Publications of Helen F. Ladd    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

We've launched a new site so please go to People & Research for current information on our faculty and staff.

%% Books   
@book{fds266832,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Fiske, EB},
   Title = {Handbook of Research in Education Finance and
             Policy},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {149-150},
   Publisher = {Routledge},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/edfp.2008.3.1.149},
   Doi = {10.1162/edfp.2008.3.1.149},
   Key = {fds266832}
}

@book{fds159054,
   Author = {Edward B. Fiske and Helen F. Ladd},
   Title = {Elusive Equity: Education Reform in Post Apartheid South
             Africa.},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds159054}
}

@book{fds266825,
   Author = {Fiske, EB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Elusive Equity: Education reform in post-Apartheid New
             Zealand},
   Pages = {269 pages},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2004},
   ISBN = {0815728409},
   Abstract = {"Elusive Equity" chronicles South Africas efforts
             to fashion a racially equitable state education system from
             the ashes of apartheid.},
   Key = {fds266825}
}

@book{fds12881,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Market-Based Reforms in Education},
   Publisher = {Economic Policy Institute: Washington, D.C.},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds12881}
}

@book{fds266826,
   Author = {Fiske, EB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {When Schools Compete},
   Pages = {342 pages},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {0815798490},
   Abstract = {Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this
             is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and
             qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform
             programs on an entire school system.},
   Key = {fds266826}
}

@book{fds266827,
   Author = {Fiske, EB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {When Schools Compete},
   Pages = {342 pages},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {0815798490},
   Abstract = {Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this
             is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and
             qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform
             programs on an entire school system.},
   Key = {fds266827}
}

@book{fds266839,
   Author = {Fiske, EB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {When Schools Compete},
   Pages = {342 pages},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {0815798490},
   Abstract = {Documenting ten years of reform efforts in New Zealand, this
             is the first book to provide detailed quantitative and
             qualitative analysis of the effects of school reform
             programs on an entire school system.},
   Key = {fds266839}
}

@book{fds12882,
   Author = {Edward B. Fiske and Helen F. Ladd},
   Title = {When Schools Compete: A Cautionary Tale},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds12882}
}

@book{fds143178,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Janet Hansen},
   Title = {Making Money Matter: Financing America's
             Schools},
   Journal = {National Academy of Sciences Press (Final report of the
             National Academy of Sciences Committee on Education
             Finance).},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds143178}
}

@book{fds143179,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd, and Janet Hansen and Rosemary A. Chalk},
   Title = {Equity and Adequacy in Education Finance: Issues and
             Perspectives},
   Journal = {National Academy of Sciences Press},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds143179}
}

@book{fds12883,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {The Challenge of Fiscal Disparities for State and
             Governments: The Selected Essays of Helen F.
             Ladd},
   Publisher = {Edward Elgar Publishing Limited},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds12883}
}

@book{fds266823,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The Challenge of Fiscal Disparities for State and Local
             Governments},
   Pages = {477 pages},
   Publisher = {Edward Elgar Pub},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {This outstanding selection of Helen Ladd's work provides an
             overview of the policy-oriented research she has conducted
             in the area of state and local public finance during the
             past twenty-five years.},
   Key = {fds266823}
}

@book{fds46485,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Local Government Tax and Land Use Policy: Understanding the
             Links (primary author and editor)},
   Publisher = {Edward Elgar Publishing Limited},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds46485}
}

@book{fds46486,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in
             Education (editor, author of introduction and coauthor of
             two chapters)},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds46486}
}

@book{fds266822,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Yinger, J},
   Title = {America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of
             Urban Policy},
   Pages = {348 pages},
   Publisher = {JHU Press},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {0801842441},
   Abstract = {Identifies and measures the impact in broad national trends
             such as the urbanization of poverty, the shift from
             manufacturing to services, and middle-class flight to the
             suburbs. (Politcs/Current Events)},
   Key = {fds266822}
}

@book{fds46487,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger},
   Title = {America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of
             Urban Policy},
   Publisher = {Johns Hopkins University Press},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds46487}
}

@book{fds46488,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger and Howard Bloom and Axel
             Borsch-Supan},
   Title = {Property Taxes and House Values: The Theory and Estimation
             of Intrajurisdictional Property Tax Capitalization},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds46488}
}

@book{fds46490,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Tax and Expenditure Limitations (author of introduction and
             co-editor with Nicolaus Tideman},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds46490}
}

@book{fds266824,
   Author = {Schafer, R and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Discrimination in Mortgage Lending},
   Pages = {407 pages},
   Publisher = {MIT Press (MA)},
   Year = {1981},
   Abstract = {This book substitutes rigorous and systematic analysis for
             the undocumented claims that have characterized the debate
             on "redlining"-the denial of mortgage money to
             poorer neighborhoods.},
   Key = {fds266824}
}


%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds326149,
   Author = {Holbein, JB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Accountability pressure: Regression discontinuity estimates
             of how No Child Left Behind influenced student
             behavior},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {58},
   Pages = {55-67},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2017.03.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.econedurev.2017.03.005},
   Key = {fds326149}
}

@article{fds325803,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Sorensen, LC},
   Title = {Returns to Teacher Experience: Student Achievement and
             Motivation in Middle School},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {241-279},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00194},
   Doi = {10.1162/EDFP_a_00194},
   Key = {fds325803}
}

@article{fds324675,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND: A DEEPLY FLAWED FEDERAL
             POLICY},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {461-469},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.21978},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.21978},
   Key = {fds324675}
}

@article{fds317801,
   Author = {Holbein, JB and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Accountability Pressure: Regression Discontinuity Estimates
             of How NCLB Affects Student Behavior},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   Abstract = {In this paper we examine how failing to make adequate yearly
             progress under No Child Left Behind (NCLB), and the
             accountability pressure that ensues, affects various
             non-achievement student behaviors. Using administrative data
             from North Carolina and leveraging a discontinuity in the
             determination of school failure, we examine the causal
             impact of accountability pressure both on student behaviors
             that are incentivized by NCLB and on those that are not. We
             find evidence that, as NCLB intends, pressure encourages
             students to show up at school and to do so on time.
             Accountability pressure also has the unintended effect,
             however, of increasing the number of student misbehaviors
             such as suspensions, fights, and offenses reportable to law
             enforcement. Further, this negative response is most
             pronounced among minorities and low performing students, who
             are the most likely to be left behind.},
   Key = {fds317801}
}

@article{fds317797,
   Author = {Brighouse, H and Ladd, HF and Loeb, S and Swift, A},
   Title = {Educational goods and values: A framework for decision
             makers},
   Journal = {Theory and Research in Education},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {3-25},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477878515620887},
   Doi = {10.1177/1477878515620887},
   Key = {fds317797}
}

@article{fds317798,
   Author = {Muschkin, CG and Ladd, HF and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Impact of North Carolinas Early Childhood Initiatives on
             Special Education Placements in Third Grade},
   Journal = {Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {478-500},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0162373714559096},
   Doi = {10.3102/0162373714559096},
   Key = {fds317798}
}

@article{fds317800,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, J},
   Title = {Public Universities, Equal Opportunity, and the Legacy of
             Jim Crow: Evidence from North Carolina},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   Abstract = {College attendance and completion in the U.S. are strongly
             correlated with race and socioeconomic background. Do public
             postsecondary institutions themselves exacerbate pre-college
             disparities, or reduce them? We address this question using
             longitudinal data linking the records of students at North
             Carolina’s public four-year universities to their public
             K-12 records. As a result of an institutional structure
             forged during the period of Jim Crow segregation, black
             students who attend the state’s public university system
             are likely to experience markedly more racial isolation in
             college than they did in middle school. Another, more
             positive consequence of this structure is to boost in-state
             public four-year college enrollment and graduation by
             African-American students relative to white students with
             similar backgrounds. Conditional on enrolling in one of the
             state’s public universities, however, black students lag
             behind whites in grades and graduation rates. Regarding
             socioeconomic background, we find that lower-status youth
             are less likely to enter the system and less likely to
             succeed once they enter than those with higher status. The
             socioeconomic gap in graduation rates among matriculants
             has, however, declined in recent years.<br><br>Institutional
             subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents
             of developing countries may download this paper without
             additional charge at <a href="http://www.nber.org/papers/&#119;21577"
             TARGET="_blank">www.nber.org</a>.<br>},
   Key = {fds317800}
}

@article{fds266821,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {The aftermath of accelerating algebra: Evidence from
             district policy initiatives},
   Journal = {The Journal of human resources},
   Pages = {159-188},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   Abstract = {© 2015 by the Board of Regents of the University of
             Wisconsin System. The proportion of students taking a first
             algebra course in middle school has doubled over the past
             generation and there have been calls to make eighth grade
             algebra universal. We use significant policy shifts in the
             timing of algebra in two large North Carolina districts to
             infer the impact of accelerated entry into algebra on
             student performance in math courses as students progress
             through high school. We find no evidence of a positive mean
             impact of acceleration in any specification and significant
             negative effects on performance in both Algebra I and the
             traditional followup course, Geometry. Accelerating algebra
             to middle school appears benign or beneficial for
             higherperforming students but unambiguously harmful to the
             lowest performers. We consider whether the effects reflect
             the reliance on less-qualified teachers and conclude that
             this mechanism explains only a small fraction of the
             result.},
   Key = {fds266821}
}

@article{fds266846,
   Author = {VIGDOR, JACOBL and LADD, HELENF and MARTINEZ, ERIKA},
   Title = {SCALING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: HOME COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY AND
             STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT},
   Journal = {Economic Inquiry},
   Pages = {1103-1119},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0095-2583},
   url = {http://www.nber.org/papers/w16078.pdf},
   Doi = {10.1111/ecin.12089},
   Key = {fds266846}
}

@article{fds289585,
   Author = {Vigdor, JL and Ladd, HF and Martinez, E},
   Title = {Scaling the digital divide: Home computer technology and
             student achievement},
   Journal = {Economic Inquiry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1103-1119},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0095-2583},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecin.12089},
   Abstract = {Does differential access to computer technology at home
             compound the educational disparities between rich and poor?
             Would a program of government provision of computers to
             early secondary school students reduce these disparities? We
             use administrative data on North Carolina public school
             students to corroborate earlier surveys that document broad
             racial and socioeconomic gaps in home computer access and
             use. Using within-student variation in home computer access,
             and across-ZIP code variation in the timing of the
             introduction of high-speed Internet service, we also
             demonstrate that the introduction of home computer
             technology is associated with modest, but statistically
             significant and persistent negative impacts on student math
             and reading test scores. Further evidence suggests that
             providing universal access to home computers and high-speed
             Internet access would broaden, rather than narrow, math and
             reading achievement gaps. © 2014 Western Economic
             Association International.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ecin.12089},
   Key = {fds289585}
}

@article{fds266850,
   Author = {Fuller, SC and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School-based accountability and the distribution of teacher
             quality across grades in elementary school},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {528-559},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00112},
   Abstract = {We use North Carolina data to explore whether the quality of
             teachers in the lower elementary grades (K-2) falls short of
             teacher quality in the upper grades (3-5) and to examine the
             hypothesis that school accountability pressures contribute
             to such quality shortfalls. Our concern with the early
             grades arises from recent studies highlighting how
             children's experiences in those years have lasting effects
             on their later outcomes. Using two credentials-based
             measures of teacher quality, we document within-school
             quality shortfalls in the lower grades, and show that the
             shortfalls increased with the introduction of No Child Left
             Behind. Consistent with that pattern, we find that schools
             responded to accountability pressures by moving their weaker
             teachers down to the lower grades and stronger teachers up
             to the higher grades. These findings support the view that
             accountability pressure induces schools to pursue actions
             that work to the disadvantage of children in the lower
             grades.© 2013 Association for Education Finance and
             Policy.},
   Doi = {10.1162/EDFP_a_00112},
   Key = {fds266850}
}

