Publications of Sherman A. James    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

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%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds328574,
   Author = {Kramer, MR and Black, NC and Matthews, SA and James,
             SA},
   Title = {The legacy of slavery and contemporary declines in heart
             disease mortality in the U.S. South},
   Journal = {SSM - Population Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {609-617},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.07.004},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ssmph.2017.07.004},
   Key = {fds328574}
}

@article{fds327541,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Invited Commentary: Cassel's "The Contribution of the Social
             Environment to Host Resistance"-A Modern
             Classic.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {185},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1032-1034},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwx070},
   Abstract = {John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social
             Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol.
             1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in
             epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the
             quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the
             degree to which her relationships are more stressful than
             supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to
             disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical
             activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a
             cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and
             observational studies on diverse human populations.
             Beginning in the late 1970s, the paper stimulated an
             explosion of epidemiologic research on social support and
             human health. Beyond advancing epidemiologic theory, Cassel
             showed how findings from various epidemiologic study designs
             could be marshalled to build a persuasive causal argument
             that impaired social bonds increase the risk of premature
             disease and death. The paper also foreshadowed core ideas of
             later theoretical constructs, such as weathering and
             allostatic load, regarding the power of chronic
             environmental stressors to accelerate biological aging
             across multiple organ systems. Cassel's assessment of the
             research and practice implications of his conclusions has
             remarkable contemporary resonance for the field of
             epidemiology.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aje/kwx070},
   Key = {fds327541}
}

@article{fds327542,
   Author = {Barrington, DS and James, SA},
   Title = {Receipt of public assistance during childhood and
             hypertension risk in adulthood},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {108-114.e2},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.11.012},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.annepidem.2016.11.012},
   Key = {fds327542}
}

@article{fds327543,
   Author = {Mujahid, MS and James, SA and Kaplan, GA and Salonen,
             JT},
   Title = {Socioeconomic position, John Henryism, and incidence of
             acute myocardial infarction in Finnish men},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {173},
   Pages = {54-62},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.034},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.034},
   Key = {fds327543}
}

@article{fds327544,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {The strangest of all encounters: racial and ethnic
             discrimination in US health care},
   Journal = {Cadernos de Saúde Pública},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {suppl 1},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-311x00104416},
   Doi = {10.1590/0102-311x00104416},
   Key = {fds327544}
}

@article{fds327545,
   Author = {Iacovino, JM and James, SA and Tate, WF and Staudt, N and Macrander,
             A},
   Title = {Retaining Students of Color in HIgher Education},
   Journal = {The Crisis of Race in Higher Education: A Day of Discovery
             and Dialogue},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {61-84},
   Publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S1479-364420160000019004},
   Abstract = {Over the past several decades, scholars and universities
             have made efforts to increase the retention of students in
             higher education, but graduation rates remain low. Whereas
             two-thirds of high school graduates attend college, fewer
             than half graduate. The likelihood of graduation decreases
             even more for Black, Latino, American Indian, and low-income
             students, who have a 12 15% lower chance of earning their
             degree. The importance of psychosocial adjustment to student
             persistence has received relatively less attention than
             academic and social integration. Racial/ethnic minority
             students face unique challenges to psychosocial adjustment
             in college, including prejudice and discrimination,
             unwelcoming campus environments, underrepresentation, and a
             lack of culturally appropriate counseling resources. The
             current chapter will discuss the impact of these challenges
             on the persistence, academic success, and health of racial/
             ethnic minority students, and strategies that universities
             can employ to create inclusive policies, resources and
             campus environments that empower students of color and
             maximize their success.},
   Doi = {10.1108/S1479-364420160000019004},
   Key = {fds327545}
}

@article{fds317749,
   Author = {Geronimus, AT and James, SA and Destin, M and Graham, LF and Hatzenbuehler, ML and Murphy, MC and Pearson, JA and Omari, A and Thompson, JP},
   Title = {Jedi public health: Co-creating an identity-safe culture to
             promote health equity},
   Journal = {SSM - Population Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {105-116},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.02.008},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.02.008},
   Key = {fds317749}
}

@article{fds277714,
   Author = {Chor, D and Andreozzi, V and Fonseca, MJM and Cardoso, LO and James, SA and Lopes, CS and Faerstein, E},
   Title = {Social inequalities in BMI trajectories: 8-year follow-up of
             the Pró-Saúde study in Rio de Janeiro,
             Brazil},
   Journal = {Public health nutrition},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {3183-3191},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1368-9800},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015001032},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1368980015001032},
   Key = {fds277714}
}

@article{fds303104,
   Author = {Logan, K and Chien, LC and James, SA and Barksdale,
             DJ},
   Title = {John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and
             Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants},
   Journal = {Journal of Transcultural Nursing},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications (UK and US)},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1552-7832},
   Key = {fds303104}
}

@article{fds226457,
   Author = {Chor D and Andreozzi V and Mendes da Fonseca M and Oliveira Cardoso
             L and Faerstein E and Souza Lopes C and James SA},
   Title = {Social inequalities in BMI Trajectories: 8 year follow-up of
             the Pró-Saúde Study in Rio de Janeiro,
             Brazil},
   Journal = {Public Health Nutrition},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {doi:10.1017/S1368980015001032},
   Key = {fds226457}
}

@article{fds277725,
   Author = {Gebreab, SY and AV, DR and Brenner, A and Hickson, D and James, SA and Sims, M and Subramanyam, M and Taylor, HA and Wyatt,
             SB},
   Title = {The impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position on
             cardiovascular disease events in African Americans: the
             Jackson Heart Study.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Heart Association.},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {e001553-e001553},
   Year = {2015},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.001553},
   Doi = {10.1161/JAHA.114.001553},
   Key = {fds277725}
}

@article{fds277715,
   Author = {Silva, LF and Lopes, GB and Cunha, TO and Protásio, BM and Pisoni, RL and James, SA and Lopes, AA},
   Title = {Coping with fluid restriction and the quality of life in
             hemodialysis patients with very low or no daily urine
             output.},
   Journal = {The International journal of artificial organs},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {427-435},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0391-3988},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5301/ijao.5000329},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Fluid restriction is crucial to prevent circulatory
             overload in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with
             very low urine volume, but fluid restriction may result in
             psychological distress. We studied MHD patients with urine
             volume ≤ 200 ml/day to investigate if their acceptance of
             fluid restriction was associated with their health-related
             quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Cross-sectional study of
             271 Brazilian adult MHD patients enrolled in the Prospective
             Study of the Prognosis of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients
             (PROHEMO). To assess the acceptance of fluid restriction,
             patients were asked about the extent of feeling bothered by
             living on this restriction. The KDQOL was used to determine
             HRQOL scores. Higher scores indicate better HRQOL with
             differences of >3.0 points considered clinically
             significant. RESULTS: 52.4% reported being "moderately to
             extremely" bothered by fluid restriction and had lower
             scores for all HRQOL scales than patients less bothered by
             fluid restriction. The largest covariate-adjusted
             differences in HRQOL were 19.5 for emotional role (p<0.001),
             15.1 for emotional well-being (p<0.001), and 14.1 for
             vitality (p<0.001). Adjusted differences were larger for
             mental component (7.53 points, p<0.001) than for physical
             component (2.07, p = 0.075) summaries. CONCLUSIONS: These
             results indicate that MHD patients with a lower level of
             acceptance of fluid restriction have poorer HRQOL,
             particularly in mental domains of HRQOL. The high prevalence
             of poor acceptance of fluid restriction in the present study
             underscores the need for interventions to improve acceptance
             of fluid restriction and determine if such interventions
             improve HRQOL of MHD patients with very low urine
             volume.},
   Doi = {10.5301/ijao.5000329},
   Key = {fds277715}
}

@article{fds226637,
   Author = {Silva LF and Lopes GB and Cunha TO and Protásio BM and Pisoni RL and James
             SA, Lopes AA},
   Title = {Coping With Fluid Restriction and the QUality of Life in
             Hemodialysis Patients with Low or No Urine
             Output},
   Journal = {The International Journal of Artificial Organs},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds226637}
}

@article{fds303106,
   Author = {Barrington, D and James, SA and Williams, DR},
   Title = {Socioeconomic Correlates of Obesity in African American and
             Black-Caribbean Men and Women},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds303106}
}

@article{fds277729,
   Author = {He, W and James, SA and Merli, MG and Zheng, H},
   Title = {An increasing socioeconomic gap in childhood overweight and
             obesity in China.},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e14-e22},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24228657},
   Abstract = {We used a new conceptual framework that integrates tenets
             from health economics, social epidemiology, and health
             behavior to analyze the impact of socioeconomic forces on
             the temporal changes in the socioeconomic status (SES) gap
             in childhood overweight and obesity in China. In data from
             the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 1991 to 2006, we
             found increased prevalence of childhood overweight and
             obesity across all SES groups, but a greater increase among
             higher-SES children, especially after 1997, when income
             inequality dramatically increased. Our findings suggest that
             for China, the increasing SES gap in purchasing power for
             obesogenic goods, associated with rising income inequality,
             played a prominent role in the country's increasing SES gap
             in childhood obesity and overweight.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2013.301669},
   Key = {fds277729}
}

@article{fds277730,
   Author = {Subramanyam, MA and James, SA and Diez-Roux, AV and Hickson, DA and Sarpong, D and Sims, M and Jr, THA and Wyatt, SB},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status, John Henryism and blood pressure among
             African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {93},
   Pages = {139-146},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000324608500017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.06.016},
   Key = {fds277730}
}

@article{fds317750,
   Author = {Barrington, DS and James, SA},
   Title = {CHILDHOOD FAMILY STRUCTURE AND ADULT HYPERTENSION AMONG
             AFRICAN AMERICANS: THE PITT COUNTY STUDY},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Hypertension},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {519-520},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   Key = {fds317750}
}

@article{fds277760,
   Author = {Abdulrahim, S and James, SA and Yamout, R and Baker,
             W},
   Title = {Discrimination and psychological distress: Does Whiteness
             matter for Arab Americans?},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2116-2123},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000312757800008&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.07.030},
   Key = {fds277760}
}

@article{fds277767,
   Author = {Swamy, GK and Edwards, S and Gelfand, A and James, SA and Miranda,
             ML},
   Title = {Maternal age, birth order, and race: differential effects on
             birthweight.},
   Journal = {Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {136-142},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21081308},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Studies examining the influence of maternal age
             and birth order on birthweight have not effectively
             disentangled the relative contributions of each factor to
             birthweight, especially as they may differ by race. METHODS:
             A population-based, cross-sectional study of North Carolina
             births from 1999 to 2003 was performed. Analysis was
             restricted to 510 288 singleton births from 28 to 42
             weeks' gestation with no congenital anomalies. Multivariable
             linear regression was used to model maternal age and birth
             order on birthweight, adjusting for infant sex, education,
             marital status, tobacco use and race. RESULTS: Mean
             birthweight was lower for non-Hispanic black individuals
             (NHB, 3166 g) compared with non-Hispanic white individuals
             (NHW, 3409 g) and Hispanic individuals (3348 g). Controlling
             for covariates, birthweight increased with maternal age
             until the early 30s. Race-specific modelling showed that the
             upper extremes of maternal age had a significant depressive
             effect on birthweight for NHW and NHB (35+ years, p<0.001),
             but only age less than 25 years was a significant
             contributor to lower birthweights for Hispanic individuals,
             p<0.0001. Among all racial subgroups, birth order had a
             greater influence on birthweight than maternal age, with the
             largest incremental increase from first to second births.
             Among NHB, birth order accounted for a smaller increment in
             birthweight than for NHW and Hispanic women. CONCLUSION:
             Birth order exerts a greater influence on birthweight than
             maternal age, with signficantly different effects across
             racial subgroups.},
   Doi = {10.1136/jech.2009.088567},
   Key = {fds277767}
}

@article{fds277761,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Orr, CA and James, SA and Blazer, DG},
   Title = {Life satisfaction and preterm birth among urban black women:
             Findings from the Baltimore preterm birth
             study},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {759-763},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {1047-2797},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.09.002},
   Abstract = {Purpose: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major problem in the
             United States, and black women have greater risk of PTB than
             white women. The etiology of PTB and the racial disparity in
             preterm outcomes are poorly understood. Diminished life
             satisfaction is associated with adult health, but there are
             no studies of life satisfaction and PTB. In the research
             reported in this article, the relationship between life
             satisfaction and PTB among black women was studied. Methods:
             Women were enrolled in this prospective study at the time of
             the first visit to 5 prenatal clinics in Baltimore. Life
             satisfaction was assessed at the time of the first prenatal
             visit. Data on PTB were obtained from medical records.
             Results: The final sample consisted of 922 women. Among
             women who were somewhat or not at all satisfied with their
             lives, 16% had preterm births, whereas among women who were
             very satisfied with their lives, 10.7% had preterm births
             (unadjusted odds ratio = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4). The adjusted
             odds ratio was 1.6 (95% CI 1.00-2.5). Conclusions: Women who
             reported being somewhat or not at all satisfied with their
             lives had a greater risk of PTB than women who reported
             being very satisfied with their lives. © 2012 Elsevier
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.annepidem.2012.09.002},
   Key = {fds277761}
}

@article{fds277762,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Reiter, JP and James, SA and Orr, CA},
   Title = {Maternal health prior to pregnancy and preterm birth among
             urban, low income black women in Baltimore: The Baltimore
             preterm birth study},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & disease},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-89},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1049-510X},
   Abstract = {Objectives: Black women have increased risk of preterm birth
             compared to White women, and overall Black women are in
             poorer health than White women. Recent recommendations to
             reduce preterm birth have focused on preconception health
             care. We explore the associations between indicators of
             maternal prepregnancy health with preterm birth among a
             sample of Black women. Design: The current study was
             prospective. Setting: Enrollment occurred in prenatal
             clinics in Baltimore. Participants: Women (N=922) aged ≥18
             were enrolled in the study. Data on maternal health,
             behaviors, and pregnancy outcome were abstracted from
             clinical records. Main Outcome Measure: Logistic regression
             was used to evaluate associations between behavioral and
             health status variables with preterm birth. Results: In
             bivariate analysis, alcohol use, drug use and chronic
             diseases were associated with preterm birth. In the logistic
             regression analysis, drug use and chronic diseases were
             associated with preterm birth. Conclusions: These results
             demonstrate an association between maternal health and
             behaviors prior to pregnancy with preterm birth among Black
             women. Providing access to health care prior to pregnancy to
             address behavioral and health risks may improve pregnancy
             outcomes among low-income Black women.},
   Key = {fds277762}
}

@article{fds277764,
   Author = {Sims, M and Diez-Roux, AV and Dudley, A and Gebreab, S and Wyatt, SB and Bruce, MA and James, SA and Robinson, JC and Williams, DR and Taylor,
             HA},
   Title = {Perceived discrimination and hypertension among African
             Americans in the Jackson Heart Study},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {SUPPL. 2},
   Pages = {S258-S265},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {Spring},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300523},
   Abstract = {Objectives: Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined
             whether perceived discrimination was associated with
             prevalent hypertension in African Americans. Methods.
             Everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, burden of
             discrimination, and stress from discrimination were examined
             among 4939 participants aged 35 to 84 years (women = 3123;
             men = 1816). We estimated prevalence ratios of hypertension
             by discrimination, and adjusted for age, gender,
             socioeconomic status, and risk factors. Results. The
             prevalence of hypertension was 64.0% in women and 59.7% in
             men. After adjustment for age, gender, and socioeconomic
             status, lifetime discrimination and burden of discrimination
             were associated with greater hypertension prevalence
             (prevalence ratios for highest vs lowest quartile were 1.08
             [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.15] and 1.09 [95% CI
             = 1.02,1.16] for lifetime discrimination and burden of
             discrimination, respectively). Associations were slightly
             weakened after adjustment for body mass index and behavioral
             factors. No associations were observed for everyday
             discrimination. Conclusions. Further understanding the role
             of perceived discrimination in the etiology of hypertension
             may be beneficial in eliminating hypertension
             disparities.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2011.300523},
   Key = {fds277764}
}

@article{fds277766,
   Author = {Anthopolos, R and James, SA and Gelfand, AE and Miranda,
             ML},
   Title = {A spatial measure of neighborhood level racial isolation
             applied to low birthweight, preterm birth, and birthweight
             in North Carolina.},
   Journal = {Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {235-246},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22748223},
   Abstract = {Research on racial residential segregation (RRS) and birth
             outcomes has focused on RRS at a broad geographic scale, in
             an aspatial framework, and in northern US cities. We
             developed a spatial measure of neighborhood level racial
             isolation of blacks. We examined the association between
             this new measure and low birthweight, preterm birth, and
             birthweight in the southern state of North Carolina.
             Natality data were obtained from the North Carolina Detailed
             Birth Record 1998-2002 files. Using multiple regression with
             cluster corrected standard errors, infants born to black and
             white mothers living in black isolated neighborhoods had, on
             average, decreased birthweight, and increased odds of low
             birthweight and preterm birth compared to their counterparts
             in less isolated areas. White mothers in predominantly black
             neighborhoods experienced greater increases in odds of each
             poor birth outcome than did black mothers. Black isolation
             may be proxying concentrated socioeconomic disadvantage,
             including disamenities in the built environment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.sste.2011.06.002},
   Key = {fds277766}
}

@article{fds277765,
   Author = {Miranda, ML and Swamy, GK and Edwards, S and Maxson, P and Gelfand, A and James, S},
   Title = {Disparities in maternal hypertension and pregnancy outcomes:
             evidence from North Carolina, 1994-2003.},
   Journal = {Public health reports (Washington, D.C. :
             1974)},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {579-587},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-3549},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20597458},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: To better understand disparities in pregnancy
             outcomes, we analyzed data from North Carolina to determine
             how the pattern of maternal hypertensive disorders differs
             among non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB),
             and Hispanic women across the range of maternal ages. In
             addition, we explored whether rates of poor birth outcomes,
             including low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB),
             among hypertensive women differed by race. METHODS: We
             restricted our analyses to births occurring between 1994 and
             2003, constructing six five-year maternal age categories:
             15-19 years, 20-24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years, 35-39
             years, and 40-44 years. We used logistic regression to
             determine the relative contribution of race and age to
             incidence of maternal hypertension. All analyses controlled
             for the standard covariates of maternal education, marital
             status, and tobacco use. To assess the impact of maternal
             hypertension on birth outcomes, we limited the dataset to
             women with any hypertensive disorder and used linear
             regression to determine how particular race-age combinations
             affected outcomes. We also used logistic regression to find
             out how particular race-age combinations affected the
             likelihood of LBW and PTB. RESULTS: The risk of hypertension
             differed by race, with NHB women exhibiting the highest risk
             and Hispanic women the lowest risk. Further, rates of
             hypertension increased with age. Among hypertensive women,
             pregnancy outcomes differed by race and age, with NHB women
             having the poorest outcomes (i.e., LBW and PTB) and age
             exhibiting a dose-response relationship in PTB and very PTB.
             CONCLUSIONS: Patterns of maternal hypertension and
             subsequent outcomes are important contributors to persistent
             disparities in pregnancy outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1177/003335491012500413},
   Key = {fds277765}
}

@article{fds178475,
   Author = {Krieger N and Alegria M and Almeida-Filho N and da Silva JB et
             al},
   Title = {Who, and what, causes health inequities? Reflections on
             emerging debates from an},
   Journal = {Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health},
   Volume = {Published Online First: 27 June 2010 doi},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds178475}
}

@article{fds277768,
   Author = {Stanton, MV and Jonassaint, CR and Williams, RB and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status moderates the association between John
             Henryism and NEO PI-R personality domains.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {141-147},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {Spring},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20100884},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between John Henryism
             (JH) and NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (PI-R)
             personality domains. JH-a strong behavioral predisposition
             to engage in high-effort coping with difficult psychosocial
             and economic stressors-has been associated with poor health,
             particularly among persons in lower socioeconomic (SES)
             groups. Unfavorable personality profiles have also been
             frequently linked to poor health; however, no studies have
             yet examined what global personality traits characterize JH.
             METHODS: Hypotheses were examined, using data from a sample
             of 233 community volunteers (mean age, 33 years; 61% black
             and 39% white) recruited specifically to represent the full
             range of the SES gradient. Personality (NEO PI-R) and active
             coping (12-item JH scale) measures and covariates were
             derived from baseline interviews. RESULTS: In a multiple
             regression analysis, independent of SES, JH was positively
             associated with Conscientiousness (C) (p < .001) and
             Extraversion (E) (p < .001), whereas the combination of low
             JH and high SES was associated with Neuroticism (N) (p =
             .02) When examining associations between JH and combinations
             of NEO PI-R domains called "styles," high JH was most
             strongly associated with a high E/high C "Go-Getters" style
             of activity, whereas low JH was associated with the low
             E/high Openness (O) "Introspectors" style. In facet level
             data, the most robust associations with JH were found for
             five C and five E facets. CONCLUSIONS: High JH was
             associated with higher scores on C and E, but the
             combination of low JH and high SES was associated with
             higher scores on N.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181cdc00e},
   Key = {fds277768}
}

@article{fds277769,
   Author = {Maty, SC and James, SA and Kaplan, GA},
   Title = {Association between childhood and adult socioeconomic
             position and the 34-Year incidence (1965-1999) of type 2
             diabetes mellitus by racial classification in the Alameda
             County Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {137-145},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.133892},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We examined associations between several
             life-course socioeconomic position (SEP) measures (childhood
             SEP, education, income, occupation) and diabetes incidence
             from 1965 to 1999 in a sample of 5422 diabetes-free Black
             and White participants in the Alameda County Study. Methods.
             Race-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimated
             diabetes risk associated with each SEP measure. Demographic
             compounders (age, gender, marital status) and potential
             pathway components (physical inactivity, body composition,
             smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, depression,
             access to health care) were included as covariates. Results.
             Diabetes incidence was twice as high for Blacks as for
             Whites. Diabetes risk factors independently increased risk,
             but effect sizes were greater among Whites. Low childhood
             SEP elevated risk for both racial groups. Protective effects
             were suggested for low education and blue-collar occupation
             among Blacks, but these factors increased risk for Whites.
             Income was protective for Whites but not Blacks. Covariate
             adjustment had negligible effects on associations between
             each SEP measure and diabetes incidence for both racial
             groups. Conclusions. These findings suggest an important
             role for life-course SEP measures in determining risk of
             diabetes, regardless of race and after adjustment for
             factors that may confound or mediate these
             associations.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2008.133892},
   Key = {fds277769}
}

