             suggested that there was no significant learning effect on
             the task from day 1 to day 2 for either group on any
             measure. The Dot Test of Visuospatial Working Memory,
             especially the composite score, has moderate test-retest
             reliability and is a valuable tool that can be used to
             assess working memory functions in studies using a
             repeated-measures design. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(99)00216-9},
   Key = {fds273402}
}

@article{fds327096,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Bollini, AM and Courtney, MC and Wilson, WH and McEvoy,
             JP},
   Title = {Successful treatment of self-monitoring deficits predicts
             psychotic symptom decrease},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {172-172},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327096}
}

@article{fds273399,
   Author = {Keefe, RS and Silva, SG and Perkins, DO and Lieberman,
             JA},
   Title = {The effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on
             neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia: a review and
             meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Bulletin},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {201-222},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0586-7614},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10416727},
   Abstract = {Cognitive deficits are a fundamental feature of the
             psychopathology of schizophrenia. Yet the effect of
             treatment on this dimension of the illness has been unclear.
             Atypical antipsychotic medications have been reported to
             reduce the neurocognitive impairment associated with
             schizophrenia. However, studies of the pattern and degree of
             cognitive improvement with these compounds have been
             methodologically limited and have produced variable results,
             and few findings have been replicated. To clarify our
             understanding of the effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs
             on neurocognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia,
             we have (1) reported on newly established standards for
             research design in studies of treatment effects on cognitive
             function in schizophrenia, (2) reviewed the literature on
             this topic and determined the extent to which 15 studies on
             the effect of atypical antipsychotics met these standards,
             (3) performed a meta-analysis of the 15 studies, which
             suggested general cognitive enhancement with atypical
             antipsychotics, and (4) described the pharmacological
             profile of these agents and considered the pharmacological
             basis for their effects on neurocognition. Finally, we
             suggest directions for the development of new therapeutic
             strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033374},
   Key = {fds273399}
}

@article{fds273401,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Bollini, AM and Silva, SG},
   Title = {Do novel antipsychotics improve cognition? A report of a
             meta-analysis},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Annals},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {623-629},
   Publisher = {SLACK INC},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/0048-5713-19991101-08},
   Doi = {10.3928/0048-5713-19991101-08},
   Key = {fds273401}
}

@article{fds273398,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Arnold, MC and Bayen, UJ and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {Source monitoring deficits in patients with schizophrenia; a
             multinomial modelling analysis},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {903-914},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799008673},
   Abstract = {Background. Schizophrenia patients, particularly those with
             symptoms such as thought insertion, passivity experiences
             and hallucinations, may share an underlying cognitive
             deficit in monitoring the generation of their own thoughts.
             This deficit, which has been referred to as 'autonoetic
             agnosia', may result in the conclusion that self-generated
             thoughts come from an external source. Previous work
             supports this notion, yet the statistical approaches that
             have been used have not enabled a distinction between
             specific deficits suggesting autonoetic agnosia and more
             general cognitive dysfunction. Methods. Autonoetic agnosia
             was assessed using source-monitoring paradigms in 28
             patients with schizophrenia and 19 control subjects.
             Multinomial model analyses, which allow the distinction
             between deficits in recognizing information, remembering its
             source, and response biases, were applied to the data.
             Results. Schizophrenia patients were impaired in
             discriminating between words that came from two external
             sources, from two internal sources, and one internal and one
             external source. In a condition requiring subjects to
             distinguish between words they had heard from those they had
             imagined hearing, when schizophrenic patients did not
             remember the source of the information, they showed a
             stronger bias than controls to report that it had come from
             an external source. Conclusions. The application of
             multinomial models to source monitoring data suggests that
             schizophrenia patients have source monitoring deficits that
             are not limited to the distinction between
             internally-generated and externally-perceived information.
             However, when schizophrenia patients do not remember the
             source of information, they may be more likely than controls
             to report that it came from an external source.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0033291799008673},
   Key = {fds273398}
}

@article{fds327097,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Courtney, M and Bayan, UJ and Harvey, PD and McEvoy,
             JM},
   Title = {Does autonoetic agnosia underlie specific psychotic symptoms
             in schizophrenia?},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {36-36},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(97)88379-x},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0920-9964(97)88379-x},
   Key = {fds327097}
}

@article{fds273397,
   Author = {Davis, KL and Buchsbaum, MS and Shihabuddin, L and Spiegel-Cohen, J and Metzger, M and Frecska, E and Keefe, RS and Powchik,
             P},
   Title = {Ventricular enlargement in poor-outcome schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {783-793},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00553-2},
   Abstract = {Background: A subset of patients with schizophrenia, defined
             on the basis of longitudinal deficits in self-care, may show
             a classic ('Kraepelinian') degenerative course. An
             independent validator of the phenomenologically defined
             Kraepelinian subtype might be provided by a structural
             indicator of possible brain degeneration: ventricular size
             as measured by computed tomography (CT). Methods: To examine
             whether Kraepelinian patients would show a differential
             increase in ventricular size over time, two CT scans were
             conducted at intervals separated by &gt;4 years, an average
             of 5 years. Fifty-three male patients with DSM-III-R
             diagnoses of chronic schizophrenia were subdivided into
             Kraepelinian (n = 22; mean age = 42 ± 8.6 years) and
             non-Kraepelinian (n = 31; mean age = 38 ± 12.2 years)
             subgroups. Kraepelinian patients were defined on the basis
             of longitudinal criteria: &gt;5 years of complete dependence
             on others for life necessities and care, lack of employment,
             and sustained symptomatology. Thirteen normal elderly
             volunteers (mean age = 60 ± 17.8) were also scanned at
             4-year intervals. CT measurements were made by raters
             without knowledge of subgroup membership. A semiautomated
             computer program was used to trace the anterior horn,
             lateral ventricles, and temporal horns for each slice level
             on which they were clearly seen. Results: The ventricles
             showed a bilateral increase in size over the 4-year interval
             in the Kraepelinian subgroup, more marked in the left
             hemisphere than the right. By contrast, neither the non-
             Kraepelinian subgroup nor the normal volunteers showed
             significant CT changes from scan 1 to scan 2. Conclusions:
             Thus, the longitudinal dysfunctions in selfcare that
             characterize the Kraepelinian patients were associated with
             an independent indicator of brain abnormality.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0006-3223(97)00553-2},
   Key = {fds273397}
}

@article{fds327098,
   Author = {Roitman, SEL and Keefe, RSE and Mitropoulou, V and Dupre, RL and Siever,
             LJ},
   Title = {Visuospatial working memory in schizotypal personality
             disorder},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {355-355},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327098}
}

@article{fds273392,
   Author = {Keefe, RS and Silverman, JM and Mohs, RC and Siever, LJ and Harvey, PD and Friedman, L and Roitman, SE and DuPre, RL and Smith, CJ and Schmeidler,
             J and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Eye tracking, attention, and schizotypal symptoms in
             nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {169-176},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830140081014},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Biological relatives of patients with
             schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of
             schizotypal personality disorder symptoms, eye tracking
             deficits, and attentional disturbances. We investigated
             whether these hypothesized components of a
             schizophrenia-related phenotype are associated with one
             another or are independent in nonpsychotic relatives of
             patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Eighty-three
             nonpsychotic first-degree relatives of 38 patients with
             schizophrenia and 45 control subjects without a psychiatric
             diagnosis underwent clinical evaluation, eye tracking
             evaluation, and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of
             visual attention. RESULTS: Eye tracking qualitative rating
             was more powerful than quantitative eye tracking measures or
             CPT measures in discriminating relatives of patients with
             schizophrenia from control subjects. Correlations between
             neurocognitive variables and DSM-III-R schizotypal
             personality disorder symptom clusters suggested that CPT
             errors of omission are associated with positive schizotypal
             symptoms. Eye tracking measures were not significantly
             correlated with schizotypal symptoms or CPT errors in
             relatives of patients with schizophrenia. CONCLUSIONS: Eye
             tracking deficits in the relatives of patients with
             schizophrenia are unrelated to CPT deficits and schizotypal
             symptoms. Eye tracking deficits and disturbances in visual
             attention may be separate components of a
             schizophrenia-related phenotype and should be considered as
             independent factors in genetic studies of
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830140081014},
   Key = {fds273392}
}

@article{fds327099,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Courtney, M and McEvoy, JM},
   Title = {Self-monitoring deficits in schizophrenia: Autonoetic
             agnosia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {110-110},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0920-9964(97)82306-7},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0920-9964(97)82306-7},
   Key = {fds327099}
}

@article{fds273391,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and implications of
             atypical neuroleptic treatment},
   Journal = {Cns Spectrums},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {41-55},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1092-8529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852900005034},
   Abstract = {Cognitive impairment is considered a central feature of
             schizophrenia. Many aspects of cognition are impaired in
             schizophrenia. Careful evaluation of the relationship
             between cognitive impairment and the other symptoms of
             schizophrenia has revealed several important findings. In
             this article, we discuss these findings, the effects of
             typical neuroleptic therapy on cognitive impairment, and
             important issues to address in cognitive enhancement studies
             in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1092852900005034},
   Key = {fds273391}
}