@misc{fds266849,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Muschkin, CG and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {From Birth to School: Early Childhood Initiatives and
             Third-Grade Outcomes in North Carolina},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {162-187},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.21734},
   Abstract = {This study examines the community-wide effects of two
             statewide early childhood policy initiatives in North
             Carolina. One initiative provides funding to improve the
             quality of child care services at the county level for all
             children between the ages of 0 to 5, and the other provides
             funding for preschool slots for disadvantaged
             four-year-olds. Differences across counties in the timing of
             the rollout and in the magnitude of the state financial
             investments per child provide the variation in programs
             needed to estimate their effects on schooling outcomes in
             third grade. We find robust positive effects of each program
             on third-grade test scores in both reading and math. These
             effects can best be explained by a combination of direct
             benefits for participants and spillover benefits for others.
             Our preferred models suggest that the combined average
             effects on test scores of investments in both programs at
             2009 funding levels are equivalent to two to four months of
             instruction in grade 3. © 2013 by the Association for
             Public Policy Analysis and Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.21734},
   Key = {fds266849}
}

@misc{fds266853,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Muschkin, CG and Vigdor,
             JL},
   Title = {Success in Community College: Do Institutions
             Differ?},
   Journal = {Research in Higher Education},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1-20},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0361-0365},
   url = {http://www.caldercenter.org/sites/default/files/wp74.pdf},
   Abstract = {Community colleges are complex organizations and assessing
             their performance, though important, is difficult. Compared
             to 4-year colleges and universities, community colleges
             serve a more diverse population and provide a wider variety
             of educational programs that include continuing education
             and technical training for adults, and diplomas, associates
             degrees, and transfer credits for recent high school
             graduates. Focusing solely on the latter programs of North
             Carolina's community colleges, we measure the success of
             each college along two dimensions: attainment of an applied
             diploma or degree; or completion of the coursework required
             to transfer to a 4-year college or university. We address
             three questions. First, how much variation is there across
             the institutions in these measures of student success?
             Second, how do these measures of success differ across
             institutions after we adjust for the characteristics of the
             enrolled students? Third, how do our measures compare to the
             measures of success used by the North Carolina Community
             College System? Although we find variation along both
             dimensions of success, we also find that part of this
             variation is attributable to differences in the kinds of
             students who attend various colleges. Once we correct for
             such differences, we find that it is not possible to
             distinguish most of the system's colleges from one another
             along either dimension. Top-performing institutions,
             however, can be distinguished from the most poorly
             performing ones. Finally, our adjusted rates of success show
             little correlation either to measurable aspects of the
             various colleges or to the metrics used by the state. ©
             2013 Springer Science+Business Media New
             York.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11162-013-9295-6},
   Key = {fds266853}
}

@article{fds304205,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {New destinations, new trajectories? The educational progress
             of Hispanic youth in North Carolina.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1608-1622},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22966926},
   Abstract = {Since 1990, Latin American immigrants to the United States
             have dispersed beyond traditional gateway regions to a
             number of "new destinations." Both theory and past empirical
             evidence provide mixed guidance as to whether the children
             of these immigrants are adversely affected by residing in a
             nontraditional destination. This study uses administrative
             public school data to study over 2,800 8- to 18-year-old
             Hispanic youth in one new destination, North Carolina.
             Conditional on third-grade socioeconomic indicators,
             Hispanic youth who arrive by age 9 and remain enrolled in
             North Carolina public schools close achievement gaps with
             socioeconomically similar White students by sixth grade and
             exhibit significantly lower high school dropout rates. Their
             performance resembles that of first-generation youth in more
             established immigration gateways.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01797.x},
   Key = {fds304205}
}

@misc{fds266868,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Clotfelter, CT and Vigdor, J},
   Title = {New Destinations, New Trajectories? The Educational Progress
             of Hispanic Youth in North Carolina, Special Section on
             Children from Immigrant Families},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1608-1622},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22966926},
   Abstract = {Since 1990, Latin American immigrants to the United States
             have dispersed beyond traditional gateway regions to a
             number of "new destinations." Both theory and past empirical
             evidence provide mixed guidance as to whether the children
             of these immigrants are adversely affected by residing in a
             nontraditional destination. This study uses administrative
             public school data to study over 2,800 8- to 18-year-old
             Hispanic youth in one new destination, North Carolina.
             Conditional on third-grade socioeconomic indicators,
             Hispanic youth who arrive by age 9 and remain enrolled in
             North Carolina public schools close achievement gaps with
             socioeconomically similar White students by sixth grade and
             exhibit significantly lower high school dropout rates. Their
             performance resembles that of first-generation youth in more
             established immigration gateways.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01797.x},
   Key = {fds266868}
}

@article{fds266874,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Education and Poverty: Confronting the Evidence,
             Presidential address to the Association for Public Policy
             Analysis and Management},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {203-227},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6650},
   Abstract = {Current U.S. policy initiatives to improve the U.S.
             education system, including No Child Left Behind, test-based
             evaluation of teachers, and the promotion of competition are
             misguided because they either deny or set to the side a
             basic body of evidence documenting that students from
             disadvantaged households on average perform less well in
             school than those from more advantaged families. Because
             these policy initiatives do not directly address the
             educational challenges experienced by disadvantaged
             students, they have contributed little-and are not likely to
             contribute much in the future-to raising overall student
             achievement or to reducing achievement and educational
             attainment gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged
             students. Moreover, such policies have the potential to do
             serious harm. Addressing the educational challenges faced by
             children from disadvantaged families will require a broader
             and bolder approach to education policy than the recent
             efforts to reform schools. © 2012 by the Association for
             Public Policy Analysis and Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.21615},
   Key = {fds266874}
}

@article{fds304204,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Education and Poverty: Confronting the Evidence},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {203-227},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6650 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Current U.S. policy initiatives to improve the U.S.
             education system, including No Child Left Behind, test-based
             evaluation of teachers, and the promotion of competition are
             misguided because they either deny or set to the side a
             basic body of evidence documenting that students from
             disadvantaged households on average perform less well in
             school than those from more advantaged families. Because
             these policy initiatives do not directly address the
             educational challenges experienced by disadvantaged
             students, they have contributed little-and are not likely to
             contribute much in the future-to raising overall student
             achievement or to reducing achievement and educational
             attainment gaps between advantaged and disadvantaged
             students. Moreover, such policies have the potential to do
             serious harm. Addressing the educational challenges faced by
             children from disadvantaged families will require a broader
             and bolder approach to education policy than the recent
             efforts to reform schools. © 2012 by the Association for
             Public Policy Analysis and Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.21615},
   Key = {fds304204}
}

@misc{fds204613,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Brookings volume},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds204613}
}

@article{fds266862,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Teachers' Perceptions of their Working Conditions: How
             Predictive of Planned and Actual teacher
             Movement?},
   Journal = {Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis},
   Volume = {33},
   Series = {Summer Issue},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {235-261},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0162-3737},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0162373711398128},
   Abstract = {This quantitative study examines the relationship between
             teachers' perceptions of their working conditions and their
             intended and actual departures from schools. Based on rich
             administrative data for North Carolina combined with a 2006
             statewide survey administered to all teachers in the state,
             the study documents that working conditions are highly
             predictive of teachers' intended movement away from their
             schools, independent of other school characteristics such as
             the racial mix of students. Moreover, school leadership,
             broadly defined, emerges as the most salient dimension of
             working conditions. Although teachers' perceptions of their
             working conditions are less predictive of one-year actual
             departure rates than of intended rates, their predictive
             power is still on a par with that of other school
             characteristics. The models are estimated separately for
             elementary, middle and high school teachers and generate
             some policy-relevant differences among the three levels. ©
             2011 AERA.},
   Doi = {10.3102/0162373711398128},
   Key = {fds266862}
}

@article{fds266863,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Fiske, EB},
   Title = {Weighted student funding in the Netherlands: A model for the
             U.S.?},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {30},
   Series = {Summer issue},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {470-498},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20589},
   Abstract = {Although a relatively new idea in the U.S., weighted student
             funding (WSF) for individual schools has a long history in
             the Netherlands. This country of about 16.5 million people
             has been using a version of WSF for all its primary schools
             (serving children from age 4 to 12) for 25 years. In this
             article we describe and evaluate the Dutch system and
             explore what insights there might be for the U.S., taking
             into account the very different cultural and normative
             contexts of the two countries. We find that, compared to
             those with few weighted students, Dutch schools with high
             proportions of weighted students have almost 60 percent more
             teachers per pupil as well as more support staff per
             teacher. Even these large resource advantages, however, are
             not sufficient by themselves to eliminate all quality
             shortfalls in the high-weight schools, where quality is
             measured by school policies and practices. We conclude that
             weighted student funding for schools within districts in the
             U.S. is not likely to deliver the same highly progressive
             funding patterns as in the Netherlands because of the
             complex, multilayered U.S. education system and the absence
             of a political consensus in favor of generous weights. ©
             2011 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and
             Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20589},
   Key = {fds266863}
}

@article{fds266866,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Teacher Mobility, school Segregation, and Pay-Based policies
             to level the playing field},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {6},
   Series = {Summer issue},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {399-438},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00040},
   Abstract = {Research has consistently shown that teacher quality is
             distributed very unevenly among schools, to the clear
             disadvantage of minority students and those from low-income
             families. Using North Carolina data on the length of time
             individual teachers remain in their schools, we examine the
             potential for using salary differentials to overcome this
             pattern. We conclude that salary differentials are a far
             less effective tool for retaining teachers with strong
             preservice qualifications than for retaining other teachers
             in schools with high proportions of minority students.
             Consequently large salary differences would be needed to
             level the playing field when schools are segregated. This
             conclusion reflects our finding that teachers with stronger
             qualifications are both more responsive to the racial and
             socioeconomic mix of a school's students and less responsive
             to salary than are their less-qualified counterparts when
             making decisions about remaining in their current school,
             moving to another school or district, or leaving the
             teaching profession. © 2011 Association for Education
             Finance and Policy.},
   Doi = {10.1162/EDFP_a_00040},
   Key = {fds266866}
}

@article{fds266833,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Education Inspectorate Systems in New Zealand and the
             Netherlands},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {378-392},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/EDFP_a_00005},
   Doi = {10.1162/EDFP_a_00005},
   Key = {fds266833}
}

@article{fds266835,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The Money Myth: School Resources, Outcomes, and
             Equity},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Literature},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {162-166},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0022-0515},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000277762000013&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds266835}
}

@article{fds171045,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles T. Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor},
   Title = {Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School:
             A Cross Subject Analysis with Fixed Effects},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Resources},
   Year = {2010},
   url = {http://jhr.uwpress.org/content/45/3/655.full.pdf+html},
   Key = {fds171045}
}

@article{fds266860,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Comment by Helen F. Ladd},
   Journal = {Brookings papers on economic activity},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {200-207},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0007-2303},
   Key = {fds266860}
}

@article{fds266861,
   Author = {Fiske, B and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The dutch experience with weighted student
             funding},
   Journal = {Phi Delta Kappan},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-53},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0031-7217},
   Key = {fds266861}
}

@article{fds266869,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Teacher credentials and student achievement in high school:
             A cross-subject analysis with student fixed
             effects},
   Journal = {The Journal of human resources},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {655-681},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   Abstract = {We use data on statewide end-of-course tests in North
             Carolina to examine the relationship between teacher
             credentials and student achievement at the high school
             level. We find compelling evidence that teacher credentials,
             particularly licensure and certification, affects student
             achievement in systematic ways and that the magnitudes are
             large enough to be policy relevant. Our findings imply that
             the uneven distribution of teacher credentials by race and
             socioeconomic status of high school students-a pattern we
             also document-contributes to achievement gaps in high
             school. In addition, some troubling findings emerge related
             to the gender and race of the teachers. © 2010 by the Board
             of Regents of the University of Wisconsin
             System.},
   Key = {fds266869}
}

@article{fds266875,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Lauen, DL},
   Title = {Status versus growth: The distributional effects of school
             accountability policies},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {426-450},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20504},
   Abstract = {Although the federal No Child Left Behind program judges the
             effectiveness of schools based on their students'
             achievement status, many policy analysts argue that schools
             should be measured, instead, by their students' achievement
             growth. Using a 10-year student-level panel data set from
             North Carolina, we examine how school-specific pressure
             associated with status and growth approaches to school
             accountability affect student achievement at different
             points in the prior-year achievement distribution.
             Achievement gains for students below the proficiency cut
             point emerge in schools failing either type of
             accountability standard, with the effects clearer for math
             than for reading. In contrast to prior research highlighting
             the possibility of educational triage, we find little or no
             evidence that failing schools in North Carolina ignore the
             students far below proficiency under either approach.
             Importantly, we find that the status, but not the growth,
             approach reduces the reading achievement of higher
             performing students. Our analysis suggests that the
             distributional effects of accountability pressure depend not
             only on the type of pressure for which schools are held
             accountable (status or growth), but also the tested subject.
             © 2010 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and
             Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20504},
   Key = {fds266875}
}