@article{fds277751,
   Author = {Lopes, GB and Matos, CM and Leite, EB and Martins, MTS and Martins, MS and Silva, LF and Robinson, BM and Port, FK and James, SA and Lopes,
             AA},
   Title = {Depression as a potential explanation for gender differences
             in health-related quality of life among patients on
             maintenance hemodialysis},
   Journal = {Nephron - Clinical Practice},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {c35-c40},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1660-2110},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000286348},
   Abstract = {Background/Aims: The reasons for lower health-related
             quality of life (HRQOL) scores in women compared to men on
             maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are unknown. We investigated
             whether depression accounts for gender differences in HRQOL.
             Methods: Cross-sectional study of 868 (40.9% women)
             Brazilian MHD patients (PROHEMO Study). We used the Kidney
             Disease Quality of Life Short Form to assess HRQOL and the
             Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale
             (scores from 0-60) to assess depression with scores ≥18
             indicating high depression probability. Results: Higher
             depression scores were associated with lower HRQOL in both
             sexes. Women had higher depression scores; 51.8% of women
             versus 38.2% of men (p &lt; 0.001) had CES-D scores ≥18.
             Women scored lower on all 9 assessed HRQOL scales. The
             female-to-male differences in HRQOL were slightly reduced
             with inclusion of Kt/V and comorbidities in regression
             models. Substantial additional reductions in female-to-male
             differences in all HRQOL scales were observed after
             including depression scores in the models, by 50.9% for
             symptoms/problems related to renal failure, by 71.6% for
             mental health and by 87.1% for energy/vitality. Conclusions:
             Lower HRQOL among women was largely explained by depression
             symptoms. Results support greater emphasis on treating
             depression to improve HRQOL in MHD patients, particularly
             women. © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.},
   Doi = {10.1159/000286348},
   Key = {fds277751}
}

@article{fds277752,
   Author = {Krieger, N and Alegría, M and Almeida-Filho, N and Silva, JBD and Barreto, ML and Beckfield, J and Berkman, L and Birn, A-E and Duncan,
             BB and Franco, S and al, E},
   Title = {Editorial: Who, and what, causes health inequities?
             Reflections on emerging debates from an exploratory Latin
             American/North American workshop},
   Journal = {Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {747-749},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0143-005X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2009.106906},
   Doi = {10.1136/jech.2009.106906},
   Key = {fds277752}
}

@article{fds277753,
   Author = {Roberts, CB and Couper, DJ and Chang, PP and James, SA and Rosamond, WD and Heiss, G},
   Title = {Influence of life-course socioeconomic position on incident
             heart failure in blacks and whites},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {172},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {717-727},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq193},
   Abstract = {The influence of early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) on
             incident heart failure in blacks and whites is unknown. The
             authors examined the relation between early-life SEP and
             incident, hospitalized heart failure among middle-aged US
             participants (2,503 black and 8,519 white) in the
             Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Early-life
             SEP indicators assessed included parental education,
             occupation, and home ownership. From 1987 to 2004, 221 and
             537 incident heart failure events were identified in blacks
             and whites, respectively. In Cox proportional hazards
             regression, early-life SEP was inversely related to incident
             heart failure after adjustment for age, gender, and study
             center (for blacks, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39, 95% confidence
             interval (CI): 1.00, 1.95; for whites, HR = 1.32, 95% CI:
             1.06, 1.64). Additional adjustment for young and
             mid-to-older adulthood SEP and established heart failure
             risk factors attenuated this association towards the null in
             both blacks and whites. Of the SEP measures, mid-to-older
             adulthood SEP showed the strongest association with incident
             heart failure in both blacks (HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.96)
             and whites (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.75). SEP over the
             life course is related to the risk of incident heart
             failure, with SEP later in adulthood having a more prominent
             role than earlier SEP.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aje/kwq193},
   Key = {fds277753}
}

@article{fds304190,
   Author = {Maty, SC and James, SA and Kaplan, GA},
   Title = {Life-course socioeconomic position and incidence of diabetes
             mellitus among blacks and whites: The Alameda County Study,
             1965-1999},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {137-145},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2008.133892},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We examined associations between several
             life-course socioeconomic position (SEP) measures (childhood
             SEP, education, income, occupation) and diabetes incidence
             from 1965 to 1999 in a sample of 5422 diabetes-free Black
             and White participants in the Alameda County Study. Methods.
             Race-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimated
             diabetes risk associated with each SEP measure. Demographic
             compounders (age, gender, marital status) and potential
             pathway components (physical inactivity, body composition,
             smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, depression,
             access to health care) were included as covariates. Results.
             Diabetes incidence was twice as high for Blacks as for
             Whites. Diabetes risk factors independently increased risk,
             but effect sizes were greater among Whites. Low childhood
             SEP elevated risk for both racial groups. Protective effects
             were suggested for low education and blue-collar occupation
             among Blacks, but these factors increased risk for Whites.
             Income was protective for Whites but not Blacks. Covariate
             adjustment had negligible effects on associations between
             each SEP measure and diabetes incidence for both racial
             groups. Conclusions. These findings suggest an important
             role for life-course SEP measures in determining risk of
             diabetes, regardless of race and after adjustment for
             factors that may confound or mediate these
             associations.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2008.133892},
   Key = {fds304190}
}

@article{fds159185,
   Author = {Fowler-Brown A and Bennett G and Goodman M and Wee C and Corbie-Smith G and James SA.},
   Title = {Psychosocial Stress and 13 year Changes in Body Mass Index
             in Blacks: The Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {Obesity},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds159185}
}

@article{fds317751,
   Author = {Sims, M and Wyatt, SB and Bruce, MA and James, SA and Williams, DR and Robinson, JC and Taylor, HA},
   Title = {The Association Between Perceived Discrimination and
             Hypertension Status in the Jackson Heart
             Study},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {E281-E281},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds317751}
}

@article{fds277754,
   Author = {Fowler-Brown, AG and Bennett, GG and Goodman, MS and Wee, CC and Corbie-Smith, GM and James, SA},
   Title = {Psychosocial stress and 13-year BMI change among blacks: The
             pitt county study},
   Journal = {Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2106-2109},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1930-7381},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2009.130},
   Abstract = {Adverse psychosocial exposures may partially drive the high
             rates of obesity among blacks. The objective of this study
             was to prospectively examine the relationship between
             perceived psychosocial stress and percent change in BMI
             among adult black men and women. We used data from 756 women
             and 416 men who were participants in the Pitt County Study,
             a community-based, prospective cohort study of blacks in
             eastern North Carolina. Participants were aged 25-50 years
             of age on entry into the study in 1988 and follow-up was
             obtained in 2001. Using multivariable linear regression, we
             calculated the adjusted mean percentage change in BMI over
             the follow-up period for each tertile of baseline measures
             of the Perceived Stress Scale (low, medium, and high),
             adjusted for potential confounders. For black women, higher
             levels of psychosocial stress at baseline predicted higher
             adjusted percentage increase in BMI over the 13-year
             follow-up: low stress 12.0% (95% CI 9.6-14.4), medium stress
             16.3% (95% CI 13.7-18.9), and high stress 15.5% (95% CI
             13.1-17.8). For black men, perceived stress was not
             associated with percent BMI change. These data suggest that
             interventions targeting obesity in black women should
             consider the potential impact of emotional stress on weight
             change.},
   Doi = {10.1038/oby.2009.130},
   Key = {fds277754}
}

@article{fds277771,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Epidemiologic research on health disparities: some thoughts
             on history and current developments.},
   Journal = {Epidemiologic Reviews},
   Volume = {31},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {Winter},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19822533},
   Abstract = {In this introduction to volume 31 of Epidemiologic Reviews,
             the author traces the history of health disparities research
             in epidemiology and situates the 10 review articles
             comprising this edition within this history. With the aid of
             a conceptual model describing the key determinants of health
             disparities, he offers several suggestions for improving
             future epidemiologic research on health disparities.},
   Doi = {10.1093/epirev/mxp010},
   Key = {fds277771}
}

@article{fds277772,
   Author = {Katz, RV and Green, BL and Kressin, NR and James, SA and Wang, MQ and Claudio, C and Russell, SL},
   Title = {Exploring the Legacy of the tuskegee syphilis study: A
             follow-up study from the tuskegee legacy
             project},
   Journal = {Journal of the National Medical Association},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-183},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0027-9684},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this follow-up 2003 3-City Tuskegee Legacy
             Project (TLP) Study was to validate or refute our prior
             findings from the 1999-2000 4 City TLP Study, which found no
             evidence to support the widely acknowledged "legacy" of the
             Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS), ie, that blacks are reluctant
             to participate in biomedical studies due to their knowledge
             of the TSS. The TLP Questionnaire was administered in this
             random-digit-dial telephone survey to a stratified random
             sample of 1162 black, white, and Puerto Rican Hispanic
             adults in 3 different US cities. The findings from this
             current 3-City TLP Study fail to support the widely
             acknowledged "legacy" of the TSS, as awareness of the TSS
             was not statistically associated with the willingness to
             participate in biomedical studies. These findings, being in
             complete agreement with our previous findings from our
             1999-2000 4-City TLP, validate those prior
             findings.},
   Key = {fds277772}
}

@article{fds152681,
   Author = {Orr ST and James SA and Reiter J},
   Title = {Unintended Pregnancy and Prenatal Behaviors Among Urban,
             Black Women in Baltimore, MD},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {18},
   Pages = {545-551},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds152681}
}

@article{fds277748,
   Author = {Katz, RV and Green, BL and Kressin, NR and Kegeles, SS and Wang, MQ and James, SA and Russell, SL and Claudio, C and McCallum,
             JM},
   Title = {The legacy of the tuskegee syphilis study: Assessing its
             impact on willingness to participate in biomedical
             studies},
   Journal = {Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1168-1180},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1049-2089},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0067},
   Abstract = {The phrase, legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, is
             sometimes used to denote the belief that Blacks are more
             reluctant than Whites to participate in biomedical research
             studies because of the infamous study of syphilis in men run
             by the U.S. Public Health Service from 1932-72. This paper
             is the first to attempt to assess directly the accuracy of
             this belief within a multi-city, multi-racial, large-scale,
             detailed random survey. We administered the Tuskegee Legacy
             Project (TLP) Questionnaire to 826 Blacks and non-Hispanic
             White adults in three U.S. cities. While Blacks had higher
             levels of general awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study,
             there was no association between either awareness or
             detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and
             willingness to participate in biomedical research, either
             for Blacks or Whites observed in our survey. While this
             study refutes the notion that there is a direct connection
             between detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study
             and willingness to participate in biomedical research, it
             does not assess the broader question of whether and how
             historical events influence people's willingness to
             participate in research. Future studies should explore
             this.},
   Doi = {10.1353/hpu.0.0067},
   Key = {fds277748}
}

@article{fds277773,
   Author = {Katz, RV and Kegeles, SS and Kressin, NR and Green, BL and James, SA and Min, QW and Russell, SL and Claudio, C},
   Title = {Awareness of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the US
             presidential apology and their influence on minority
             participation in biomedical research},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1137-1142},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.100131},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We compared the influence of awareness of the
             Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the presidential apology for
             that study on the willingness of Blacks, non-Hispanic
             Whites, and Hispanics to participate in biomedical research.
             Methods. The Tuskegee Legacy Project Questionnaire was
             administered to 1133 adults in 4 US cities. This 60-item
             questionnaire addressed issues related to the recruitment of
             minorities into biomedical studies. Results. Adjusted
             multivariate analysis showed that, compared with Whites,
             Blacks were nearly 4 times as likely to have heard of the
             Tuskegee Syphilis Study, more than twice as likely to have
             correctly named Clinton as the president who made the
             apology, and 2 to 3 times more likely to have been willing
             to participate in biomedical studies despite having heard
             about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9;
             95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4, 6.2) or the presidential
             apology (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.4, 3.9). Conclusions. These
             marked differences likely reflect the cultural reality in
             the Black community, which has been accustomed to increased
             risks in many activities. For Whites, this type of
             information may have been more shocking and at odds with
             their expectations and, thus, led to a stronger negative
             impact.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2006.100131},
   Key = {fds277773}
}

@article{fds277774,
   Author = {Roberts, CB and Vines, AI and Kaufman, JS and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination
             and hypertension in African-American men and women: The Pitt
             County Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {624-632},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwm334},
   Abstract = {Few studies have examined the impact of the frequency of
             discrimination on hypertension risk. The authors assessed
             the cross-sectional associations between frequency of
             perceived racial and nonracial discrimination and
             hypertension among 1,110 middle-aged African-American men (n
             = 393) and women (n = 717) participating in the 2001
             follow-up of the Pitt County Study (Pitt County, North
             Carolina). Odds ratios were estimated using gender-specific
             unconditional weighted logistic regression with adjustment
             for relevant confounders and the frequency of
             discrimination. More than half of the men (57%) and women
             (55%) were hypertensive. The prevalences of perceived racial
             discrimination, nonracial discrimination, and no
             discrimination were 57%, 29%, and 13%, respectively, in men
             and 42%, 43%, and 15%, respectively, in women. Women
             recounting frequent nonracial discrimination versus those
             reporting no exposure to discrimination had the highest odds
             of hypertension (adjusted odds ratio = 2.34, 95% confidence
             interval: 1.09, 5.02). A nonsignificant inverse odds ratio
             was evident in men who perceived frequent exposure to racial
             or nonracial discrimination in comparison with no exposure.
             A similar association was observed for women reporting
             perceived racial discrimination. These results indicate that
             the type and frequency of discrimination perceived by
             African-American men and women may differentially affect
             their risk of hypertension. © The Author 2007. Published by
             the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aje/kwm334},
   Key = {fds277774}
}

@article{fds317752,
   Author = {Wolin, KY and Bennett, GG and James, SA},
   Title = {RACIAL SEGREGATION AND OBESITY AMONG BLACKS},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {S30-S30},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds317752}
}

@article{fds277777,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Reiter, JP and Blazer, DG and James, SA},
   Title = {Maternal prenatal pregnancy-related anxiety and spontaneous
             preterm birth in Baltimore, Maryland.},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {566-570},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17636150},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To focus on the relationship between
             pregnancy-related anxiety and spontaneous preterm birth.
             Psychosocial factors have been the subject of inquiries
             about the etiology of preterm birth; a factor of recent
             interest is maternal prenatal pregnancy-related anxiety
             (worries and concerns related to the pregnancy). METHODS:
             From 1991 to 1993, a total of 1820 women completed the study
             questionnaire during their first prenatal visit to clinics
             in Baltimore, Maryland. Pregnancy-related anxiety was
             assessed using six questions from the Prenatal Social
             Environment Inventory; scores ranged from 0 to 6. Data on
             pregnancy outcome and clinical and behavioral covariates
             were obtained from the women's clinical records. RESULTS:
             After adjustment for covariates (first or second trimester
             bleeding, drug use, employment, prior poor pregnancy
             outcome, smoking, low body mass index, maternal education,
             age, and race), women with higher levels of
             pregnancy-related anxiety (scores of 5 or 6) had a
             significantly increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth
             compared with those with scores of < or =3. CONCLUSIONS: If
             additional research confirms these results, then this
             finding may suggest the possibility of intervention to
             reduce maternal prenatal pregnancy-related worries and
             concerns, thereby reducing the risk of spontaneous preterm
             birth.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3180cac25d},
   Key = {fds277777}
}

@article{fds277728,
   Author = {Feathers, JT and Kieffer, EC and Palmisano, G and Anderson, M and Janz,
             N and Spencer, M and Guzman, R},
   Title = {The development, implementation, and process evaluation of
             the REACH Detroit Partnership's Diabetes Lifestyle
             Intervention.},
   Journal = {The Diabetes Educator},
   Volume = {33},
   Pages = {509-520},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds277728}
}

@article{fds277776,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Blazer, DG and James, SA and Reiter, JP},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and indicators of maternal health status
             during pregnancy.},
   Journal = {Journal of Women's Health},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {535-542},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1540-9996},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17521257},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: Depressive symptoms are common among women,
             especially those who are of childbearing age or are
             pregnant. Prior studies have suggested that an increased
             burden of depressive symptoms is associated with diminished
             health and functional status, but these studies were
             primarily of middle-aged and older adults. In the current
             study, we investigated the relationship between depressive
             symptoms and health and functional status among pregnant
             women. METHODS: Women were enrolled in the study at their
             first prenatal visit to hospital-based clinics and
             administered an interview that contained the Center for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) to assess
             depressive symptoms and several questions to measure overall
             health status, limitations in performing moderate
             activities, and limitations in climbing stairs. RESULTS: The
             sample included 1163 women. Women with higher levels of
             depressive symptoms, using cutoff points on the CES-D of
             either > or =16 (clinically significant) or > or =23 (major
             depression), had approximately twice the risk of poorer
             self-reported health and functional status than those with
             lower scores after adjustment for age, marital status,
             smoking, education, insurance, trimester, and race.
             CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an increased burden
             of depressive symptoms during pregnancy is associated with
             diminished health status and may offer an explanation for
             the reported association between depressive symptoms and
             preterm birth.},
   Doi = {10.1089/jwh.2006.0116},
   Key = {fds277776}
}

@article{fds277779,
   Author = {Lucove, JC and Kaufman, JS and James, SA},
   Title = {Adult and Childhood Socio-economic Status and Metabolic
             Syndrome among African Americans: the Pitt County
             Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {234-236},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.087429},
   Abstract = {We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status
             (SES) during childhood and adulthood and prevalence of the
             metabolic syndrome in African Americans. Higher adult
             educational status and adult skilled occupation were
             protective against the metabolic syndrome, but no
             associations were found between the metabolic syndrome and
             other SES variables. Differences by gender were observed.
             Improving access to education among African Americans could
             reduce risk for the metabolic syndrome, but more research is
             needed in minority populations.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2006.087429},
   Key = {fds277779}
}

@article{fds277727,
   Author = {Belli, RF and James, SA and VanHoewy, J and Alcser,
             K},
   Title = {The Implementation of a Computerized Event History Calendar
             Questionnaire for Research in Life Course Epidemiology, in
             RF Belli, FP Stafford, DF Alwin (Editors), Sage
             Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA; 2007: pp.318-340},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds277727}
}

@article{fds277747,
   Author = {Feathers, JT and Kieffer, EC and Palmisano, G and Anderson, M and Janz,
             N and Spencer, MS and Guzman, R and James, SA},
   Title = {The development, implementation, and process evaluation of
             the REACH detroit partnership's diabetes lifestyle
             intervention},
   Journal = {Diabetes Educator},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {509-520},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0145-7217},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145721707301371},
   Doi = {10.1177/0145721707301371},
   Key = {fds277747}
}

@article{fds277749,
   Author = {Kaufman, JS and Geronimus, AT and James, SA},
   Title = {Faulty interpretation of observed racial disparity in
             recurrent preterm birth},
   Journal = {American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology},
   Volume = {197},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {327-328},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0002-9378},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2007.04.040},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ajog.2007.04.040},
   Key = {fds277749}
}

@article{fds277778,
   Author = {Haritatos, J and Mahalingam, R and James, SA},
   Title = {John Henryism, self-reported physical health indicators, and
             the mediating role of perceived stress among high
             socio-economic status Asian immigrants},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1192-1203},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.10.037},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationship between John Henryism
             (a strong behavioral predisposition to engage in high effort
             coping with difficult barriers to success) and self-reported
             physical health among high socio-economic (SES) status Asian
             immigrants to the USA. Cross-sectional data were collected
             from a community sample of 318 self-identified Chinese and
             Indian immigrants aged 18-73, averaging 10.2 yr lived in the
             US. In addition to the John Henryism Active Coping Scale,
             health status was measured using ordinal ratings of global
             self-rated health, somatic symptoms and physical health
             functioning. We also evaluated whether perceived stress
             would explain the relationship between John Henryism and
             health. Controlling for demographic factors, regression
             analyses showed that higher John Henryism significantly
             predicted better self-rated health and physical functioning,
             and fewer somatic symptoms. These relationships were
             significantly and fully mediated (for physical functioning
             and somatic symptoms) or partially mediated (for self-rated
             health) by lower perceived stress. Results suggest that John
             Henryism relates to better health among high SES Asian
             immigrants in part by reducing perceived stress. To better
             understand and improve health in all racial/ethnic groups,
             especially racial minorities and immigrants, more research
             is needed on John Henryism and perceived stress as important
             psychosocial mechanisms intervening between environmental
             exposures and health outcomes. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.10.037},
   Key = {fds277778}
}

@article{fds277780,
   Author = {Bennett, GG and Wolin, KY and James, SA},
   Title = {Lifecourse socioeconomic position and weight change among
             blacks: The pitt county study},
   Journal = {Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {172-181},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1930-7381},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2007.522},
   Abstract = {Objective: The elevated prevalence of obesity among U.S.
             blacks has been attributed to low socioeconomic position
             (SEP), despite inconsistent empirical findings. It is
             unclear whether low SEP at various lifecourse stages
             differentially influences adulthood BMI and BMI change.
             Research Methods and Procedures: Among 1167 black adults in
             the Pitt County Study, we examined independent
             cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SEP,
             measured in childhood and adulthood, and BMI and 13-year BMI
             change. Low vs. high childhood SEP was measured by parental
             occupation and childhood household deprivation; low vs. high
             adulthood SEP was assessed by employment status, education,
             and occupation. Using childhood and adulthood SEP, four
             lifecourse SEP categories were created: low-low, low-high,
             high-low, high-high. Results: We found no consistent
             associations between SEP and BMI or BMI change among men.
             Among women, we observed the expected inverse association
             between SEP and BMI at baseline. In multivariable-adjusted
             analyses, socio-economically advantaged women demonstrated
             larger 13-year increases in BMI: skilled vs. unskilled
             parental occupation (6.1 vs. 4.8 kg/m2, p = 0.04);
             college-educated vs. &lt; high school (6.2 vs. 4.5 kg/m2, p
             = 0.04); white-collar vs. blue-collar job (5.8 vs. 4.8
             kg/m2, p = 0.05); and high-high vs. low-low lifecourse SEP
             (6.5 vs. 4.6 kg/m2, p = 0.02). Discussion: For women in this
             black cohort, lower SEP predicted earlier onset of obesity;
             however, low SEP was less predictive of BMI increases over
             time. Our findings demonstrate complex patterns of
             association between SEP and BMI change among black women.
             Copyright © 2007 NAASO.},
   Doi = {10.1038/oby.2007.522},
   Key = {fds277780}
}