@article{fds273393,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Lees-Roitman, SE and Dupre, RL},
   Title = {Performance of patients with schizophrenia on a pen and
             paper visuospatial working memory task with short
             delay},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-14},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00037-6},
   Abstract = {Human and nonhuman primate data suggest that visuospatial
             working memory is mediated by a neural network that includes
             the prefrontal cortex. Simple working memory tasks are less
             complex than standard neuropsychological tests of frontal
             dysfunction. As such, they are less vulnerable to general
             performance factors such as amotivation and
             uncooperativeness in schizophrenic patients. These tasks
             thus hold promise as potential measures of frontal
             dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, the specific
             parameters of visuospatial working memory deficit in
             schizophrenia have not been established. This study assessed
             working memory functions in 18 schizophrenic patients and 28
             controls using a pen-and-paper analogue of a monkey
             prefrontal cortex activation task. Schizophrenic patients
             and controls performed similarly on a sensory-guided task
             that did not require working memory functions, yet
             schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than
             controls on tasks that required subjects to retain
             visuospatial information for delay periods of 10 and 20 s.
             These data suggest that the working memory deficits in
             patients with schizophrenia begin to appear less than 10 s
             following encoding of visuospatial information and that
             these working memory deficits can be assessed with easily
             administered pen-and- paper tasks.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00037-6},
   Key = {fds273393}
}

@article{fds273394,
   Author = {Roitman, SEL and Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Siever, LJ and Mohs,
             RC},
   Title = {Attentional and eye tracking deficits correlate with
             negative symptoms in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {139-146},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00044-3},
   Abstract = {Thirty patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of schizophrenia
             were assessed for severity of schizophrenic symptoms using
             the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and were tested on
             a Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and a smooth pursuit eye
             tracking task. Negative symptoms were significantly
             correlated with eye tracking impairment (r= 0.43, p&lt;0.01)
             and CPT deficits (r=0.67, p&lt;0.001), but performance on
             neither task was correlated with positive symptoms. CPT
             performance and eye tracking performance were modestly
             correlated with each other (r=0.39, p&lt;0.01) and CPT
             performance was found to be a stronger predictor of negative
             symptoms than eye tracking performance. Those data indicate
             that neurocognitive markers of vulnerability to
             schizophrenia are associated with negative rather than
             positive symptoms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00044-3},
   Key = {fds273394}
}

@article{fds273395,
   Author = {Roitman, SEL and Cornblatt, BA and Bergman, A and Obuchowski, M and Mitropoulou, V and Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Siever,
             LJ},
   Title = {Attentional functioning in schizotypal personality
             disorder},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {154},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {655-660},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Objective: Previous research has shown biological,
             phenomenological, and cognitive similarities between
             schizophrenic patients and individuals with
             schizophrenia-related personality disorders and features.
             Evidence further suggests that of these common dysfunctions,
             abnormal attention is one of the most promising indicators
             of a biological susceptibility to schizophrenia-related
             disorders. Although attentional dysfunctions have been
             reliably detected in schizophrenic patients as well as in a
             variety of populations at risk for schizophrenia, few
             studies have investigated attention in clinical patients
             with schizotypal personality disorder. In this study, the
             extent of attentional impairment was assessed in subjects
             with schizotypal personality disorder, normal comparison
             subjects, patients with other personality disorders, and
             schizophrenic patients. Method: Thirty subjects with
             schizotypal personality disorder, 35 subjects with other
             personality disorders (i.e. clinic patients with non-odd
             cluster personality disorders), 36 subjects with
             schizophrenia, and 20 comparison subjects who did not meet
             criteria for any axis I or axis II disorder participated in
             this study. All subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-III
             criteria. Attention was assessed by using the Continuous
             Performance Test, Identical Pairs Version. Results: Analyses
             indicated that subjects with schizotypal personality
             disorder, like schizophrenic subjects, performed
             significantly worse than comparison subjects on both the
             verbal and spatial tasks of the Continuous Performance Test,
             Identical Pairs Version. In contrast, patients with other
             personality disorders performed similarly to comparison
             subjects across conditions. Conclusions: These results
             suggest that patients with schizotypal personality disorder
             are impaired in their attentional functioning relative to
             normal comparison subjects and that they display deficits
             that are similar to the pattern characterizing schizophrenic
             patients.},
   Key = {fds273395}
}

@article{fds273396,
   Author = {Vocisano, C and Klein, DN and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Lifetime comorbidity, lifetime history of psychosis and
             suicide attempts, and current symptoms of patients with
             deteriorated affective disorder},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {33-45},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-1781(97)00114-5},
   Abstract = {This study extends our prior research by examining the
             lifetime comorbidity, history of psychosis and suicide
             attempts and current symptoms of an unusual group of
             patients with major affective disorders who have not only
             been symptomatic for prolonged periods but have also been so
             functionally impaired that they required years of care in
             psychiatric facilities or by family members. Twenty-seven of
             these deteriorated affective patients and 29 patients with
             deteriorated schizophrenia were recruited from a large state
             hospital; 27 patients with non-deteriorated affective
             disorder were recruited from an affiliated outpatient
             facility. Patients with deteriorated effective disorder, as
             compared to those with non-deteriorated effective disorder,
             were far more likely to have a history of psychotic symptoms
             with suicidal themes and a history of life-threatening
             suicide attempts and completed suicide. Deteriorated
             effective patients were also more likely to meet criteria
             for melancholia and to have attentional deficits, thought
             disorder and negative symptoms. The deteriorated and non-
             deteriorated affective groups had similar lifetime rates of
             psychotic symptoms (bizarre and non-bizarre) and lifetime
             psychiatric comorbidity. Functional deterioration in
             schizophrenia as compared to functional deterioration in
             affective disorders, was distinguished by a virtual absence
             of psychotic symptoms with suicidal themes lower lifetime
             rates of life- threatening suicide attempts greater variety
             and severity of psychotic symptoms, and greater severity of
             current effective flattening, anhedonia- asociality and
             disorientation to time. The results of this study extend our
             previous research by demonstrating that patients with major
             mood disorders who have experienced extreme functional
             deterioration evidence a distinct constellation of symptoms
             that differentiates them from their better outcome peers
             with mood disorders, and from similarly functionally
             deteriorated patients with schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0165-1781(97)00114-5},
   Key = {fds273396}
}

@article{fds327100,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Cornblatt, BA},
   Title = {The neuropsychology of schizophrenia - David,AS,
             Cutting,JC},
   Journal = {Contemporary Psychology: a Journal of Reviews},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {900-902},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds327100}
}

@article{fds327101,
   Author = {Roitman, SEL and Keefe, RSE and Dupre, RL and Siever,
             LJ},
   Title = {Visuospatial working memory in schizotypal personality
             disorder},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {266-266},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327101}
}

@article{fds273388,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE and Mitroupolou, V and DuPre, R and Roitman,
             SL and Mohs, RC and Siever, LJ},
   Title = {Information-processing markers of vulnerability to
             schizophrenia: Performance of patients with schizotypal and
             nonschizotypal personality disorders},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-56},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(95)02764-5},
   Abstract = {Deficits in performance on tests of information processing
             have been proposed to be markers of vulnerability to
             schizophrenia. Very few of the previous studies of these
             information-processing deficits, however, have examined
             subjects who have clinical diagnoses of schizotypal
             personality disorders; most studies instead have focused on
             schizophrenic patients and their relatives or subjects
             selected on the basis of psychometric evidence of
             schizotypal traits. In this study, patients with DSM-III
             schizotypal (n = 29) and non-odd cluster (n = 33)
             personality disorders were examined With the Continuous
             Performance Test (CPT) and a backward masking test and
             compared with a group of normal volunteers (n = 31).
             Patients with schizotypal personality disorder manifested a
             specific deficit in performance, making significantly more
             errors of omission in the degraded stimulus condition of the
             CPT compared with the nondegraded condition, whereas non-odd
             cluster patients and the normal volunteers performed the
             same in both conditions. No differences in performance
             between the groups were found for any of the
             backward-masking measures. These data suggest that specific
             deficits in CPT performance, possibly reflecting reduced
             processing capacity or load responsiveness of the vigilance
             system, are associated with schizotypal personality disorder
             and fail to replicate previous studies finding
             backward-masking deficits in various nonclinical schizotypal
             populations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(95)02764-5},
   Key = {fds273388}
}

@article{fds327102,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Roitman, SEL and Dupre, RL and Harvey,
             PD},
   Title = {Laboratory and clinical tests of spatial working
             memory},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {XIII7-XIII7},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds327102}
}