@article{fds266879,
   Author = {Ladd Edward and HF and Fiske, B},
   Title = {The Dutch Experience with Weighted Student Funding: Some
             Lessons for the U.S.},
   Journal = {Phi Delta Kappan},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds266879}
}

@article{fds266843,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {ARE TEACHER ABSENCES WORTH WORRYING ABOUT IN THE UNITED
             STATES?},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {115-149},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/edfp.2009.4.2.115},
   Doi = {10.1162/edfp.2009.4.2.115},
   Key = {fds266843}
}

@article{fds171042,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles T. Clotfelter and Jacob L.
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Are Teacher Absences Worth Worrying About in the
             U.S.?},
   Journal = {Journal of Education Finance},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {29},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds171042}
}

@article{fds266881,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF and Ross, SL},
   Title = {Public school choice and integration evidence from Durham,
             North Carolina},
   Journal = {Social Science Research},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {71-85},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0049-089X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.10.001},
   Abstract = {Using evidence from Durham, North Carolina, we examine the
             impact of school choice programs on racial and class-based
             segregation across schools. Reasonable assumptions about the
             distribution of preferences over race, class, and school
             characteristics suggest that the segregating choices of
             students from advantaged backgrounds are likely to outweigh
             any integrating choices by disadvantaged students. The
             results of our empirical analysis are consistent with these
             theoretical considerations. Using information on the actual
             schools students attend and on the schools in their assigned
             attendance zones, we find that schools in Durham are more
             segregated by race and class as a result of school choice
             programs than they would be if all students attended their
             geographically assigned schools. In addition, we find that
             the effects of choice on segregation by class are larger
             than the effects on segregation by race. © 2008 Elsevier
             Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ssresearch.2008.10.001},
   Key = {fds266881}
}

@article{fds266882,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF and Ross, SL},
   Title = {The effects of public school choice on those left behind:
             Evidence from Durham, North Carolina},
   Journal = {Peabody Journal of Education},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {130-149},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0161-956X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01619560902810104},
   Abstract = {Using student-level data from Durham, North Carolina, we
             examine the potential impact of school choice programs on
             the peer environments of students who remain in their
             geographically assigned schools. We examine whether the
             likelihood of opting out of one's geographically assigned
             school differs across groups and compare the actual peer
             composition in neighborhood schools to what the peer
             composition in those schools would be under a counterfactual
             scenario in which all students attend their geographically
             assigned schools. We find that many advantaged students have
             used school choice programs in Durham to opt out of assigned
             schools with concentrations of disadvantaged students and to
             attend schools with higher achieving students. Comparisons
             of actual peer compositions with the counterfactual scenario
             indicate only small differences in peer composition for
             nonchoosers on average. More substantial differences in peer
             environment emerge, however, for students in schools with
             concentrations of disadvantaged students and schools located
             near choice schools attractive to high achievers. The
             results suggest that expansions of parental choice may have
             significant adverse effects on the peer environments of a
             particularly vulnerable group of students.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01619560902810104},
   Key = {fds266882}
}

@article{fds266883,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {The academic achievement gap in grades 3 to
             8},
   Journal = {Review of Economics and Statistics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {398-419},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0034-6535},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/rest.91.2.398},
   Abstract = {Using data for North Carolina public school students in
             grades 3 to 8, we examine achievement gaps between white
             students and students from other racial and ethnic groups.
             We focus on cohorts of students who stay in the state's
             public schools for all six years. While the black-white gaps
             are sizable and robust, both Hispanic and Asian students
             tend to gain on whites as they progress in school. Beyond
             simple mean differences, we find that the racial gaps in
             math between low-performing students have tended to shrink
             as students progress through school, while those for
             high-performing students have generally widened. © 2009 by
             the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the
             Massachusetts Institute of Technology.},
   Doi = {10.1162/rest.91.2.398},
   Key = {fds266883}
}

@article{fds266844,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School policies and the test score gap},
   Pages = {289-319},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {On average, black students in the United States achieve at
             lower levels than white students do. Recent evidence from
             the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)
             indicates, for example, that in 2004 the gap between
             thirteen-year-old black and white students was about 0.6
             standard deviation in reading and about 0.8 in math. To be
             sure, such gaps were far larger in the 1970s, when they
             exceeded a full standard deviation in both subjects. The
             gaps fell dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s, increased
             during the early 1990s, and then fell again between 1999 and
             2004. These ups and downs notwithstanding, the persistence
             of these gaps is cause for significant policy concern for
             reasons discussed elsewhere in this book and in Christopher
             Jencks and Meredith Phillips (1998). This volume has drawn
             attention to school-related trends such as in the racial
             segregation of the schools and the widening disparities in
             teacher qualifications between black and white students,
             especially at the elementary level, that may have stalled
             the convergence of the black and white test scores in the
             1990s (see Vigdor and Ludwig, chapter 5, and Corcoran and
             Evans, chapter 6, this volume). This chapter picks up from
             that analysis and asks what educational policies might be
             pursued moving forward to help reduce the black-white test
             score gap, or at least to offset some of the other trends
             that may tend to widen it, such as rising income and social
             inequality. Of particular interest for this review are
             school policies and strategies that have been proposed or
             justified-at least in part-on the basis of their potential
             for reducing black-white test score gaps. As will become
             apparent, not all the proposed strategies are likely to be
             effective in that regard and their net effect on the size of
             the gap is likely to be relatively small. This discussion is
             divided into five sets of policy strategies. The first two
             focus on teachers, but from quite different perspectives.
             One set relates to the assignment of students to schools,
             with attention to how racial segregation of students affects
             the quality of teachers for black students relative to white
             students. The other focuses on more direct interventions
             designed to improve the quality of the teachers of black
             students. The third set includes the nonteacher strategies
             of reducing class size and implementing whole school reform.
             The fourth and fifth sets emerge from a more systemic view
             of the educational challenge and are designed to change the
             incentives throughout the education system. Included here
             are both top-down accountability strategies designed to hold
             schools accountable for the performance of their students
             and bottom up strategies such as increased parental choice
             and competition designed either to improve schooling options
             for certain groups of students or to make use of market type
             pressures to improve educational outcomes. The main thrust
             of this chapter is that though none of the strategies
             discussed here is likely to be powerful enough to offset the
             powerful nonschool social forces that contribute to the
             racial achievement gap, school related strategies are a
             necessary component of any overall effort to reduce such
             gaps. Moreover, the failure of education policy makers to be
             vigilant about the aspects of the problem over which they do
             have some control could well lead to even greater gaps in
             the future or to lost opportunities to reduce them.
             Copyright © 2008 by Russell Sage Foundation.},
   Key = {fds266844}
}

@article{fds266859,
   Author = {Atkinson, AB and Cnossen, S and Ladd, HF and Mieszkowski, P and Pestieau, P and Samuelson, PA},
   Title = {Commemorating Richard Musgrave (1910-2007)},
   Journal = {Finanz-archiv : Zeitschrift fur das Gesamte
             Finanzwesen},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {145-170},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0015-2218},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1628/001522108X334821},
   Doi = {10.1628/001522108X334821},
   Key = {fds266859}
}

@article{fds266876,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {School Segregation Under Color-blind Jurisprudence: The Case
             of North Carolina},
   Journal = {Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the
             Law},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds266876}
}

@article{fds266884,
   Author = {Cordes, J and Conger, D and Ladd, H and Luger, M},
   Title = {Undergraduate and doctoral education in public policy: What?
             Why? Why not? Whereto?},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1009-1026},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20370},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20370},
   Key = {fds266884}
}

@article{fds266885,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Reflections on Equity, Adequacy, and Weighted Student
             Funding},
   Journal = {Journal of Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {402-423},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds266885}
}

@article{fds266886,
   Author = {Clotfelter, C and Glennie, E and Ladd, H and Vigdor,
             J},
   Title = {Would higher salaries keep teachers in high-poverty schools?
             Evidence from a policy intervention in North
             Carolina},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Economics},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {1352-1370},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0047-2727},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.07.003},
   Abstract = {For a three-year time period beginning in 2001, North
             Carolina awarded an annual bonus of $1800 to certified math,
             science and special education teachers working in public
             secondary schools with either high-poverty rates or low test
             scores. Using longitudinal data on teachers, we estimate
             hazard models that identify the impact of this differential
             pay by comparing turnover patterns before and after the
             program's implementation, across eligible and ineligible
             categories of teachers, and across eligible and
             barely-ineligible schools. Results suggest that this bonus
             payment was sufficient to reduce mean turnover rates of the
             targeted teachers by 17%. Experienced teachers exhibited the
             strongest response to the program. Finally, the effect of
             the program may have been at least partly undermined by the
             state's failure to fully educate teachers regarding the
             eligibility criteria. Our estimates most likely underpredict
             the potential outcome of a program of permanent salary
             differentials operating under complete information. © 2007
             Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpubeco.2007.07.003},
   Key = {fds266886}
}

@article{fds266888,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Glennie, EJ and Ladd, HF and Vigdor,
             JL},
   Title = {Teacher bonuses and teacher retention in low-performing
             schools: Evidence from the North Carolina $1,800 teacher
             bonus program},
   Journal = {Public Finance Review},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-87},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1091-1421},
   url = {http://pfr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/36/1/63},
   Abstract = {Between 2001 and 2004, the state of North Carolina gave an
             annual salary bonus of $1,800 to certified math, science,
             and special education teachers in a set of low-performing
             and/or high-poverty secondary schools. Eligible teachers
             were to continue receiving the bonus as long as they
             continued in the school. In a survey of teachers and
             principals, the authors find evidence that school personnel
             favor the use of monetary incentives to increase the
             attractiveness of their workplace but were skeptical that
             the amount of the bonus would be sufficient to reduce the
             high turnover rates in their schools. Preliminary evidence
             on turnover rates supports this skepticism. Given that the
             survey evidence reveals widespread misunderstanding of the
             retention incentives incorporated into the program, the
             authors conclude that the bonus program was hampered by a
             series of flaws in design and implementation. © 2008 Sage
             Publications.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1091142106291662},
   Key = {fds266888}
}

@article{fds266892,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL and Wheeler,
             J},
   Title = {High Poverty Schools and the Distribution of Teachers and
             Principals},
   Journal = {North Carolina Law Review},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1345-1380},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.pubpol.duke.edu/research/papers/SAN06-08.pdf},
   Key = {fds266892}
}

@article{fds266870,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Figlio, D},
   Title = {The Economics of School Accountability},
   Journal = {International Encyclopedia of Education},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds266870}
}

@article{fds266877,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Teacher credentials and student achievement: Longitudinal
             analysis with student fixed effects},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Pages = {673-682},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0272-7757},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.10.002},
   Abstract = {We use a rich administrative dataset from North Carolina to
             explore questions related to the relationship between
             teacher characteristics and credentials on the one hand and
             student achievement on the other. Though the basic questions
             underlying this research are not new-and, indeed, have been
             explored in many papers over the years within the rubric of
             the "education production function"-the availability of data
             on all teachers and students in North Carolina over a
             10-year period allows us to explore them in more detail than
             has been possible in previous studies. We conclude that a
             teacher's experience, test scores and regular licensure all
             have positive effects on student achievement, with larger
             effects for math than for reading. Taken together the
             various teacher credentials exhibit quite large effects on
             math achievement, whether compared to the effects of changes
             in class size or to the socio-economic characteristics of
             students.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.econedurev.2007.10.002},
   Key = {fds266877}
}

@article{fds266887,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School choice, racial segregation, and test-score gaps:
             Evidence from North Carolina's charter school
             program},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-56},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20226},
   Abstract = {Using panel data that track individual students from year to
             year, we examine the effects of charter schools in North
             Carolina on racial segregation and black-white test score
             gaps. We find that North Carolina's system of charter
             schools has increased the racial isolation of both black and
             white students, and has widened the achievement gap.
             Moreover, the relatively large negative effects of charter
             schools on the achievement of black students is driven by
             students who transfer into charter schools that are more
             racially isolated than the schools they have left. Our
             analysis of charter school choices suggests that asymmetric
             preferences of black and white charter school students (and
             their families) for schools of different racial compositions
             help to explain why there are so few racially balanced
             charter schools. © 2006 by the Association for Public
             Policy Analysis and Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20226},
   Key = {fds266887}
}