@article{fds304189,
   Author = {Lucove, JC and Kaufman, JS and James, SA},
   Title = {Association between adult and childhood socioeconomic status
             and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in African
             Americans: The pitt county study},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {97},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {234-236},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.087429},
   Abstract = {We evaluated the association between socioeconomic status
             (SES) during childhood and adulthood and prevalence of the
             metabolic syndrome in African Americans. Higher adult
             educational status and adult skilled occupation were
             protective against the metabolic syndrome, but no
             associations were found between the metabolic syndrome and
             other SES variables. Differences by gender were observed.
             Improving access to education among African Americans could
             reduce risk for the metabolic syndrome, but more research is
             needed in minority populations.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2006.087429},
   Key = {fds304189}
}

@article{fds52954,
   Author = {Zenk SN and Schulz AJ and Israel BA and James SA and Wilson ML and Bao
             S},
   Title = {Fruit and Vegetable Access Differs by Community Racial
             Composition and Socioeconomic},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & Disease},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {275-280},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {Winter},
   Key = {fds52954}
}

@article{fds277788,
   Author = {Colen, CG and Geronimus, AT and Bound, J and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Facing the Realities of the American Dream: Upward Maternal
             Socioeconomic Mobility and Black-White Disparities in Infant
             Birth Weight},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2032-2039},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We estimate the extent to which upward
             socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and
             White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty
             will give birth to a low-birthweight baby. Methods. Data
             from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the
             1970 US Census were used to complete a series of logistic
             regression models. We restricted multivariate analyses to
             female survey respondents who, at 14 years of age, were
             living in households in which the income-to-needs ratio did
             not exceed 200% of poverty. Results. For White women, the
             probability of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby
             decreases by 48% for every 1 unit increase in the natural
             logarithm of adult family income, once the effects of all
             other covariates are taken into account. For Black women,
             the relation between adult family income and the probability
             of low birthweight is also negative; however, this
             association fails to reach statistical significance.
             Conclusions. Upward socioeconomic mobility contributes to
             improved birth outcomes among infants born to White women
             who were poor as children, but the same does not hold true
             for their Black counterparts.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547},
   Key = {fds277788}
}

@article{fds277763,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Blazer, DG and James, SA},
   Title = {Racial disparities in elevated prenatal depressive symptoms
             among black and white women in eastern north
             Carolina.},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {463-468},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1047-2797},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16257228},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: Black women have an increased risk for preterm
             birth compared with white women, and prior research
             indicated that maternal prenatal depressive symptoms are
             associated with increased risk for preterm outcomes among
             black women. Race-related differences in prenatal depression
             could be of etiologic significance in understanding racial
             disparities in preterm birth. Our study focused on Center
             for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression Scale (CES-D) scores
             of pregnant black and white women. METHODS: Women were
             administered the CES-D at the time of their first visit to
             hospital-based prenatal clinics. Two cutoff scores for the
             CES-D were used: 16 or higher, which indicates "significant"
             depressive symptoms, and 23 or higher, which indicates major
             depressive disorder. RESULTS: For the sample of 1163 women,
             mean CES-D scores were significantly higher among black
             (17.4) than white (13.7) women. Of black women, 49% had
             CES-D scores higher than 15 compared with 33.5% of white
             women. Also, 27.5% of black women had scores higher than 22
             compared with 16% of white women. After adjustment for
             maternal age, marital status, and education, odds ratios for
             race for both CES-D cutoff scores were approximately 1.5.
             CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate that black women
             have greater rates of prenatal depression than white
             women.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.08.004},
   Key = {fds277763}
}

@article{fds277785,
   Author = {James, SA and Van Hoewyk and J and Belli, RF and Strogatz, DS and Williams,
             DR and Raghunathan, TE},
   Title = {Life-course socioeconomic position and hypertension in
             African American men: the Pitt County Study.},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {812-817},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571689},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We investigated the odds of hypertension for
             Black men in relationship to their socioeconomic position
             (SEP) in both childhood and adulthood. METHODS: On the basis
             of their parents' occupation, we classified 379 men in the
             Pitt County (North Carolina) Study into low and high
             childhood SEP. The men's own education, occupation,
             employment status, and home ownership status were used to
             classify them into low and high adulthood SEP. Four
             life-course SEP categories resulted: low childhood/low
             adulthood, low childhood/high adulthood, high childhood/low
             adulthood, and high childhood/high adulthood. RESULTS: Low
             childhood SEP was associated with a 60% greater odds of
             hypertension, and low adulthood SEP was associated with a
             2-fold greater odds of hypertension. Compared with men of
             high SEP in both childhood and adulthood, the odds of
             hypertension were 7 times greater for low/low SEP men, 4
             times greater for low/high SEP men, and 6 times greater for
             high/low SEP men. CONCLUSIONS: Greater access to material
             resources in both childhood and adulthood was protective
             against premature hypertension in this cohort of Black men.
             Though some parameter estimates were imprecise, study
             findings are consistent with both pathway and cumulative
             burden models of hypertension.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2005.076158},
   Key = {fds277785}
}

@article{fds277783,
   Author = {James, SA and Fowler-Brown, A and Raghunathan, TE and Van Hoewyk,
             J},
   Title = {Life-course socioeconomic position and obesity in African
             American Women: the Pitt County Study.},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {554-560},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16449599},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We studied obesity in African American women in
             relationship to their socioeconomic position (SEP) in
             childhood and adulthood. METHODS: On the basis of parents'
             occupation, we classified 679 women in the Pitt County
             (North Carolina) Study into low and high childhood SEP.
             Women's education, occupation, employment status, and home
             ownership were used to classify them into low and high
             adulthood SEP. Four life-course SEP categories resulted: low
             childhood/low adulthood, low childhood/high adulthood, high
             childhood/low adulthood, and high childhood/high adulthood.
             RESULTS: The odds of obesity were twice as high among women
             from low versus high childhood SEP backgrounds, and 25%
             higher among women of low versus high adulthood SEP.
             Compared to that in women of high SEP in both childhood and
             adulthood, the odds of obesity doubled for low/low SEP
             women, were 55% higher for low/high SEP women, and were
             comparable for high/low SEP women. CONCLUSIONS:
             Socioeconomic deprivation in childhood was a strong
             predictor of adulthood obesity in this community sample of
             African American women. Findings are consistent with both
             critical period and cumulative burden models of life-course
             socioeconomic deprivation and long-term risk for obesity in
             African American women.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2004.053447},
   Key = {fds277783}
}

@article{fds209198,
   Author = {Orr ST and James SA and Garry J and Prince CB and Newton
             ER.},
   Title = {Excercise and Pregnancy Outcome among Urban, Low Income
             Black Women.},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & Disease},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {933-937},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds209198}
}

@article{fds277743,
   Author = {Zenk, SN and Schulz, AJ and Israel, BA and James, SA and Bao, S and Wilson,
             ML},
   Title = {Fruit and vegetable access differs by community racial
             composition and socioeconomic position in Detroit,
             Michigan},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & disease},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {275-280},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-510X},
   Abstract = {Objective: To compare the availability, selection, quality,
             and price of fresh fruit and vegetables at food stores in
             four Detroit-area communities: 1) predominately
             African-American, low socioeconomic position (SEP); 2)
             racially heterogeneous, low SEP; 3) predominately
             African-American, middle SEP; and 4) racially heterogeneous,
             middle SEP. Design: Cross-sectional observational survey,
             conducted fall 2002. Setting: Detroit, Michigan Sample:
             Overall, 304 food stores located in the four communities
             were evaluated: chain grocery, large independent grocery,
             "mom-and-pop" grocery, specialty (meat, fruit and vegetable
             markets), convenience without gasoline, and liquor stores.
             Main Outcome Measures: Availability was indicated by whether
             a store carried fresh fruit or vegetables, selection was
             based on a count of 80 fruit and vegetables, quality was
             evaluated according to USDA guidelines for a subset of 20
             fruit and vegetables, and price was assessed for 20 fruit
             and vegetables by using the lowest-cost method. Results:
             Mean quality of fresh produce was significantly lower in the
             predominately African-American, low-SEP community than in
             the racially heterogeneous, middle-SEP community.
             Differences in the types of stores present only partially
             explained this quality differential. The predominately
             African-American, low-SEP community had more than four times
             more liquor stores and fewer grocery stores per 100,000
             residents than the racially heterogeneous, middle-SEP
             community. Mean overall selection and price of fresh produce
             at stores did not differ among communities. Conclusions:
             Increasing access to high-quality fresh produce in
             low-income communities of color is a critical first step
             toward improving health through better dietary practices in
             this population.},
   Key = {fds277743}
}

@article{fds277744,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Garry, J and Prince, CB and Newton,
             ER},
   Title = {Exercise and pregnancy outcome among urban, low-income,
             black women},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & disease},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {933-937},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-510X},
   Abstract = {Few studies have focused on the association between maternal
             exercise and outcomes of pregnancy among low-income, Black
             women. The analysis reported here examines the associations
             between exercise before and during pregnancy and pregnancy
             outcomes of preterm birth and low birth weight among a
             sample of urban, low-income, Black women. Women (N=922) were
             enrolled in this prospective cohort study during their first
             prenatal visit at five hospital-based prenatal clinics
             located in Baltimore City, Maryland, from 1993 to 1995. A
             questionnaire was used to ask women about their
             participation in strenuous and nonstrenuous exercise before
             and during pregnancy. Nearly two thirds of the women
             reported participating in exercise during pregnancy; most
             women participated in nonstrenuous exercise (56%). The risks
             of both low birth weight (12.2%) and preterm birth (13.7%)
             were not significantly different whether women reported
             exercising or not, either before or during pregnancy. For
             women who were considered high risk because of chronic
             diseases or previous poor pregnancy outcome, stratified
             analysis indicated no significant difference in preterm
             birth or low birth weight between those who exercised and
             those who did not. Our analysis failed to identify any
             association between exercise and pregnancy outcomes among
             low-income, urban, Black women.},
   Key = {fds277744}
}

@article{fds277782,
   Author = {Spencer, MS and Kieffer, EC and Sinco, BR and Palmisano, G and Guzman,
             JR and James, SA and Graddy-Dansby, G and Feathers, JT and Heisler,
             M},
   Title = {Diabetes-specific emotional distress among African Americans
             and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes},
   Journal = {Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2 SUPPL.},
   Pages = {88-105},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-2089},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2006.0082},
   Abstract = {This study examines baseline levels and correlates of
             diabetes-related emotional distress among inner-city African
             Americans and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes. The Problem
             Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale, which measures
             diabetes-related emotional distress, was administered to 180
             African American and Hispanic adults participating in the
             REACH Detroit Partnership. We examined bivariate and
             multivariate associations between emotional distress and
             biological, psychosocial, and quality of health care
             variables for African Americans and Hispanics. Scores were
             significantly higher among Hispanics than African Americans.
             Demographic factors were stronger predictors of emotional
             distress for Hispanics than for African Americans. Daily
             hassles, physician support, and perceived seriousness and
             understanding of diabetes were significant for African
             Americans. Understanding the personal, family and community
             context of living with diabetes and conducting interventions
             that provide support and coping strategies for
             self-management have important implications for reducing
             health disparities among disadvantaged racial and ethnic
             groups.},
   Doi = {10.1353/hpu.2006.0082},
   Key = {fds277782}
}

@article{fds277784,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Garry, J and Newton, E},
   Title = {Exercise participation before and during pregnancy among
             low-income, urban, black women: The baltimore preterm birth
             study},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & disease},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {909-913},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-510X},
   Abstract = {National data demonstrate that Black women have poorer
             health status, and greater risk of death from chronic
             diseases, than their White counterparts. Exercise can help
             prevent chronic disease, and adult Black women are less
             likely to engage in exercise than White women. However, few
             data are available about exercise among pregnant Black
             women. Pregnant Black women were enrolled in this study at
             hospital-based prenatal clinics in Baltimore, Maryland.
             Exercise before and during pregnancy were assessed at the
             first prenatal visit, along with exposure to stressors,
             depression, John Henryism Active Coping, and behavioral
             factors such as smoking. Among the 922 women in the sample,
             approximately three quarters reported engaging in exercise
             before pregnancy, and two thirds exercised during pregnancy.
             Most women engaged in non-strenuous exercise during
             pregnancy (56%) and exercised for ≥20 minutes at least
             three times per week (80%). Exercise participation was
             significantly associated with higher levels of John Henryism
             Active Coping and lower levels of depression but was not
             significantly associated with behavioral factors or exposure
             to stressors. Prior research, based on older women, may have
             underestimated exercise participation by young Black women.
             These results suggest that Black women may decrease exercise
             participation after pregnancy and as they age. Encouraging
             Black women to continue to exercise as they age may have
             promising implications for the prevention of chronic
             diseases.},
   Key = {fds277784}
}

@article{fds277786,
   Author = {Geronimus, AT and Colen, CG and Shochet, T and Ingber, LB and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Urban-rural differences in excess mortality among
             high-poverty populations: Evidence from the Harlem Household
             Survey and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African
             American Health},
   Journal = {Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {532-558},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-2089},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2006.0105},
   Abstract = {Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically
             lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban
             than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute
             heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem
             Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina
             Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and
             PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors,
             social support, employment, indicators of health care
             access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do
             not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across
             samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit.
             Indicators of access to health care and private health
             insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings
             suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or
             tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health
             system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban
             Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural
             Blacks.},
   Doi = {10.1353/hpu.2006.0105},
   Key = {fds277786}
}

@article{fds277787,
   Author = {Katz, RV and Kegeles, SS and Kressin, NR and Green, BL and Min, QW and James, SA and Russell, SL and Claudio, C},
   Title = {The Tuskegee Legacy Project: Willingness of minorities to
             participate in biomedical research},
   Journal = {Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {698-715},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1049-2089},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2006.0126},
   Abstract = {The broad goal of the Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) study
             was to address, and understand, a range of issues related to
             the recruitment and retention of Blacks and other minorities
             in biomedical research studies. The specific aim of this
             analysis was to compare the self-reported willingness of
             Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites to participate as research
             subjects in biomedical studies, as measured by the
             Likelihood of Participation (LOP) Scale and the Guinea Pig
             Fear Factor (GPFF) Scale. The Tuskegee Legacy Project
             Questionnaire, a 60 item instrument, was administered to
             1,133 adult Blacks, Hispanics, and non-Hispanic Whites in 4
             U.S. cities. The findings revealed no difference in
             self-reported willingness to participate in biomedical
             research, as measured by the LOP Scale, between Blacks,
             Hispanics, and Whites, despite Blacks being 1.8 times as
             likely as Whites to have a higher fear of participation in
             biomedical research on the GPFF Scale.},
   Doi = {10.1353/hpu.2006.0126},
   Key = {fds277787}
}

@article{fds304188,
   Author = {Colen, CG and Geronimus, AT and Bound, J and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and Black-White
             disparities in infant birthweight},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {96},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2032-2039},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We estimate the extent to which upward
             socioeconomic mobility limits the probability that Black and
             White women who spent their childhoods in or near poverty
             will give birth to a low-birthweight baby. Methods. Data
             from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 and the
             1970 US Census were used to complete a series of logistic
             regression models. We restricted multivariate analyses to
             female survey respondents who, at 14 years of age, were
             living in households in which the income-to-needs ratio did
             not exceed 200% of poverty. Results. For White women, the
             probability of giving birth to a low-birthweight baby
             decreases by 48% for every 1 unit increase in the natural
             logarithm of adult family income, once the effects of all
             other covariates are taken into account. For Black women,
             the relation between adult family income and the probability
             of low birthweight is also negative; however, this
             association fails to reach statistical significance.
             Conclusions. Upward socioeconomic mobility contributes to
             improved birth outcomes among infants born to White women
             who were poor as children, but the same does not hold true
             for their Black counterparts.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547},
   Key = {fds304188}
}

@article{fds277726,
   Author = {Chor, D and Andreozzi, V and Mendes, DFM and Oliveira, CL and Faerstein,
             E and Souza, LC and James, SA},
   Title = {Social inequalities in BMI Trajectories: 8 year follow-up of
             the Pró-Saúde Study in Rio de Janeiro,
             Brazil},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds277726}
}

@article{fds277741,
   Author = {Zenk, SN and Schulz, AJ and Israel, BA and James, SA and Bao, S and Wilson,
             ML},
   Title = {Neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood poverty, and
             the spatial accessibility of supermarkets in metropolitan
             Detroit},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {660-667},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.042150},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We evaluated the spatial accessibility of large
             "chain" supermarkets in relation to neighborhood racial
             composition and poverty. Methods. We used a geographic
             information system to measure Manhattan block distance to
             the nearest supermarket for 869 neighborhoods (census
             tracts) in metropolitan Detroit. We constructed moving
             average spatial regression models to adjust for spatial
             autocorrelation and to test for the effect of modification
             of percentage African American and percentage poor on
             distance to the nearest supermarket. Results. Distance to
             the nearest supermarket was similar among the least
             impoverished neighborhoods, regardless of racial
             composition. Among the most impoverished neighborhoods,
             however, neighborhoods in which African Americans resided
             were, on average, 1.1 miles further from the nearest
             supermarket than were White neighborhoods. Conclusions.
             Racial residential segregation disproportionately places
             African Americans in more-impoverished neighborhoods in
             Detroit and consequently reduces access to supermarkets.
             However, supermarkets have opened or remained open close to
             middle-income neighborhoods that have transitioned from
             White to African American. Development of economically
             disadvantaged African American neighborhoods is critical to
             effectively prevent diet-related diseases among this
             population.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2004.042150},
   Key = {fds277741}
}

@article{fds277781,
   Author = {Schulz, AJ and Kannan, S and Dvonch, JT and Israel, BA and III, AA and James, SA and House, JS and Lepkowski, J},
   Title = {Social and physical environments and disparities in risk for
             cardiovascular disease: The Healthy environments Partnership
             Conceptual Model},
   Journal = {Environmental health perspectives},
   Volume = {113},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1817-1825},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {Summer},
   ISSN = {0091-6765},
   Abstract = {The Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP) is a
             community-based participatory research effort investigating
             variations in cardiovascular disease risk, and the
             contributions of social and physical environments to those
             variations, among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white,
             and Hispanic residents in three areas of Detroit, Michigan.
             Initiated in October 2000 as a part of the National
             Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' Health
             Disparities Initiative, HEP is affiliated with the Detroit
             Community-Academic Urban Research Center. The study is
             guided by a conceptual model that considers race-based
             residential segregation and associated concentrations of
             poverty and wealth to be fundamental factors influencing
             multiple, more proximate predictors of cardiovascular risk.
             Within this model, physical and social environments are
             identified as intermediate factors that mediate
             relationships between fundamental factors and more proximate
             factors such as physical activity and dietary practices that
             ultimately influence anthropomorphic and physiologic
             indicators of cardiovascular risk. The study design and data
             collection methods were jointly developed and implemented by
             a research team based in community-based organizations,
             health service organizations, and academic institutions.
             These efforts include collecting and analyzing airborne
             particulate matter over a 3-year period; census and
             administrative data; neighborhood observation checklist data
             to assess aspects of the physical and social environment;
             household survey data including information on perceived
             stressors, access to social support, and health-related
             behaviors; and anthropometric, biomarker, and self-report
             data as indicators of cardiovascular health. Through these
             collaborative efforts, HEP seeks to contribute to an
             understanding of factors that contribute to racial and
             socioeconomic health inequities, and develop a foundation
             for efforts to eliminate these disparities in
             Detroit.},
   Key = {fds277781}
}

@article{fds277789,
   Author = {Feathers, JT and Kieffer, EC and Palmisano, G and Anderson, M and Sinco,
             B and Janz, N and Heisler, M and Spencer, M and Guzman, R and Thompson, J and al, E},
   Title = {Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH)
             Detroit partnership: Improving diabetes-related outcomes
             among African American and Latino adults},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {95},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1552-1560},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.066134},
   Abstract = {Objectives. We sought to determine the effects of a
             community-based, culturally tailored diabetes lifestyle
             intervention on risk factors for diabetes complications
             among African Americans and Latinos with type 2 diabetes.
             Methods. One hundred fifty-one African American and Latino
             adults with diabetes were recruited from 3 health care
             systems in Detroit, Michigan, to participate in the Racial
             and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) Detroit
             Partnership diabetes lifestyle intervention. The curriculum,
             delivered by trained community residents, was aimed at
             improving dietary, physical activity, and diabetes self-care
             behaviors. Baseline and postintervention levels of
             diabetes-specific quality-of-life, diet, physical activity,
             self-care knowledge and behaviors, and hemoglobin A1C were
             assessed. Results. There were statistically significant
             improvements in postintervention dietary knowledge and
             behaviors and physical activity knowledge. A statistically
             significant improvement in A1C level was achieved among
             REACH Detroit program participants (P&lt;.0001) compared
             with a group of patients with diabetes in the same health
             care system in which no significant changes were observed
             (P=.160). Conclusions. A culturally tailored diabetes
             lifestyle intervention delivered by trained community
             residents produced significant improvement in dietary and
             diabetes self-care related knowledge and behaviors as well
             as important metabolic improvements.},
   Doi = {10.2105/AJPH.2005.066134},
   Key = {fds277789}
}