@article{fds273385,
   Author = {Vocisano, C and Klein, DN and Keefe, RSE and Dienst, ER and Kincaid,
             MM},
   Title = {Demographics, family history, premorbid functioning,
             developmental characteristics, and course of patients with
             deteriorated affective disorder},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {248-255},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Objective: This exploratory study examined the
             characteristics of a group of unusual and previously
             undescribed patients with major affective disorder who not
             only had been continuously symptomatic for prolonged periods
             of time but were also so functionally impaired that they
             required years of continuous care in psychiatric facilities
             or by family members. Method: Twenty-seven inpatients with
             major mood disorders and 29 inpatients with schizophrenia
             were recruited from a large state hospital; 27 outpatients
             with major mood disorders were recruited from an affiliated
             outpatient facility. The research battery included the
             Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version,
             the Premorbid Adjustment Scale, and a semistructured
             interview designed to assess demographic, family history,
             developmental, and course information. Results: Inpatients
             with deteriorated affective disorder differed from
             outpatients with nondeteriorated affective disorder along
             several important dimensions, including family, history of
             mental illness, birth related problems, physical disorders
             in infancy, premorbid functioning, presence of mixed
             episodes and rapid cycling, and medication noncompliance
             between hospitalizations. Inpatients with deteriorated
             affective disorder differed from inpatients with
             schizophrenia on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Patients
             with bipolar affective disorder differed from those with
             unipolar disorder on many of the variables associated with
             deterioration of functioning. Conclusions: Birth-related
             problems, physical disorders in infancy, and poor premorbid
             adjustment in childhood and adolescence appear to play an
             important role in deterioration of functioning among
             patients with unipolar depression. Disruption in treatment
             because of medication noncompliance and the appearance of
             mixed episodes and rapid cycling are associated with
             functional decline in bipolar affective disorder. Several
             characteristics previously considered specific to
             deterioration of functioning in schizophrenia, such as a
             high rate of birth complications and poor premorbid
             adjustment, appear to be associated with functional
             deterioration among patients with major depression as
             well.},
   Key = {fds273385}
}

@article{fds273386,
   Author = {Jr, BVS and Trestman, RL and O'Flaithbheartaigh, S and Mitropoulou,
             V and Amin, F and Kirrane, R and Silverman, J and Schmeidler, J and Keefe,
             RSE and Siever, LJ},
   Title = {D-amphetamine challenge effects on Wisconsin Card Sort Test.
             Performance in schizotypal personality disorder},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {29-32},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(95)00002-X},
   Abstract = {The authors assessed the effects on Wisconsin Card Sort
             (WCST) performance and psychiatric symptoms of 30 mg
             d-amphetamine, a dopamine and norepinephrine agonist, vs
             placebo in nine patients with schizotypal personality
             disorder (SPD). Patients, particularly those who made more
             perseverative errors, demonstrated amphetamine-associated
             improvement on WCST performance. The data in this
             preliminary study suggest that some of the cognitive
             dysfunction present in SPD may improve with amphetamine
             challenge.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(95)00002-X},
   Key = {fds273386}
}

@article{fds273387,
   Author = {Epstein, JI and Keefe, RSE and Roitman, SL and Harvey, PD and Mohs,
             RC},
   Title = {Impact of neuroleptic medications on continuous performance
             test measures in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {902-905},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(95)00588-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(95)00588-9},
   Key = {fds273387}
}

@article{fds273389,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Frescka, E and Apter, SH and Davidson, M and Macaluso,
             JM and Hirschowitz, J and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Clinical characteristics of Kraepelinian schizophrenia:
             Replication and extension of previous findings},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {806-811},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Objective: Subtypologies of schizophrenia based on
             cross-sectional criteria, such as the nomenclature of the
             DSMs, have not been successful in identifying valid
             diagnostic subgroups among patients with schizophrenia. A
             subtypology that uses criteria to classify individuals on
             the basis of longitudinal deficits in self-care may identify
             a more valid subgroup of schizophrenic patients. Method:
             This study describes the clinical characteristics of a group
             of schizophrenic patients identified on the basis of a
             longitudinal criterion: at least 5 years of continuous and
             complete dependence on others for obtaining and maintaining
             the basic necessities of life, including food, clothing, and
             shelter. Results: Sixty-one 'Kraepelinian' schizophrenic
             inpatients, when compared to 80 non- Kraepelinian
             schizophrenic inpatients who were similar in years of
             illness, age, and education, demonstrated more severe
             negative symptoms and more severe formal thought disorder;
             yet the severity of their delusions, hallucinations, and
             bizarre behavior did not differ significantly. None of the
             Kraepelinian patients and eight non-Kraepelinian patients
             met DSM-III-R criteria for schizoaffective disorder.
             Conclusions: Data from this replication study suggest that
             Kraepelinian schizophrenic patients, identified on the basis
             of a longitudinal course characterized by severe
             dysfunctions in self-care, may represent an alternative, and
             possibly more valid, method of subtyping
             schizophrenia.},
   Key = {fds273389}
}

@article{fds273390,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and White, L and Keefe, RSE and Hirschowitz,
             J and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Empirical evaluation of the factorial structure of clinical
             symptoms in schizophrenia: Effects of typical neuroleptics
             on the brief psychiatric rating scale},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {755-760},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(95)00486-6},
   Abstract = {There has been little investigation of the effect of
             neuroleptic medication on the structure of symptoms in
             schizophrenia. In this study, 135 male schizophrenic
             patients were rated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
             (BPRS) after 4 weeks of treatment with typical neuroleptic
             medication and after 2 weeks free of neuroleptics, with the
             order of assessment varying across patients. Confirmatory
             factor analyses (CFA) found that there were no differences
             in symptom structure across medication status and no
             differences in the structure of symptoms in treatment
             responders and nonresponders. The typical 5-factor BPRS
             model fit the data poorly and the fit improved considerably
             through deletion of items measuring symptoms not associated
             with schizophrenia, suggesting that some of the symptoms
             that contribute to a total BPRS score may be adding
             primarily error variance. Although the sample size in this
             study is limited, the results suggest that using total BPRS
             scores to measure severity of schizophrenic symptoms should
             be reconsidered.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(95)00486-6},
   Key = {fds273390}
}

@article{fds273381,
   Author = {Trestman, RL and Keefe, RS and Mitropoulou, V and Harvey, PD and deVegvar, ML and Lees-Roitman, S and Davidson, M and Aronson, A and Silverman, J and Siever, LJ},
   Title = {Cognitive function and biological correlates of cognitive
             performance in schizotypal personality disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {127-136},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1995TY65800014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {There is evidence that some schizophrenic patients have
             deficits on tests of cognitive function, particularly tests
             of executive function, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting
             Test (WCST) and the Trail-making Test, Part B. This study
             was conducted to determine the generalizability of these
             findings across the schizophrenia spectrum to schizotypal
             personality disorder (SPD). Forty DSM-III SPD patients, 56
             nonschizophrenia-related other personality disorder (OPD)
             patients, and 32 normal volunteers from two medical centers
             performed tests of executive function such as the WCST,
             Trail-making Part B, Stroop Word-Color Test, and Verbal
             Fluency, as well as tests of more general intellectual
             functioning such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale-Revised
             Vocabulary and Block Design subtests, and Trail-making Part
             A. SPD patients performed more poorly on the WCST and on
             Trail-making Part B than did OPD patients or normal
             subjects; the groups did not differ on tests of general
             intellectual functioning. SPD patients may share some of the
             cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(95)02709-2},
   Key = {fds273381}
}

@article{fds327103,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Lees Roitman and S and Dupre, RL and Harvey, PD and Davis,
             KL and Mohs, RC},
   Title = {The relationship between working memory deficits and other
             measures sensitive to prefrontal dysfunction},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {123-123},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(95)95378-m},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(95)95378-m},
   Key = {fds327103}
}

@article{fds273384,
   Author = {Davidson, M and Harvey, PD and Powchik, P and Parrella, M and White, L and Knobler, HY and Losonczy, MF and Keefe, RS and Katz, S and Frecska,
             E},
   Title = {Severity of symptoms in chronically institutionalized
             geriatric schizophrenic patients.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {197-207},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.152.2.197},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to characterize the
             symptoms of geriatric, chronically ill, institutionalized
             schizophrenic patients and investigate age-related
             differences in schizophrenic symptoms and cognitive
             performance from early adulthood to late senescence. METHOD:
             The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Mini-Mental
             State examination were used to assess the schizophrenic
             symptoms and cognitive performance, respectively, of 393
             institutionalized schizophrenic patients stratified into
             seven groups designated by 10-year age intervals from 25
             years to over 85 years. RESULTS: In the comparisons of the
             seven age groups, significant differences between groups in
             positive and negative subscale scores on the Positive and
             Negative Syndrome Scale and in Mini-Mental State scores were
             revealed. Significant correlations between Mini-Mental State
             scores and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative
             symptom scores, but not positive symptom scores, were found
             for all age groups, except for the youngest patients
             studied. Current treatment with neuroleptics and prior
             treatment with ECT, insulin coma, or leukotomy could not
             account for the poor cognitive performance of the older
             schizophrenic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The older schizophrenic
             patients continued to experience psychotic and nonpsychotic
             symptoms in senescence. Their positive symptoms were
             moderately less severe and their negative symptoms and
             cognitive impairment were significantly more severe than
             those of the younger patients. Somatic treatment appeared
             not to be responsible for the severe cognitive impairment
             and negative symptoms of the older patients. These data are
             relevant to chronically hospitalized geriatric schizophrenic
             patients but not necessarily to all geriatric schizophrenic
             patients.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.152.2.197},
   Key = {fds273384}
}