@article{fds266890,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Teacher labor markets in developed countries},
   Journal = {The Future of children / Center for the Future of Children,
             the David and Lucile Packard Foundation},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {201-217},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1054-8289},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/foc.2007.0006},
   Abstract = {Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the
             world's industrialized countries are using to assure a
             supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S.
             educational policies and practices into international
             perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries - an
             obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps
             surprisingly, that students in countries with high teacher
             salaries do not in general perform better on international
             tests than those in countries with lower salaries. Ladd does
             find, however, that the share of underqualified teachers in
             a country is closely related to salary. In high-salary
             countries like Germany, Japan, and Korea, for example, only
             4 percent of teachers are underqualified, as against more
             than 10 percent in the United States, where teacher
             salaries, Ladd notes, are low relative to those in other
             industrialized countries. Teacher shortages also appear to
             stem from policies that make salaries uniform across
             academic subject areas and across geographic regions.
             Shortages are especially common in math and science, in
             large cities, and in rural areas. Among the policy
             strategies proposed to deal with such shortages is to pay
             teachers different salaries according to their subject area.
             Many countries are also experimenting with financial
             incentive packages, including bonuses and loans, for
             teachers in specific subjects or geographic areas. Ladd
             notes that many developed countries are trying to attract
             teachers by providing alternative routes into teaching,
             often through special programs in traditional teacher
             training institutions and through adult education or
             distance learning programs. To reduce attrition among new
             teachers, many developed countries have also been using
             formal induction or mentoring programs as a way to improve
             new teachers' chances of success. Ladd highlights the need
             to look beyond a single policy, such as higher salaries, in
             favor of broad packages that address teacher preparation and
             certification, working conditions, the challenges facing new
             teachers, and the distribution of teachers across geographic
             areas.},
   Doi = {10.1353/foc.2007.0006},
   Key = {fds266890}
}

@article{fds266828,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The Impacts of Charter Schools on Student Achievement:
             Evidence from North Carolina},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {50-90},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1557-3060},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/edfp.2006.1.1.50},
   Doi = {10.1162/edfp.2006.1.1.50},
   Key = {fds266828}
}

@article{fds266858,
   Author = {Fiske, E and Ladd, H},
   Title = {Racial equity in education: How far has South Africa
             come?},
   Journal = {Perspectives in Education},
   Volume = {24},
   Series = {Special Issue on Education Finance},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {95-108},
   Editor = {Jonathan Jansen},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0258-2236},
   Abstract = {A major task of South Africa's new government in 1994 was to
             design a more racially equitable education system. This
             article evaluates progress towards this goal using three
             concepts of equity: equal treatment by race, equal
             educational opportunity, and educational adequacy. The
             authors find that the country moved quickly towards a
             race-blind system, including race-blind policies for
             allocating state funds to schools. Progress measured by the
             other two criteria, however, has been constrained by the
             legacy of apartheid, including poor facilities and lack of
             human capacity in schools serving black students, and by
             policies concerning school fees. The article concludes with
             some thoughts on the future outlook.},
   Key = {fds266858}
}

@article{fds266865,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Vigdor, JL and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Federal oversight, local control, and the specter of
             "resegregation" in Southern schools},
   Journal = {American Law and Economics Review},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {347-389},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {1465-7252},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6930 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Analyzing data for the 100 largest districts in the South
             and Border states, we ask whether there is evidence of
             "resegregation" of school districts and whether levels of
             segregation can be linked to judicial decisions. We
             distinguish segregation measures based on racial isolation
             from those based on racial imbalance. Only one measure of
             racial isolation suggests that districts in these regions
             experienced resegregation between 1994 and 2004, and changes
             in this measure appear to be driven largely by the rising
             nonwhite percentage in the student population rather than by
             district policies. Although we find no time trend in racial
             imbalance over this period, we find that variations in
             racial imbalance across districts are nonetheless associated
             with judicial declarations of unitary status, suggesting
             that segregation in schools might have declined had it not
             been for the actions of federal courts. © 2006 Oxford
             University Press.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aler/ahl002},
   Key = {fds266865}
}

@article{fds266878,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Teacher-student matching and the assessment of teacher
             effectiveness},
   Journal = {The Journal of human resources},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {778-820},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   url = {http://www.nber.org/papers/w11936},
   Abstract = {Administrative data on fifth grade students in North
             Carolina shows that more highly qualified teachers tend to
             be matched with more advantaged students, both across
             schools and in many cases within them. This matching biases
             estimates of the relationship between teacher
             characteristics and achievement; we isolate this bias in
             part by focusing on schools where students are distributed
             relatively evenly across classrooms. Teacher experience is
             consistently associated with achievement; teacher licensure
             test scores associate with math achievement. These returns
             display a form of heterogeneity across students that may
             help explain why the observed form of teacher-student
             matching persists in equilibrium. © 2006 by the Board of
             Regents of the University of Wisconsin System.},
   Key = {fds266878}
}

@article{fds266898,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Institutional change and coproduction of public services:
             The effect of charter schools on parental
             involvement},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Administration Research and
             Theory},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {553-576},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1053-1858},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6651 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Recent discussions of school choice have revived arguments
             that the decentralization of governing institutions can
             enhance the quality of public services by increasing the
             participation of intended beneficiaries in the production of
             those services. We use data from the Schools and Staffing
             Survey to examine the extent to which the decentralization
             of authority to charter schools induces parents to become
             more involved in their children's schools. We find that
             parents are indeed more involved in charter schools than in
             observationally similar public schools, especially in urban
             elementary and middle schools. Although we find that this
             difference is partly attributable to measurable
             institutional and organizational factors, we also find that
             charter schools tend to be established in areas with
             above-average proportions of involved parents, and we find
             suggestive evidence that, within those areas, it is the more
             involved parents who tend to select into charter schools.
             Thus, while the institutional characteristics of charter
             schools do appear to induce parents to become more involved
             in their children's schools, such characteristics are only
             part of the explanation for the greater parental involvement
             in charter schools than in traditional public schools. ©
             The Author 2005. Published by Oxford University Press. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/jopart/muj001},
   Key = {fds266898}
}

@article{fds266894,
   Author = {Bifulco, HFLWR},
   Title = {Results [about charter schools] from the Tar Heel
             State},
   Journal = {Education Next},
   Pages = {60-66},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds266894}
}

@article{fds266836,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Obedient servants? Management freedoms and accountabilities
             in the New Zealand public sector},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {193-196},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000225585600015&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20080},
   Key = {fds266836}
}

@article{fds266857,
   Author = {Bifulco, R and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Results from the tar heel state},
   Journal = {Education Next: a journal of opinion and
             research},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {60-66},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1539-9672},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6990 Duke open
             access},
   Key = {fds266857}
}

@article{fds266889,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, J},
   Title = {Who teaches whom? Race and the distribution of novice
             teachers},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {377-392},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6VB9-4FNP2N4-1-K&_cdi=5921&_user=38557&_orig=browse&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2005&_sk=999759995&view=c&wchp=dGLbVzz-zSkWz&_valck=1&md5=59875a0413682cdf8d72808d247a2bd4&ie=/sdarticle.pdf},
   Abstract = {This paper focuses on one potentially important contributor
             to the achievement gap between black and white students,
             differences in their exposure to novice teachers. We present
             a model that explores the pressures that may lead school
             administrators to distribute novice teachers unequally
             across or within schools. Using a rich micro-level data set
             provided by the North Carolina Department of Public
             Instruction, we find that novice teachers are distributed
             among schools and among classrooms within schools in a way
             that disadvantages black students. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.econedurev.2004.06.008},
   Key = {fds266889}
}

@article{fds266847,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Comment: The partially subsidized muse: Estimating the value
             and incidence of public support received by nonprofit arts
             organizations},
   Journal = {City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick
             Netzer},
   Pages = {241-243},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781845421632.00015},
   Doi = {10.4337/9781845421632.00015},
   Key = {fds266847}
}

@article{fds266873,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL and Diaz,
             RA},
   Title = {Do School Accountability Systems Make It More Difficult for
             Low-Performing Schools to Attract and Retain High-Quality
             Teachers?},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {251-271},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20003},
   Abstract = {Administrative data from North Carolina are used to explore
             the extent to which that state's relatively sophisticated
             school-based accountability system has exacerbated the
             challenges that schools serving low-performing students face
             in retaining and attracting high-quality teachers. Most
             clear are the adverse effects on retention rates, and hence
             on teacher turnover, in such schools. Less clear is the
             extent to which that higher turnover has translated into a
             decline in the average qualifications of the teachers in the
             low-performing schools. Other states with more primitive
             accountability systems can expect even greater adverse
             effects on teacher turnover in low-performing schools. ©
             2004 by the Association for Public Policy Analysis and
             Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.20003},
   Key = {fds266873}
}

@article{fds266891,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Segregation and Resegregation in North Carolina's Public
             School Classrooms},
   Journal = {North Carolina Law Review},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1463-1511},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds266891}
}

@article{fds266895,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Fiske, EB},
   Title = {Does competition improve teaching and learning? Evidence
             from New Zealand},
   Journal = {Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-112},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {Spring},
   Abstract = {Central to the argument for more competition in education is
             that it will induce schools to provide higher quality
             education at no greater cost. This article sheds new light
             on this issue by measuring how competition among New
             Zealand's schools affected student learning as perceived by
             teachers and principals. The analysis builds on the fact
             that New Zealand's introduction of full parental choice in
             1992 increased competitive pressures more for some schools
             than for others. With careful attention to various potential
             threats to validity, we conclude that competition - as
             perceived by teachers generated negative effects on the
             quality of student learning and other aspects of schooling
             in New Zealand's elementary schools.},
   Key = {fds266895}
}

@article{fds46504,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {School Vouchers: A Critical View},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Perspectives},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {3-24},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds46504}
}

@article{fds266897,
   Author = {Walsh, HFLWR},
   Title = {Implementing Value-Added Measures of School Effectiveness:
             Getting the Incentives Right},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-17},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds266897}
}

@article{fds266871,
   Author = {Johnson, HFLWM and Ludwig, J},
   Title = {The Benefits and Costs of Residenital Mobility Programs for
             the Poor},
   Journal = {Housing Studies},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {125-138},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds266871}
}

@article{fds266899,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Zelli, A},
   Title = {School-based accountability in North Carolina: The responses
             of school principals},
   Journal = {Educational Administration Quarterly},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {494-529},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001316102237670},
   Abstract = {Surprisingly little is known about the impact of
             school-based accountability systems, which are one component
             of the larger standards-based reform effort in education.
             Using two waves of survey data from a random sample of
             school principals in North Carolina, the authors investigate
             the reported behavioral responses of principals to that
             state's highly touted accountability system. Their analysis
             indicates that the state's ABCs program is a powerful tool
             for changing the behavior of school principals in both
             intended and unintended ways. Because of its power, the
             authors conclude that policy makers should use such a tool
             cautiously.},
   Doi = {10.1177/001316102237670},
   Key = {fds266899}
}

@article{fds266938,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School Based Educational Accountability Systems: The Promise
             and the Pitfalls},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Volume = {LIV},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {385-400},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266938}
}

@article{fds266893,
   Author = {Ludwig, HFLWJ and Duncan, G},
   Title = {The Effects of Urban Poverty on Educational Outcomes:
             Evidence from a Randomized Experiment},
   Journal = {Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs},
   Volume = {2},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds266893}
}

@article{fds266896,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Fiske, EB},
   Title = {The uneven playing field of school choice: Evidence from New
             Zealand},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-64},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {Winter},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6688(200124)20:1<43::AID-PAM1003>3.0.CO;2-4},
   Abstract = {New Zealand's 10-year experience with self-governing schools
             operating in a competitive environment provides new insights
             into school choice initiatives now being hotly debated in
             the United States with limited evidence. This article
             examines how New Zealand's system of parental choice of
             schools played out in that country's three major urban areas
             with particular emphasis on the sorting of students by
             ethnic and socioeconomic status. The analysis documents that
             schools with large initial proportions of minorities (Maori
             and Pacific Island students in the New Zealand context) were
             at a clear disadvantage in the educational market place
             relative to other schools and that the effect was to
             generate a system in which gaps between the "successful" and
             the "unsuccessful" schools became wider. © 2001 by the
             Association for Public Policy Analysis and
             Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1520-6688(200124)20:1<43::AID-PAM1003>3.0.CO;2-4},
   Key = {fds266896}
}