@article{fds277790,
   Author = {Magalh, A-FNLI and 227es L, A and SA, JMAEKIJ},
   Title = {Social Inequality and Alcohol Consumption-Abuse in Bahia,
             Brazil: Interactions of Gender, Ethnicity, and Social
             Class},
   Journal = {Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {214-222},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0883-4},
   Abstract = {Background: This paper reports findings on Alcohol
             Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research
             setting characterized by racial/ ethnic and socioeconomic
             diversity. Methods: A household survey was conducted with a
             sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of
             more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly
             binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of
             alcoholic beverages with frequent drunkenness, with failed
             attempts to stop drinking. Results: The rate of 12-month
             prevalence was 7%, with an overall male: female ratio of
             6:1. A positive association of ACAb prevalence with
             education and social class was found. Male gender and higher
             socio- economic status were associated with increased odds
             of ACAb. No relationship was found between ethnicity and
             ACAb. Stratified analysis yielded consistent gender effects,
             throughout all strata of independent variables. A strong
             interaction of gender (male) and social class (upper class)
             was found for Mulattos and Morenos (maximum Prevalence rate
             = 9.04). Conclusion: Interaction patterns found defy simple
             generalizations based on class, ethnicity, and gender
             considered alone. © Steinkopff Verlag 2005.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00127-005-0883-4},
   Key = {fds277790}
}

@article{fds304187,
   Author = {Almeida-Filho, N and Lessa, I and Magalhães, L and Araújo, MJ and Aquino, E and James, SA and Kawachi, I},
   Title = {Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia,
             Brazil},
   Journal = {Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {214-222},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0883-4},
   Abstract = {Background: This paper reports findings on Alcohol
             Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research
             setting characterized by racial/ ethnic and socioeconomic
             diversity. Methods: A household survey was conducted with a
             sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of
             more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly
             binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of
             alcoholic beverages with frequent drunkenness, with failed
             attempts to stop drinking. Results: The rate of 12-month
             prevalence was 7%, with an overall male: female ratio of
             6:1. A positive association of ACAb prevalence with
             education and social class was found. Male gender and higher
             socio- economic status were associated with increased odds
             of ACAb. No relationship was found between ethnicity and
             ACAb. Stratified analysis yielded consistent gender effects,
             throughout all strata of independent variables. A strong
             interaction of gender (male) and social class (upper class)
             was found for Mulattos and Morenos (maximum Prevalence rate
             = 9.04). Conclusion: Interaction patterns found defy simple
             generalizations based on class, ethnicity, and gender
             considered alone. © Steinkopff Verlag 2005.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00127-005-0883-4},
   Key = {fds304187}
}

@article{fds277791,
   Author = {Madison, T and Schottenfeld, D and James, SA and Schwartz, AG and Gruber, SB},
   Title = {Endometrial cancer: Socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic
             differences in stage at diagnosis, treatment, and
             survival},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2104-2111},
   Year = {2004},
   Abstract = {Objective. We evaluated the association between
             socioeconomic status and racial/ ethnic differences in
             endometrial cancer stage at diagnosis, treatment, and
             survival. Methods. We conducted a population-based study
             among 3656 women. Results. Multivariate analyses showed that
             either race/ethnicity or income, but not both, was
             associated with advanced-stage disease. Age, stage at
             diagnosis, and income were independent predictors of
             hysterectomy. African American ethnicity, increased age,
             aggressive histology, poor tumor grade, and advanced-stage
             disease were associated with increased risk for death;
             higher income and hysterectomy were associated with
             decreased risk for death. Conclusions. Lower income was
             associated with advanced-stage disease, lower likelihood of
             receiving a hysterectomy, and lower rates of survival.
             Earlier diagnosis and removal of barriers to optimal
             treatment among lower-socioeconomic status women will
             diminish racial/ethnic differences in endometrial cancer
             survival.},
   Key = {fds277791}
}

@article{fds277792,
   Author = {Almeida-Filho, N and Lessa, I and Magalhães, L and Araújo, MJ and Aquino, E and James, SA and Kawachi, I},
   Title = {Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil:
             Interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social
             class},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1339-1353},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.11.037},
   Abstract = {We conducted a study of the association between gender,
             race/ethnicity, and social class and prevalence of
             depressive disorders in an urban sample (N=2302) in Bahia,
             Brazil. Individual mental health status was assessed by the
             PSAD/QMPA scale. Family SES and head of household's
             schooling and occupation were taken as components for a
             4-level social class scale. Race/ethnicity (white, moreno,
             mulatto, black) was assessed with a combination of
             self-designation and a system of racial classification. The
             overall 12-month prevalence of depressive symptoms was 12%,
             with a female:male ratio of 2:1. Divorced/widowed persons
             showed the highest prevalence and single the lowest. There
             was a negative correlation with education: the ratio college
             educated:illiterate was 4:1. This gradient was stronger for
             women than men. There was no F:M difference in depression
             among Whites, upper-middle classes, college-educated, or
             illiterate. Prevalence ratios for single, widowed and Blacks
             were well above the overall pattern. Regarding
             race/ethnicity, higher prevalences of depression were
             concentrated in the Moreno and Mulatto subgroups. There was
             a consistent social class and gender interaction, along all
             race/ethnicity strata. Three-way interaction analyses found
             strong gender effect for poor and working-class groups, for
             all race/ethnicity strata but Whites. Black poor yielded the
             strongest gender effect of all (up to nine-fold). We
             conclude that even in a highly unequal context such as
             Bahia, Blacks, Mulattos and women were protected from
             depression by placement into the local dominant classes; and
             that the social meaning of ethnic-gender-generation
             diversity varies with being unemployed or underemployed,
             poor or miserable, urban or rural, migrant or non-migrant.
             © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.11.037},
   Key = {fds277792}
}

@article{fds277793,
   Author = {Almeida-Filho, N and Lessa, I and Magalhães, L and Araújo, MJ and Aquino, E and Kawachi, I and James, SA},
   Title = {Alcohol drinking patterns by gender, ethnicity, and social
             class in Bahia, Brazil},
   Journal = {Revista de Saude Publica},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {45-54},
   Year = {2004},
   Abstract = {Objective. To study patterns of alcohol consumption and
             prevalence of high-risk drinking. Methods. A household
             survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in
             Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD) were
             defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge
             drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported
             any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness
             (at least once a week). Results. Fifty-six per cent of the
             sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall
             consumption was significantly related with gender (male),
             marital status (single), migration (non-migrant), better
             educated (college level), and social class (upper). No
             significant differences were found regarding ethnicity,
             except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor) and other
             distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of
             high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among
             males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%). A positive
             association of HRD prevalence with education and social
             class was found. No overall relationship was found between
             ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic
             status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way
             stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects
             throughout all strata of independent variables. Conclusions.
             The findings suggest that social and cultural elements
             determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior.
             Additional research on long-term and differential effects of
             gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and
             misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources
             of social health inequities.},
   Key = {fds277793}
}

@article{fds277794,
   Author = {James, S},
   Title = {The Moral Economy of US Racial/Ethnic Health
             Disparities},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {189},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds277794}
}

@article{fds277861,
   Author = {Lopes, AA and James, SA and Port, FK and Ojo, AO and Agodoa, LY and Jamerson, KA},
   Title = {Meeting the challenge to improve the treatment of
             hypertension in blacks.},
   Journal = {Journal of clinical hypertension (Greenwich,
             Conn.)},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {393-401},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {Hypertension is more prevalent and severe in African
             descendent populations living outside Africa than in any
             other population. Given this greater burden of hypertension
             in blacks, it is increasingly necessary to refine strategies
             to prevent the disorder as well as improve its treatment and
             control. This review assesses results from clinical trials
             on lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions to identify
             which approaches most effectively prevent adverse
             hypertension-related outcomes in African descendent
             populations. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
             (DASH) study provided evidence that a carefully controlled
             diet rich in fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy foods, and
             reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol (i.e.,
             the DASH diet) reduces blood pressure in blacks and is well
             accepted. The combination of the DASH diet with reduction in
             dietary sodium below 100 mmol/d may provide a reduction in
             blood pressure beyond that reached by the DASH diet alone.
             Physical exercise and interventions to reduce psychological
             stress may also reduce blood pressure in blacks. Strong
             evidence from numerous studies is a compelling argument for
             continuing to recommend diuretics and beta blockers as
             first-line antihypertensive therapy for persons of all
             races. Some new studies also favor angiotensin-converting
             enzyme inhibitors as first-line antihypertensive drugs. The
             African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension
             provided evidence that an angiotensin-converting enzyme
             inhibitor-based treatment program is more beneficial than
             calcium channel blockers and beta blockers in reducing the
             progression of renal failure in blacks with hypertensive
             nephropathy. Studies in patients with diabetes have also
             shown evidence that both angiotensin-converting enzyme
             inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists are more
             effective than other classes of antihypertensives in
             reducing adverse renal events. Studies to evaluate the
             effects of the new antihypertensives in improving outcomes
             in blacks living outside the United States are
             needed.},
   Key = {fds277861}
}

@article{fds277862,
   Author = {Joseph, MA and Harlow, SD and Wei, JT and Sarma, AV and Dunn, RL and Taylor, JMG and James, SA and Cooney, KA and Doerr, KM and al,
             E},
   Title = {Risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms in a
             population-based sample of African-American
             men},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {157},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {906-914},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg051},
   Abstract = {Previous epidemiologic studies evaluating risk factors for
             lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) have focused on White
             populations. Between September 1996 and January 1998, in a
             population-based sample of African-American men aged 40-79
             years in Flint, Michigan, the authors assessed the role of
             putative sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical history
             risk factors in moderate to severe LUTS, including the
             subcategories of obstructive and irritative symptoms. After
             the exclusion of men with prostate cancer or prior prostate
             surgery and men who were taking alpha-blockers for urinary
             tract symptoms, 708 participants provided responses to a
             structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. After
             multivariable adjustment, current and former smokers were at
             increased risk of moderate to severe LUTS, including
             obstructive symptoms. Heavy alcohol consumption and a
             history of hypertension or diabetes were positively
             associated with LUTS, and high income (≥$30,000) was
             inversely associated with LUTS and with obstructive and
             irritative symptoms. A history of heart disease was
             positively associated with LUTS and with irritative
             symptoms. To the authors' knowledge, this was the first
             population-based study undertaken in African-American men to
             evaluate putative risk factors for moderate to severe LUTS,
             including subcategories of obstructive and irritative
             urinary symptoms. These results describe associations with
             specific lifestyle and medical history risk
             factors.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aje/kwg051},
   Key = {fds277862}
}

@article{fds277863,
   Author = {Katz, RV and Kegeles, SS and Green, BL and Kressin, NR and James, SA and Claudio, C},
   Title = {The Tuskegee Legacy Project: History, preliminary scientific
             findings, and unanticipated societal benefits},
   Journal = {Dental Clinics of North America},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-19},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0011-8532(02)00049-6},
   Abstract = {This article is intended to provide a relatively complete
             picture of how a pilot studyconceived and initiated within
             an NIDCR-funded RRCMOHmatured into a solid line of
             investigation within that center and "with legs"into a fully
             funded study within the next generation of NIDCR centers on
             this topic of health disparities, the Centers for Research
             to Reduce Oral Health Disparities. It highlights the natural
             opportunity that these centers provide for multicenter,
             cross-disciplinary research and for research career
             pipelining for college and dental school students; with a
             focus, in this case, on minority students. Furthermore, this
             series of events demonstrates the rich potential that these
             types of research centers have to contribute in ways that
             far exceed the scientific outcomes that form their core. In
             this instance, the NMOHRC played a centraland critical, if
             unanticipatedrole in contributing to two events of national
             significance, namely the presidential apology to the African
             American community for the research abuses of the
             USPHSTuskegee syphilis study and the establishment of the
             National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care at
             Tuskegee University. Research Centers supported by the NIH
             are fully intended to create a vortex of scientific activity
             that goes well beyond the direct scientific aims of the
             studies initially funded within those centers. The maxim is
             that the whole should be greater than the sum of its initial
             constituent studies or parts. We believe that NMOHRC did
             indeed achieve that maximeven extending "the whole" to
             include broad societal impact, well beyond the scope of
             important, but mere, scientific outcomesall within the
             concept and appropriate functions of a scientific NIH-funded
             research center.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0011-8532(02)00049-6},
   Key = {fds277863}
}

@article{fds304186,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Confronting the moral economy of US racial/ethnic health
             disparities},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {189-},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds304186}
}

@article{fds277739,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Prince, CB},
   Title = {Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous
             preterm births among African-American women in Baltimore,
             Maryland},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {156},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {797-802},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf131},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to examine the relation
             between maternal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm
             birth. From 1991 to 1993, pregnant, African-American women
             were prospectively enrolled at four hospital-based clinics
             in Baltimore, Maryland, that serve low-income areas of the
             city. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
             (CES-D) Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms.
             Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the
             independent contribution of maternal depressive symptoms to
             spontaneous preterm birth, controlling for behavioral,
             clinical, and demographic variables. Among the 1,399 women
             in the sample, 117 (8.4%) had a spontaneous preterm
             delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth occurred among 12.7% of
             those with a CES-D score in the upper 10th percentile and
             among 8.0% of those with a lower score (relative risk =
             1.59). The adjusted odds ratio for an elevated CES-D score
             was 1.96 (95% confidence interval: 1.04, 3.72); hence,
             maternal depressive symptoms in this sample of
             African-American women were independently associated with
             spontaneous preterm birth. Effective treatment of depression
             in pregnant women could ultimately result in a reduction of
             spontaneous preterm births.},
   Doi = {10.1093/aje/kwf131},
   Key = {fds277739}
}

@article{fds277864,
   Author = {Lopes, AA and Port, FK and James, SA and Silveira, MA and Martinelli, R and Brito, E and Rocha, H},
   Title = {Race and glomerulonephritis in patients with and without
             hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis mansoni},
   Journal = {Clinical Nephrology},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {333-336},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {Background/aims: United States investigators have shown
             evidence of higher susceptibility to focal segmental
             glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in blacks than in whites. This
             association between race and FSGS has not been assessed
             outside the US. The present study assesses the association
             between race and type of glomerulonephritis in a sample of
             Brazilian patients, taking into account the presence of the
             hepatosplenic form of Schistosomiasis mansoni (HSM).
             Methods: Eighty patients with focal segmental
             glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were compared to 50 with
             membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). The
             association between race (i.e. black versus white) and type
             of glomerulonephritis was adjusted for age, gender and HSM
             by logistic regression. Results: Blacks were more likely
             than whites to have FSGS (as compared to MPGN), both among
             patients with HSM (odds ratio (OR) = 2.67; 95% confidence
             interval (CI) = 0.81 - 8.81) and without HSM (OR = 2.19; 95%
             CI = 0.79 - 6.05). After adjustment for age, gender and HSM,
             the odds of FSGS remained significantly greater for blacks
             (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.05 - 5.95). Conclusion: The increased
             likelihood of FSGS in Brazilian blacks is consistent with
             findings from US patients. The association between race and
             type of glomerulonephritis was similar between patients with
             and without HSM. Future investigations should focus on the
             mediators factors that might explain these
             findings.},
   Key = {fds277864}
}

@article{fds277865,
   Author = {Orr, S and James, SA and Blackmore Prince and C},
   Title = {Maternal Prenatal Depressive Symptoms and Spontaneous
             Preterm Births among African American Women in
             Baltimore},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {803-805},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds277865}
}

@article{fds277866,
   Author = {Israel, BA and Farquhar, SA and Schulz, AJ and James, SA and Parker,
             EA},
   Title = {The relationship between social support, stress, and health
             among women on Detroit's east side},
   Journal = {Health Education and Behavior},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {342-360},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198102029003006},
   Abstract = {A conceptual model of the stress process has been useful in
             examining relationships between numerous social determinants
             (e.g., chronic stress), protective factors (e.g., social
             support), and health status. In this article, the authors
             examine multiple sources of chronic stress, instrumental and
             emotional support, and health outcomes among a random sample
             (N = 679) of predominantly low-income African American women
             who reside on Detroit's east side. The findings suggest that
             a number of chronic stressors have an impact on depressive
             symptoms and general health and that even though
             instrumental and emotional support each have a significant
             effect over and above the effects of the stressors, when
             both are included in the model, instrumental support, and
             not emotional support, remains as a significant predictor of
             health outcomes. These findings suggest the need for health
             education interventions and policy strategies that
             strengthen social support and aim at macro-level changes
             necessary to reduce chronic stressful conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1090198102029003006},
   Key = {fds277866}
}

@article{fds277867,
   Author = {Montgomery, JP and Gillespie, BW and Gentry, AC and Mokotoff, ED and Crane, LR and James, SA},
   Title = {Does access to health care impact survival time after
             diagnosis of AIDS?},
   Journal = {AIDS Patient Care and STDs},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {223-231},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1087-2914},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/10872910252972276},
   Abstract = {Lack of access to health care is often blamed for poor
             health outcomes, but this effect is not supported by
             existing HIV/AIDS literature. The authors examined the
             association between access to care and survival time after
             progression to AIDS, using survival analysis methods. This
             study combined data from two CDC sponsored studies of
             HIV-infected persons, a cross-sectional interview study and
             a longitudinal medical record review study. Study subjects
             included 752 persons who progressed to AIDS before December
             31, 1999, and were patients at either of two major HIV care
             facilities in Detroit, Michigan. Separate statistical models
             were used to test associations between survival time after
             meeting the criteria for AIDS and two indicators of access
             to health care: (1) perceived access to health care and (2)
             health care utilization patterns. Perceived access was not
             associated with survival time after AIDS, but patterns of
             health care utilization were significantly associated with
             survival time after AIDS (HR = 2.04, p &lt; 0.001).
             Individuals who received a greater proportion of their care
             in the ER had a worse survival prognosis than those who
             received more of their health care in an out-patient clinic
             setting. It is crucial that we provide HIV-infected
             populations with tools that enable them to access a regular
             source of health care.},
   Doi = {10.1089/10872910252972276},
   Key = {fds277867}
}

@article{fds277868,
   Author = {Moura, VL and Warber, SL and James, SA},
   Title = {CAM providers' messages to conventional medicine: A
             qualitative study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Medical Quality},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {10-14},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {Between 30 and 50% of patients use complementary and
             alternative medicine (CAM). There is little research on the
             interaction between CAM and conventional providers. We
             investigated what messages CAM practitioners would convey to
             conventional medicine (CM). Thirty-four CAM practitioners
             participated in audiotaped interviews. A coherent message
             was constructed from the identified themes. CAM
             practitioners see CAM supporting CM rather than replacing
             it. Blending of CAM with CM benefits patients and CM
             providers. CAM reintroduces the concept of healing that
             technology and time pressures have reduced. The basis of
             healing is connection, being present in the moment, and
             seeing patients as whole human beings. Research validating
             CAM effectiveness will foster integration, as will inclusion
             of CAM theory and practice in the medical curricula. The
             messages from CAM practitioners to CM coincide with current
             views of integrative medicine. Collaboration in research,
             education, and practice can foster a high-quality health
             care system.},
   Key = {fds277868}
}

@article{fds277869,
   Author = {Parker, EA and Lichtenstein, RL and Schulz, AJ and Israel, BA and Schork, MA and Steinman, KJ and James, SA},
   Title = {Disentangling measures of individual perceptions of
             community social dynamics: Results of a community
             survey},
   Journal = {Health Education and Behavior},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {462-486},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {This study examined how different measures of individual
             perceptions of community social dynamics relate to each
             other and how these measures relate to self-reported general
             health and depressive symptoms. Results of a principal
             components analysis conducted to investigate the
             interrelationships between these individual measures suggest
             that these measures measure separate phenomena. In addition,
             in results of multiple-regression analyses conducted to
             examine associations between the various measures of
             individual perceptions of community social dynamics and the
             dependent variables of self-reported general health and
             depressive symptoms, sense of community, perceived
             neighborhood control, and neighborhood participation were
             all associated with the outcome variables in separate
             regression models. In a regression model with these three
             variables added to control variables, only sense of
             community was significantly, albeit modestly, associated
             with depressive symptoms and self-reported general
             health.},
   Key = {fds277869}
}

@article{fds277870,
   Author = {Fisher, MA and Eklund, SA and James, SA and Lin, X},
   Title = {Adverse events associated with hepatitis B vaccine in U.S.
             children less than six years of age, 1993 and
             1994},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {13-21},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {1047-2797},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00078-8},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: This study evaluated infrequent adverse reactions
             to hepatitis B vaccine by investigating the association of
             this vaccine with adverse health outcomes for U.S. children
             less than six years of age. The evaluation of the
             association between hepatitis B vaccine and chronic
             arthritis provides needed data, relevant to the Institute of
             Medicine's Report that there are inadequate data available
             to assess the causal relationship of hepatitis B vaccine to
             arthritis risk. METHODS: The 1993 (n = 5505 children) and
             1994 (n = 6515 children) National Health Interview Survey
             (NHIS) datasets were analyzed to provide post-marketing
             surveillance data from probability samples of the U.S.
             population. Incident cases of adverse events were determined
             from the temporal association between the hepatitis B
             vaccination and the adverse events. Logistic regression
             modeling was used to adjust for potential confounding.
             RESULTS: Controlling for age, race, and gender
             simultaneously in the 1994 NHIS, hepatitis B vaccine was
             found to be associated with prevalent arthritis [odds ratio
             (OR) = 5.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-33.14],
             incident acute ear infections (OR = 1.60, 95% CI =
             1.00-2.58), and incident pharyngitis/nasopharyngitis (OR =
             1.41, 95% CI = 0.95-2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this
             study suggests that hepatitis B vaccine is positively
             associated with adverse health outcomes in the general
             population of US children. Copyright © 2000 Elsevier
             Science Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1047-2797(00)00078-8},
   Key = {fds277870}
}