@article{fds273554,
   Author = {Yehuda, R and Keefe, RS and Harvey, PD and Levengood, RA and Gerber, DK and Geni, J and Siever, LJ},
   Title = {Learning and memory in combat veterans with posttraumatic
             stress disorder.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {137-139},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.152.1.137},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors investigated a broad range of memory
             functions for stimuli unrelated to trauma to determine
             whether symptoms such as intrusive memories might reflect an
             underlying cognitive deficit unrelated to the psychological
             content of the traumatic memory in patients with
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHOD: The authors
             measured the intellectual functioning of 20 male combat
             veterans with PTSD and 12 normal comparison subjects using
             the WAIS and evaluated them for performance on memory using
             the California Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS: Veterans with
             PTSD showed normal abilities in the functions of initial
             attention, immediate memory, cumulative learning, and active
             interference from previous learning. However, these veterans
             showed a circumscribed cognitive deficit, manifested by the
             presence of substantial retroactive interference and
             revealed by a significant decrement in retention following
             exposure to an intervening word list. CONCLUSIONS: The data
             suggest that patients with PTSD may have fairly specific
             deficits in the monitoring and regulation of memory
             information.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.152.1.137},
   Key = {fds273554}
}

@article{fds273383,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {The contribution of neuropsychology to psychiatry},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {6-15},
   Year = {1995},
   Abstract = {Objective: Neuropsychological test data are applied with
             increasing frequency, in research studies and clinical
             practice in psychiatry. This article addresses three popular
             assumptions about neuropsychological test data and describes
             the limitations and contributions of neuropsychological
             assessment of patients with psychiatric disorders. Method:
             All research articles from major journals in psychiatry and
             clinical psychology since 1991 that focused on
             neuropsychological assessment of psychiatric patients were
             reviewed. Other journals and earlier studies were reviewed
             selectively. Results: Neuropsychological test data have made
             significant contributions to the development of hypotheses
             about abnormal brain structure and function in patients with
             psychiatric disorders, yet many findings from
             neuropsychological assessments of psychiatric patients are
             misinterpreted. The extent to which neuropsychological test
             data in psychiatric populations can be interpreted to
             reflect abnormalities in brain structure and function is
             frequently exaggerated, as is the ability of
             neuropsychological measures to serve as specific cognitive
             probes in imaging studies of physiological activation. On
             the other hand, the utility of neuropsychological test
             batteries as measures of the patterns of cognitive strength
             and deficit in individuals with specific psychiatric
             disorders is frequently underestimated. Conclusions: In
             addition to testing models of regional brain dysfunction in
             psychiatric disorders, neuropsychological tests can provide
             researchers in psychiatry with an improved understanding of
             the relation between central cognitive impairments and
             symptoms and serve to identify cognitive predictors of
             course of illness, and they may provide a method for
             discriminating among heterogeneous forms of some psychiatric
             disorders. Clinically, neuropsychological test data can be
             used to develop treatment strategies tailored for an
             individual's specific cognitive strengths and
             deficits.},
   Key = {fds273383}
}

@article{fds273553,
   Author = {Davidson, M and Keefe, RSE},
   Title = {Cognitive impairment as a target for pharmacological
             treatment in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {123-129},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(95)00037-M},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(95)00037-M},
   Key = {fds273553}
}

@article{fds273555,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Roitman, SEL and Harvey, PD and Blum, CS and DuPre, RL and Prieto, DM and Davidson, M and Davis, KL},
   Title = {A pen-and-paper human analogue of a monkey prefrontal cortex
             activation task: spatial working memory in patients with
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-33},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(95)00027-J},
   Abstract = {In order to pursue the hypothesis that the dorsolateral
             prefrontal cortex is a source of cognitive deficit in
             schizophrenia, we developed an easily administered
             pen-and-paper human analogue of a visuospatial working
             memory task that in non-human primates activates the neurons
             of Walker area 46 (Goldman-Rakic, 1987). Compared to normal
             controls, schizophrenic patients made significantly greater
             errors in identifying where a visuospatial stimulus had been
             presented to them 30 and 60 seconds earlier, and these
             differences were significantly greater than in an immediate
             recall condition. These data suggest that schizophrenic
             patients have visuospatial working memory deficits that are
             sensitive to pen-and-paper versions of the tasks that
             activate the Walker area 46 in non-human primates. The
             availability of an easily administered test that may be
             associated with the functioning of the prefrontal cortex may
             enable more specific assessment of this brain region in
             humans. © 1995.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(95)00027-J},
   Key = {fds273555}
}

@article{fds327104,
   Author = {Frecska, E and Losonczy, MF and Keefe, RSE and Apter, S and Davidson, M and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Age dependent change of ventricular measures in
             schizophrenia: Cross-sectional analysis},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {704-705},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(94)90980-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(94)90980-6},
   Key = {fds327104}
}

@article{fds327105,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Blum, C and Roitman, SL and Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Working memory dysfunction in Kraepelinian
             schizophrenics},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {660-660},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(94)90820-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(94)90820-6},
   Key = {fds327105}
}

@article{fds327106,
   Author = {EPSTEIN, JI and KEEFE, RSE and ROITMAN, SEL and HARVEY, PD and DAVIDSON,
             M and SIEVER, LJ and MOHS, RC},
   Title = {NEUROLEPTIC EFFECTS ON CPT AND EYE TRACKING IN
             SCHIZOPHRENIA},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {674-674},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(94)90872-9},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(94)90872-9},
   Key = {fds327106}
}

@article{fds327107,
   Author = {Apter, SH and Keefe, RSE and Hirschowitz, J and Davidson, M and Macaluso, JM and Amato, R and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Longitudinal classification in schizophrenia: The
             relationship between kraepelinian and deficit syndrome
             subtypologies},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {695-695},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(94)90944-x},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-3223(94)90944-x},
   Key = {fds327107}
}

@article{fds327108,
   Author = {KEEFE, RSE and BLUM, C and HARVEY, PD and DAVIDSON, M and ROITMAN, SE and DAVIS, KL},
   Title = {WORKING-MEMORY DEFICITS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS WITH SEVERE
             SELF-CARE DYSFUNCTION},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {158-158},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds327108}
}

@article{fds327109,
   Author = {EPSTEIN, JI and KEEFE, RSE and HARVEY, PD and MOHS, RC and ROITMAN, SEL and DAVIDSON, M and SIEVER, LJ},
   Title = {THE EXTENT OF WORKING-MEMORY DEMANDS PREDICTS RESPONSE TO
             NEUROLEPTIC MEDICATION ON CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE
             TESTS},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153-154},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds327109}
}

@article{fds273550,
   Author = {Kahn, R and Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and Keefe, RSE and Apter, S and Neale, JM and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Neuropsychological correlates of central monoamine function
             in chronic schizophrenia: relationship between CSF
             metabolites and cognitive function},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {217-224},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(94)90015-9},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive deficits
             which in turn may be related to abnormal dopamine (DA)
             function. To examine possible associations between cognitive
             dysfunction and central DA activity in schizophrenia,
             neuropsychological measures (visuospatial and verbal recall;
             performance on the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST);
             visuospatial perception) were examined in 17 drug-free male
             schizophrenic patients and related to cerebrospinal fluid
             concentrations of the metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic
             acid (HVA)), serotonin, and norepinephrine. CSF HVA
             concentrations were correlated with the ability to recall
             visuospatial information, with attention to verbal tasks,
             and with WCST performance (low CSF HVA concentrations
             predicting poor performance on these tests) but not with the
             ability to recall verbally presented material and
             visuospatial perception. These data are consistent with
             earlier results suggesting that (cortical) DA function is
             associated with recall and retrieval of visuospatial
             information and with WCST performance. ©
             1994.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(94)90015-9},
   Key = {fds273550}
}