@article{fds266937,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Murray, SE},
   Title = {Intergenerational conflict reconsidered: County demographic
             structure and the demand for public education},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {343-357},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7757(00)00058-3},
   Abstract = {The observation that the elderly may be less willing to
             support K-12 education than other voters raises the specter
             of decreasing support for schools as the US population ages.
             In this article, we examine that support using a national
             panel of counties over time. Building on earlier models
             estimated for state level data, we conclude that the direct
             differential effect within each county of the presence of
             elderly households is not distinguishable from zero but that
             the elderly have the potential to affect spending on
             education indirectly through where they live. To the extent
             that the elderly live in counties with low proportions of
             children, the tax price of education in other counties is
             higher which could in turn reduce financial support for
             education in those counties. Thus one cannot predict the
             impact of an increasing share of the elderly on education
             spending without paying attention to how the elderly are
             likely to be distributed among counties relative to
             children. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0272-7757(00)00058-3},
   Key = {fds266937}
}

@article{fds304203,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School-based educational accountability systems: The promise
             and the pitfalls},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {385-400},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds304203}
}

@article{fds266855,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Ludwig, J},
   Title = {MTO: A residential relocation demonstration program in the
             United States},
   Journal = {Journal of Housing and the Built Environment},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-79},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1566-4910},
   Abstract = {This article provides an overview of an experimental
             residential relocation program sponsored by the U.S.
             Department of Housing and Urban Development known as Moving
             to Opportunity (MTO), currently in operation in five U.S.
             cities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New
             York. Because families are randomly assigned to three
             groups, each of which receives a different bundle of housing
             services, MTO provides a unique opportunity to learn more
             about the effects of concentrated urban poverty on the
             outcomes of families. Yet residential relocation can be an
             effective anti-poverty strategy only if families
             successfully relocate and if their new neighborhoods
             translate into improved labor-market, educational, or other
             outcomes. We illustrate the potential as well as the limits
             of residential relocation policies by focusing on the
             relationship between the housing market and educational
             opportunities in the Baltimore demonstration
             site.},
   Key = {fds266855}
}

@article{fds266935,
   Author = {Ludwig, HFLWJ},
   Title = {Residential Relocation Policies in the United States: The
             Moving to Opportunity Demonstration},
   Journal = {Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built
             Environment},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds266935}
}

@article{fds266936,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The Dallas school accountability and incentive program: An
             evaluation of its impacts on student outcomes},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-16},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {Consistent with the current emphasis on performance-based
             accountability in K-12 education, several states and a few
             local districts have introduced school-based incentive
             programs. This paper provides one of the few evaluations of
             the effects of such programs on student outcomes. Using a
             panel data set for schools in large Texas cities, it
             measures the gains in student performance in Dallas relative
             to those in other cities. It finds positive and relatively
             large effects for Hispanic and white seventh graders, but
             not for black students. Potentially positive effects also
             emerge for drop-out rates and principal turnover rates.[JEL
             I20].},
   Key = {fds266936}
}

@article{fds266934,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Evidence on Discrimination in Mortgage Lending},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Perspectives},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {41-62},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds266934}
}

@article{fds266933,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Ludwig, J},
   Title = {Federal Housing Assistance, Residential Relocation, and
             Educational Opportunities: Evidence from
             Baltimore},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {272-277},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds266933}
}

@article{fds266904,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Catalyst for Learning: Recognition and Reward Programs in
             the Public Schools},
   Journal = {The Brookings Review},
   Pages = {14-17},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds266904}
}

@article{fds317804,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {School District Responses to Fiscal Constraints},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   Abstract = {This paper examines how schools districts have responded to
             fiscal constraints in the past to gain insight into how they
             might respond in the future. It uses cross sectional data
             for Texas and New York first to develop a measure of the
             fiscal condition of each district and, second, to examine
             the choices made by school districts facing differing
             degrees of fiscal pressure. I conclude that districts
             respond to fiscal constraint by trying to protect the level
             of instructional spending, that central administration
             spending and staffing appear to be a luxury that is more
             affordable for districts in strong fiscal condition, and
             that spending on capital outlays is more responsive than
             other categories to a district's fiscal condition. Annual
             shortfalls in capital spending and maintenance in response
             to an extended period of fiscal constraint are likely to
             leave some districts with serious deficiencies in their
             capital facilities.},
   Key = {fds317804}
}

@article{fds266837,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The price of federalism - Peterson,PE},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {469-472},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1996UU64400014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.4050150315},
   Key = {fds266837}
}

@article{fds266932,
   Author = {Hamilton, JT},
   Title = {Biased ballots? the impact of ballot structure on North
             Carolina elections in 1992},
   Journal = {Public Choice},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {259-280},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {Summer},
   Abstract = {North Carolina state election law gives county election
             boards broad authority to determine the form of the ballot
             used in federal, state, and local races. This paper examines
             the extent to which ballot formats appear to be
             strategically chosen and the impact of ballot design on 1992
             North Carolina elections. Our results indicate that the form
             of the ballot influenced the decisions of some voters in
             statewide races in 1992 and that the design of the ballot
             may have been chosen strategically by county election boards
             dominated by the members of one party. © 1996 Kluwer
             Academic Publishers.},
   Key = {fds266932}
}

@article{fds266931,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The Tax Expenditure Concept After 25 Years},
   Journal = {NTA Forum},
   Pages = {1-5},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {Winter},
   Key = {fds266931}
}

@article{fds266930,
   Author = {Harris, HFLWE},
   Title = {Statewide Taxation of Nonresidential Property for
             Education},
   Journal = {Journal of Education Finance},
   Pages = {103-122},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds266930}
}

@article{fds266929,
   Author = {Gentry, HFLWW},
   Title = {State Tax Structure and Multiple Policy Objectives},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds266929}
}

@article{fds266926,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Spatially Targeted Economic Development Strategies: Do They
             Work?},
   Journal = {Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and
             Research},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {193-218},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds266926}
}

@article{fds266927,
   Author = {Yinger, HFLWJ},
   Title = {The Case for Equalizing Aid},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Volume = {XLVII},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {211-224},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1994NG43100012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds266927}
}

@article{fds304201,
   Author = {LADD, HF and YINGER, J},
   Title = {THE CASE FOR EQUALIZING AID},
   Journal = {National tax journal},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {211-224},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1994NG43100012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds304201}
}

@article{fds266928,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Fiscal impacts of local population growth: A conceptual and
             empirical analysis},
   Journal = {Regional Science and Urban Economics},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {661-686},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0166-0462},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the legitimacy of concerns of local
             residents about the adverse fiscal impacts of population
             growth. The conceptual discussion shows that economic theory
             provides no clear prediction of the impact of population
             growth on per capita spending. Based on a national data set
             of large countries, simple d descriptive analysis indicates
             that greater population growth is associated with higher per
             capita current spending and interest outlays. More detailed
             analysis both of 1978-1985 changes and of 1985 levels of
             current spending indicates that higher growth-related per
             capita spending primarily reflects the combined effects of
             greater density and increased local spending shares. In sum,
             established residents in fast- growing areas may experience
             declines in service quality as well as rising local tax
             burdens. © 1994.},
   Key = {fds266928}
}

@article{fds266925,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {State Responses to the TRA86 Revenue Windfalls: A New Test
             of the Flypaper Effect},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {82-103},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {Winter},
   Key = {fds266925}
}

@article{fds266838,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Fuchs, ER},
   Title = {Mayors and Money: Fiscal Policy in New York and
             Chicago},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {608-608},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {0276-8739},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1993LJ47600020&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.2307/3325313},
   Key = {fds266838}
}

@article{fds266923,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Mimicking of Local Tax Burdens Among Neighboring
             Counties},
   Journal = {Public Finance Quarterly},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {450-467},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds266923}
}

@article{fds52836,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Andrew Reschovsky and John
             Yinger},
   Title = {City Fiscal Condition and State Equalizing Aid: the Case of
             Minnesota},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Eighty-Fourth Annual Conference of the
             National Tax Association - Tax Institute of American
             (Columbus, Ohio)},
   Pages = {42-49},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds52836}
}

@article{fds266924,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Population growth, density and the costs of providing public
             services},
   Journal = {Urban Studies},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {273-295},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {Recent policy interest in managing local population growth
             has drawn attention to the fiscal pressures that population
             growth imposes on local governments. This paper uses 1985
             data for 247 large county areas to determine the separate
             impacts on local government spending of two dimensions of
             residential development patterns, the rapidity of population
             growth and the intensity of land use as measured by gross
             residential densities. Based on a regression model that
             controls for other determinants of per capita spending, this
             study provides careful estimates of the nonlinear impacts of
             population growth and population density on three types of
             local government spending: current account spending, capital
             outlays and spending on public safety. -from
             Author},
   Key = {fds266924}
}

@article{fds266922,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The State Aid Decision: Changes in State Aid to Local
             Governments, 1982-1987},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4, Part 2},
   Pages = {477-496},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1991HL15200005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds266922}
}

@article{fds304202,
   Author = {LADD, HF},
   Title = {THE STATE AID DECISION - CHANGES IN STATE AID TO LOCAL
             GOVERNMENTS, 1982-87},
   Journal = {National tax journal},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {477-496},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1991HL15200005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds304202}
}

@article{fds266920,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Wheaton, W},
   Title = {Causes and consequences of the changing urban form.
             Introduction},
   Journal = {Regional Science and Urban Economics},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-162},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0166-0462},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0166-0462(91)90031-H},
   Doi = {10.1016/0166-0462(91)90031-H},
   Key = {fds266920}
}

@article{fds266921,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Property tax revaluation and tax levy growth
             revisited},
   Journal = {Journal of Urban Economics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-99},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0094-1190},
   Key = {fds266921}
}

@article{fds266903,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Introduction of Symposium on Managing Local
             Development},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {484-486},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds266903}
}

@article{fds266919,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {State Assistance to Local Governments: Changes During the
             1980s},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {171-175},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds266919}
}

@article{fds266872,
   Author = {Yinger, HFLWJ},
   Title = {The Determinants of State Assistance to Central
             Citiis},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Volume = {XLII},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {413-428},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1989CR19800002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds266872}
}

@article{fds304200,
   Author = {YINGER, J and LADD, HF},
   Title = {THE DETERMINANTS OF STATE ASSISTANCE TO CENTRAL
             CITIES},
   Journal = {National tax journal},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {413-428},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0028-0283},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1989CR19800002&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds304200}
}

@article{fds52838,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger},
   Title = {Recent Trends in City Fiscal Health},
   Journal = {National Tax Associaiton - Tax Institute of America,
             Proceedings of the Eighty Second Annual Conference on
             Taxation, Atlanta, Georgia},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds52838}
}

@article{fds266918,
   Author = {Bradbury, HFLWK},
   Title = {City Taxes and City Property Tax Bases},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds266918}
}

@article{fds266917,
   Author = {Bradbury, HFLWKL},
   Title = {City Property Taxes: The Effects of Economic Change and
             Competitive Pressures},
   Journal = {New England Economic Review},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds266917}
}

@article{fds266915,
   Author = {Wilson, HFLWJB},
   Title = {Education and Tax Limitations: Evidence from Massachusetts'
             Proposition 2 1/2},
   Journal = {Journal of Education Finance},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {Winter},
   Key = {fds266915}
}

@article{fds266916,
   Author = {Bradbury, HFLWKL},
   Title = {Changes in the Revenue-Raising Capacity of U.S. Cities:
             1970-1982},
   Journal = {New England Economic Review},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds266916}
}

@article{fds266914,
   Author = {Bradbury, HFLWKL and Perrault, M and Reschovsky, A and Yinger,
             J},
   Title = {State Aid to Offset Fiscal Disparities Across
             Communities},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266914}
}

@article{fds266913,
   Author = {Wilson, HFLWJB},
   Title = {Who Supports Tax Limitations: Evidence from Massachusetts'
             Proposition 2 1/2},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {Winter},
   Key = {fds266913}
}

