Publications of Elizabeth O. Ananat    :chronological  alphabetical  combined  by tags listing:

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%% Chapters in Books   
   Author = {Danziger, SK and Ananat, EO and Browning, KG},
   Title = {Child-care subsidies and the transition from welfare to
   Pages = {225-248},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780203759912},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.4324/9780203759912},
   Key = {fds227099}

%% NBER Working Papers   
   Author = {Ananat, EO and Fu, S and Ross, SL},
   Title = {Race-Specific Agglomeration Economies: Social Distance and
             the Black-White Wage Gap},
   Number = {18993},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a striking but previously unnoticed
             relationship between city size and the black-white wage gap,
             with the gap increasing by 2.5% for every million-person
             increase in urban population. We then look within cities and
             document that wages of blacks rise less with agglomeration
             in the workplace location, measured as employment density
             per square kilometer, than do white wages. This pattern
             holds even though our method allows for non-parametric
             controls for the effects of age, education, and other
             demographics on wages, for unobserved worker skill as
             proxied by residential location, and for the return to
             agglomeration to vary across those demographics, industry,
             occupation and metropolitan areas. We find that an
             individual’s wage return to employment density rises with
             the share of workers in their work location who are of their
             own race. We observe similar patterns for human capital
             externalities as measured by share workers with a college
             education. We also find parallel results for firm
             productivity by employment density and share
             college-educated using firm racial composition in a sample
             of manufacturing firms. These findings are consistent with
             the possibility that blacks, and black- majority firms,
             receive lower returns to agglomeration because such returns
             operate within race, and blacks have fewer same-race peers
             and fewer highly-educated same-race peers at work from whom
             to enjoy spillovers than do whites. Data on self-reported
             social networks in the General Social Survey provide further
             evidence consistent with this mechanism, showing that blacks
             feel less close to whites than do whites, even when they
             work exclusively with whites. We conclude that social
             distance between blacks and whites preventing shared
             benefits from agglomeration is a significant contributor to
             overall black-white wage disparities.},
   Key = {fds317712}

   Author = {E.O. Ananat and Anna Gassman-Pines and Dania Francis and Christina Gibson-Davis},
   Title = {Children Left Behind: The Effects of Statewide Job Loss on
             Student Achievement},
   Journal = {NBER Working Papers},
   Number = {17104},
   Year = {2013},
   url = {},
   Key = {fds200097}

%% Papers Submitted   
   Author = {Gassman-Pines, A. and Gibson-Davis, C.M. and Ananat,
   Title = {The impacts of economic downturns on child development: An
             interdisciplinary synthesis},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds200100}

%% Papers Published   
   Author = {Ananat, EO and Gassman-Pines, A and Francis, DV and Gibson-Davis,
   Title = {Linking job loss, inequality, mental health, and
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {356},
   Number = {6343},
   Pages = {1127-1128},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.aam5347},
   Key = {fds326871}

   Author = {Schenck-Fontaine, A and Gassman-Pines, A and Gibson-Davis, CM and Ananat, EO},
   Title = {Local Job Losses and Child Maltreatment: The Importance of
             Community Context},
   Journal = {Social Service Review},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {233-263},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© 2017 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.A
             growing body of literature suggests that economic downturns
             predict an increase in child maltreatment. However, to
             inform policies and practices to prevent and intervene in
             child maltreatment, it is necessary to identify how, when,
             and under what conditions community-level economic
             conditions affect child maltreatment. In this study, we use
             North Carolina administrative data from 2006 to 2011 on
             child maltreatment reports and job losses to distinguish
             effects on maltreatment frequency from effects on severity,
             identify the timing of these effects, and test whether
             community characteristics moderate these effects. To isolate
             effects of unanticipated job losses and to control for
             potential confounding factors, we use a fixed effects
             regression approach. We find that, though job losses did not
             affect the frequency of reports, job losses increased the
             share of reports that were relatively severe. This effect
             endured for 9 months following job losses and was only
             evident in economically disadvantaged communities.},
   Doi = {10.1086/692075},
   Key = {fds326513}

