Kenneth A. Dodge

Publications of Kenneth A. Dodge    :chronological  alphabetical  combined  by tags listing:

%% Chapters in Books   
   Author = {Pettit, GS and Bates, JE and Holtzworth-Munroe, A and Marshall, AD and Harach, LD and Cleary, DJ and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Aggression and insecurity in late adolescent romantic
             relationships: Antecedents and developmental
   Pages = {41-61},
   Booktitle = {Developmental Contexts in Middle Childhood: Bridges to
             Adolescence and Adulthood},
   Publisher = {New York: Cambridge University Press},
   Editor = {A.C. Huston and M.N. Ripke},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780511499760},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {© Cambridge University Press 2006 and Cambridge University
             Press 2009. Experiences in the family and peer group play
             important roles in the development of interpersonal
             competencies across the childhood and adolescent years.
             Toward the end of adolescence, stable and supportive
             romantic relationships increasingly serve adaptive functions
             in promoting individual well-being and in fostering a sense
             of connection and security to others (Collins, Hennighausen,
             Schmit, & Sroufe, 1997; Conger, Cui, Bryant, & Elder, 2000;
             Furman, 1999). Romantic relationships marked by conflict and
             violence pose risks for current and longer-term adjustment
             and can compromise the health and well-being of the partner
             to whom the violence is directed (Capaldi & Owen, 2001).
             Romantic relationships in which one or both partners are
             wary, jealous, and insecure can stifle growth and fuel
             disagreements and disharmony (Holtzworth-Munroe, Meehan,
             Herron, Rehman, & Stuart, 2000). Relationship insecurity and
             relationship violence covary to some degree
             (Holtzworth-Munroe & Stewart, 1994), suggesting that they
             may be linked in the development of romantic relationship
             dysfunction. Within the marital violence literature,
             insecurity has been proposed as a key pathway through which
             relationship violence develops. Consistent with this
             perspective, Holtzworth-Munroe et al. (2000), in their
             examination of types of male batterers, found that one type
             of batterer could be characterized by insecurity and a
             tendency to confine violence to an intimate relationship.
             Holtzworth-Munroe et al. (2000) speculate that insecurity
             plays an etiological role in the development of partner
             violence. If this were the case, then insecurity might serve
             as a mediating link between social experience (e.g., of
             rejection and intimidation) and subsequent
   Doi = {10.1017/CBO9780511499760.004},
   Key = {fds271898}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A. and Bates, J.E. and Pettit, G.S.},
   Title = {Mechanisms in the cycle of violence(Reprint)},
   Booktitle = {Year Book of Psychiatry and Applied Mental
   Publisher = {Chicago, IL: Mosby-Year Book, Inc},
   Editor = {J.A. Talbott},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds39727}

%% Journal Articles   
   Author = {Appleyard, K and Berlin, LJ and Rosanbalm, KD and Dodge,
   Title = {Preventing early child maltreatment: implications from a
             longitudinal study of maternal abuse history, substance use
             problems, and offspring victimization.},
   Journal = {Prevention Science},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {139-149},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention
             science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499
             mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that
             mothers' childhood history of maltreatment would predict
             maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict
             offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34%
             Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and
             interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services
             records were reviewed for the presence of the participants'
             target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating
             pathways were examined through structural equation modeling
             and tested using the products of the coefficients approach.
             The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse
             to substance use problems to offspring victimization was
             significant (standardized mediated path [ab] = .07, 95%
             CI [.02, .14]; effect size = .26), as was the mediated
             pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance
             use problems to offspring victimization (standardized
             mediated path [ab] = .05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect
             size = .19). There was no significant mediated pathway
             from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in
             terms of specific implications for child maltreatment
             prevention, including the importance of assessment and early
             intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and
             substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment
             histories for substance use services, and integrating child
             welfare and parenting programs with substance use
   Doi = {10.1007/s11121-010-0193-2},
   Key = {fds272030}

   Author = {Bierman, KL and Coie, JD and Dodge, KA and Greenberg, MT and Lochman,
             JE and McMahon, RJ and Pinderhughes, EE and Resear,
   Title = {Fast Track intervention effects on youth arrests and
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Criminology},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {131-157},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1573-3750},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11292-010-9091-7},
   Key = {fds272042}