@article{fds266902,
   Author = {Howitt, HFLWA and Leonard, H and Weeks, A},
   Title = {Physical Infrastructure in Boston},
   Journal = {Urban Resources},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {5-11},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds266902}
}

@article{fds266911,
   Author = {Doolittle, HFLWFC},
   Title = {Which Level of Government Should Assist Poor
             People?},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds266911}
}

@article{fds266912,
   Author = {Wilson, HFLWJB},
   Title = {Why Voters Support Tax Limitations: Evidence from
             Massachusetts' Proposition 2 1/2},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266912}
}

@article{fds266909,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Equal Credit Opportunity: Women and Mortgage
             Credit},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds266909}
}

@article{fds46560,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Katherine L. Bradbury and Claire
             Christopherson},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts, Part
             II},
   Journal = {New England Economic Review},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds46560}
}

@article{fds266908,
   Author = {Bloom, HS and Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Property tax revaluation and tax levy growth},
   Journal = {Journal of Urban Economics},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {73-84},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {Winter},
   ISSN = {0094-1190},
   Abstract = {Jurisdiction-wide property revaluation, like many
             administrative reforms, may have unintended consequences.
             This paper examines one such potential consequence. By
             pooling 18-year time series for each of 39 Massachusetts
             cities (17 of which revalued) and 270 Massachusetts towns
             (202 of which revalued), we examine the hypothesis that
             politicians take advantage of the confusion generated by
             revaluation and raise property taxes by more than they
             otherwise would have. We observe such a response in cities
             but not in towns and attribute this difference to
             differences in their governmental structures. ©
             1982.},
   Key = {fds266908}
}

@article{fds266910,
   Author = {Bradbury, HFLWKL and Christopherson, C},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts, Part
             I},
   Journal = {New England Economic Review},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds266910}
}

@article{fds266901,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Tax Limitations and Educational Finance:
             Comments},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal, Supplement},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266901}
}

@article{fds266854,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Municipal expenditure and the rate of population change
             (revised version) ( USA).},
   Journal = {Harvard University, Department of City and Regional
             Planning, Urban Planning Policy Analysis & Administration,
             Discussion Paper},
   Number = {D79-6},
   Year = {1979},
   Abstract = {The recent decline of many industrial cities in the NE and
             the rapid growth of cites in the SW have forcefully drawn
             attention to the fiscal implications of population change.
             Although the major urban areas receive most of the
             attention, other smaller cities confront many of the same
             issues. This paper focuses on these smaller cities with the
             specific purpose of determining the impact of population
             change on per capita local public expenditures.-from
             Author},
   Key = {fds266854}
}

@article{fds266900,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {State Limitations on Local Taxing and Spending Powers: A
             Response},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds266900}
}

@article{fds266907,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {An Economic Evaluation of State Limitations on Local Taxing
             and Spending Powers},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds266907}
}

@article{fds266906,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Statewide Taxation of Commercial and Industrial Property for
             Education},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266906}
}

@article{fds266905,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Local Education Expenditures, Fiscal Capacity, and the
             Composition of the Property Tax Base},
   Journal = {National Tax Journal},
   Year = {1975},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds266905}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds223112,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Confessions of a Wellesley FEM},
   Booktitle = {Michael Svenberg and Lall Ramrrattan (eds), Eminent
             Economists II: Their Life and Work Philosophies},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds223112}
}

@misc{fds223115,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob Vigdor},
   Title = {Racial and Economic Imbalance in Charlotte's Schools,
             1994-2012},
   Booktitle = {R.A. Mickelson, S.S. Smith and A.H. Nelson (eds), Yesterday,
             Today and Tomorrow. The Past, Present, and Future of School
             (De)Segregation in Charlotte},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds223115}
}

@misc{fds223116,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Education Equity in an International Context},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Research in Education Finance and
             Policy},
   Publisher = {New York and London: Routledge Press},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds223116}
}

@misc{fds266820,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Confessions of a wellesley FEM},
   Pages = {249-269},
   Booktitle = {Eminent Economists II: Their Life and Work
             Philosophies},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781139629096},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139629096.021},
   Abstract = {© Cambridge University Press 2013. I enrolled in my first
             economics course in 1963, my freshman year at Wellesley
             College, which was then, and still is, only for women. On
             the first day of class, my thirty freshman classmates and I
             eagerly awaited the arrival of our teacher. When she entered
             the classroom, she immediately announced that, as the chair
             of the department, she got to choose which section to teach,
             and she chose ours. Her intent was to share with us her
             excitement about the field and to send a signal that
             economics was very much an appropriate field for women. The
             teacher was Carolyn Shaw Bell, who later founded the
             American Economic Association’s Committee on the Status of
             Women in the Economics Profession. That first course
             inspired me to join the ranks of Wellesley FEMs – her term
             for female economics majors. Little did I understand at the
             time the intellectual opportunities that were then opening
             up for me. My Life History I was raised as a provincial New
             Englander. My parents, all my grandparents, and many of my
             great-grandparents lived in New England, with most of them
             spending much of their lives in the Boston area. The men in
             the family all went to Harvard College, and my mother and
             two of my aunts went to Wellesley College in a Boston
             suburb. It was clear to me that Boston was the center of the
             universe, and for men a Harvard degree was the key to a
             successful life. When I was ready for college, the choice
             was obvious. I applied early decision to Wellesley, without
             considering any other place. Later when I was ready for
             graduate school, I applied only to Harvard.},
   Doi = {10.1017/CBO9781139629096.021},
   Key = {fds266820}
}

@misc{fds208786,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Susanna Loeb},
   Title = {The Challenges of Measuring School quality: Implications for
             Educational Equity},
   Journal = {In D. Allen and R. Reich, eds., Education, Democracy and
             Justice},
   Pages = {19-42},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds208786}
}

@misc{fds204693,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Confessions of Wellesley FEM},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds204693}
}

@misc{fds208787,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske and Nienke Ruijs},
   Title = {Does Parental Choice Foster Segregated Schools: Insights
             from the Netherlands},
   Journal = {In M Berends, M. Cannata, and E.B. Goldring, eds. School
             Choice and School Improvement.},
   Pages = {233-254},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds208787}
}

@misc{fds171046,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske and Nienke Ruijs},
   Title = {Insights from the Netherlands: Growing Concerns about
             Segregation},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds171046}
}

@misc{fds143128,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and E.B. Fiske},
   Title = {Education Equity in an International Context},
   Pages = {276-292},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Research on Education Finance and
             Policy},
   Publisher = {Routledge},
   Editor = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds143128}
}

@misc{fds208789,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Teacher Effects: What Do We Know?},
   Journal = {Web based publication},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds208789}
}

@misc{fds159052,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {School Policies and the Black-White Test Score
             Gap},
   Pages = {289-319},
   Booktitle = {Katherine Magnuson and Jane Waldfogel, eds. Steady Gains and
             Stalled Progress: Inequality and the Black-White Test Score
             Gap.},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds159052}
}

@misc{fds143130,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {"Introduction"},
   Journal = {Handbook of Research in Education Finance and
             Policy},
   Pages = {xvii - xxii},
   Publisher = {Routledge},
   Editor = {H. F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds143130}
}

@misc{fds143131,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and David Figlio},
   Title = {School Accountability and Student Achievement},
   Pages = {166-182},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Research in Education Finance and
             Policy},
   Publisher = {Routledge},
   Editor = {H. F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds143131}
}

@misc{fds208788,
   Author = {Robert Bifulco and Helen F. Ladd and M. Berends and M Springer and H. Walberg},
   Title = {"Charter Schools in North Carolina" In Charter School
             Outcomes},
   Journal = {New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates},
   Pages = {195-220},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds208788}
}

@misc{fds46491,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Francisco L. Rivera-Batiz},
   Title = {Education and Economic Development},
   Pages = {189-238},
   Booktitle = {The Economy of Puerto Rico: Restoring Growth},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Editor = {Susan Collins and Barry Bosworth and Miguel
             Soto-Class},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds46491}
}

@misc{fds52819,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd, and C.T. Clotfelter, and J. Vigdor},
   Title = {Classroom-Level Segregation and Resegregation in North
             Carolina},
   Booktitle = {School Resegregation: Must the South Turn
             Back?},
   Publisher = {Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
             Press},
   Editor = {John Charles Boger and Gary Orfield},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds52819}
}

@misc{fds52898,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {"Balancing Public and Private Resources for Basic Education:
             School Fees in Post-Apartheid South Africa"},
   Booktitle = {Changing Class: Education and Social Change in
             Post-Apartheid South Africa},
   Publisher = {Cape Town: HSRC Press},
   Editor = {Linda Chisholm.},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds52898}
}

@misc{fds46505,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {School Choice in New Zealand: A Cautionary
             Tale},
   Booktitle = {Choosing Choice: Global Trends and National
             Variations},
   Publisher = {Teacher's College Press},
   Editor = {David Plank and Gary Sykes},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds46505}
}

@misc{fds46500,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Jens Ludwig},
   Title = {The Effects of MTO on Educational Opportunities in
             Baltimore" chapter 5},
   Pages = {117-152},
   Booktitle = {Choosing a Better Life: Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity
             Social Experiment},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute Press},
   Editor = {John Goering and Judith D. Feins},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds46500}
}

@misc{fds14421,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Jens Ludwig and Greg Duncan},
   Title = {The Effects of MTO on Children and Parents in Baltimore"
             chapter 6},
   Pages = {153-176},
   Booktitle = {Choosing a Better Life: Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity
             Social Experiment},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute Press},
   Editor = {John Goering and Judith D. Feins},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds14421}
}

@misc{fds46506,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Introduction},
   Booktitle = {Choosing Choice: Global Trends and National
             Variations},
   Publisher = {Teacher's College Press},
   Editor = {David Plank and Gary Sykes},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds46506}
}

@misc{fds14423,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {The U.S. Charter School Movement: Lessons from New Zealand's
             Experience with Self-Governing Schools and Parental
             Choice},
   Pages = {59-79},
   Booktitle = {Charters, Vouchers & Public Education},
   Publisher = {Brookings Institution Press},
   Editor = {Paul Peterson and David Campbell},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds14423}
}

@misc{fds46516,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter},
   Title = {Recognizing the Rewarding Success in Public
             Schools},
   Booktitle = {Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in
             Education},
   Publisher = {The Brookings Institution},
   Editor = {Helen F. Ladd},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds46516}
}

@misc{fds46517,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Ronald Ferguson},
   Title = {Additional Evidence on How and Why Money Matters: A
             Production Function Analysis of Alabama Schools},
   Booktitle = {Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in
             Education},
   Publisher = {The Brookings Institution},
   Editor = {Helen F. Ladd},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds46517}
}

@misc{fds46522,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Big City Finances},
   Pages = {201-269},
   Booktitle = {Big City Politics, Governance, and Fiscal
             Constraints},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute Press},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds46522}
}

@misc{fds46526,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Measuring Disparities in the Fiscal Condition of Local
             Governments},
   Pages = {21-55},
   Booktitle = {The Challenge of Fiscal Equalization},
   Publisher = {Praeger Press},
   Editor = {John Anderson},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds46526}
}

@misc{fds46605,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on Wallace E. Oates, "Federalism and Government
             Finance},
   Booktitle = {Modern Public Finance},
   Publisher = {Harvard University Press},
   Editor = {J. Quigley and E. Smolensky},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds46605}
}

@misc{fds46528,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Fiscal Consequences for U.S. Central Cities of the Changing
             Urban Form},
   Pages = {321-370},
   Booktitle = {Urban Change in the U.S. and Western Europe: Comparative
             Analysis and Policy},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute Press},
   Editor = {Anita Summers and Lanfranco Senn},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds46528}
}

@misc{fds46529,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Effects of Population Growth on Local Spending and
             Taxes},
   Pages = {181-224},
   Booktitle = {Structuring Direct Aid: People Versus Places},
   Publisher = {JAI Press, Research in Urban Economics, vol.
             9},
   Editor = {R.D. Norton},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds46529}
}