@article{fds277738,
   Author = {Rogan, WJ and Bornschein, RL and Jr, CJJ and Damokosh, AI and Dockery,
             DW and Fay, ME and Jones, RL and Rhoads, GG and Ragan, NB and Salganik, M and al, E},
   Title = {Safety and efficacy of succimer in toddlers with blood lead
             levels of 20-44 μg/dL},
   Journal = {Pediatric Research},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {593-599},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0031-3998},
   Abstract = {Although lead encephalopathy has virtually disappeared from
             the United States, thousands of children still have
             sufficient lead exposure to produce cognitive impairment. It
             is not known whether treating children with blood lead
             levels &lt; 45 μg/dL (2.2 μM) is beneficial and can be
             done with acceptable safety. We conducted a 780-child,
             placebo-controlled, randomized trial of up to three courses
             of succimer in children with blood lead levels of 20-44
             μg/dL (1.0-2.1 μM). Children were aged 12-33 mo, 77% were
             African-American, 7% were Hispanic, and they lived in
             deteriorating inner city housing. Placebo-treated children
             had a gradual decrease in blood lead level. Succimer-treated
             children had an abrupt drop in blood lead level, followed by
             rebound. The mean blood lead level of the succimer-treated
             children during the 6 mo after initiation of treatment was
             4.5 μg/dL (95% confidence intervals, 3.7 to 5.3 μg/dL;
             0.22 μM, 0.18 to 0.26 μM) lower than that of
             placebo-treated children. There were more scalp rashes in
             succimer-treated children (3.5% versus 1.3%) and an
             unanticipated excess of trauma. Succimer lowers blood lead
             level with few side effects. The unanticipated excess of
             trauma requires confirmation.},
   Key = {fds277738}
}

@article{fds277871,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Miller, CA and James, SA and Babones,
             S},
   Title = {Unintended pregnancy and preterm birth},
   Journal = {Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {309-313},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3016.2000.00289.x},
   Abstract = {About one-third of all pregnancies that result in live
             births in the US are unintended. Despite the large number of
             these births, little is known about the outcomes of
             unintended pregnancies. The purpose of the current study was
             to evaluate the association between intendedness of
             pregnancy and preterm birth in a large prospective cohort of
             women who reported for prenatal care. Pregnant, black,
             low-income women were enrolled into this study at four
             hospital-based prenatal care clinics and one off-site
             hospital-affiliated prenatal clinic in Baltimore City. A
             self-administered questionnaire to assess demographic and
             psychosocial data was completed by each woman in the cohort
             at the time of enrolment in the study. The questionnaire
             contained an item to measure intendedness of the pregnancy.
             A total of 922 women comprised the final sample for
             analysis. For the analyses, intendedness was dichotomised
             as: intended (wanted now or sooner) vs. unintended
             (mistimed, unwanted or unsure). Overall, 13.7% of all births
             to women in the sample were preterm. In a logistic
             regression model, after controlling for potential
             confounding by clinical and behavioural predictors of
             preterm delivery, unintended pregnancy was significantly
             associated with preterm delivery (adjusted RR = 1.82, 95%
             confidence interval [1.08,3.08], P = 0.026). In this study
             of a cohort of urban, clinic-attending, low-income, pregnant
             black women, unintended pregnancy had a statistically
             significant association with preterm birth. After adjustment
             for behavioural and clinical risks, women with unintended
             pregnancies had almost twice the risk of a preterm delivery
             as women with intended pregnancies.},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1365-3016.2000.00289.x},
   Key = {fds277871}
}

@article{fds277872,
   Author = {James, SA and Thomas, P},
   Title = {John Henryism and Blood Pressure in Black Populations: A
             Review of the Evidence},
   Journal = {African American Research Prospectives},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1-10},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds277872}
}

@article{fds277873,
   Author = {Dallo, FJ and James, SA},
   Title = {Acculturation and Blood Pressure in a Community-Based Sample
             of Chaldean-American Women},
   Journal = {Journal of Immigrant Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {145-153},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds277873}
}

@article{fds277874,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Blackmore-Prince, C and James, SA and Griffin, JM and Raghunathan, T},
   Title = {Race, clinical factors and pre-term birth in a low-income
             urban setting},
   Journal = {Ethnicity and Disease},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {411-417},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {While infant mortality rates have declined for both White
             and African-American populations, the perennial two-fold
             excess in risk for African Americans remains unchanged, and
             indeed, may have increased since 1985. One potential
             explanation for the excess risk in African Americans might
             be racial differences in maternal clinical risk factors,
             such as prior pregnancy history and pregnancy complications.
             This paper examines the contributions of such clinical
             indicators to racial differences in pre-term delivery in a
             study sample of urban, low-income women, aged 18 to 43
             years. Methods: Study participants were enrolled during
             their first prenatal care visit at one of four
             hospital-based, prenatal care clinics in Baltimore City.
             Medical history and pregnancy outcome data were abstracted
             from clinical records. Multiple logistic regression models
             were used to assess the independent relationship between
             race and pre-term birth, after controlling for clinical
             factors. Results: Without adjustment for clinical risk
             factors, African-American women were 1.8 times more likely
             than White women to have a pre-term birth outcome (95%
             confidence interval 1.20-2.78). After statistical adjustment
             for the clinical variables, however, the association between
             race and pre-term birth was diminished (OR = 1.64, 95%
             confidence interval: 0.99-2.72). Moreover, the associations
             between certain clinical risks and pre-term birth were
             stronger for African-American than White women. Conclusion:
             These results suggest that attention to clinical risk
             factors among African-American women may be an important
             avenue for reducing Black/White racial disparities in
             pre-term birth.},
   Key = {fds277874}
}

@article{fds277875,
   Author = {Schulz, A and Israel, B and Williams, D and Parker, E and Becker, A and James, S},
   Title = {Social inequalities, stressors and self reported health
             status among African American and white women in the Detroit
             metropolitan area},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1639-1653},
   Year = {2000},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00084-8},
   Abstract = {This article examines the cumulative effects of multiple
             stressors on women's health, by race and area of residence.
             Specifically, we examine socioeconomic status, experiences
             of unfair treatment and acute life events by race and
             residential location, and their cumulative effects on the
             health status of African American and white women living
             within the city of Detroit and in the surrounding
             metropolitan area. African American women, regardless of
             whether they live inside or outside the city, report more
             frequent encounters with everyday unfair treatment than
             white women. African American women who live in the city
             report a greater number of acute life events than white
             women who live outside the city. Regression analyses used to
             examine the cumulative effects of exposure to these
             stressors by race and area of residence show that: (1)
             socioeconomic status, everyday experiences with unfair
             treatment and acute life events each make a significant
             contribution to differences in health status; and (2) the
             contribution of each of these variables to explaining
             variations in health status varies by area of residence. We
             suggest that differences in socioeconomic status, exposure
             to unfair treatment or discrimination and experiences of
             acute life events make significant contributions to racial
             differences in women's health status. Copyright (C) 2000
             Elsevier Science Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0277-9536(00)00084-8},
   Key = {fds277875}
}

@article{fds277876,
   Author = {Schulz, A and Williams, D and Israel, B and Becker, A and Parker, E and James, SA and Jackson, J},
   Title = {Unfair treatment, neighborhood effects, and mental health in
             the Detroit metropolitan area},
   Journal = {Journal of health and social behavior},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {314-332},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0022-1465},
   Abstract = {Why do racial differences in many indicators of mental and
             emotional well-being show inconsistent patterns? We propose
             that mental and emotional well-being are influenced by
             aspects of the social context, including experiences of
             unfair treatment and the concentration of households with
             incomes below the poverty level, and that differential
             exposure to these factors influences racial differences in
             mental well-being. We analyze the reporting of psychological
             distress and life satisfaction in a multistage area
             probability sample of 1,139 African American and white
             residents of the Detroit metropolitan area aged 18 and
             older. Both psychological distress and life satisfaction are
             significantly associated with exposure to unfair treatment
             and with the proportion of households in the census block
             group that were below the poverty level. Racial differences
             in psychological distress and life satisfaction were
             eliminated or reversed once differentials in the percent of
             households living below the poverty line and exposure to
             unfair treatment were accounted for. These findings
             contribute to a grow-ing body of evidence that "race"
             effects operate through multiple pathways that include
             race-based residential segregation and its attendant
             economic disinvestment at the community level, and
             interpersonal experiences of unfair treatment.},
   Key = {fds277876}
}

@article{fds277877,
   Author = {Sullivan, AD and Nyirenda, T and Cullinan, T and Taylor, T and Harlow,
             SD and James, SA and Meshnick, SR},
   Title = {Malaria infection during pregnancy: Intrauterine growth
             retardation and preterm delivery in Malawi},
   Journal = {Journal of Infectious Diseases},
   Volume = {179},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1580-1583},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0022-1899},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/314752},
   Abstract = {In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria infection in pregnancy
             contributes to low birth weight through intrauterine growth
             retardation (IUGR) and preterm delivery (PTD). It was
             hypothesized that malaria-associated PTD and IUGR have
             differing etiologies due to timing of infection. In a
             prospective cohort of primigravid women enrolled at the
             antenatal clinic of Mangochi District Hospital in Malawi,
             the associations were investigated between antenatal or
             delivery parasitemias and IUGR or PTD. Among 178 singleton
             deliveries, 35% of infants were preterm or had IUGR. Cord
             blood parasitemia (odds ratio [OR] = 3.34; 95% confidence
             interval [CI], 1.3-8.8], placental parasitemia (OR = 2.43;
             95% CI, 1.2-5.1), and postdelivery maternal peripheral
             parasitemia (OR = 2.78; 95% CI, 1.3-6.1) were associated
             with PTD. Parasitemia and/or clinically diagnosed malaria in
             the antenatal period was associated with IUGR (OR = 5.13;
             95% CI, 1.4-19,4). Delivery parasitemias had borderline
             associations with IUGR. The risk patterns observed suggest
             that the timing and severity of infection influences the
             occurrence of IUGR or PTD.},
   Doi = {10.1086/314752},
   Key = {fds277877}
}

@article{fds277878,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among
             African-Americans: A social epidemiological
             perspective},
   Journal = {Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6 I},
   Pages = {S84-S89},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {Background. The primordial prevention of cardiovascular
             disease (CVD) among African-Americans represents a
             formidable challenge for public health. This paper discusses
             the nature of this challenge, high-lighting the role that
             economic and cultural factors play in shaping the
             distributions of major CVD risk factors among
             African-Americans. The paper concludes with specific
             suggestions for research. Methods. Data from recent national
             health surveys on black/white differences in major CVD risk
             factors like hypertension, obesity, cholesterol, cigarette
             smoking, and physical inactivity were reviewed for the
             purpose of identifying promising avenues for primordial
             prevention research among African-Americans. Results.
             Cigarette smoking has a delayed onset among
             African-Americans compared to whites. Black/ white
             differences in "vigorous" leisure-time physical activity
             (e.g., social dancing and team sports) are not apparent
             until around age 40. These findings have relevance for
             primordial prevention work in black communities since they
             suggest the existence of broad-based, health-relevant
             cultural norms which could support primordial prevention
             programs, such as regular physical activity, across the life
             cycle. Conclusions. CVD primordial prevention programs among
             African-Americans must be grounded in an understanding of
             how cultural values as well as economic conditions shape CVD
             risk factor distributions in this population. Ultimate
             success will depend on the strength of the partnerships that
             public health researchers, primary care providers, and
             community residents are able to build. © 1999 American
             Health Foundation and Academic Press.},
   Key = {fds277878}
}

@article{fds277795,
   Author = {Curtis, AB and Strogatz, DS and James, SA and Raghunathan,
             TE},
   Title = {The contribution of baseline weight and weight gain to blood
             pressure change in African Americans: The pitt county
             study},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {497-503},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1047-2797},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(98)00024-6},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: The positive association between obesity and blood
             pressure has been less consistent in African Americans than
             whites. This is especially true for African American men.
             This study investigated the sex-specific associations
             between baseline body mass index (BMI), weight change
             (kilograms), and five-year hypertension incidence and
             changes in blood pressure in a cohort of African Americans
             ages 25-50 years at baseline. METHODS: The Pitt County Study
             is a longitudinal investigation of anthropometric,
             psychosocial, and behavioral predictors of hypertension in
             African Americans. Data were obtained through household
             interviews and physical examinations in 1988 and 1993.
             RESULTS: Baseline BMI was positively and independently
             associated with changes in blood pressure after controlling
             for weight change and other covariates. When participants
             were stratified by sex-specific overweight vs. nonoverweight
             status at baseline, weight gain was significantly associated
             with increases in blood pressure only among the initially
             nonoverweight. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline weight for all
             respondents, and weight gain among the nonoverweight at
             baseline, were independent predictors of blood pressure
             increases in this cohort of African Americans.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1047-2797(98)00024-6},
   Key = {fds277795}
}

@article{fds277796,
   Author = {James, SA and Jamjourn, L and Raghunathan, TE and Strogatz, DS and Furth, E and Khazanie, P},
   Title = {Physical Activity and Non-insulin-Dependent Diabetes in
             African Americans: The Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {Diabetes Care},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {555-562},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0149-5992},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.4.555},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE - Studies directly examining the association
             between physical activity and NIDDM in African-Americans are
             rare. Consequently, the strength of this association in this
             ethnic minority group remains unclear. The current study
             broadly characterizes the types of physical activity engaged
             in by a community sample of working-class African-Americans
             and then quantifies the association between physical
             activity and NIDDM risk in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN
             AND METHODS - During the 1993 reexamination of participants
             in the Pitt County Study in North Carolina, data on NIDDM
             history, current use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs,
             and ~12-h overnight fasting blood glucose (FBG) were
             obtained from 598 women and 318 men, ages 30-55 years. The
             presence of NIDDM was determined by current insulin or
             medication use and FBG ≤ 140 mg/dl. Study participants
             were assigned to one of four categories of physical
             activity: strenuous, moderate, low, or inactive. RESULTS -
             The weighted prevalence of NIDDM in the sample was 7.1%.
             After adjustment was made for age, sex, education, BMI, and
             waist-to-hip ratio, NIDDM risk for moderately active
             subjects was one-third that for the physically inactive
             subjects (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-0.98). The ORs
             for low (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20-1.29) and strenuous (OR,
             0.65; 95% CI, 0.26-1.63) activity also tended to be lower. A
             summary OR that contrasted any activity versus no activity
             was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.23-1.13). CONCLUSIONS - Moderate
             physical activity was strongly associated with reduced risk
             for NIDDM in this sample. While replication of these
             findings is needed, public health interventions designed to
             increase moderate (leisure-time) physical activity in black
             adults should be strongly encouraged.},
   Doi = {10.2337/diacare.21.4.555},
   Key = {fds277796}
}

@article{fds304185,
   Author = {James, SA and Jamjoum, L and Raghunathan, TE and Strogatz, DS and Furth,
             ED and Khazanie, PG},
   Title = {Physical activity and niddm in African-Americans: Pitt
             County study},
   Journal = {Diabetes Care},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {555-562},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0149-5992},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.21.4.555},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE - Studies directly examining the association
             between physical activity and NIDDM in African-Americans are
             rare. Consequently, the strength of this association in this
             ethnic minority group remains unclear. The current study
             broadly characterizes the types of physical activity engaged
             in by a community sample of working-class African-Americans
             and then quantifies the association between physical
             activity and NIDDM risk in this population. RESEARCH DESIGN
             AND METHODS - During the 1993 reexamination of participants
             in the Pitt County Study in North Carolina, data on NIDDM
             history, current use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs,
             and ~12-h overnight fasting blood glucose (FBG) were
             obtained from 598 women and 318 men, ages 30-55 years. The
             presence of NIDDM was determined by current insulin or
             medication use and FBG ≤ 140 mg/dl. Study participants
             were assigned to one of four categories of physical
             activity: strenuous, moderate, low, or inactive. RESULTS -
             The weighted prevalence of NIDDM in the sample was 7.1%.
             After adjustment was made for age, sex, education, BMI, and
             waist-to-hip ratio, NIDDM risk for moderately active
             subjects was one-third that for the physically inactive
             subjects (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.12-0.98). The ORs
             for low (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20-1.29) and strenuous (OR,
             0.65; 95% CI, 0.26-1.63) activity also tended to be lower. A
             summary OR that contrasted any activity versus no activity
             was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.23-1.13). CONCLUSIONS - Moderate
             physical activity was strongly associated with reduced risk
             for NIDDM in this sample. While replication of these
             findings is needed, public health interventions designed to
             increase moderate (leisure-time) physical activity in black
             adults should be strongly encouraged.},
   Doi = {10.2337/diacare.21.4.555},
   Key = {fds304185}
}

@article{fds277797,
   Author = {Curtis, AB and James, SA and Strogatz, DS and Raghunathan, TE and Harlow, S},
   Title = {Alcohol consumption and changes in blood pressure among
             African Americans: The Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {146},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {727-733},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   Abstract = {The Pitt County Study is a longitudinal investigation of
             anthropometric, psychosocial, and behavioral predictors of
             hypertension in African Americans who were aged 25-50 years
             at baseline in 1988. At baseline, a strong dose- response
             gradient was observed for alcohol consumption and blood
             pressure for both sexes. The current study investigated
             whether baseline alcohol consumption or, alternatively,
             changes in drinking status predicted 5-year changes in blood
             pressure among the 652 women and 318 men who satisfied all
             inclusion criteria for the longitudinal analyses. In
             multivariate regression analyses, baseline alcohol
             consumption was not significantly associated with changes in
             blood pressure or hypertension incidence (systolic/diastolic
             blood pressure ≤160/95 mmHg) by 1993. Change in drinking
             status, however, was significantly associated with changes
             in systolic pressure. The systolic pressure increase among
             individuals who initiated alcohol consumption was 6.2 mmHg
             (95%=confidence interval (Cl) 1.1-6.4) greater than
             abstainers, while that for individuals who reported drinking
             at both time points was 3.8 mmHg (95% Cl 1.3-11.1) greater.
             Blood pressure increases for persons who discontinued
             drinking were comparable to those of abstainers. Results
             were independent of baseline age, body mass index, blood
             pressure, and sex. Social and economic disadvantage in 1988
             was significantly associated with continuation and
             initiation of alcohol consumption by 1993.},
   Key = {fds277797}
}

@article{fds277798,
   Author = {Curtis, AB and James, SA and Raghunathan, TE and Alcser,
             K},
   Title = {Job Strain and Hypertension Prevalence in African-Americans:
             The Pitt County (NC) Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1297-1302},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {Objectives. This report examined whether job strain (or its
             components, decision latitude and job demands) was
             associated with elevated blood pressure levels in a
             community-based sample of 726 African-American adults.
             Methods. Blood-pressure, anthropometric, behavioral,
             demographic, and psychosocial data were collected for the
             current cross-sectional analyses during home interviews
             conducted for the second were (1993) of the Pitt County
             Study (North Carolina), a prospective cohort study of
             hypertension among African Americans. Results. Job strain
             was not associated with blood pressure among men or women in
             this study. However, men in the 80th percentile of decision
             latitude had more than a 50% decrease in the prevalence of
             hypertension compared with men in the 20th percentile (odds
             ratio = .46, 95% confidence interval = 22, 96). Conclusions.
             These results indicate that decision latitude may be
             important for hypertension risk among African-American men.
             More research is needed on African Americans to determine
             why job strain and its two component variables differ in
             their associations with blood pressure for men and
             women.},
   Key = {fds277798}
}

@article{fds277799,
   Author = {Strogatz, DS and Croft, JB and James, SA and Keenan, NL and Browning,
             SB and Garrett, JM},
   Title = {Social Support, Stress and Blood Pressure in Blacks: The
             Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {Epidemiology},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {482-487},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds277799}
}

@article{fds304184,
   Author = {Curtis, AB and James, SA and Raghunathan, TE and Alcser,
             KH},
   Title = {Job strain and blood pressure in African Americans: The pitt
             county study},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1297-1302},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {Objectives. This report examined whether job strain (or its
             components, decision latitude and job demands) was
             associated with elevated blood pressure levels in a
             community-based sample of 726 African-American adults.
             Methods. Blood-pressure, anthropometric, behavioral,
             demographic, and psychosocial data were collected for the
             current cross-sectional analyses during home interviews
             conducted for the second were (1993) of the Pitt County
             Study (North Carolina), a prospective cohort study of
             hypertension among African Americans. Results. Job strain
             was not associated with blood pressure among men or women in
             this study. However, men in the 80th percentile of decision
             latitude had more than a 50% decrease in the prevalence of
             hypertension compared with men in the 20th percentile (odds
             ratio = .46, 95% confidence interval = 22, 96). Conclusions.
             These results indicate that decision latitude may be
             important for hypertension risk among African-American men.
             More research is needed on African Americans to determine
             why job strain and its two component variables differ in
             their associations with blood pressure for men and
             women.},
   Key = {fds304184}
}

@article{fds277800,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Miller, CA and Barakat, B and Daikoku, N and Pupkin, M and Engstrom, K and Huggins, G},
   Title = {Psychosocial stressors and low birthweight in an urban
             population},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {459-466},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0749-3797},
   Abstract = {Introduction: Low birthweight is a major determinant of
             infant mortality, as well as a contributor to infant and
             childhood morbidity. A key issue is how to reduce the
             incidence of low birthweight in the United States. One
             emerging factor is exposure to psychosocial stressors. In
             this research, we evaluated the association between exposure
             to psychosocial stressors and low birthweight in a
             population of urban, low-income pregnant women. Methods:
             Over 2,000 pregnant women 18 years of age and older were
             enrolled in this prospective study and recruited at their
             first prenatal care visit. We obtained information on
             maternal exposure to stressors. After the pregnancy, we
             abstracted clinical records of each woman enrolled in the
             study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted
             odds ratio for the association between stressor group
             membership and low birthweight, controlling for the effects
             of confounding factors. Results: In logistic regression
             analyses stratified by race, for African-American women, the
             following variables were significantly associated with low
             birthweight: smoking, hypertension, low prepregnancy weight,
             hospitalization during pregnancy, previous preterm birth,
             and exposure to stressors. For Caucasian women, significant
             predictors were: smoking, drug use, hospitalization during
             pregnancy, hypertension, and previous preterm birth.
             Exposure to stressors was also significantly associated with
             many clinical and behavioral risks for low birthweight.
             Conclusion: Our results suggest two potential mechanisms for
             an association between stressors and low birthweight.
             Exposure to stressors may be indirectly associated with low
             birthweight through a relationship with clinical and
             behavioral risks for low birthweight. Exposure to
             psychosocial stressors may also be directly associated with
             risk of low birthweight among African-American women.
             Medical Subject Headings (MESH): birthweight, low
             birthweight, infant, pregnancy, social characteristics,
             socioeconomic factors, women, pregnant, African
             Americans.},
   Key = {fds277800}
}