@article{fds273551,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Roitman, SEL and Harvey, PD and Duncan,
             MA and Alroy, D and Siever, LJ and Davis, KL and Mohs,
             RC},
   Title = {Performance of nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic
             patients on cognitive tests},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(94)90091-4},
   Abstract = {We tested 54 nonpsychotic first degree relatives of 23
             schizophrenic probands and 18 control subjects matched for
             age and education on several neuropsychological tests. The
             tests were selected to assess overall intellectual ability
             or because previous work indicated that they are
             particularly sensitive measures of cognitive dysfunction in
             schizophrenic patients. The relatives of schizophrenic
             patients performed significantly worse than the control
             subjects on tests of verbal fluency and on Trailmaking, part
             B. Each of these tests contributed unique variance to the
             discrimination between groups. The groups did not differ
             significantly on the number of perserverative errors on the
             Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Wechsler Adult Intelligence
             Scale-Revised block design or vocabulary, or Trailmaking,
             part A. Eight relatives who met DSM-III-R criteria for
             schizotypal personality disorder were more impaired than the
             remaining 46 relatives on letter fluency, but otherwise
             their performance was similar to that of nonschizotypal
             relatives. These data suggest that close relatives of
             schizophrenic patients may have subtle neuropsychological
             impairments that are not necessarily associated with
             clinical symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. ©
             1994.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(94)90091-4},
   Key = {fds273551}
}

@article{fds273552,
   Author = {Siever, LJ and Friedman, L and Moskowitz, J and Mitropoulou, V and Keefe, R and Roitman, SL and Merhige, D and Trestman, R and Silverman,
             J and Mohs, R},
   Title = {Eye movement impairment and schizotypal psychopathology},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {151},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1209-1215},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Objective: Eye movement dysfunction in relation to a smooth
             pursuit task has been documented in schizophrenic patients
             and in patients with the related personality disorder,
             schizotypal personality disorder. To investigate which
             quantitative measures are associated with the eye movement
             dysfunction and whether the dysfunction is more related to
             the psychotic- like or the deficit-like symptoms of
             schizotypal personality disorder, ratings of eye movements
             in several groups of subjects were compared. Method: The
             study groups consisted of 26 patients with schizotypal
             personality disorder, 42 patients with other personality
             disorders (22 who also had two or more schizotypal
             personality traits and 20 who had fewer than two), and 37
             normal comparison subjects. Smooth pursuit eye tracking of
             sinusoidal and constant velocity targets was recorded by an
             infrared eye tracking system. Two raters evaluated pursuit
             gain and large and small saccades in the direction of the
             target and in the direction opposite to that of the target
             (quantitative ratings) and constant velocity (qualitative
             rating). Results: Patients with schizotypal personality
             disorder and patients with other personality disorders and
             two or more schizotypal traits, but not those with fewer
             than two schizotypal traits, had significantly poorer
             qualitative ratings of tracking than the normal comparison
             subjects. Neither gain nor any of the saccadic measures
             significantly differed between groups. The number of large
             saccades in the direction of the target was the only
             quantitative variable that predicted low qualitative
             ratings. Qualitatively poor tracking was associated with the
             deficit-like, but not the psychotic-like, symptoms of
             schizotypal personality disorder. Conclusions: Patients with
             schizotypal personality disorder demonstrate qualitatively
             poorer tracking than comparison groups, and the impaired
             tracking is associated with deficit-like
             symptoms.},
   Key = {fds273552}
}

@article{fds273549,
   Author = {Siever, LJ and Kalus, OF and Keefe, RS},
   Title = {The boundaries of schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {The Psychiatric Clinics of North America},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {217-244},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0193-953x(18)30171-0},
   Abstract = {Evidence from a variety of domains including the
             phenomenologic, genetic, psychological, neuropsychological,
             psychophysiologic, neurochemical, imaging, outcome, and
             treatment response suggests that schizotypal personality
             disorder is related closely to chronic schizophrenia and
             that this disorder may be part of a continuum of
             schizophrenia-related disorders. Questions remain as to how
             the boundaries of schizophrenia should be defined. The
             commonalities across the schizophrenia spectrum as well as
             the differences between disorders on the spectrum need to be
             clarified further. A multidimensional approach to the
             pathogenesis of the schizophrenia-related disorders offers a
             beginning opportunity for such a clarification. The study of
             patients with schizotypal personality disorder suggest that
             a dimension of deficit-like or "negative" symptoms of
             asociality and interpersonal impairment may be associated
             with neuropsychological and psychophysiologic correlates of
             altered cortical, particularly frontal, function and raise
             the possibility in structural changes as reflected in
             increased ventricular size in frontal and third ventricle
             areas. On the other hand, the psychotic-like or "positive"
             symptoms seem to be more related to increases in
             dopaminergic activity that may be partially responsive to
             neuroleptic treatment. It is conceivable that these two
             dimensions may represent partially distinct but potentially
             interactive pathophysiologic processes that may converge and
             interact to result in chronic schizophrenia. In this way,
             the study of the boundaries of schizophrenia and the milder
             schizophrenia-related personality disorders may provide
             important clues as to the genetic and pathophysiology of
             chronic schizophrenia itself, as well as to illuminate a set
             of disorders that are clinically underrecognized but
             probably more prevalent than more severe forms of
             schizophrenia.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0193-953x(18)30171-0},
   Key = {fds273549}
}

@article{fds327110,
   Author = {DEVEGVAR, ML and KEEFE, RSE and MOSKOWITZ, J and LEES, S and KALUS, O and KNOTT, P and TRESTMAN, RL and SIEVER, LJ},
   Title = {PERFORMANCE ON TESTS SENSITIVE TO FRONTAL-LOBE DYSFUNCTION
             AND DEFICIT-LIKE SYMPTOMS IN SCHIZOTYPAL
             PERSONALITY-DISORDER},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6A},
   Pages = {A101-A101},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds327110}
}

@article{fds327111,
   Author = {KEEFE, RSE and BLUM, C and MERHIGE, DM and LEES, SE and ZOLOT, DM and DAVIDSON, M and HARVEY, PD and DAVIS, KL},
   Title = {TASKS FROM MONKEY CORTEX STUDIES AND SPECIFIC PREFRONTAL
             DYSFUNCTION IN SCHIZOPHRENIA},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6A},
   Pages = {A92-A92},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds327111}
}

@article{fds273548,
   Author = {Frecska, E and Losonczy, MF and Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Davidson, M and Davis, KL},
   Title = {The characteristics of poor outcome, 'Kraepelinian'
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {European Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {400},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0924-977X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0924-977X(93)90193-P},
   Doi = {10.1016/0924-977X(93)90193-P},
   Key = {fds273548}
}

@article{fds273547,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Lenzenweger, MF and Keefe, RS and Pogge, DL and Serper,
             MR and Mohs, RC},
   Title = {Empirical assessment of the factorial structure of clinical
             symptoms in schizophrenic patients: formal thought
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {141-151},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(92)90048-8},
   Abstract = {Male schizophrenic patients (n = 142) were examined with a
             clinical assessment of their language dysfunctions with the
             Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and
             Communication (TLC). Confirmatory factor analyses were
             conducted to test the relative fit of several differential
             theoretical models of the factorial structure of thought
             disorders. The models examined were positive-negative
             thought disorder, a three-factor model based on the results
             of an earlier exploratory factor analysis, and a simpler
             verbal productivity-disconnection model that can be
             extracted from other exploratory analyses and empirical
             studies. The positive-negative thought disorder model failed
             to fit the data, while the three-factor model fit the data,
             but no better than the simpler verbal productivity-disconnection
             model.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(92)90048-8},
   Key = {fds273547}
}

@article{fds327112,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Amin, F and Lees, SE and Duncan, A and Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and Siever, LJ and Mohs, RC and Davis,
             KL},
   Title = {Frontal functioning and plasma HVA in the relatives of
             schizophrenic patients},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {158-158},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(92)90244-y},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(92)90244-y},
   Key = {fds327112}
}

@article{fds327113,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Kahn, RS and Davidson, M and Mohs, RC and Keefe, RSE and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Dopaminergic correlates of attentional performance in
             unmedicated schizophrenic patients},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {136-136},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(92)90194-a},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(92)90194-a},
   Key = {fds327113}
}

@article{fds273545,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Harvey, PD and Lenzenweger, MF and Davidson, M and Apter,
             SH and Schmeidler, J and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Empirical assessment of the factorial structure of clinical
             symptoms in schizophrenia: Negative symptoms},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153-165},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(92)90049-9},
   Abstract = {The factor structure of the Scale for the Assessment of
             Negative Symptoms (SANS) was examined in a confirmatory
             factor analysis that used the LISREL procedure. Four models
             of negative symptom factors were tested in 130 hospitalized
             schizophrenic patients. A three-factor model of diminished
             expression, social dysfunction, and disorganization
             generated by the authors yielded a superior fit to the data
             relative to the two-factor model of Liddle (1987b) and a
             unifactorial severity model. A four-factor model based on
             the original subscale formulation of the SANS failed to fit
             the data. © 1992.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(92)90049-9},
   Key = {fds273545}
}

@article{fds273546,
   Author = {Davidson, M and Kahn, RS and Stern, RG and Harvey, PD and Keefe, R and Knott, P and Apter, S and Webster, L and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenic
             patients.},
   Journal = {Clinical Neuropharmacology},
   Volume = {15 Suppl 1 Pt A},
   Pages = {521A-522A},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds273546}
}