@misc{fds46602,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on John M. Quigley and Daniel L. Rubinfeld, 'Public
             Choices in Public Higher Education'},
   Booktitle = {Studies of Supply and Demand in Higher Education},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Editor = {Charles Clotfelter and Michael Rothchild},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds46602}
}

@misc{fds46538,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Sales Taxes in Arizona},
   Booktitle = {State and local Finance for the 1990s: A Case Study of
             Arizona},
   Publisher = {University of Arizona Press},
   Editor = {Therese J. McGuire and Dana Wolfe Naimark},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds46538}
}

@misc{fds46537,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Big City Finances in the New Era of Fiscal
             Federalism},
   Pages = {127-151},
   Booktitle = {The Changing Face of Fiscal Federalism},
   Publisher = {London, England: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.},
   Editor = {Thomas R. Swartz and John E. Peck},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds46537}
}

@misc{fds46607,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {User Charges -- Not Just Another Revenue
             Source},
   Pages = {47-55},
   Booktitle = {The Role of User Charges},
   Publisher = {Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester,
             NY},
   Editor = {Thomas D. Hopkins},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds46607}
}

@misc{fds52839,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {The Meaning of Balance for State-Local Tax
             Systems},
   Booktitle = {The Unfinished Agenda for State Tax Reform},
   Publisher = {National Conference of State Legislatures},
   Editor = {Steven D. Gold},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds52839}
}

@misc{fds46543,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Ronald Ferguson},
   Title = {State Economic Renaissance, "Pioneering State Economic
             Strategy," and "Creating the Future},
   Booktitle = {The New Economic Role of American States: Strategies and
             Institutions for a Competitive World Economy},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Editor = {R. Scott Fosler},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds46543}
}

@misc{fds46608,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on Charles R. Hulton and Robert M. Schwab,
             "Incoming Originating in The State and Local
             Sector},
   Booktitle = {Fiscal Federalism},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Editor = {Harvey Rosen},
   Year = {1988},
   Key = {fds46608}
}

@misc{fds46545,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Dana R. Weist},
   Title = {State and local Tax Systems: Balance Among Taxes vs. Balance
             Among Policy Goals},
   Booktitle = {The Quest for Balance in State-Local Revenue
             Systems},
   Publisher = {Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land
             Policy},
   Editor = {Frederick D. Stocker},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds46545}
}

@misc{fds46547,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Ronald Ferguson},
   Title = {Measuring the Fiscal Capacity of U.S. Cities},
   Booktitle = {Measuring Fiscal Capacity},
   Publisher = {Oelgeschlager, Gunn, and Hain, Inc.},
   Editor = {Clyde Reeves},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds46547}
}

@misc{fds46612,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on Steven G. Craig and Robert P. Inman, "Education,
             Welfare, and the 'New Federalism': State Budgeting in a
             Federalist Public Economy},
   Booktitle = {Studies in State and Local Public Finance},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Editor = {Harvey Rosen},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds46612}
}

@misc{fds46614,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {The Massachusetts Experience},
   Booktitle = {States Under Stress: A Report on the Finances of
             Massachusetts, Michigan, Texas, and California},
   Publisher = {Berkeley, CA: Institute of Governmental Studies},
   Editor = {Peggy B. Musgrave},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds46614}
}

@misc{fds46553,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Julie Boatright Wilson},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Explaining the Vote},
   Volume = {1},
   Booktitle = {Research in Urban Policy},
   Publisher = {JAI Press},
   Editor = {T. Clark},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds46553}
}

@misc{fds46552,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Federal Aid to State and Local Governments},
   Booktitle = {Federal Budget Policy in the 1980's},
   Publisher = {Urban Institute Press},
   Editor = {J. Palmer and G. Mills},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds46552}
}

@misc{fds46554,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Herman Leonard},
   Title = {Taxation and the Poor},
   Booktitle = {The State and the Poor in the 1980's},
   Publisher = {Auburn House},
   Editor = {Manuel Carballo and Mary Jo Bane},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds46554}
}

@misc{fds46562,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Howard Bloom and John Yinger},
   Title = {Are Property Taxes Capitalized into House
             Values?},
   Booktitle = {Local Provision of Public Services: The Tiebout Model After
             Twenty-Five Years},
   Publisher = {Academic Press},
   Editor = {George R. Zodrow},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds46562}
}

@misc{fds46557,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Financing Services in the Federal System},
   Number = {6},
   Booktitle = {Federalism: Making the System Work: Alternatives for the
             1980's},
   Publisher = {Center for National Policy, Washington, D.C.},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds46557}
}

@misc{fds46564,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Municipal Expenditures and the Rate of Population
             Change},
   Booktitle = {Cities Under Stress: The Fiscal Crisis of Urban
             America},
   Publisher = {New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy
             Research},
   Editor = {R.W. Burchell and D. Listokin},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds46564}
}

@misc{fds46565,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Tax Policy Considerations Underlying Preferential Tax
             Treatment of Open Space and Agricultural
             Land},
   Booktitle = {Property Tax Preferences for Agricultural
             Land},
   Publisher = {Montclair: NJ: Allanheld, Osman & Co, Inc.},
   Editor = {N.A. Roberts and H.J. Brown},
   Year = {1980},
   Key = {fds46565}
}

@misc{fds46619,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Discussion of Howard A. Chernick, "An Economic Model of the
             Distribution of Project Grants},
   Booktitle = {Fiscal Federalism and Grants-in-Aid, COUPE Papers on Public
             Economics},
   Publisher = {Washington, DC: The Urban Institute},
   Editor = {P. Miezkowski and W. Oakland},
   Year = {1979},
   Key = {fds46619}
}

@misc{fds46568,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Male-Female Differences in Pre-College Economic},
   Booktitle = {Perspectives on Economic Education},
   Publisher = {Joint Council on Economic Education},
   Editor = {Donald R. Wentworth and W. Lee Hansen and Sharryl H.
             Hawke},
   Year = {1977},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds46568}
}

@misc{fds46571,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Municipal Expenditures and the Composition of the Property
             Tax Base},
   Booktitle = {Property Taxation, Land Use and Public Trends
             (TRED8)},
   Publisher = {Madison: University of Wisconsin Press},
   Editor = {Arthur D. Lynn},
   Year = {1976},
   Key = {fds46571}
}

@misc{fds46572,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {The Role of the Property Tax: A Reassessment},
   Booktitle = {Board Based Taxes: New Options and Sources},
   Publisher = {John Hopkins University Press},
   Editor = {R.A. Musgrave},
   Year = {1973},
   Key = {fds46572}
}


%% NBER Working Papers   
@article{fds317802,
   Author = {Ladd, HF and Clotfelter, CT and Holbein, JB},
   Title = {The Growing Segmentation of the Charter School Sector in
             North Carolina},
   Pages = {1-28},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/edfp_a_00226},
   Abstract = {A defining characteristic of charter schools is that they
             introduce a strong market element into public education. In
             this paper, we examine the evolution of the charter school
             sector in North Carolina between 1999 and 2012 through the
             lens of a market model. We examine trends in the mix of
             students enrolled in charter schools, the racial imbalance
             of charter schools, the quality of the match between
             parental preferences in charter schools relative to the
             quality of match in traditional public schools, and the
             distribution of test score performance across charter
             schools relative those in traditional public schools serving
             similar students over time. Taken together, our findings
             imply that the charter schools in North Carolina are
             increasingly serving the interests of relatively able white
             students in racially imbalanced schools.<br><br>Institutional
             subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents
             of developing countries may download this paper without
             additional charge at <a href="http://www.nber.org/papers/&#119;21078"
             TARGET="_blank">www.nber.org</a>.<br>},
   Doi = {10.1162/edfp_a_00226},
   Key = {fds317802}
}

@article{fds317803,
   Author = {Clotfelter, CT and Ladd, HF and Vigdor, JL},
   Title = {Algebra for 8th Graders: Evidence on its Effects from 10
             North Carolina Districts},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the effects of policies that increase
             the number of students who take the first course in algebra
             in 8th grade, rather than waiting until 9th grade. Extending
             previous research that focused on the Charlotte-Mecklenberg
             school system, we use data for the 10 largest districts in
             North Carolina. We identify the effects of accelerating the
             timetable for taking algebra by using data on multiple
             cohorts grouped by decile of prior achievement and
             exploiting the fact that policy-induced shifts in the timing
             of algebra occur at different times in different districts
             to different deciles of students. The expanded data make it
             possible to examine heterogeneity across students in the
             effect of taking algebra early. We find negative effects
             among students in the bottom 60% of the prior achievement
             distribution. In addition, we find other sources of
             heterogeneity in effects.},
   Key = {fds317803}
}

@article{fds142787,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd, and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {"Teacher Credentials and Student Achievement in High School:
             A Cross Subject Analysis with Student Fixed
             Effects."},
   Series = {Working Paper 142787},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds142787}
}

@article{fds266842,
   Author = {Clotfelter, C and Ladd, H and Vigdor, J},
   Title = {How and Why Do Teacher Credentials Matter for Student
             Achievement?},
   Series = {Working Paper 142786},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://www.nber.org/papers/w12828},
   Abstract = {Education researchers and policy makers agree that teachers
             differ in terms of quality and that quality matters for
             student achievement. Despite prodigious amounts of research,
             however, debate still persists about the causal relationship
             between specific teacher credentials and student
             achievement. In this paper, we use a rich administrative
             data set from North Carolina to explore a range of questions
             related to the relationship between teacher characteristics
             and credentials on the one hand and student achievement on
             the other. Though the basic questions underlying this
             research are not new - and, indeed, have been explored in
             many papers over the years within the rubric of the
             "education production function" - the availability of data
             on all teachers and students in North Carolina over a
             ten-year period allows us to explore them in more detail and
             with far more confidence than has been possible in previous
             studies. We conclude that a teacher's experience, test
             scores and regular licensure all have positive effects on
             student achievement, with larger effects for math than for
             reading. Taken together the various teacher credentials
             exhibit quite large effects on math achievement, whether
             compared to the effects of changes in class size or to the
             socio-economics characteristics of students, as measured,
             for example, by the education level of their
             parents.},
   Key = {fds266842}
}

@article{fds52049,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd, and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Teacher-Student Matching and the Assessment of Teacher
             Effectiveness},
   Series = {Working Paper 11936},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Fall},
   url = {http://www.nber.org/papers/w11936},
   Key = {fds52049}
}

@article{fds52050,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Federal Oversight, Local Control, and the Specter of
             'Resegregation' in Southern Schools},
   Series = {Working Paper 11086},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Summer},
   url = {http://www,nber.org/papers/w11086},
   Key = {fds52050}
}

@article{fds142944,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Elizabeth Glennie and Jacob Vigdor},
   Title = {Would Higher Salaries Keep Teachers in High-Poverty Schools?
             Evidence from a Policy Intervention in North
             Carolina},
   Series = {Working Paper 12285},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://papers.nber.org/papers/w12285},
   Key = {fds142944}
}

@article{fds142874,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {The Academic Achievement Gap in Grades 3 to
             8},
   Series = {Working Paper 12207},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://papers.nber.org/papers/w12207},
   Key = {fds142874}
}


%% Book Reviews   
@article{fds177791,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Review of Norton Grubb, The Money Myth: School Resources,
             Outcomes and Equity},
   Journal = {The Journal of Economic Literature},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds177791}
}

@article{fds266841,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Public sector management in New Zealand: Lessons and
             challenges},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {193-196},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds266841}
}

@article{fds266840,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The price of federalism by Paul E. Peterson. Washington, DC:
             The Brookings Institution, 1995, 231 pp., $36.95 cloth,
             $15.95 paper},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {469-472},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds266840}
}

@article{fds46601,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Review of Ester Fuchs, Mayors and Money},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds46601}
}

@article{fds46610,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Review of John M. Quigley and Daniel L. Rubinfeld, eds.,
             American Domestic Priorities: An Economic Appraisal in
             Journal of Economic Literature},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds46610}
}

@article{fds46611,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Review of George Break, ed., State and local Finance: The
             Pressures of the 1980's},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Literature},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds46611}
}

@article{fds46613,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Review of John F. Due and John L. Mikesell, Sales Taxation:
             State and Local Structure and Administration},
   Journal = {Municipal Finance Officers Association, Resources in
             Review},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds46613}
}