@article{fds277801,
   Author = {Kaufman, JS and Owoaje, EE and James, SA and Rotimi, CN and Cooper,
             RS},
   Title = {Determinants of hypertension in West Africa: Contribution of
             anthropometric and dietary factors to urban-rural and
             socioeconomic gradients},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {143},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1203-1218},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   Abstract = {The determinants of hypertension in West Africa have not
             been well defined. The authors sampled 598 participants aged
             45 years or more from a recent population-based survey in
             southwest Nigeria (190 rural men and women, 205 urban poor
             men and women, and 203 retired railway workmen). The
             estimated mean age was 61 (10) years. Mean pressures were
             low relative to westernized societies: systolic blood
             pressure = 124 (24) mmHg, diastolic blood pressure = 72 (13)
             mmHg. Both men and women were remarkably lean: body mass
             index = 21.3 (3.6) and 23.0 (5.2) kg/m 2, respectively.
             Hypertension prevalence increased across the gradient from
             rural farmers to urban poor to railway workers: 14, 25, and
             29 percent, respectively, had a blood pressure of 140/90
             mmHg or greater, and 3, 11, and 14 percent, respectively,
             had a blood pressure of 160/95 mmHg or greater (p for trend
             &lt; 0.01 for both cutpoints). On the basis of a 24-hour
             urine sample, daily electrolyte excretion was 110 (57) mEq
             of sodium and 46 (24) mEq of potassium. Mean
             sodium:potassium ratio was 2.6 (1.0) and was higher among
             the urban residents (p &lt; 0.01) and correlated with
             systolic and diastolic pressures (r = 0.16-0,18, p &lt;
             0.01). These findings provide quantitative estimates of the
             impact of known hypertension risk factors in West Africa and
             demonstrate the basis for increased prevalence with
             urbanization and associated economic and dietary change.
             These results also provide support for recommendations for
             prevention in West Africa and provide a benchmark against
             which to compare populations in the African
             diaspora.},
   Key = {fds277801}
}

@article{fds277775,
   Author = {Brown, CP and Ferguson, JA and James, SA and Jenkins, B and Mays, VM and Nwangwu, JT and Reynolds, GH and Kumanyika, SK and Schoenbach, VJ and Suarez, L},
   Title = {Statement of principles: Epidemiology and minority
             populations},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {505-508},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds277775}
}

@article{fds277802,
   Author = {Gazmararian, JA and James, SA and Lepkowski, JM},
   Title = {Depression in black and white women: The role of marriage
             and socioeconomic status},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {455-463},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {1047-2797},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1047-2797(95)00061-5},
   Abstract = {The degree to which the relationship between race and
             depression in US black and white women is modified by
             socioeconomic and marital status was investigated. Data on
             534 black and 836 white women, 25 to 64 years old, obtained
             from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives national survey were
             utilized. Depression was measured by the Centers for
             Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Poverty status and
             education were used as indicators of socioeconomic status
             (SES). For both black and white women, the prevalence of
             depression was higher among those with lower as compared to
             higher SES, and among the unmarried as compared to the
             married. The unstratified, age- adjusted odds of depression
             for black women was twice that for white women (odds ratio
             (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7 to 2.8);
             however, when stratified by poverty status, race effects
             were observed for nonpoor (OR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) but
             not for poor women (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 0.7 to 2.1). Race
             effects were also more pronounced among married (OR = 2.0;
             95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9) than unmarried women (OR = 1.6; 95% CI,
             1.1 to 2.4). Controlling for known confounders did not alter
             these results. Additional analyses revealed that the black
             excess risk for depression was concentrated among higher
             SES, married women, with marital difficulties appearing to
             pay a major role in their elevated depression
             scores.},
   Doi = {10.1016/1047-2797(95)00061-5},
   Key = {fds277802}
}

@article{fds277803,
   Author = {Lopes, AAS and Hornbuckle, K and James, SA and Port,
             FK},
   Title = {The joint effects of race and age on the risk of end-stage
             renal disease attributed to hypertension},
   Journal = {American Journal of Kidney Diseases},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {554-560},
   Year = {1994},
   Abstract = {To describe the joint effects of race and age on the risk of
             end-stage renal disease (ESRD) attributed to hypertension
             (ESRD-HT), we analyzed data for white and black adults, 20
             to 84 years of age, reported by the United States Renal Data
             System during the period 1987 to 1990. The risk of ESRD-HT
             increased substantially with age for both blacks and whites;
             however, at each age, the risk was greater for blacks. A
             more in-depth description of the combination of effects
             involving race and age on ESRD-HT incidence was provided by
             two models of joint effects, one additive and the other
             multiplicative. Both models used the 20- to 24-year age
             group as the referent. Under the additive model the risk of
             ESRD-HT in blacks attributable to the joint effects between
             race and age increased continuously from younger to older
             groups. This indicates that although ESRD-HT risk increases
             with age for both blacks and whites, the increase for blacks
             is greater than expected if the effects of race were
             independent of the effects of age. However, the
             multiplicative model indicated that the proportional
             increase with age in ESRD-HT risk among blacks, as compared
             with whites, was more striking for younger ages (≤50 years
             among women and ≤40 years among men), and especially so
             for men. This suggests a more accelerated course of
             hypertension toward ESRD for blacks (especially younger men)
             than for whites. A conceptual model to explain these
             patterns of race-age joint effects is proposed. The model
             considers two pathogenic patterns of progression to ESRD
             among hypertensive patients: (1) a rapidly progressive
             disease, particularly for younger black men, and (2) a
             slower progressive disease that culminates in ESRD at older
             ages. The implications of this conceptual model for future
             research, and the empirical findings on which it is based,
             are discussed.},
   Key = {fds277803}
}

@article{fds277804,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {John Henryism and the health of African-Americans},
   Journal = {Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-182},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0165-005X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01379448},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01379448},
   Key = {fds277804}
}

@article{fds277805,
   Author = {Dargent-Molina, P and James, SA and Strogatz, DS and Savitz,
             DA},
   Title = {Association between maternal education and infant diarrhea
             in different household and community environments of Cebu,
             Philippines},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {343-350},
   Year = {1994},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(94)90404-9},
   Abstract = {Maternal education is one of the strongest determinants of
             infant survival in developing countries. however, questions
             remain regarding the extent to which its effects vary as a
             function of contextual variables. In this study, a
             multi-level interactive model is used to assess whether the
             protective effect of maternal education on the risk of
             infant diarrhea is modified by three aspects of the mother's
             familial and community environment: household assets,
             community economic resources and the availability of
             mothers' clubs. 2484 study participants were interviewed in
             1984 as part of the Cebu Longitudinal Infant Health and
             Nutrition Study. The findings suggest that the protective
             effect of maternal education on infant diarrhea varies
             according to the socio-economic environment in which the
             mother lives: maternal education protects against infant
             diarrhea in the more economically and socially advantaged
             communities but has no effect in the more disadvantaged
             communities. The results also indicate that the protective
             effect of maternal education is smaller in the wealthier
             households. These data suggest that improvement in maternal
             education level, alone, may not always have the expected
             beneficial effects on infant health. Corollary measures to
             improve access of mothers and children to basic community
             resources and efforts to help mothers be more effective in
             their various social roles may be necessary preconditions
             for higher levels of maternal education to result in
             improved infant health.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0277-9536(94)90404-9},
   Key = {fds277805}
}

@article{fds277807,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {The Narrative of John Henry Martin},
   Journal = {Southern Cultures, Inaugural Issue},
   Pages = {83-106},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {November},
   Key = {fds277807}
}

@article{fds277806,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Foreward: Racial Differences in Preterm Delivery},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {v-vi},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds277806}
}

@article{fds277808,
   Author = {Lopes, AAS and Port, FK and James, SA and Agodoa,
             L},
   Title = {The excess risk of treated end-stage renal disease in blacks
             in the United States},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Society of Nephrology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1961-1971},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {Analysis of national data from the United States Renal Data
             System for 1988 revealed an important joint effect of age
             and race in determining the higher risk of ESRD for blacks
             as compared with whites. For adults, both hypertension and
             diabetes made important contributions to the combined effect
             of age and race. In contrast, glomerulonephritis was not
             considered to be an important contributor to this joint
             effect. The combined effect of gender and race was weaker
             than that of age and race; however, among blacks,
             differences in the proportions of ESRD attributed to
             hypertension and diabetes across gender were observed. The
             age-race joint effect is consistent with the hypothesis that
             a combined effect of lack of treatment and aging on the
             process that leads to ESRD may play an important role in the
             excess risk for ESRD among blacks.},
   Key = {fds277808}
}

@article{fds277809,
   Author = {Croft, JB and Strogatz, DS and Keenan, NL and James, SA and Malarcher,
             AM and Garrett, JM},
   Title = {The independent effects of obesity and body fat distribution
             on blood pressure in black adults: The Pitt County
             study},
   Journal = {International Journal of Obesity},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {391-397},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {The relationship of obesity measures to blood pressure and
             hypertension prevalence was assessed in a community
             probability sample of 25-50-year-old black adults (1101
             women and 655 men) who were examined in 1988 in Pitt County,
             North Carolina. Among black women, both body mass index and
             waist-to-hip ratio had independent relationships with
             systolic and diastolic blood pressures and hypertension
             prevalence after controlling for the effects of age,
             socio-economic status, physical activity, alcohol, and the
             other obesity measure (P &lt; 0.05). Body mass index also
             had independent relationships with blood pressure levels and
             hypertension prevalence in black men (P &lt; 0.05), while
             waist-to-hip ratio was associated with hypertension
             prevalence (P = 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (P &lt;
             0.05), but not with systolic blood pressure. The
             relationships of waist-to-hip ratio with blood pressure and
             hypertension prevalence were considerably reduced in both
             sex groups after controlling for body mass index. This study
             presents new evidence that waist-to-hip ratio is related to
             hypertension and blood pressure level independent of body
             mass index, in young to middle-aged black adult women and
             men.},
   Key = {fds277809}
}

@article{fds277810,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Racial and ethnic differences in infant mortality and low
             birth weight. A psychosocial critique},
   Journal = {Annals of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {130-136},
   Year = {1993},
   Abstract = {Recent studies on differences in infant mortality and low
             birth weight (LBW) among non-Hispanic whites, African
             Americans, and Mexican Americans were reviewed. Despite
             similar socioeconomic profiles, infant mortality among
             Mexican Americans (8/1000 live births) is less than half
             that of African Americans (18/1000 live births). In fact,
             the rate for Mexican Americans is identical to that of
             non-Hispanic whites. The data for LBW follow a similar
             pattern. What accounts for this unexpectedly low frequency
             of poor birth outcomes among Mexican Americans, especially
             given their economic disadvantages, reduced access to
             prenatal care, and exposure to discrimination based on
             ethnicity? Does adherence to a traditional Mexican cultural
             orientation protect otherwise high-risk Mexican Americans
             from poor pregnancy outcomes, as has been suggested? What is
             the 'protective' social and psychological content of a
             traditional Mexican cultural orientation? And what are the
             implications of this line of reasoning for understanding the
             excess risk for poor birth outcomes among African Americans?
             This article explores these and related questions and
             concludes that new conceptual models are needed to guide
             research in this area.},
   Key = {fds277810}
}

@article{fds277811,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Casper, R},
   Title = {Psychosocial stressors and low birth weight: development of
             a questionnaire.},
   Journal = {Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {343-347},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {Low birth weight is a major public health problem because it
             is a major contributor to infant mortality as well as to
             various types of morbidity among young children. Of
             particular concern is that black women have an increased
             risk of low birth weight babies compared with white women.
             Many etiologic factors for low birth weight have been
             identified, but even within homogeneous strata of risk,
             black women have a greater risk of low birth weight babies
             than do white women. The reasons for this excess risk are
             not well understood. Available evidence suggests that
             exposure to psychosocial stressors is associated with
             adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, prior work in this area
             has been limited by the lack of a valid and reliable tool to
             assess exposure to stressors among pregnant women. We report
             on the development and testing of such a questionnaire, the
             Prenatal Social Environment Inventory. In this
             questionnaire, exposure to stressors is conceptualized and
             measured in the context of chronic stressful conditions. The
             questionnaire is self-administered and can be used in
             clinical settings with pregnant women. Findings of
             psychometric evaluations showed that the questionnaire has
             acceptable levels of 30-day temporal stability
             (reliability), internal consistency, and construct
             validity.},
   Key = {fds277811}
}

@article{fds277812,
   Author = {Croft, JB and Strogatz, DS and James, SA and Keenan, NL and Ammerman,
             AS and Malarcher, AM and Haines, PS},
   Title = {Socioeconomic and behavioral correlates of body mass index
             in black adults: The Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {82},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {821-826},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {Background. Obesity is more prevalent among Black women than
             Black men, but there is little information on the correlates
             of obesity in Blacks. This study describes the relations of
             sociodemographic factors and health behaviors to body mass
             index in a southern, Black population. Methods. In 1988, a
             community probability sample of 1784 Black adults, aged 25
             to 50, was examined in Pitt County, NC. Results. More women
             than men were at least 20% overweight (57% vs 36%). The
             relation of socioeconomic status (a composite of education
             and occupation) to age-adjusted body mass index level was
             inverse in women but not in men. Body mass index did not
             differ with either current energy intake or energy
             expenditure. Smokers and drinkers had lower age- adjusted
             levels than non-smokers and abstainers. Conclusions. Since
             the excess body mass index levels associated with low
             socioeconomic status in women could not be explained after
             controlling for adverse health behaviors, further
             epidemiologic study of risk factors for obesity in Black
             women is recommended.},
   Key = {fds277812}
}

@article{fds277813,
   Author = {Keenan, NL and Strogatz, DS and James, SA and Ammerman, AS and Rice,
             BL},
   Title = {Distribution and correlates of waist-to-hip ratio in black
             adults: The Pitt County study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {678-684},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {A 1988 community-based survey of 1,784 black adults aged
             25-50 years in Pitt County, North Carolina, found mean
             waist-to-hip ratios of 0.890 for men and 0.852 for women.
             Based on guidelines from the US Department of Agriculture,
             20% of the men and 76% of the women had an elevated
             waist-to-hip ratio. Sedentary behavior was associated with
             elevated waist-to-hip ratio in men, while a similar excess
             was associated with alcohol consumption in women. Weak,
             nonsignificant associations with waist-to-hip ratio were
             observed for smoking. Socioeconomic status was unrelated to
             waist-to-hip ratio in men, but it had a strong inverse
             relation for women.},
   Key = {fds277813}
}

@article{fds277814,
   Author = {James, SA and Keenan, NL and Strogatz, DS and Browning, SR and Garrett,
             JM},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and blood pressure in
             black adults: The Pitt County study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {59-67},
   Year = {1992},
   Abstract = {The joint influence of socioeconomic status and John
             Henryism on blood pressure was examined in a probability
             sample of 1,784 black adults aged 25- 50 years in Pitt
             County, North Carolina, in 1988. John Henryism was measured
             by means of the John Henryism Active Coping Scale.
             Socioeconomic status (low, medium, and high) was based on
             respondents' education and occupation. Prior research
             indicated that, for blacks, the inverse association between
             socioeconomic status and hypertension may be stronger for
             individuals who score high in John Henryism. In this more
             urban sample of blacks, the hypothesized interaction
             achieved modest statistical support (p &lt; 0.08) only for
             hypertension prevalence. For individuals with high levels of
             John Henryism, adjusted prevalences declined with increasing
             socioeconomic status (29.4%, 26.2%, and 20.5% for low,
             medium, and high socioeconomic status, respectively); for
             individuals with low levels of John Henryism, hypertension
             prevalence was similar in the low (22.6%) and medium (22.8%)
             socioeconomic categories but higher in the high
             socioeconomic category (25.9%). Elevated psychological
             stress in white-collar workers was probably responsible for
             the nonsignificant inverse gradients between socioeconomic
             status and mean blood pressures and for the weak interaction
             between socioeconomic status and John Henryism with regard
             to hypertension prevalence.},
   Key = {fds277814}
}

@article{fds277815,
   Author = {Gerber, AM and James, SA and Ammerman, AS and Keenan, NL and Garrett,
             JM and Strogatz, DS and Haines, PS},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status and electrolyte intake in Black adults:
             The Pitt County Study},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1608-1612},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {Background. Although the inverse association between
             socioeconomic status (SES) and blood pressure has often been
             observed, little is known about the relationship between SES
             and dietary risk factors for elevated blood pressure.
             Therefore, this study described the distribution of dietary
             intakes of sodium, potassium, and calcium and examined the
             association between electrolyte intake and SES among 1784
             Black men and women aged 25 to 50 residing in eastern North
             Carolina. Methods. Household interviews were conducted in
             1988 to obtain information on psychosocial and dietary
             correlates of blood pressure. Electrolyte intake (mg/day)
             was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire adapted to
             reflect regional and ethnic food preferences. SES was
             categorized into three levels defined by the participant's
             educational level and occupation. Results. After adjustment
             for age and energy intake, potassium and calcium intake
             increased with increasing SES for both sexes. Sodium intake
             was high for all groups and did not vary markedly with SES,
             but sodium to potassium and sodium to calcium ratios
             decreased with increasing SES. In addition, high SES
             individuals were more likely to believe that diet affects
             risk for disease and to report less salt use at the table
             and less current sodium consumption than in the past.
             Conclusion. These data indicate that nutritional beliefs as
             well as the consumption of electrolytes are associated with
             SES in Black adults.},
   Key = {fds277815}
}

@article{fds277816,
   Author = {Ainsworth, B and Keenan, NL and James, SAEA},
   Title = {Physical Activity and Hypertension in a Southern Black
             Popualtion: The Pitt County, North Carolina
             Study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1477-1479},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {The relation of physical activity to hypertension was
             examined in 1751 Black adults in Pitt County, NC. More women
             (65%) than men (44%) were classified as sedentary. Sedentary
             behavior was not associated with the prevalence of
             hypertension in men, but was associated with a 31% increase
             in prevalence for women (sedentary-26.2%; active-20.0%; P
             &lt; .01). The association in women was independent of other
             risk factors for hypertension.},
   Key = {fds277816}
}

@article{fds277817,
   Author = {Adib, SM and Joseph, JG and Ostrow, DG and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Predictors of relapse in sexual practices among homosexual
             men},
   Journal = {AIDS Education and Prevention},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {293-304},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {Selected sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral
             variables were used to predict maintenance or relapse in
             sexual practices over a 1-year interval in a cohort of
             homosexual men in Chicago. Univariate analyses and
             multivariate logistic regression were used to define
             predictive models for safer practices separately for
             insertive and receptive anal sex. Demographic and
             psychosocial variables were not associated with subsequent
             relapse. Neither was HIV serostatus. Using more rigorous
             multiple logistic regression, only monogamous relationships,
             less peer support, and less assertiveness in negotiating
             safer sex appeared to predict relapse to less safe
             practices. The importance of interpersonal variables and
             social norms for future interventions among homosexual men
             is discussed.},
   Key = {fds277817}
}

@article{fds277818,
   Author = {James, SA and Almeida-Filho, ND and Kaufman, JS},
   Title = {Hypertension in Brazil: a review of the epidemiological
             evidence.},
   Journal = {Ethnicity & disease},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {91-98},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {Population-based studies of hypertension in Brazil were
             reviewed. Nineteen studies were identified, all employing
             cross-sectional study designs. The majority of these studies
             were conducted in the south and southeast regions of the
             country, although increasing mortality from cardiovascular
             diseases is now a nationwide problem in Brazil. Except for
             Amazonian Indians, age and blood pressure were positively
             correlated in the studies reviewed. Men generally had higher
             blood pressures than women up to age 50; studies
             consistently reported that blacks, or groups combining
             blacks and mulattoes, had higher blood pressures than
             whites. Methodological problems that characterize many of
             these studies were noted, and some suggestions for future
             research were offered.},
   Key = {fds277818}
}

@article{fds277819,
   Author = {Strogatz, DS and James, SA and Haines, PS and Elmer, PJ and Gerber, AM and Browning, SR and Ammerman, AS and Keenan, NL},
   Title = {Alcohol consumption and blood pressure in black adults: The
             Pitt County study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {133},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {442-450},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {While there is a clear consensus in the epidemiologic
             literature on the direct association between alcohol
             consumption and blood pressure, the shape of this relation
             and its strength in blacks are uncertain. Therefore, the
             association between alcohol and blood pressure was examined
             in a community-based random sample of 1,784 black adults
             aged 25 to 50 years living in eastern North Carolina. These
             individuals were interviewed in 1988 for a study of
             psychosocial and dietary risk factors for elevated blood
             pressure. Alcohol consumption was estimated from responses
             to a food frequency questionnaire and was divided into four
             categories, which ranged from abstention (52% of the sample)
             to ≥ seven drinks/week (12%). After adjustment for age and
             body mass, the systolic blood pressure of adults reporting
             ≥ seven drinks/week exceeded that of nondrinkers by 6.8
             mmHg for men and women (p &lt; 0.001). There was no evidence
             of a threshold effect, and similar patterns were observed
             for diastolic blood pressure. Being in the highest category
             of alcohol consumption was related to low socioeconomic
             status, lower social integration, and higher levels of
             socioeconomic stressors. These data are consistent with a
             graded association between alcohol and blood pressure in
             black adults and suggest the importance of social factors
             underlying this association.},
   Key = {fds277819}
}

@article{fds304183,
   Author = {Ainsworth, BE and Keenan, NL and Strogatz, DS and Garrett, JM and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Physical activity and hypertension in Black adults: The Pitt
             County study},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1477-1479},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {The relation of physical activity to hypertension was
             examined in 1751 Black adults in Pitt County, NC. More women
             (65%) than men (44%) were classified as sedentary. Sedentary
             behavior was not associated with the prevalence of
             hypertension in men, but was associated with a 31% increase
             in prevalence for women (sedentary-26.2%; active-20.0%; P
             &lt; .01). The association in women was independent of other
             risk factors for hypertension.},
   Key = {fds304183}
}