@article{fds327115,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and Mohs, RC and Keefe, RSE and Moskowitz, J and Knott, P and Duffelmeyer, M},
   Title = {Plasma HVA correlates of attentional performance in
             unmedicated schizophrenics},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {345-346},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(91)90258-s},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(91)90258-s},
   Key = {fds327115}
}

@article{fds327116,
   Author = {Frecska, E and Losonczy, M and Keefe, RSE and Silverman, JM and Davidson, M and Harvey, P and McQueeney, RT and Lobel, D and Apter, S and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Kraepelinian schizophrenia: A replication in an independent
             sample},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {257-257},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-9964(91)90108-4},
   Doi = {10.1016/0920-9964(91)90108-4},
   Key = {fds327116}
}

@article{fds273541,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Lobelc, DS and Mohs, RC and Silverman, JM and Harvey, PD and Davidson, M and Losonczy, MF and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Diagnostic issues in chronic schizophrenia: kraepelinian
             schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia, and
             state-independent negative symptoms},
   Journal = {Schizophrenia Research},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {71-79},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0920-9964},
   Abstract = {Data are presented concerning three recent clinical
             distinctions in schizophrenia: kraepelinian versus
             non-kraepelinian patients; mixed versus simple
             undifferentiated subtypes; and state-dependent versus
             state-independent negative symptoms. Schizophrenic patients
             who have been ill and dependent on others for the past 5
             years ('kraepelinians') were compared to other chronic
             schizophrenics. The kraepelinian patients met the criteria
             for schizophrenia by more diagnostic systems than other
             patients, were less responsive to haloperidol, had more
             severe negative symptoms and formal thought disorder, and
             had similarly severe positive symptoms. They also had
             cerebral ventricles that demonstrated more left-to-right
             asymmetry and a greater family history of schizophrenia
             spectrum disorders. Mixed undifferentiated schizophrenic
             patients, who met criteria for more than one schizophrenic
             subtype, were compared to simple undifferentiated
             schizophrenic patients, who met criteria for no subtype. The
             mixed group was characterized by more severe positive and
             negative symptoms and formal thought disorder, worse social
             functioning, and a worse response to haloperidol. In a
             subgroup of patients who were studied once while in a state
             of exacerbation and once while in a state of relative
             remission, the negative symptoms of inattention and
             affective flattening were state-dependent, while
             anhedonia-asociality was state-independent. ©
             1991.},
   Key = {fds273541}
}

@article{fds273542,
   Author = {Thaker, G and Moran, M and Cassady, S and Adami, H and Tamminga, C and Siever, LJ and Keefe, R and Bernstein, DP and Coccaro, EF and Klar, HM and Zemishlany, Z and Peterson, A and Davidson, M and Mahon, T and Horvath,
             T and Mohs, R},
   Title = {Normal smooth pursuit eye movements in volunteer subjects
             meeting schizotypal personality disorder criteria
             [16]},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {148},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1096-1097},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds273542}
}

@article{fds273543,
   Author = {Keefe, RS and Silverman, JM and Siever, LJ and Cornblatt,
             BA},
   Title = {Refining phenotype characterization in genetic linkage
             studies of schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Social biology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {197-218},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {A definitive replicable genetic linkage for a major locus
             underlying the susceptibility to schizophrenia has not been
             identified to date. Although there are several possible
             explanations for the failure to find linkage in
             schizophrenia, one major problem is that the range of
             phenotypic expressions of the genes for schizophrenia has
             not been clarified. A more refined understanding of the
             various phenotypic expressions of a gene related to
             schizophrenia would enhance the power of studies designed to
             detect a genetic linkage with a major chromosomal locus and
             would benefit other strategies for understanding the
             etiology of schizophrenia. The genes for schizophrenia may
             be frequently expressed in relatives of schizophrenic
             patients, although with less severe symptoms than those of
             chronic schizophrenia. Two series of findings support this
             notion. Nonschizophrenic relatives of schizophrenic patients
             demonstrate an increased incidence of nonpsychotic
             schizophrenia-like symptoms and traits, and they manifest
             deficit performances on several different laboratory tests
             of neurocognitive functioning. A more refined phenotypic
             expression of a schizophrenia-related gene may thus be
             indicated by personality traits and subclinical
             neurocognitive deficits. These personality traits and
             neurocognitive deficits are considered here as possible aids
             in the identification of affected cases in genetic linkage
             studies of schizophrenia. Terminology for different
             indicators of neurocognitive deficits is introduced, and the
             relative utility of personality traits and indicators of
             neurocognitive deficit for genetic linkage studies is
             discussed. As specific examples, schizophrenia-related
             personality traits that are unrelated to affective symptoms
             and performance deficits on tasks of eye tracking and
             continuous attention are considered for strategies for
             broadening phenotype characterization without reducing the
             specificity of affected case identification.},
   Key = {fds273543}
}

@article{fds273544,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Putnam, KM and Davidson, M and Kahn, RS and Powchik, P and McQueeney, R and Keefe, RSE and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Brief neuroleptic discontinuation and clinical symptoms in
             Kraepelinian and non-Kraepelinian chronic schizophrenic
             patients},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {285-292},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(91)90018-K},
   Abstract = {Neuroleptic medication was abruptly discontinued in 24 male
             chronic schizophrenic patients who were subdivided on the
             basis of their history of illness into Kraepelinian (n=8)
             and non-Kraepelinian (n=16) subgroups. These patients were
             kept drug free for 6 weeks and then returned to treatment
             with haloperidol, 20 mg/day. Half of the non-Kraepelinian
             patients developed exacerbations of their symptoms, which
             quickly resolved when they were returned to medication,
             while none of the Kraepelinian patients showed a worsening
             of symptomatology. On- medication clinical severity failed
             to predict risk for exacerbation, with severity of
             exacerbation predicting the amount of improvement when
             returned to medication. The Kraepelinian patients were found
             to be much less variable than the non- Kraepelinian patients
             in their symptoms during both medication manipulations,
             suggesting that medication truly has a negligible effect on
             them. © 1991.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(91)90018-K},
   Key = {fds273544}
}

@article{fds327114,
   Author = {CORNBLATT, BA and KEEFE, RSE},
   Title = {THE GENETICS OF MENTAL-ILLNESS - AN OVERVIEW},
   Journal = {Social Biology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {R1-R5},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds327114}
}

@article{fds327117,
   Author = {KEEFE, RSE and MOHS, RC and SILVERMAN, JM and LOSONCZY, MF and DAVIDSON,
             M and HORVATH, TB and DAVIS, KL},
   Title = {CHARACTERISTICS OF KRAEPELINIAN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND THEIR
             RELATION TO PREMORBID SOCIOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING},
   Journal = {NEUROLEPTIC-NONRESPONSIVE PATIENT : CHARACTERIZATION AND
             TREATMENT},
   Volume = {27},
   Pages = {1-+},
   Year = {1990},
   ISBN = {0-88048-461-6},
   Key = {fds327117}
}

@article{fds273538,
   Author = {Siever, LJ and Keefe, R and Bernstein, DP and Coccaro, EF and Klar, HM and Zemishlany, Z and Peterson, AE and Davidson, M and Mahon, T and Horvath,
             T and Mohs, R},
   Title = {Eye tracking impairment in clinically identified patients
             with schizotypal personality disorder},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {740-745},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Eye tracking accuracy, which has been found to be impaired
             in schizophrenic patients and their relatives, was assessed
             in 26 patients with schizotypal personality disorder, 17
             control subjects with other non-schizophrenia-related
             personality disorders, 29 normal control subjects, and 44
             schizophrenic patients. Both schizotypal and schizophrenic
             patients, but not control subjects with other personality
             disorders, demonstrated significantly more impaired tracking
             than the normal control subjects. These results suggest that
             patients with clinically defined schizotypal personality
             disorder may be biologically related to schizophrenic
             patients as part of a spectrum of schizophrenia-related
             disorders.},
   Key = {fds273538}
}

@article{fds273539,
   Author = {Harvey, PD and Keefe, RSE and Moskowitz, J and Putnam, KM and Mohs, RC and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Attentional markers of vulnerability to schizophrenia:
             Performance of medicated and unmedicated patients and
             normals},
   Journal = {Psychiatry Research},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-188},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0165-1781},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(90)90072-D},
   Abstract = {Medicated and unmedicated schizophrenic patients (both n's =
             14) were compared to a normal control sample (n = 15) on two
             attentional tasks hypothesized to be markers of
             vulnerability to schizophrenia. These tasks, the continuous
             performance test and the visual backward masking task, were
             found to be more deviant in schizophrenic patients than in
             normals. In addition, the group mean levels of performance
             did not differ consistently across medication status within
             the medicated patients. It was found, however, that the
             association between these tasks varied as a function of
             medication status, with unmedicated patients more similar to
             normals than to medicated patients. The implications of
             these results for the two tasks as markers are discussed,
             with special focus on those earlier studies that did not
             evaluate unmedicated patients. © 1990.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0165-1781(90)90072-D},
   Key = {fds273539}
}