%% Op-eds   
@misc{fds266852,
   Author = {Clotfelter, C and Ladd, Helen and Vigdor, Jacob},
   Title = {Surprising Success Among Hispanic students},
   Publisher = {Duke Today},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7526 Duke open
             access},
   Key = {fds266852}
}


%% Published Policy Briefs and Comments   
@misc{fds266880,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {Education Inspectorate Systems in New Zealand and the
             Netherlends: ( Policy Brief )},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Policy},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds266880}
}

@misc{fds155679,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Public and Private School Competition and U.S. Fiscal
             Federalism.},
   Booktitle = {G.K. Ingram and Y Hong, eds. Fiscal Decentralization and
             Land Use Policies. Lincoln Institute of Land
             Policy.},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds155679}
}

@misc{fds155680,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Rethinking the Way We Hold Schools Accountable},
   Journal = {Opinion piece, Education Week. (Also reprinted in the Durham
             Herald Sun.)},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds155680}
}

@misc{fds155681,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Opinion pice on education policy and the presidential
             election},
   Journal = {Durham Herald Sun},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds155681}
}

@misc{fds52821,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Policy Brief on Accountability in North Carolina},
   Journal = {Education Finance and Organization Structure in New York
             Schools, Symposium Proceedings},
   Pages = {161-176},
   Publisher = {Education Finance Research Consortium},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds52821}
}

@misc{fds52820,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on paper by Joseph Cordes},
   Booktitle = {City Taxes, City Spending: Essays in Honor of Dick
             Netzer},
   Publisher = {Edward Elgar Press},
   Editor = {Amy Ellen Schwartz},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds52820}
}

@misc{fds52822,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on paper of school vouchers by Caroline
             Hoxby},
   Journal = {Swedish Economic Review},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds52822}
}

@misc{fds52824,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Self-Governing Schools and Accountability in New
             Zealand},
   Journal = {Prospects (a publication of UNESCO)},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds52824}
}

@misc{fds52823,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on Thomas Kane and Douglas Staiger, "Volatility in
             Test Scores: Implications for Test Based Accountability
             Systems},
   Journal = {Brookings Papers on Education Policy},
   Editor = {Diane Ravitch},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds52823}
}

@misc{fds52826,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {The Empty Aisles of Marketplace Reform},
   Journal = {The School Administrator},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds52826}
}

@misc{fds52827,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {A Level Playing Field: What We Can Learn from the New
             Zealand School Reform?},
   Journal = {American Educator},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds52827}
}

@misc{fds52828,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {When Schools Compete: Lessons Learned From New Zealand's
             Experiments with Market-Based Reforms},
   Journal = {Rethinking Schools},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds52828}
}

@misc{fds52829,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {How School Districts Respond to Fiscal Constraint},
   Journal = {Selected Papers in School Finance, 1996},
   Publisher = {National Center for Education Statistics},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds52829}
}

@misc{fds52830,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on chapter by Tom Loveless},
   Journal = {Brookings Papers on Education Policy: 1997},
   Editor = {Diane Ravitch},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds52830}
}

@misc{fds52831,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Fiscal Disparities and Fiscal Equalization},
   Booktitle = {entries for the Encyclopedia of Taxation},
   Publisher = {National Tax Association and the Urban Institute},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds52831}
}

@misc{fds52832,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Testimony on HR 3467 "Saving Our Children: The American
             Community Renewal Act of 1996},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds52832}
}

@misc{fds52833,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on paper by Garrett Mandeville on South Carolina's
             school incentive program},
   Journal = {Midwest Approaches to School Reform},
   Publisher = {Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds52833}
}

@misc{fds52834,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {The Tax Expenditure Concept After 25 Years},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 86th Annual Conference
             (NTA)},
   Pages = {50-57},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds52834}
}

@misc{fds52835,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger},
   Title = {Economic Change and Fiscal Health: Designing Federal Aid for
             our Most Troubled Central Cities},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds52835}
}

@misc{fds52837,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Puerto Rican Statehood: A Precondition to Sound Economic
             Growth},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds52837}
}

@misc{fds52840,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger},
   Title = {Measuring the Fiscal Capacity of U.S. Cities},
   Journal = {Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations,
             Measuring State Fiscal Capacity: Alternative Methods and
             Their Uses},
   Volume = {M-150},
   Pages = {177-181},
   Publisher = {Washingon, DC},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds52840}
}

@misc{fds52841,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Comments on George Zodrow, Optimal Tax Reform: Property Tax
             Equalization, "National Tax Association - Tax Institute of
             America},
   Journal = {Proceedings of Seventy-Third Annual Conference},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds52841}
}

@misc{fds52842,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Local Public Expenditures and the Composition of the
             Property Tax Base},
   Journal = {National Tax Association - Tax Institute of America,
             Proceedings of Sixty-Seventh Annual Conference},
   Year = {1974},
   Key = {fds52842}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds204421,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {Class Matters. Why Won't We Admit It?},
   Series = {New York Times Opinion Pages},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds204421}
}

@misc{fds204422,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Press release on early childhood programs in North
             Carolina},
   Series = {(with follow up op eds. in several NC papers)},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds204422}
}

@misc{fds177794,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske and Nienke Ruijs},
   Title = {Migrant Education in the Netherlands: Segregation and the
             Role of Weighted Student Funding},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds177794}
}

@misc{fds177795,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Sara Pilzer},
   Title = {Using Survey Data to Measure the Quality of School
             Principals},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds177795}
}

@misc{fds142788,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles T. Clotfelter, and Jacob L.
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Teacher Quality and Public Policy},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds142788}
}

@misc{fds142790,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Commentary on paper by Thomas Nechyba},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds142790}
}

@misc{fds142789,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Policy as Resource Allocation: Commentary},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds142789}
}

@misc{fds52044,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and David Figlio},
   Title = {Effects of Accountability on Student Achievement},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds52044}
}

@misc{fds143132,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Robert Bifulco},
   Title = {Charter Schools in North Carolina},
   Journal = {National Center on School Choice},
   Volume = {Conference},
   Publisher = {Vanderbuilt University},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds143132}
}

@misc{fds46639,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {Learning from South Africa},
   Journal = {Commentary in Ed Week},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds46639}
}

@misc{fds46640,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {Two op-eds published in South African newspapers related to
             our book on South Africa},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds46640}
}

@misc{fds46622,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Teacher Quality and Minority Achievement
             Gaps},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.pubpol.duke.edu/research/papers/SAN04-04},
   Key = {fds46622}
}

@misc{fds46641,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Robert Bifulco},
   Title = {Two op-eds on charter schools},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds46641}
}

@misc{fds46642,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Charles Clotfelter and Jacob
             Vigdor},
   Title = {Teacher Quality and Minority Achievement
             Gaps},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds46642}
}

@misc{fds17729,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Policy memo on School Vouchers - Child and Family Policy
             Center},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17729}
}

@misc{fds46645,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Report on Tax and Fiscal Aspects of Territorial Development
             in the Helsinki Region},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds46645}
}

@misc{fds46624,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd wit Edward Fiske},
   Title = {Does Competition Improve Teaching and Learning: Evidence
             from New Zealand},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds46624}
}

@misc{fds46644,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Market-Based Reforms in Education},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds46644}
}

@misc{fds12908,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {Limits of Vouchers Exposed},
   Journal = {Philadelphia Inquirer},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds12908}
}

@misc{fds12909,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward B. Fiske},
   Title = {Vouchers Have Been Tried - and Failed},
   Journal = {Los Angeles Times},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds12909}
}

@misc{fds12910,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and James Hamilton},
   Title = {Cause for Confusion and N.C.'s Own Ballot},
   Journal = {The News and Observer},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds12910}
}

@misc{fds46582,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {A Distant Laboratory: Learning Cautionary Lessons from New
             Zealand's Schools},
   Journal = {Education Week},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds46582}
}

@misc{fds46583,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {The Invisible Hand as Schoolmaster},
   Journal = {The America Prospect},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds46583}
}

@misc{fds46585,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Edward Fiske},
   Title = {A Cautionary Tale from New Zealand},
   Journal = {The New York Times (Education Life Section)},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds46585}
}

@misc{fds46625,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {School-Based Accountability and Incentive
             Programs},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds46625}
}

@misc{fds266831,
   Author = {Ladd, HF},
   Title = {The public sector - Commentary},
   Journal = {NATIONAL URBAN POLICY},
   Pages = {136-142},
   Year = {1996},
   ISBN = {0-8143-2543-2},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1996BF68K00008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds266831}
}

@misc{fds46646,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Local Tax and Land Use Policy: A Survey},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {Fall},
   Key = {fds46646}
}

@misc{fds46626,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Land and Tax Policy},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds46626}
}

@misc{fds46627,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Andrew Reschovsky and Daniel Salomone and John
             Yinger},
   Title = {Policy Analysis and the Design of State Aid Formuas: A Case
             Study of Minnesota},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds46627}
}

@misc{fds46647,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Andrew Reschovsky and John
             Yinger},
   Title = {Measuring the Fiscal Condition of Cities in
             Minnesota},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds46647}
}

@misc{fds46648,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and J. Tomas Hexner and Glenn Jenkins and K.
             Russell LaMotte},
   Title = {Puerto Rican Statehood: A Precondition to Sound Economic
             Growth},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds46648}
}

@misc{fds46651,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Dana R. Weist},
   Title = {Sales Taxes and User Charges in Arizona Local
             Governments'},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds46651}
}

@misc{fds46649,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Big City Finances},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds46649}
}

@misc{fds46650,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Dana R. Weist},
   Title = {The Arizona General Sales Tax},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds46650}
}

@misc{fds46628,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Claire Christopherson},
   Title = {Demand for Local Public Services: Evidence from Survey
             Data},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds46628}
}

@misc{fds46652,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Ronald F. Ferguson},
   Title = {Economic Performance and Economic Development Policy in
             Massachusetts},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds46652}
}

@misc{fds46653,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and John Yinger and others},
   Title = {The Changing Economic and Fiscal Condition of
             Cities},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds46653}
}

@misc{fds46629,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Katherine L. Bradbury and Andrew
             Reschovsky},
   Title = {Policy Analysis and the Distribution of State Aid to Local
             Governments: A Case Study of Massachusetts},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds46629}
}

@misc{fds46631,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Arnold Howitt and Herman Leonard},
   Title = {Services from Public Capital: The Outlook for Boston's
             Physical Infrastructure},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds46631}
}

@misc{fds46616,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd (with others)},
   Title = {State Aid Distribution Formulas: The Need for More
             Equalization},
   Journal = {Impact 2 1/2 Newsletter},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds46616}
}

@misc{fds46630,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and others},
   Title = {State Aid and the High Cost of Local Public Services in Some
             Communities: The Need for More Equalization},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds46630}
}

@misc{fds46633,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Robert Schafer},
   Title = {Discrimination in Mortgage Lending: A Microeconomic Model of
             Mortgage Terms},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds46633}
}

@misc{fds46632,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {Financing Services in the Federal System},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds46632}
}

@misc{fds46635,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Julie Boatright Wilson},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Variations in Individual Preferences and
             Expectations Across Communities},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds46635}
}

@misc{fds46637,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Katherine L. Bradbury and Claire
             Christopherson},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Initial Impacts},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds46637}
}

@misc{fds46655,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Julie Boatright Wilson},
   Title = {Tax Limitation Study},
   Year = {1982},
   Key = {fds46655}
}

@misc{fds46634,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Julie Boatright Wilson},
   Title = {Proposition 2 1/2: Explaining the Vote},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds46634}
}

@misc{fds46654,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Howard Bloom and John Yinger},
   Title = {Intrajurisdictional Property Tax Capitalization},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {August},
   Key = {fds46654}
}

@misc{fds46638,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd},
   Title = {What Economics Can Contribute to the Tax Limitation
             Debate},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {fds46638}
}

@misc{fds46636,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Robert Schafer},
   Title = {Equal Credit Opportunity in Mortgage Lending: Summary of
             Results},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds46636}
}

@misc{fds46656,
   Author = {H.F. Ladd and Robert Schafer},
   Title = {Equal Credit Opportunity; Accessibility to Mortgage Funds by
             Women and Blacks},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds46656}
}

Helen F. Ladd