@article{fds277734,
   Author = {Homer, CJ and Beresford, SAA and James, SA and Siegel, E and Wilcox,
             S},
   Title = {Work-related physical exertion and risk of preterm, low
             birthweight delivery},
   Journal = {Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {161-174},
   Year = {1990},
   Abstract = {Although many women work during pregnancy, the effect of
             maternal job experience on pregnancy outcome is
             controversial. We investigated whether work-related physical
             exertion increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm,
             low birthweight infant. We studied 773 employed, pregnant
             women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor
             Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally
             representative sample of young adults. Data concerning work
             status, job title during pregnancy, and other factors
             affecting the outcome of pregnancy were obtained from the
             NLSY. Assessment of physical exertion was based on job
             title, using an established catalogue of occupational
             characteristics. Women in jobs characterised by high
             physical exertion experienced a higher rate of preterm, low
             birthweight delivery, defined as maternal report of delivery
             more than 3 weeks early and birthweight under 2500 g
             (adjusted RR = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.5, 17.7). These findings
             support a policy of limiting work-related physical exertion
             during pregnancy.},
   Key = {fds277734}
}

@article{fds277820,
   Author = {Homer, CJ and James, SA and Siegel, E},
   Title = {Work-related psychosocial stress and risk of preterm, low
             birthweight delivery},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {173-177},
   Year = {1990},
   Abstract = {We investigated whether work-related psychologic stress -
             defined as work characterized by both high psychologic
             demands and limited control over the response to these
             demands - increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm,
             low birthweight infant. We studied 786 employed pregnant
             women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor
             Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally
             representative sample of 12,686 young adults. Data
             concerning work status, job title, and other factors
             affecting pregnancy outcome were obtained from the NLSY.
             Assessment of job experience was based on job title, using
             an established catalogue of occupation characteristics.
             After accounting for the physical exertion entailed in a
             job, occupational psychologic stress as measured by job
             title was not associated with perterm, low birthweight
             delivery for the sample as a whole (Relative risk = 1.16,
             95% confidence interval .45, 2.95). For those women who did
             not want to remain in the work force, work-related stress
             increased their risk of experiencing this outcome (RR = 8.1,
             95% CI 1.5, 50.2). Personal motivation toward work, as well
             as the physical effort of work, should be considered in
             evaluating the impact of a job's psychologic characteristics
             on pregnancy outcome.},
   Key = {fds277820}
}

@article{fds277823,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Burns, BJ and Thompson,
             B},
   Title = {Chronic stressors and maternal depression: implications for
             prevention.},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1295-1296},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2764210},
   Abstract = {We report on the use of an instrument to measure exposure to
             stressors among 149 women presenting with their children for
             pediatric care at an urban primary care center. Overall,
             38.3 percent of the women had significant levels of
             depressive symptoms; 71.4 percent of those in the "high
             stress" group had an adjusted prevalence odds ratio of 5.00
             [95% CI = 2.12, 11.82]. We conclude that screening in the
             pediatric office is feasible for identifying women at high
             risk of becoming depressed.},
   Key = {fds277823}
}

@article{fds277821,
   Author = {Fredman, L and Schoenbach, VJ and Kaplan, BH and Blazer, DG and James,
             SA and Kleinbaum, DG and Yankaskas, B},
   Title = {The association between depressive symptoms and mortality
             among older participants in the Epidemiologic Catchment
             Area-Piedmont Health Survey.},
   Journal = {Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {S149-S156},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0022-1422},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2738318},
   Abstract = {The association between depression and two-year mortality
             risk was assessed in 1,606 elderly community participants in
             the 1982-83 Epidemiologic Catchment Area-Piedmont Health
             Survey. Two depression measures were formed from the
             Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) depressive symptom
             items. Neither measure was associated with mortality in
             univariate or multiple logistic regression analyses. The
             adjusted relative risk of mortality comparing the lowest to
             highest levels of a three-level depression variable was 0.9
             (95% confidence interval = 0.5-1.4). Similar results were
             obtained with other versions of the depression variables,
             with each depressive symptom category, and within sex,
             chronic disease, widowhood status, and age groups. These
             results indicate that depression does not increase mortality
             in elderly adults, but the short follow-up, sample
             characteristics, and operationalization of depression may
             have affected this association.},
   Key = {fds277821}
}

@article{fds277822,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, SA and Charney, E},
   Title = {A social environment inventory for the pediatric
             office},
   Journal = {Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {287-291},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds277822}
}

@article{fds277824,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Mortalidade Infantil e Sobrevida de Criancas na Bahia: uma
             reviao da literatura socia-epidemiologica},
   Journal = {Revista Baiana de Saude Publica},
   Volume = {16},
   Pages = {15-29},
   Year = {1989},
   Key = {fds277824}
}

@article{fds277825,
   Author = {Duijkers, TJ and Drijver, M and Kromhout, D and James,
             SA},
   Title = {'John Henryism' and blood pressure in a Dutch
             population},
   Journal = {Psychosomatic Medicine},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {353-359},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {In a stratified, random sample of 100 men and 100 women,
             aged 20-59 years, residing in Zutphen, the Netherlands, the
             hypothesis was tested that high scores on 'John Henryism,' a
             strong behavioral predisposition to cope actively with
             psychosocial environmental stressors, would be associated
             with higher blood pressure, especially among persons of
             lower education. In univariate analyses higher scores of
             John Henryism were strongly associated with higher blood
             pressures in men. Among women there was only an association
             of John Henryism and systolic blood pressure, but this
             association was no longer statistically significant after
             adjustment for potential confounders such as age, alcohol
             consumption, physical activity, Quetelet Index, and
             education. Among men, however, the association between John
             Henryism and systolic blood pressure remained statistically
             significant after adjustment for potential confounders. The
             association between John Henryism and blood pressure was
             more pronounced for men of low educational
             background.},
   Key = {fds277825}
}

@article{fds277826,
   Author = {Ballard, DJ and Strogatz, DS and Wagner, EH and Siscovick, DS and James,
             SA and Kleinbaum, DG and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim,
             MA},
   Title = {Hypertension control in a rural southern community: medical
             care process and dropping out},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {133-139},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {As part of the Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control
             Program, we conducted a medical record review within a
             private group practice to assess the interrelationships
             between patient characteristics, the probes of medical care,
             and dropping out of care by hypertensive patients.
             Twenty-one percent of 641 randomly selected hypertensive
             patients did not have a clinic visit in the year before
             their record review date. Loss to follow-up varied from 31%
             for black men to 13% for white women. More intense prior
             contact with the medical care system was associated with
             remaining under medical care for all groups by race and sex.
             Black men were much less likely to have intense contact with
             the medical care system than the other groups. Physician
             aggressiveness in the use of drug therapy was associated
             with a nearly 40% reduction in the risk of being lost to
             follow-up. These findings suggest that patient
             characteristics and several factors that reflect the process
             of medical care are associated with dropping out of medical
             care by hypertensive patients.},
   Key = {fds277826}
}

@article{fds277827,
   Author = {Putnam, SM and Stiles, WB and Jacob, MC and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Teaching the Medical Interview},
   Journal = {Journal of General Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {38-47},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {To study the effects of teaching specific interviewing
             techniques on verbal behaviors and on health outcomes,
             internal medicine residents working in a screening clinic
             were assigned to either an experimental or a control group.
             The entire clinic visit was audiotaped, transcribed, and
             coded according to the Verbal Response Mode (VRM) system.
             Residents in the experimental group were taught interviewing
             behaviors (patient exposition and physician explanation)
             that had been found in previous studies to be associated
             with patient outcomes. Through telephone interviews, patient
             satisfaction, compliance, and symptom status were determined
             for all patients. Two hundred and sixty-eight interviews
             (156 in the experimental group and 112 in the control group)
             were included in the study. Training did increase patient
             exposition and physician explanation, but did not affect
             health outcomes. Residents' attitudes and behaviors during
             the training are described.},
   Key = {fds277827}
}

@article{fds304182,
   Author = {Putnam, SM and Stiles, WB and Jacob, MC and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Teaching the medical interview: An intervention
             study},
   Journal = {Journal of General Internal Medicine},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {38-47},
   Year = {1988},
   Abstract = {To study the effects of teaching specific interviewing
             techniques on verbal behaviors and on health outcomes,
             internal medicine residents working in a screening clinic
             were assigned to either an experimental or a control group.
             The entire clinic visit was audiotaped, transcribed, and
             coded according to the Verbal Response Mode (VRM) system.
             Residents in the experimental group were taught interviewing
             behaviors (patient exposition and physician explanation)
             that had been found in previous studies to be associated
             with patient outcomes. Through telephone interviews, patient
             satisfaction, compliance, and symptom status were determined
             for all patients. Two hundred and sixty-eight interviews
             (156 in the experimental group and 112 in the control group)
             were included in the study. Training did increase patient
             exposition and physician explanation, but did not affect
             health outcomes. Residents' attitudes and behaviors during
             the training are described.},
   Key = {fds304182}
}

@article{fds277828,
   Author = {Light, KC and Obrist, PA and Sherwood, A and James, SA and Strogatz,
             DS},
   Title = {Effects of race and marginally elevated blood pressure on
             responses to stress.},
   Journal = {Hypertension},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {555-563},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0194-911X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3692569},
   Abstract = {A total of 228 men, aged 18 to 22 years (109 black and 119
             white), underwent monitoring of heart rate (HR) and systolic
             (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) responses during
             several stressor conditions and a 30-minute posttask rest
             period. Stressors included the cold pressor test and three
             reaction-time tasks: noncompetitive, competitive, and
             competitive plus money incentive. Substantial within-subject
             variations in blood pressure and heart rate were induced,
             varying from 119/70 to 148/94 mm Hg and from 63 to 91
             beats/min on the average. Men (25 black and 39 white) with
             marginal SBP elevations during initial casual determinations
             had higher SBP under all conditions compared with men whose
             casual SBP levels were normal, and they also showed greater
             elevations over baseline levels in heart rate, SBP, and DBP
             during the stressors and the initial casual determination.
             Black and white subjects did not differ in their blood
             pressures at baseline or during the initial casual
             determinations, although blacks had slightly lower heart
             rates. Blacks did show greater SBP elevations over baseline
             levels than whites during the stressors, primarily because
             the blacks with marginally elevated SBP showed substantially
             greater stress-induced increases than whites with marginally
             elevated SBP. This enhanced pressor response to stress in
             blacks with marginal blood pressure elevations may be due to
             higher vascular resistance during enhanced sympathetic
             activity and could contribute to the higher incidence of
             hypertension among blacks.},
   Key = {fds277828}
}

@article{fds277829,
   Author = {James, SA and Strogatz, DS and Wing, SB and Ramsey,
             DL},
   Title = {Socioeconomic status, John Henryism, and hypertension in
             blacks and whites},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {664-673},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {The joint influence of socioeconomic status and John
             Henryism on risk for elevated blood pressure was examined in
             a biracial, community sample of 820 adults, aged 21-50
             years, who resided in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, and
             were interviewed in 1983. John Henryism refers to a strong
             personality predisposition to cope actively with
             psychosocial environmental stressors. In keeping with an
             earlier finding for black men, it was hypothesized that the
             inverse association between socioeconomic status and blood
             pressure would be stronger for persons who scored high on
             John Henryism than for persons who scored low. Using
             race-specific definitions of socioeconomic status, the study
             found support for the hypothesis among blacks. At low levels
             of John Henryism, socioeconomic status differences in
             hypertension prevalence were small (1.6%), whereas at high
             levels of John Henryism, low socioeconomic status blacks
             were nearly three times as likely to be hypertensive as
             higher status blacks (31.4% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.02 for the
             socioeconomic status x John Henryism interaction term). The
             findings for systolic and diastolic blood pressure were in a
             similar direction but did not reach statistical
             significance. The study hypothesis was not supported among
             whites. Analyses of the correlates of John Henryism as well
             as the blood pressure findings are discussed in terms of the
             different socioeconomic circumstances that characterize the
             lives of blacks and whites in this rural, southern
             community.},
   Key = {fds277829}
}

@article{fds277830,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Psychosocial precursors of hypertension: A review of the
             epidemiologic evidence},
   Journal = {Circulation},
   Volume = {76},
   Number = {1 II SUPPL.},
   Pages = {I-60-I-66},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {This article provides a selective overview of epidemiologic
             studies on the relationship between psychosocial factors and
             blood pressure elevation. The review focuses on
             English-language reports published since 1975 and emphasizes
             two broad areas of research: (1) changes in mean blood
             pressures of third world populations undergoing
             modernization, and (2) psychosocial correlates of elevated
             blood pressure in low socioeconomic status (SES) and black
             populations within the continental United States. The recent
             modernization studies provide additional evidence that rapid
             sociocultural change is associated with increased prevalence
             of hypertension. To account for these effects, several
             studies have advanced the general thesis that modernization
             impacts traditional value systems of third world populations
             in ways that frequently engender discrepancies between their
             newly acquired aspirations for a Western lifestyle and their
             socioeconomic resources to successfully pursue that
             lifestyle. There is overlap between this formulation and
             recent investigations of hypertension in low SES and black
             populations in the United States. The report concludes with
             a discussion of epidemiologic studies of anger and
             hypertension, emphasizing some of the complexities that
             characterize this area of research.},
   Key = {fds277830}
}

@article{fds277831,
   Author = {Sisocvick, DS and Strogatz, DS and Wagner, EH and Ballard, DJ and James,
             SA and Beresford, SAA and Kleinbaum, DG and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim,
             MA},
   Title = {Provider-Oriented Interventions and The Management of
             Hypertension},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {25},
   Pages = {254-258},
   Year = {1987},
   Key = {fds277831}
}

@article{fds277832,
   Author = {Light, KC and Obrist, PA and James, SA and Strogatz,
             DS},
   Title = {Cardiovascular responses to stress: II. Relationships to
             aerobic exercise patterns},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {79-86},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {A sample of 174 men aged 18-22 years were divided into
             thirds based on self-reported levels of weekly aerobic
             exercise. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure,
             and pre-ejection period responses of these low, moderate,
             and high exercise groups were compared during a pretask rest
             and a later acclimated rest, a bicycle exercise task, a
             purported shock-avoidance reaction time task, and the cold
             pressor test. The low exercise subjects showed higher heart
             rates and marginally higher diastolic blood pressures than
             the high exercise subjects at rest. The low exercise
             subjects also showed greater myocardial responses to the
             mild exercise task and the reaction time task than the high
             exercise subjects, as reflected by group differences in
             heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and pre-ejection period
             measures after covariance adjustment for baseline
             differences. Group differences observed in response to the
             cold pressor test were smaller and generally nonsignificant.
             These results were interpreted as evidence that aerobic
             exercise training may decrease beta-adrenergic myocardial
             responses to physical and behavioral challenges.},
   Key = {fds277832}
}

@article{fds277833,
   Author = {Obrist, PA and Light, KC and James, SA and Strogatz,
             DS},
   Title = {Cardiovascular responses to stress: I. Measures of
             myocardial response and relationship to high resting
             systolic pressure and parental hypertension},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-78},
   Year = {1987},
   Abstract = {A comparison of pre-ejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR),
             and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure
             responses to the cold pressor test and a pseudo-shock
             avoidance reaction time task was performed in 183 young men.
             These tasks differ in the extent to which they evoke
             enhanced myocardial and vascular adrenergic activity.
             Decreases in PEP were more pronounced during the reaction
             time task, while DBP increased more during the cold pressor
             test. HR and SBP responses did not differentiate the two
             tasks. PEP decreases occurred in the absence of any apparent
             increase in cardiac preload or decrease in afterload.
             Parental hypertension as determined by physician reports was
             associated with higher SBP across all conditions. A subgroup
             of individuals (15%) showed SBP levels ≥ 140 mmHg when
             typical clinical stethoscopic determinations were made, but
             less than half as many showed such elevations during a more
             extended resting baseline using remotely operated devices.
             High stethoscopic SBP was associated with greater
             cardiovascular responses to the stressors, while high SBP
             during the extended baseline was not.},
   Key = {fds277833}
}

@article{fds277834,
   Author = {Strogatz, DS and James, SA},
   Title = {Social support and hypertension among blacks and whites in a
             rural, southern community},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {949-956},
   Year = {1986},
   Abstract = {The association between social support and the prevalence of
             hypertension was examined in a randomly selected, biracial
             sample of 2,030 adult residents of Edgecombe County, North
             Carolina, who were surveyed in 1980. Two types of support,
             instrumental and emotional, were measured and evaluated in
             the 2,009 individuals for whom complete data were available.
             Blacks were more likely to have low levels of both kinds of
             social support. Low emotional support was unrelated to the
             prevalence of hypertension. In unadjusted analyses, low
             instrumental support was associated with increased
             hypertension for both races. After controlling for other
             correlates of blood presure, the association no longer held
             for whites (odds ratio (OR) = 1.1), but remained
             statistically significant for blacks (OR = 1.5, 95 per cent
             confidence interval = 1.1-2.0). Further analyses revealed
             that these results were specific to low income blacks (OR =
             1.7). These findings are consistent with the results of
             ecologic studies of social ties and hypertension-related
             mortality in North Carolina.},
   Key = {fds277834}
}

@article{fds277835,
   Author = {Ballard, DJ and Strogatz, DS and Wagner, EH and Siscovick, DS and James,
             SA and Kleinbaum, DG and Williams, CA and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim,
             MA},
   Title = {The Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program:
             The Process of Medical Care and Blood Pressure
             Control},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {12},
   Pages = {278-284},
   Year = {1986},
   Key = {fds277835}
}

@article{fds277836,
   Author = {Strogatz, DS and James, SA and Elliott, D and Ramsey, D and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim, MA},
   Title = {Community coverage in a rural, church-based, hypertension
             screening program in Edgecombe County, North
             Carolina},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {401-402},
   Year = {1985},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {In a rural, church-based hypertension program in Edgecombe
             County, North Carolina, screening of the congregations was
             complemented by a community outreach component targeted at
             18-60 year old males, a group at higher risk for untreated
             hypertension. Compared with its estimated frequency in the
             community, untreated hypertension was as common in the
             church congregations and somewhat less prevalent than
             expected among outreach screenees.},
   Key = {fds277836}
}

@article{fds277837,
   Author = {Putnam, SM and Stiles, WB and Jacob, MC and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Patient exposition and physician explanation in initial
             medical interviews and outcomes of clinic
             visits},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {74-83},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds277837}
}

@article{fds277838,
   Author = {Williams, CA and Beresford, SAA and James, SA and LaCroix, AZ and Strogatz, DS and Wagner, EH and Kleinbaum, DG and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim, MA},
   Title = {Social Support, Social Stressors and Treatment Dropout: The
             Edgecombe County High Blood Pressue Control
             Program},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {483-486},
   Year = {1985},
   Abstract = {In a hypertension prevalence survey of a stratified random
             sample of 1,000 households, 2,030 adults (aged 18 years and
             over) were interviewed and information on psychosocial
             variables collected. Among 359 hypertensives, there was a
             consistent relationship between indicators of difficulty in
             the social environment and dropout from treatment in women.
             Compared to those who remained in treatment, women who
             dropped out can be characterized as having less social
             support on the job, having less perceived spouse approval
             (if married), having a lower level of perceived access to
             supportive resources, and being more likely to report
             feeling pushed most or all of the time if they are
             homemakers. Relationships between indicators of social
             support and dropout from treatment in men were found only
             with support on the job, and for White men, with perceived
             friend approval.},
   Key = {fds277838}
}

@article{fds304181,
   Author = {Williams, CA and Beresford, SAA and James, SA},
   Title = {The Edgecomb County High Blood Pressure Control Program:
             III. Social support, social stressors, and treatment
             dropout},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {483-486},
   Year = {1985},
   Abstract = {In a hypertension prevalence survey of a stratified random
             sample of 1,000 households, 2,030 adults (aged 18 years and
             over) were interviewed and information on psychosocial
             variables collected. Among 359 hypertensives, there was a
             consistent relationship between indicators of difficulty in
             the social environment and dropout from treatment in women.
             Compared to those who remained in treatment, women who
             dropped out can be characterized as having less social
             support on the job, having less perceived spouse approval
             (if married), having a lower level of perceived access to
             supportive resources, and being more likely to report
             feeling pushed most or all of the time if they are
             homemakers. Relationships between indicators of social
             support and dropout from treatment in men were found only
             with support on the job, and for White men, with perceived
             friend approval.},
   Key = {fds304181}
}

@article{fds277759,
   Author = {Orr, ST and James, S},
   Title = {Maternal depression in an urban pediatric practice:
             Implications for health care delivery},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {363-365},
   Year = {1984},
   Abstract = {A scale to measure depressive symptomatology was
             administered to mothers attending an urban pediatric primary
             care center. Over 50 percent of the female heads of
             households were Black or low income and depressed. This
             suggests that the provider of pediatric primary care should
             recognize depression and make appropriate referrals or
             intervention, since depressed mothers may have a diminished
             ability to respond to the emotional needs of their
             children.},
   Key = {fds277759}
}

@article{fds277839,
   Author = {James, SA and LaCroix, AZ and Kleinbaum, DG and Strogatz,
             DS},
   Title = {John Henryism and Blood Pressure Differences Among Black
             Men: II. The Role of Occupational Stressors},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {257-273},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds277839}
}

@article{fds277840,
   Author = {Orr, ST and Miller, CA and James, SA},
   Title = {Differences in use of health services by children according
             to race. Relative importance of cultural and system-related
             factors},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {848-853},
   Year = {1984},
   Key = {fds277840}
}

@article{fds277841,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Socioeconomic Influences on CHD in Black
             Populations},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal (Supplement)},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {3 II},
   Pages = {669-672},
   Year = {1984},
   Abstract = {It is likely that socioeconomic factors exert important
             influences on coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and
             mortality for U.S. blacks. Careful and comprehensive studies
             are needed to clarify the pathways through which low
             socioeconomic status exerts its influences on susceptibility
             to CHD. In addition, policy-oriented research is needed to
             clarify to what extent reduced access to medical care
             contributes to excessive CHD mortality in black
             Americans.},
   Key = {fds277841}
}