@article{fds273540,
   Author = {Siever, LJ and Silverman, JM and Horvath, TB and Klar, H and Coccaro, E and Keefe, RSE and Pinkham, L and Rinaldi, P and Mohs, RC and Davis,
             KL},
   Title = {Increased morbid risk for schizophrenia-related disorders in
             relatives of schizotypal personality disordered
             patients},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {634-640},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   Abstract = {To evaluate whether probands from a clinical sample
             diagnosed as having DSM-III schizotypal and/or paranoid
             personality disorder have a familial relationship to the
             schizophrenia-related disorders, the morbid risk for
             schizophrenia-related disorders and other psychiatric
             disorders were evaluated In the first-degree relatives of
             patients with schizotypal and/or paranoid personality
             disorder and compared with the corresponding risk for these
             disorders In the first-degree relatives of patients with
             other non-schizophrenia-related personality disorders. The
             morbid risk for all schizophrenia-related disorders, and
             specifically for schizophrenia-related personality
             disorders, was significantly greater among the relatives of
             the probands with schizotypal and/or paranoid personality
             disorder than among the relatives of probands with other
             personality disorder. The morbid risk for other psychiatric
             disorders did not differ significantly between the
             first-degree relatives of the schizotypal/paranoid
             personality disorder and the other personality disorder
             control proband samples. These results suggest a specific
             familial association between schizophrenia-related
             disorders, particularly schizophrenia-related personality
             disorders, and clinically diagnosed schizotypal
             patients.},
   Key = {fds273540}
}

@article{fds273534,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Siever, LJ and Mohs, RC and Peterson, AE and Mahon, TR and Bergman, RL and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Eye tracking, schizophrenic symptoms, and schizotypal
             personality disorder},
   Journal = {European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {239},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-42},
   Year = {1989},
   ISSN = {0175-758X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01739742},
   Abstract = {Schizophrenic patients and patients with schizotypal
             personality disorder were significantly more likely than
             normal controls to demonstrate impaired eye tracking
             performance. Fifteen of 27 schizophrenics and 15 of 27
             schizotypals had impaired eye tracking, compared with 11 of
             39 normal controls. In the schizophrenic group, including 10
             out-patients in a stable state of relative remission,
             impaired eye tracking was associated with more severe formal
             thought disorder and more time spent in psychiatric
             hospitals. Among stable schizophrenic out-patients, poor eye
             tracking was related to more severe formal thought disorder
             and greater overall psychopathology. This pattern of results
             suggests a possible relation between eye tracking impairment
             and more severe enduring symptoms across the spectrum of
             schizophrenic and schizophrenia-related disorders. © 1989
             Springer-Verlag.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01739742},
   Key = {fds273534}
}

@article{fds273536,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Mohs, RC and Losonczy, MF and Davidson, MD and Silverman,
             JM and Horvath, TB and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Premorbid sociosexual functioning and long-term outcome in
             schizophrenia},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {206-211},
   Year = {1989},
   Abstract = {Chronic schizophrenic patients with the most severe social
             deterioration have been shown to differ from other chronic
             schizophrenic patients with respect to measures of
             left-to-right ventricular asymmetry, negative symptoms, and
             response to haloperidol treatment. In the current study, the
             authors investigated the social antecedents of these
             characteristics of very poor outcome schizophrenia in 69
             chronic schizophrenic patients. Poor premorbid sociosexual
             functioning was associated with more severe left-to-right
             ventricular asymmetry, greater severity of negative
             symptoms, fewer positive symptoms, and worse current social
             functioning. These data suggest that factors associated with
             severe social deterioration in the end stage of
             schizophrenia are also associated with premorbid sociosexual
             impairment.},
   Key = {fds273536}
}

@article{fds273537,
   Author = {Silverman, JM and Keefe, RS and Mohs, RC and Davis,
             KL},
   Title = {A study of the reliability of the family history method in
             genetic studies of Alzheimer disease.},
   Journal = {Alzheimer disease and associated disorders},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {218-223},
   Year = {1989},
   Abstract = {The reliability between 2 raters conducting independent
             family history interviews for Alzheimer disease-like and
             other dementias was investigated. The interviews were
             conducted at least 1 year apart with the second rater blind
             to the data collected by the first rater. Raters agreed on
             the presence and type of dementia in 153 relatives age 45 or
             older of 30 AD probands, the age at onset in secondary
             cases, and the age of nonaffected relatives.},
   Key = {fds273537}
}

@article{fds273535,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Mohs, RC and Davidson, M and Losonczy, MF and Silverman,
             JM and Lesser, JC and Horvath, TB and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Kraepelinian schizophrenia: A subgroup of
             schizophrenia?},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology Bulletin},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {56-61},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds273535}
}

@article{fds273531,
   Author = {Davidson, M and Keefe, RSE and Mohs, RC and Siever, LJ and Losonczy, MF and Horvath, TB and Davis, KL},
   Title = {L-Dopa challenge and relapse in schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {934-938},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Neuroleptic administration has been shown to be superior to
             placebo in prolonging schizophrenic remission. However,
             individual patients are able to maintain long periods of
             remission in the absence of neuroleptic treatment, while
             others relapse soon after neuroleptic withdrawal. This study
             attempted to predict time to relapse in 28 schizophrenic
             patients withdrawn from neuroleptics and challenged with
             L-dopa for 7 days, then followed until relapse. Time to
             relapse correlated significantly with L-dopa-induced
             increase in BPRS score (p = .006). Five of six patients who
             responded to L-dopa relapsed within 4 weeks after L-dopa
             administration, while only four of 22 who did not respond
             relapsed in a comparable period.},
   Key = {fds273531}
}

@article{fds273532,
   Author = {Silverman, JM and Mohs, RC and Davidson, M and Losonczy, MF and Keefe,
             RSE and Breitner, JCS and Sorokin, JE and Davis, KL},
   Title = {Familial schizophrenia and treatment response},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1271-1276},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {Thirty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia for whom
             hospitalization was clinically indicated received
             haloperidol for 4 to 6 weeks in a standardized dose
             schedule. Responders were compared with nonresponders for
             family history, baseline symptom factors, and
             ventricle-brain ratio (VBR). The lifetime risk for
             schizophrenia spectrum disorders was higher among
             first-degree relatives of nonresponders than among
             first-degree relatives of responders. Treatment responders
             had higher baselone scores on the factors of activation and
             hostile-suspiciousness, but the groups did not differ in any
             other baseline symptom factor or in VBR. The authors suggest
             that there is an association between failure to respond to
             drugs and genetic loading for schizophrenia spectrum
             disorders.},
   Key = {fds273532}
}

@article{fds273533,
   Author = {Keefe, RSE and Mohs, RC and Losonczy, MF and Davidson, M and Silverman,
             JM and Kendler, KS and Horvath, TB and Nora, R and Davis,
             KL},
   Title = {Characteristics of very poor outcome schizophrenia},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {889-895},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {The authors compared 21 'Kraepelinian' schizophrenic
             patients who had been ill and dependent on others for the
             past 5 years with 76 chronic schizophrenic patients in
             remission or with exacerbations requiring hospitalization.
             The Kraepelinian patients met the criteria for schizophrenia
             by more diagnostic systems than the exacerbated patients,
             were less responsive to haloperidol, had more severe
             negative symptoms, and had similarly severe positive
             symptoms. They had cerebral ventricles that were more
             asymmetrical and a greater family history of schizophrenia
             spectrum disorders than the other chronic patients. These
             data suggest that patients with 5 years of illness and
             complete dependency on others may represent a subgroup of
             schizophrenia.},
   Key = {fds273533}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds135058,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E. and Harvey, P.D. Schizophrenia. In: McGraw
             Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 9th edition
             (2001).},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135058}
}

@article{fds135059,
   Title = {Harvey, P.D., and Keefe, R.S.E. Studies of cognitive change
             with treatment in schizophrenia. American Journal of
             Psychiatry, 2001; 158: 176-184.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135059}
}

@article{fds135060,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E. Neurocognition. 2001: pp. 192-205, In Current
             Issues in the Psychopharmacology of Schizophrenia, Breier,
             A., et al, eds. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins:
             Philadelphia.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds135060}
}

@article{fds135039,
   Title = {McEvoy, J.P., and Keefe, R.S.E. Informing subjects of risks
             and benefits. 1999: pp. 129-157. In: Ethics in Psychiatric
             Research, H.A. Pincus, J.A. Lieberman, and S. Ferris, eds.,
             Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135039}
}

@article{fds135055,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E. The neurobiology of disturbances of the self:
             Autonoetic agnosia in schizophrenia. 1998: pp. 142-173. In:
             Insight and Psychosis, X.F. Amador and A. David, eds., New
             York: Oxford University Press.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135055}
}