   Author = {Gibson-Davis, CM and Ananat, EO and Gassman-Pines,
   Title = {Midpregnancy Marriage and Divorce: Why the Death of Shotgun
             Marriage Has Been Greatly Exaggerated.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1693-1715},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Conventional wisdom holds that births following the
             colloquially termed "shotgun marriage"-that is, births to
             parents who married between conception and the birth-are
             nearing obsolescence. To investigate trends in shotgun
             marriage, we matched North Carolina administrative data on
             nearly 800,000 first births among white and black mothers to
             marriage and divorce records. We found that among married
             births, midpregnancy-married births (our preferred term for
             shotgun-married births) have been relatively stable at about
             10 % over the past quarter-century while increasing
             substantially for vulnerable population subgroups. In 2012,
             among black and white less-educated and younger women,
             midpregnancy-married births accounted for approximately 20 %
             to 25 % of married first births. The increasing
             representation of midpregnancy-married births among married
             births raises concerns about well-being among at-risk
             families because midpregnancy marriages may be quite
             fragile. Our analysis revealed, however, that midpregnancy
             marriages were more likely to dissolve only among more
             advantaged groups. Of those groups considered to be most at
             risk of divorce-namely, black women with lower levels of
             education and who were younger-midpregnancy marriages had
             the same or lower likelihood of divorce as preconception
             marriages. Our results suggest an overlooked resiliency in a
             type of marriage that has only increased in
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-016-0510-x},
   Key = {fds321790}

   Author = {Gassman-Pines, A and Gibson-Davis, CM and Ananat,
   Title = {How Economic Downturns Affect Children's Development: An
             Interdisciplinary Perspective on Pathways of
   Journal = {Child Development Perspectives},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {233-238},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1750-8592},
   url = { Duke open
   Doi = {10.1111/cdep.12137},
   Key = {fds265880}

   Author = {Gassman-Pines, A and Ananat, EO and Gibson-Davis,
   Title = {Effects of statewide job losses on adolescent
             suicide-related behaviors.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1964-1970},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   url = { Duke open
   Abstract = {We investigated the impact of statewide job loss on
             adolescent suicide-related behaviors.We used 1997 to 2009
             data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Bureau of
             Labor Statistics to estimate the effects of statewide job
             loss on adolescents' suicidal ideation, suicide attempts,
             and suicide plans. Probit regression models controlled for
             demographic characteristics, state of residence, and year;
             samples were divided according to gender and
             race/ethnicity.Statewide job losses during the year
             preceding the survey increased girls' probability of
             suicidal ideation and suicide plans and non-Hispanic Black
             adolescents' probability of suicidal ideation, suicide
             plans, and suicide attempts. Job losses among 1% of a
             state's working-age population increased the probability of
             girls and Blacks reporting suicide-related behaviors by 2 to
             3 percentage points. Job losses did not affect the
             suicide-related behaviors of boys, non-Hispanic Whites, or
             Hispanics. The results were robust to the inclusion of other
             state economic characteristics.As are adults, adolescents
             are affected by economic downturns. Our findings show that
             statewide job loss increases adolescent girls' and
             non-Hispanic Blacks' suicide-related behaviors.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.2014.302081},
   Key = {fds227097}

   Author = {E.O. Ananat and Anna Gassman-Pines and Christina
   Title = {Statewide job losses increase adolescent suicide-related
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Year = {2014},
   Key = {fds225763}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Gassman-Pines, A and Gibson-Davis,
   Title = {Community-wide job loss and teenage fertility: evidence from
             North Carolina.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {2151-2171},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Using North Carolina data for the period 1990-2010, we
             estimate the effects of economic downturns on the birthrates
             of 15- to 19-year-olds, using county-level business closings
             and layoffs as a plausibly exogenous source of variation in
             the strength of the local economy. We find little effect of
             job losses on the white teen birthrate. For black teens,
             however, job losses to 1 % of the working-age population
             decrease the birthrate by around 2 %. Birth declines start
             five months after the job loss and then last for more than
             one year. Linking the timing of job losses and conceptions
             suggests that black teen births decline because of increased
             terminations and perhaps also because of changes in
             prepregnancy behaviors. National data on risk behaviors also
             provide evidence that black teens reduce sexual activity and
             increase contraception use in response to job losses. Job
             losses seven to nine months after conception do not affect
             teen birthrates, indicating that teens do not anticipate job
             losses and lending confidence that job losses are "shocks"
             that can be viewed as quasi-experimental variation. We also
             find evidence that relatively advantaged black teens
             disproportionately abort after job losses, implying that the
             average child born to a black teen in the wake of job loss
             is relatively more disadvantaged.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-013-0231-3},
   Key = {fds227098}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Fu, S and Ross, SL},
   Title = {Race-Specific Agglomeration Economies: Social Distance and
             the Black-White Wage Gap},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   Abstract = {We present evidence that benefits from agglomeration
             concentrate within race. Cross-sectionally, the black-white
             wage gap increases by 2.5% for every million-person increase
             in urban population. Within cities, controlling for
             unobservable productivity through residential-tract-by-demographic
             indicators, blacks’ wages respond less than whites’ to
             surrounding economic activity. Individual wage returns to
             nearby employment density and human capital rise with the
             share of same-race workers. Manufacturing firms’
             productivity rises with nearby activity only when they match
             nearby firms racially. Weaker cross-race interpersonal
             interactions are a plausible mechanism, as blacks in
             all-white workplaces report less closeness to whites than do
             even whites in all-nonwhite workplaces.<br><br>Institutional
             subscribers to the NBER working paper series, and residents
             of developing countries may download this paper without
             additional charge at <a href=";18933"
   Key = {fds317714}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Hungerman, DM},
   Title = {The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral
             Contraception's Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal
             & Child Characteristics.},
   Journal = {The Review of Economics and Statistics},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {37-51},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0034-6535},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {This paper considers how oral contraception's diffusion to
             young unmarried women affected the number and parental
             characteristics of children born to these women. In the
             short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and
             increases in both the share of children born with low
             birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the
             long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility
             while increasing the share of children with college-educated
             mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The
             short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile
             women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term
             effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later
             ages. These effects differ from those of abortion
             legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill
             diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that
             abortion and the pill are on average used for different
             purposes by different women, but on the margin some women
             substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are
             available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12.},
   Doi = {10.1162/REST_a_00230},
   Key = {fds227102}