@article{fds277842,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Coronary heart disease in black Americans: Suggestions for
             research on psychosocial factors},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {3 II},
   Pages = {833-838},
   Year = {1984},
   Abstract = {Despite the fact that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the
             leading cause of death among U.S. blacks, virtually no
             information exists on the contribution of psychosocial
             factors to CHD risk in this population. Studies conducted on
             U.S. whites suggest that type A behavior may be positively
             associated with risk for CHD. Other studies on whites
             suggest that occupational stressors, socioeconomic status,
             and social mobility may also be important. Studies that
             examine the contribution of these factors to CHD risk in the
             black population are needed. Moreover, recent changes in the
             socioeconomic profile of the U.S. black population present
             an unusual opportunity to study the role of psychosocial
             variables in CHD among black Americans. Some of the
             theoretical and measurement issues that investigators may
             face in conducting such research are discussed, and some
             specific suggestions for research are offered.},
   Key = {fds277842}
}

@article{fds277843,
   Author = {James, SA and Wagner, EH and Strogatz, D and Beresford, SAA and Kleinbaum, DG and Williams, CA and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim,
             M},
   Title = {The Edgecombe County High Blood Pressure Control Program:
             II. Barriers to the Use of Medical Care},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {468-472},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {As the initial step in a five-year project to improve
             control of high blood pressure in Edgecombe County, North
             Carolina, a survey was conducted in 1980 to determine the
             prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors which
             might constitute barriers to the use of medical care by
             hypertensives. This report summarizes the findings for the
             539 hypertensives identified through the baseline survey. In
             general, Black hypertensives reported more access problems
             than Whites. Within race, however, males and females
             differed very little on selected measures of potential
             access to medical care. Among women, lower scores on
             potential access were strongly associated with being
             untreated, whereas for men, concerns about the safety of
             anti-hypertensive drug therapy were associated with being
             unaware. On a summary measure of the actual use of medical
             care in response to symptoms, both male and female treated
             hypertensives scored higher than their untreated
             counterparts. The implications of these and other findings
             for community-based blood pressure control activities are
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds277843}
}

@article{fds277844,
   Author = {Wagner, EH and James, SA and Beresford, SAA},
   Title = {The Edgecombe County high blood pressure control program: I.
             Correlates of uncontrolled hypertension at
             baseline},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {237-242},
   Year = {1984},
   Abstract = {To guide the planning of a multifacetted hypertension
             control program in Edgecombe County, North Carolina, a
             baseline survey of a stratified (by township) random sample
             of 1,000 households was conducted. All adults (≥18 years)
             were interviewed and had their blood pressures (BP)
             measured. Five hundred thirty-nine individuals, 27 per cent
             of the survey population, had diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or
             were receiving anti-hypertensive drug therapy. The 539
             hypertensives were divided into seven subgroups reflecting
             successive stages in the control of hypertension based on
             the awareness, treatment, and control of their hypertenson.
             Unaware hypertensives were further subdivided into three
             groups according to the recency of their last BP check, and
             those aware but untreated were subdivided by whether they
             had previously received treatment. The seven subgroups of
             hypertensives were compared, separately for women and men,
             with respect to sociodemographic characteristics, health
             behaviors, and health status. In general, the progression
             from undetected hypertension to treatment and control
             appeared to be associated with being older, female, and
             White. This progression was further associated with greater
             educational levels and higher family incomes among women and
             increasing self-reported morbidity among men. The
             implications for intervention of these and other described
             associations are discussed.},
   Key = {fds277844}
}

@article{fds304192,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Socioeconomic influences on coronary heart disease in black
             populations},
   Journal = {American Heart Journal},
   Volume = {108},
   Number = {3 II},
   Pages = {669-672},
   Year = {1984},
   Abstract = {It is likely that socioeconomic factors exert important
             influences on coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and
             mortality for U.S. blacks. Careful and comprehensive studies
             are needed to clarify the pathways through which low
             socioeconomic status exerts its influences on susceptibility
             to CHD. In addition, policy-oriented research is needed to
             clarify to what extent reduced access to medical care
             contributes to excessive CHD mortality in black
             Americans.},
   Key = {fds304192}
}

@article{fds304193,
   Author = {James, SA and Wagner, EH and Strogatz, DS and Beresford, SA and Kleinbaum, DG and Williams, CA and Cutchin, LM and Ibrahim,
             MA},
   Title = {The Edgecombe county (NC) high blood pressure control
             program: II. Barriers to the use of medical care among
             hypertensives},
   Journal = {American journal of public health},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {468-472},
   Year = {1984},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {As the initial step in a five-year project to improve
             control of high blood pressure in Edgecombe County, North
             Carolina, a survey was conducted in 1980 to determine the
             prevalence of hypertension and to identify factors which
             might constitute barriers to the use of medical care by
             hypertensives. This report summarizes the findings for the
             539 hypertensives identified through the baseline survey. In
             general, Black hypertensives reported more access problems
             than Whites. Within race, however, males and females
             differed very little on selected measures of potential
             access to medical care. Among women, lower scores on
             potential access were strongly associated with being
             untreated, whereas for men, concerns about the safety of
             anti-hypertensive drug therapy were associated with being
             unaware. On a summary measure of the actual use of medical
             care in response to symptoms, both male and female treated
             hypertensives scored higher than their untreated
             counterparts. The implications of these and other findings
             for community-based blood pressure control activities are
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds304193}
}

@article{fds277845,
   Author = {James, SA and Hartnett, SA and Kalsbeek, WD},
   Title = {John henryism and blood pressure differences among black
             men},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {259-278},
   Year = {1983},
   Key = {fds277845}
}

@article{fds277846,
   Author = {Broadhead, WE and Kaplan, BH and James, SA and Wagner, EH and Schoenbach, VJ and Grimson, R and Heyden, S and Tibblin, G and Gehlbach,
             SH},
   Title = {The epidemiologic evidence for a relationship between social
             support and health},
   Journal = {American Journal of Epidemiology},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {521-537},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0002-9262},
   Key = {fds277846}
}

@article{fds277847,
   Author = {Jensen, EW and James, SA and Boyce, WT and Hartnett,
             SA},
   Title = {The family routines inventory: Development and
             validation},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {201-211},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   Abstract = {This report builds upon pertinent theoretical considerations
             regarding the nature and importance of routinization within
             families and describes the development and validation of a
             standardized inventory to measure family routines. The
             Family Routines Inventory (FRI) measures 28 positive,
             strength-promoting family routines, those observable,
             repetititive behaviours which involve two or more family
             members and which occur with predictable regularity in the
             daily life of a family. The 28 routines were selected from
             an extensive list of 104 routines obtained through family
             interviews. Scoring options for the inventory were
             identified based on their face validity and consistency with
             the underlying theoretical construct. The inventory was
             subsequently administered to a diverse group of families for
             reliability and validity testing. This testing identified an
             optimal scoring method (frequency score) for the inventory
             and revealed that the Family Routines Inventory, which
             measures the extent and importance of routinization within a
             given family, appears to be a reliable and valid measure of
             family cohesion, solidarity, order and overall satisfaction
             with family life. © 1983.},
   Key = {fds277847}
}

@article{fds277848,
   Author = {Boyce, WT and Jensen, EW and James, SA and Peacock,
             JL},
   Title = {The family routines inventory: Theoretical
             origins},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {193-200},
   Year = {1983},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the conceptual foundation underlying
             the development of the Family Routines Inventory, a new
             instrument designed to measure the extent of predictability
             or routinization in the daily life of a family. The primary
             impetus for the development of this instrument is a
             theoretical perspective in which family routines are
             regarded as behaviors which may protect the health and
             well-being of family members by providing stability and
             continuity during periods of stressful change. ©
             1983.},
   Key = {fds277848}
}

@article{fds277849,
   Author = {Parkerson, GR and Gehlbach, SH and Wagner, EH and James, SA and Clapp,
             NE and Muhlbaier, LH},
   Title = {The Duke-UNC Health Profile: an adult health status
             instrument for primary care.},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {806-828},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0025-7079},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7278417},
   Abstract = {The Duke--UNC Health Profile (DUHP) was developed as a brief
             63-item instrument designed to measure adult health status
             in the primary care setting along four dimensions: symptom
             status, physical function, emotional function and social
             function. Reliability and validity were tested on a group of
             395 ambulatory patients in a family medicine center.
             Temporal stability Spearman correlations ranged from 0.52 to
             0.82 for the four dimensions. Cronbach's alpha for internal
             consistency was 0.85 for emotional function. Guttman's
             reproducibility coefficients were 0.98 for physical function
             and 0.93 for social function, and the scalability
             coefficients were 0.89 for physical and 0.71 for social.
             Observed relationships between DUHP scores and demographic
             characteristics of the respondents correlated well with
             those predicted by the investigators (overall Spearman
             correlation 0.79). Convergent and discriminant validity was
             supported by strong associations between components of DUHP
             and those on the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), the
             Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (Tennessee), and the Zung
             Self-Rating Depression Scale (Zung). DUHP with SIP
             monocomponent-heteromethod Spearman correlations ranged from
             0.34 to 0.45, and those for DUHP with Tennessee ranged from
             0.68 to 0.81. DUHP with Zung monoitem--heteromethod
             correlations ranged from 0.54 to 0.57. It is concluded that
             this evidence supports the reliability and validity of the
             DUHP as an instrument suitable for studying the impact of
             primary health care on the health outcomes of
             patients.},
   Key = {fds277849}
}

@article{fds277756,
   Author = {Dreyer, NA and Woods, NF and James, SA},
   Title = {ISRO: A scale to measure sex-role orientation},
   Journal = {Sex Roles},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {173-182},
   Year = {1981},
   ISSN = {0360-0025},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287803},
   Abstract = {Sex-role research has been hampered by a lack of valid and
             reliable research tools to measure the construct being
             studied. This article describes the development of a
             research scale (ISRO) to measure women's sex-role
             orientation. This 16-item questionnaire has been shown to be
             internally consistent and to have fairly high temporal
             stability over 30 days. The high sensitivity (96.2%) and
             specificity (95.5%) suggest that it differentiates feminist
             from traditional women. Three factors assess attitudinal
             domains of conflict between family responsibilities and
             having a career; male/female division of household
             responsibilities; and women's work roles outside the home.
             Education appears to be the strongest predictor of ISRO
             scores. © 1981 Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00287803},
   Key = {fds277756}
}

@article{fds277850,
   Author = {Dreyer, N and Woods, N and James, SA},
   Title = {ISRO: A Valid Scale for Measuring Sex Role Orientation: Sex
             Roles},
   Journal = {A Journal for Research},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {173-182},
   Year = {1981},
   Key = {fds277850}
}

@article{fds277851,
   Author = {Stiles, WB and Putnam, SM and Wolf, MH and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Interaction exchange structure and patient satisfaction with
             medical interviews},
   Journal = {Medical Care},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {667-681},
   Year = {1979},
   Abstract = {Analysis of the verbal interaction between physicians and
             patients in 52 initial interviews at a university hospital
             screening clinic found a strong association between patient
             satisfaction and the provision of information. Factor
             analysis identified 2 principal types of verbal exchange in
             the medical history (exposition and closed question), 2 in
             the physical examination (further data and physical
             examination) and 3 in the conclusion (final clarification,
             feedback, and patient termination). Affective satisfaction,
             defined as patients' perceptions of warmth and understanding
             from their doctor, was associated with exposition exchanges
             in the medical history--i.e., patients being permitted to
             tell their story in their own words. Cognitive
             satisfaction--the patient's feeling that they understand
             their illness and its treatment--was associated with
             feedback exchanges in the interview's conclusion, i.e.,
             physicians' giving objective information. The positive
             relationship between patient satisfaction and certain verbal
             interactions that enhance the exchange of information has
             been noted in previous surveys of patient satisfaction. The
             taxonomy of verbal response modes use in this study is a
             sensitive, flexible system that makes clinically relevant
             distinctions beyond the scope of other coding systems. Its
             use should be considered for further research on the effects
             of medical encounters and for specifying effective
             interviewing skills.},
   Key = {fds277851}
}

@article{fds277852,
   Author = {Stiles, WB and Putnam, SM and James, SA and Wolf,
             MH},
   Title = {Dimensions of patient and physician roles in medical
             screening interviews},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {13 A},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {335-341},
   Year = {1979},
   Abstract = {Social theorists have agreed that physicians are usually
             presumptuous and controlling while patients are usually
             deferent and acquiescent in medical encounters, but have
             disagreed about patient reaction to these reciprocal roles.
             One view has been that the status and power gap is bridged
             by a pattern of patient trust and physician attentiveness,
             while another view has been that patients become alienated
             as physicians use their control to maintain their
             institutionalized authority. These views were tested in a
             sample of 52 medical screening interviews with adults using
             an utterance-by-utterance coding system that yields scores
             on three dimensions in interpersonal roles, attentiveness',
             acquiescence' and 'presumptuousness'. Coding yielded
             quantitative descriptions of patient-physician interaction
             that conformed closely to theoretical expectations. Patient
             satisfaction, assessed by a post-interview questionnaire,
             was positively correlated with physician acquiescence in the
             conclusion segment of the interview but not in the medical
             history or physical examination. Patients were also more
             satisfied when they expressed themselves in their own words
             during the medical history and when physicians were more
             informative in the conclusion segment. The results suggest
             possible refinements in current theoretical views of patient
             and physician roles.},
   Key = {fds277852}
}

@article{fds277853,
   Author = {Stiles, WB and Putnam, SM and Wolf, MH and James,
             SA},
   Title = {Verbal response mode profiles of patients and physicians in
             medical screening interviews},
   Journal = {Journal of Medical Education},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {81-89},
   Year = {1979},
   Abstract = {The medical importance of the patient-physician relationship
             is widely acknowledged, but research on its effects has been
             hampered by the lack of a method to quantify its clinically
             relevant features. In this study a new method of coding
             verbal interaction was applied to 52 interviews with adults
             in a general medical screening clinic. 'Average interaction
             profiles' for patients and for physicians in the medical
             history, physical examination, and conclusion segments of
             the interviews provided detailed descriptions of the
             relationship that appear to be accurate and coincide with
             descriptions derived from clinical experience, textbooks,
             and other studies. The profiles yield quantitative indexes
             of such crucial aspects of the relationship as the manner in
             which patients give a history and physicians transmit
             information to patients.},
   Key = {fds277853}
}

@article{fds277770,
   Author = {Graham, T and Kaplan, BH and Cornoni Huntley and JC and James, SA and Becker, C and Hames, CG and Heyden, S},
   Title = {Frequency of Church Attendance and Blood Pressure
             Elevation},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {37-43},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277770}
}

@article{fds277854,
   Author = {Tyroler, HA and James, SA},
   Title = {Editorial: Blood Pressure and Skin Color},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {68},
   Pages = {1170-1172},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277854}
}

@article{fds277855,
   Author = {Wolf, MH and Putnam, SM and James, SA and Stiles,
             WB},
   Title = {The medical interview satisfaction scale: Development of a
             scale to measure patient perceptions of physician
             behavior},
   Journal = {Journal of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {391-401},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277855}
}

@article{fds277856,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {The Psychologist in a Public Health Setting: Implications
             for Training},
   Journal = {Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {324-327},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277856}
}

@article{fds277857,
   Author = {James, SA and Kaplan, BH and Millstone, LH},
   Title = {Soul City: Attitudes Toward a Developing New
             Town},
   Journal = {Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {88-99},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277857}
}

@article{fds277858,
   Author = {Stiles, W and Putman, S and James, SA and Wolf, M},
   Title = {Acquiescence-Control and Patient Satisfaction with Medical
             Interviews},
   Journal = {Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {369},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277858}
}

@article{fds277859,
   Author = {Stiles, W and Putman, S and Wolf, M and James, SA},
   Title = {Patient-Physician Verbal Interactions},
   Journal = {Clinical Research},
   Volume = {26},
   Pages = {51A},
   Year = {1978},
   Key = {fds277859}
}

@article{fds277860,
   Author = {James, SA and Kleinbaum, DG},
   Title = {Socioecologic stress and hypertension related mortality
             rates in North Carolina},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {354-358},
   Year = {1976},
   Key = {fds277860}
}

@article{fds277879,
   Author = {Shulman, AD and James, SA},
   Title = {Effects of Participation in Undergraduate Community
             Psychology Work-Study Programs on Self Actualization and
             Vocational Plans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {173-181},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0091-0562},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00880134},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00880134},
   Key = {fds277879}
}

@article{fds304191,
   Author = {Shulman, AD and James, SA},
   Title = {Undergraduate community psychology work-study programs:
             Effects on self-actualization and vocational
             plans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {173-181},
   Year = {1973},
   ISSN = {0091-0562},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00880134},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00880134},
   Key = {fds304191}
}

@article{fds277724,
   Author = {Tucker, RC and James, SA},
   Title = {Note on ’Strangers in Paradise’ or Telling It Like It
             Isn’t},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {37},
   Pages = {304-304},
   Year = {1971},
   Key = {fds277724}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds277721,
   Author = {Silberberg, M and James, SA and Hart-Brothers, E and Robinson, SA and Elliott-Bynum, S},
   Title = {How do you launch a major community-engaged research study
             with a brand-new partnership that brings together diverse
             entities and individuals?”},
   Booktitle = {Principles of Community Engagement, 2nd edition. Washington,
             DC: National Institutes of Health, 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds277721}
}

@misc{fds277722,
   Author = {Robinson, SA and Boone, WA and James, SA and Silberberg, M and Small,
             G},
   Title = {“How do you engage a community when there are cultural,
             educational, or socioeconomic differences within the
             community as well as between the community and the
             researchers?” Section 2c of “Challenges in Improving
             Community Engaged Research,},
   Booktitle = {. Principles of Community Engagement, 2nd edition.
             Washington, DC: National Institutes of Health,
             2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds277722}
}

@article{fds226739,
   Author = {Belli RF and James SA and VanHoewy J and Alcser K},
   Title = {The Implementation of a Computerized Event History Calendar
             Questionnaire for Research in Life Course Epidemiology, in
             RF Belli, FP Stafford, DF Alwin (Editors), Sage
             Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA;},
   Pages = {225-238},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds226739}
}

@misc{fds277720,
   Author = {James, SA and Schulz, AJ and van, OJ},
   Title = {Social Capital, Poverty, and Community Health: An
             Exploration of Linkages},
   Pages = {165-188},
   Booktitle = {Building Social Capital in Urban Communities},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Editor = {Saegert, S and Thompson, P and Warren, M},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds277720}
}

@misc{fds277719,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {The John Henryism Scale for Active Coping},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {415-425},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Tests and Measurements for Black
             Populations},
   Publisher = {Cobb & Henry Publishers, Hampton, VA},
   Editor = {Jones, RL},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds277719}
}

@misc{fds277718,
   Author = {James, SA and Keenan, NL and Browning, S},
   Title = {Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors and Health Status
             Among Blacks},
   Pages = {39-57},
   Booktitle = {Aging, Health Behaviors and Health Outcomes},
   Publisher = {Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, Hillsdale,
             NJ},
   Editor = {Blazer, D and House, J and Schaie, W},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds277718}
}

@misc{fds277717,
   Author = {Kleinbaum, DG and Kupper, LL and Suen, CY and James,
             SA},
   Title = {On Statistical Inferences About Covariate-Adjusted
             Proportions},
   Booktitle = {Biostatistics: Statistics in Biomedical, Public Health and
             Environmental Sciences, The Bernard G. Greenberg
             Volume},
   Publisher = {Elsevier Science Publishers B.C., North-Holland},
   Editor = {Sen, PK},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds277717}
}

@misc{fds277723,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Psychosocial and Environmental Factors in Black
             Hypertension},
   Pages = {132-143},
   Booktitle = {Hypertension in Blacks: Epidemiology Pathophysiology and
             Treatment},
   Publisher = {Year Book Medical Publishers},
   Editor = {Hall, WD and Shulman, NB and Saunders, E},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds277723}
}

@misc{fds303105,
   Author = {James, SA},
   Title = {Psychosocial and Environmental Factors in Black
             Hypertension},
   Pages = {132-143},
   Booktitle = {Hypertension in Blacks: Epidemiology Pathophysiology and
             Treatment},
   Publisher = {Year Book Medical Publishers},
   Editor = {Hall, WD and Shulman, NB and Saunders, E},
   Year = {1985},
   Key = {fds303105}
}


%% Submitted   
@misc{fds226632,
   Author = {Geronimus AG and James SA et al},
   Title = {Jedi Public Health: Co-creating an Identity-safe Culture to
             Eradicate Health Inquiety},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds226632}
}

@misc{fds226633,
   Author = {Lopes GB and James SA et al},
   Title = {John Henryism and Perceived Health in Brazilian Hemodialysis
             Patients},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds226633}
}

@misc{fds226635,
   Author = {Lawrence V and James SA et al},
   Title = {Higher Education, Perceived Discrimination and Obesity in
             African Americans: The Pitt County Study},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds226635}
}

@misc{fds226636,
   Author = {Barrington DB and James SA et al},
   Title = {Childhood Family Structure and Later Life Hypertension in
             African Americans: The Pitt County Study},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds226636}
}

@misc{fds196310,
   Author = {Barrington D and James SA and Williams DR},
   Title = {Socioeconomic Correlates of Obesity in African American and
             Black-Caribbean Men and Women},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Summer},
   Key = {fds196310}
}

@misc{fds226634,
   Author = {Logan J and James SA et al},
   Title = {John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation and Psyhcological
             Health in Korean Immigrants},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds226634}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds139594,
   Author = {Kaufman JS and Geronimus AT and James SA},
   Title = {RE: Racial disparity in the frequency of recurrence of
             preterm birth [Letter]. American Journal of Obstetrics and
             Gynecology},
   Journal = {American Journal of Obstretrics & Gynecology},
   Pages = {329},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds139594}
}

Sherman A. James