@article{fds135056,
   Title = {Harvey, P.D., and Keefe, R.S.E. Cognition and the new
             antipsychotics. Journal of Advances in Schizophrenia and
             Brain Research 1998;1:2-8.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135056}
}

@article{fds135057,
   Title = {Davis, K.L., Buchsbaum, M.S., Shihabuddin, L.,
             Spiegel-Cohen, J., Metzger, M., Frecska, E., Keefe, R.S.,
             and Powchik, P. Ventricular enlargement in poor-outcome
             schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 1998;43:783-793.},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds135057}
}

@article{fds135042,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Silverman, J., Mohs, R.C., Siever, L.J,
             Harvey, P.D., Friedman, L., Lees Roitman S.E., DuPre R.L.,
             Smith C.J., Schmeidler, J., and Davis, K.L. Eye tracking,
             attention, and schizotypal personality symptoms in
             nonpsychotic relatives of schizophrenic patients. Archives
             of General Psychiatry 54: 169-177, 1997.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds135042}
}

@article{fds135035,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Practical applications of neuropsychology in
             clinical psychiatry. Directions in Psychiatry 1996;
             16(4):1-8.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135035}
}

@article{fds135036,
   Title = {Vocisano, C., Klein, D.N., Keefe, R.S.E., Dienst, E.R.,
             Kincaid, M.M. Demographics, family history, premorbid
             functioning, developmental characteristics, and course of
             patients with deteriorated affective disorder. American
             Journal of Psychiatry 1996:153:248-255.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135036}
}

@article{fds135037,
   Title = {Harvey, P.D., Keefe, R.S.E., Mitropolou, V., DuPre, R.L.,
             Lees Roitman, S.E., Mohs, R.C., and Siever, L.J. Information
             processing and vulnerability to schizophrenia: Performance
             of patients with schizotypal and nonschizotypal personality
             disorders. Psychiatry Research 1996;60:49-56.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135037}
}

@article{fds135038,
   Title = {Keefe R.S.E., and Cornblatt, B.A. Neuropsychology of
             Schizophrenia, edited by A.S. David and J.C. Cutting.
             Contemporary Psychology (in press).},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135038}
}

@article{fds135051,
   Title = {Epstein, J.I., Keefe, R.S.E., Lees Roitman, S.E., Harvey,
             P.D., and Mohs, R.C. Impact of neuroleptic medications on
             continuous performance test measures in schizophrenia.
             Biological Psychiatry 1996;39:902-905.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135051}
}

@article{fds135052,
   Title = {Harvey, P.D., Davidson, M., White, L., Keefe, R.S.E.,
             Hirschowitz, J., Mohs, R.C., and Davis, K.L. Empirical
             evaluation of the factorial structure of clinical symptoms
             in schizophrenia: Effects of typical neuroleptics on the
             BPRS. Biological Psychiatry 1996;40:755-761.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135052}
}

@article{fds135053,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Frecska, E., Apter, S., Davidson, M.,
             Hirschowitz, J., and Davis, K.L. Clinical characteristics of
             kraepelinian schizophrenia: Replication and extension of
             previous findings. American Journal of Psychiatry 1996; 153:
             806-811.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135053}
}

@article{fds135054,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E. Neuropsychological assessment of patients with
             schizophrenia. Clinical Advances in the Treatment of
             Psychiatric Disorders 1996; 10(5):16, 11-13.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds135054}
}

@article{fds135030,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Lees Roitman, S.E., Harvey, P.D. Blum, C.,
             DuPre, R.L., Davidson, M., and Davis, K.L. A pen-and-paper
             human analogue of a monkey prefrontal cortex activation
             task: spatial working memory in patients with schizophrenia.
             Schizophrenia Research, 1995; 17:25-33.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135030}
}

@article{fds135032,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E. The contribution of neuropsychology to
             psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry 1995;
             152:6-15.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135032}
}

@article{fds135033,
   Title = {Siever, L.J., Bergman, A.J., and Keefe, R.S.E. The
             schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders. In:
             Schizophrenia, S.R. Hirsch and D.R. Weinberger, eds., pp.
             87-105, Oxford: Blackwell University Press,
             1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135033}
}

@article{fds135034,
   Title = {Keefe R.S.E., and Cornblatt, B.A. Neuropsychology of
             Schizophrenia, edited by A.S. David and J.C. Cutting.
             Contemporary Psychology (in press).},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135034}
}

@article{fds135045,
   Title = {Yehuda R., Keefe, R.S.E., Harvey, P.D., Levengood, R.A.,
             Gerber D.K., Geni J., and Siever, L.J. Learning and memory
             deficits in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress
             disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 1995;
             152:137-139.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135045}
}

@article{fds135046,
   Title = {Davidson, M., Harvey, P.D., Powchik, P., Parrella, M.,
             White, L., Knobler, H.Y., Losonczy, M.F., Keefe, R.S.E.,
             Katz, S., and Frecska, E. Severity of symptoms in geriatric
             schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry 1995;
             152:197-207.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135046}
}

@article{fds135047,
   Title = {Wainberg, M.L. Keefe, R.S.E., Siever L.J. The
             neuropsychiatry of schizotypal personality disorder. In:
             Neuropsychiatry of Behavior Disorders, J.J. Ratey, ed., pp.
             210-229, Oxford: Blackwell University Press,
             1995.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135047}
}

@article{fds135048,
   Title = {Davidson, M., and Keefe, R.S.E. Cognitive impairment as a
             target for pharmacological treatment in schizophrenia.
             Schizophrenia Research 1995; 17:123-129.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135048}
}

@article{fds135049,
   Title = {Keefe, R. Progress in Experimental Personality and
             Psychopathology Research, vol. 15, edited by E.F. Walker,
             R.H. Dworkin, and B.A. Cornblatt. American Journal of
             Psychiatry 1995;152:288-289.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135049}
}

@article{fds135050,
   Title = {Trestman, R.L., Keefe, R.S.E., Mitropoulou, V., Harvey, P.D.
             deVegvar M.L., Lees Roitman, S.E., Davidson, M., Aaronson,
             A., Silverman, J.M., and Siever, L.J. Cognitive function and
             biological correlates of cognitive performance in
             schizotypal personality disorder. Psychiatry Research 1995;
             59:127-136.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds135050}
}

@article{fds135031,
   Title = {Kahn, R.S., Harvey P.D., Davidson, M., Keefe, R.S.E., Apter,
             S., Neale, J.M., Mohs, R.C., and Davis, K.L.
             Neuropsychological functioning correlates of central
             monoamine function in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophrenia
             Research. 1994; 11:217-224.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135031}
}

@article{fds135041,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Silverman, J.M., Lees Roitman, S.E., Harvey,
             P.D., Duncan, A., Alroy, D., Siever, L.J, Mohs, R.C., and
             Davis, K.L. Performance of nonpsychotic relatives of
             schizophrenic patients on cognitive tests. Psychiatry
             Research 1994; 53:1-12.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135041}
}

@article{fds135043,
   Title = {Siever, L.J., Freidman, L., Moskowitz, J., Mitropoulou, V.,
             Keefe, R.S.E., Lees Roitman, S, Merhige, D., Trestman, R.,
             Silverman, J.M., and Mohs, R.C. Eye movement impairment and
             schizotypal psychopathology. American Journal of Psychiatry
             1994; 151:1209-1216.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135043}
}

@article{fds135044,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., and Harvey P.D. (1994) Understanding
             Schizophrenia: A Guide to the New Research on Causes and
             Treatment, New York: The Free Press (Division of Simon and
             Schuster), 283 pp.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds135044}
}

@article{fds135040,
   Title = {Keefe, R.S.E., Mohs, R.C., Losonczy, M.F., Davidson, M.,
             Silverman, J.M., Kendler, K.S., Nora, R., Horvath, T.B., and
             Davis, K.L. Characteristics of very poor outcome
             schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 1987;
             144:889-895.},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds135040}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds326114,
   Author = {Vance, M and Pappadopulos, E and Keefe, R and Kalali,
             A},
   Title = {Conceptual issues in cultural adaptation and the role of
             culture in assessment of health-related quality of life in
             schizophrenia},
   Pages = {53-62},
   Booktitle = {Beyond Assessment of Quality of Life in Schizophrenia},
   Publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9783319300597},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30061-0_4},
   Abstract = {© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
             Before we begin a discussion about the role of culture in
             evaluating health-related quality of life in schizophrenia,
             let’s clarify some terms used in connection with
             measurement of psychiatric states and samples of behavior
             across clinical disciplines and related industries. For
             conceptual consistency of the discussion in this chapter,
             it’s important to understand how terminology from other
             scientific disciplines is used across healthcare and
             pharmaceutical industries that describes, or simply refers
             to, psychometric measurement and the tools that are used for
             such purpose.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-30061-0_4},
   Key = {fds326114}
}


Duke University * Arts & Sciences * Faculty * Staff * Grad * Postdocs * Reload * Login