   Author = {Gibson-Davis, C and Ananat, EO and Gassman-Pines,
   Title = {The Effect of Local Economic Downturns on Teen Births:
             Evidence from North Carolina},
   Journal = {revise and resubmit, Demography},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {},
   Key = {fds227101}

   Author = {Ananat, EO},
   Title = {The wrong side(s) of the tracks: The causal effects of
             racial segregation on urban poverty and inequality},
   Journal = {American Economic Journal: Applied Economics},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {34-66},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1945-7782},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A striking negative correlation exists between an area's
             residential racial segregation and its population
             characteristics, but it is recognized that this relationship
             may not be causal. I present a novel test of causality from
             segregation to population characteristics by exploiting the
             arrangements of railroad tracks in the nineteenth century to
             isolate plausibly exogenous variation in areas'
             susceptibility to segregation. I show that this variation
             satisfies the requirements for a valid instrument.
             Instrumental variables estimates demonstrate that
             segregation increases metropolitan rates of black poverty
             and overall black-white income disparities, while decreasing
             rates of white poverty and inequality within the white
   Doi = {10.1257/app.3.2.34},
   Key = {fds227103}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Gruber, J and Levine, PB and Staiger,
   Title = {Abortion and selection},
   Journal = {The Review of Economics and Statistics},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {124-136},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0034-6535},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Abortion legalization in the early 1970s led to dramatic
             changes in fertility. Some research has suggested that it
             altered cohort outcomes, but this literature has been
             limited and controversial. In this paper, we provide a
             framework for understanding selection mechanisms and use
             that framework to both address inconsistent past
             methodological approaches and provide evidence on the
             long-run impact on cohort characteristics. Our results
             indicate that lower-cost abortion brought about by
             legalization altered young adult outcomes through selection.
             In particular, it increased likelihood of college
             graduation, lower rates of welfare use, and lower odds of
             being a single parent. © 2009 by the President and Fellows
             of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of
   Doi = {10.1162/rest.91.1.124},
   Key = {fds227104}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Washington, E},
   Title = {Segregation and Black political efficacy},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Economics},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {807-822},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0047-2727},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The impact of segregation on Black political efficacy is
             theoretically ambiguous. On one hand, increased contact
             among Blacks in more segregated areas may mean that Blacks
             are better able to coordinate political behavior. On the
             other hand, lesser contact with non-Blacks may mean that
             Blacks have less political influence over voters of other
             races. As for non-Blacks, inter-group conflict theory
             suggests that greater contact yields greater conflict
             between the groups while inter-group contact theory suggests
             exactly the reverse. We investigate this question
             empirically. We find that exogenous increases in segregation
             lead to decreases in Black civic efficacy, as measured by an
             ability to elect Representatives who vote liberally and more
             specifically in favor of legislation that is favored by
             Blacks. This tendency for Representatives from more
             segregated MSAs to vote more conservatively arises in spite
             of the fact that Blacks in more segregated areas hold more
             liberal political views than do Blacks in less segregated
             locales. We find evidence that this decrease in efficacy is
             driven by more conservative attitudes amongst non-Blacks in
             more segregated areas. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpubeco.2009.02.003},
   Key = {fds227105}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Michaels, G},
   Title = {The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of
             women with children},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {611-629},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Having a female first-born child significantly increases the
             probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up. Using
             this exogenous variation, recent work finds that divorce has
             little effect on women's mean household income. We further
             investigate the effect of divorce using Quantile Treatment
             Effect methodology and find that it increases women's odds
             of having very high or very low income. In other words,
             while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal
             earnings through child support, welfare, combining
             households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly
             unsuccessful. We conclude that by raising both poverty and
             inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences. ©
             2008 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin
   Key = {fds227107}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Gruber, J and Levine, P},
   Title = {Abortion legalization and life-cycle fertility},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {375-397},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   Abstract = {The early-1970s abortion legalization led to a significant
             drop in fertility. We investigate whether this decline
             represented a delay in births or a permanent reduction in
             fertility. We combine Census and Vital Statistics data to
             compare the lifetime fertility of women born in
             early-legalizing states, whose peak childbearing years
             occurred in the early 1970s, to that of women from other
             states and cohorts. We find that much of the reduction was
             permanent, in that women did not compensate by having more
             children later, and that it largely reflects an increased
             share of women remaining childless throughout their fertile
             years. © 2007 by the Board of Regents of the University of
             Wisconsin System.},
   Key = {fds227108}

   Author = {Ananat, EO and Michaels, G},
   Title = {The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of
             women with children},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Year = {2007},
   Abstract = {Having a female firstborn child significantly increases the
             probability that a woman’s first marriage breaks up.
             Recent work has exploited this exogenous variation to
             measure the effect of marital breakup on economic outcomes,
             and has concluded that divorce has little effect on
             women’s average household income. Employing an Abadie
             (2003) technique that allows us to look at the impact of
             marital breakup throughout the income distribution, however,
             we find that divorce greatly increases the probability that
             a woman lives in a household with income in the bottom
             quartile. While women partially offset the loss of spousal
             earnings with child support, welfare, combining households,
             and substantially increasing their labor supply, divorce
             significantly increases the odds that a woman with children
             is poor.},
   Key = {fds317715}

   Author = {Danziger, SK and Ananat, EO and Browning, KG},
   Title = {Childcare Subsidies and the Transition from Welfare to
   Journal = {Family Relations},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {219-228},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0197-6664},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {We address how childcare subsidies help in the
             welfare-to-work transition relative to other factors. We
             examine how the policy operates, whether childcare problems
             differ by subsidy receipt, and the effect of subsidy on
             work. Data are from a random sample panel study of welfare
             recipients after 1996. Findings show that subsidy receipt
             reduces costs but not parenting stress or problems with
             care. It predicts earnings and work duration net of other
             factors. Increased use of subsidies by eligible families and
             greater funding for child care would help meet the demand
             for this important support for working-poor
   Doi = {10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00012.x},
   Key = {fds227106}

   Author = {Danziger, S and Heflin, CM and Corcoran, ME and Oltmans, E and Wang,
   Title = {Does It Pay to Move from Welfare to Work?},
   Journal = {Journal of Policy Analysis and Management},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {671-692},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity
             Reconciliation Act requires welfare recipients to look for
             work and has made it more difficult for nonworking
             recipients to remain on the welfare rolls. In addition, the
             economic boom of the 1990s and changes in federal and state
             policies have raised the net income gain associated with
             moving from welfare to work. This paper analyzes data from a
             panel survey of single mothers, all of whom received welfare
             in February 1997. In 1999, those who left welfare and were
             working had a higher household income and lower poverty
             rate, experienced a similar level of material hardship,
             engaged in fewer activities to make ends meet, and had lower
             expectations of experiencing hardship in the near future
             than did nonworking welfare recipients. Estimations of
             fixed-effect regressions of income that control for both
             observable and unobservable time-invariant characteristics
             show that monthly net income increases by $2.63 for every
             additional hour of work effort. About 60 percent of the
             observed monthly income difference between wage-reliant and
             welfare-reliant mothers can be attributed to differences in
             their work effort. Thus, after welfare reform, it does pay
             to move from welfare to work. © 2002 by the Association for
             Public Policy Analysis and Management.},
   Doi = {10.1002/pam.10080},
   Key = {fds227109}

%% Book Chapter   
   Author = {Ananat, EO and Gassman-Pines, A and Gibson-Davis,
   Title = {The effects of local employment losses on children's
             educational achievement},
   Pages = {299-313},
   Booktitle = {Whither Opportunity?: Rising Inequality, Schools, and
             Children's Life Chances},
   Publisher = {Russell Sage Publications},
   Editor = {Greg Duncan and Richard Murnane},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781610447515},
   Key = {fds326147}

Elizabeth O. Ananat