   Author = {McMahon, and J, R and Witkiewitz, and K, and Kotler, and S, J and Group,
   Title = {Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured
             in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Psychology},
   Volume = {119},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {752-763},
   Year = {2010},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0020796},
   Key = {fds272038}

   Author = {Pettit, GS and Lansford, JE and Malone, PS and Dodge, KA and Bates,
   Title = {Domain Specificity in Relationship History,
             Social-Information Processing, and Violent Behavior in Early
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {190-200},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Using prospective longitudinal data, we tested 5 hypotheses:
             (a) that the relation between earlier developmental
             experiences (peer social rejection and victimization in a
             romantic relationship) and adult violent behavior toward
             peers and romantic partners is specific to relationship
             domain; (b) that the relation between social-information
             processing (SIP) biases and subsequent violence is also
             specific to relational domain (romantic partner vs. peer);
             (c) that the relation between developmental experiences and
             SIP biases is domain specific; (d) that domain-specific SIP
             mediates the impact of earlier developmental experiences on
             later violent behavior; and (e) that harsh parenting early
             in life is a domain-general predictor of SIP and later
             violent behavior. Harsh parenting was assessed through
             interviews with parents when their children were age 5
             years. Classroom sociometric assessments indexing peer
             rejection were completed in elementary school, and
             self-report of victimization by romantic partners was
             provided at age 18 years. SIP was assessed via interview at
             age 22 years, and violent behavior was measured via self-
             and partner report at ages 23 years and 24 years. Structural
             equation analyses revealed specificity in the relation
             between developmental experiences and violence and in the
             prediction to and from SIP in the peer domain, but not in
             the romantic-relationship domain. The impact of early harsh
             treatment on violence toward peers was mediated by SIP
             biases in the peer domain. These findings provide support
             for domain specificity in the peer domain but for
             cross-domain generality in the romantic relationship domain
             in the development of violent behavior in early adulthood.
             © 2010 American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0017991},
   Key = {fds272054}

   Author = {Coleman, D and Dodge, K and Campbell, S},
   Title = {Where and How to Draw the Line Between Reasonable Corporal
             Punishment and Abuse},
   Journal = {Law & Contemporary Problems},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {107-165},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0023-9186},
   url = { Duke open
   Key = {fds272056}

   Author = {Dodge, KA and Greenberg, MT and Malone, PS and Conduct Problems
             Prevention Research Group},
   Title = {Testing an idealized dynamic cascade model of the
             development of serious violence in adolescence.},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1907-1927},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A dynamic cascade model of development of serious adolescent
             violence was proposed and tested through prospective inquiry
             with 754 children (50% male; 43% African American) from 27
             schools at 4 geographic sites followed annually from
             kindergarten through Grade 11 (ages 5-18). Self, parent,
             teacher, peer, observer, and administrative reports provided
             data. Partial least squares analyses revealed a cascade of
             prediction and mediation: An early social context of
             disadvantage predicts harsh-inconsistent parenting, which
             predicts social and cognitive deficits, which predicts
             conduct problem behavior, which predicts elementary school
             social and academic failure, which predicts parental
             withdrawal from supervision and monitoring, which predicts
             deviant peer associations, which ultimately predicts
             adolescent violence. Findings suggest targets for in-depth
             inquiry and preventive intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01233.x},
   Key = {fds272073}

   Author = {Fite, JE and Goodnight, JA and Bates, JE and Dodge, KA and Pettit,
   Title = {Adolescent aggression and social cognition in the context of
             personality: Impulsivity as a moderator of predictions from
             social information processing},
   Journal = {Aggressive Behavior},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {511-520},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0096-140X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {This study asked how individual differences in social
             cognition and personality interact in predicting later
             aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that the
             relationship between immediate response evaluations in
             social information processing (SIP) and later aggressive
             behavior would be moderated by impulsivity. In particular,
             the immediate positive evaluations of aggressive responses
             would be more strongly related to later aggressive behavior
             for high-impulsive than for low-impulsive individuals,
             because high-impulsive children would be less likely to
             integrate peripheral information and consider long-term
             future consequences of their actions. Participants were 585
             adolescents (52% male) and their mothers and teachers from
             the longitudinal Child Development Project. Structural
             equation modeling indicated that teacher-reported
             impulsivity at ages 11-13 moderated the association between
             adolescents' endorsement of aggressive responses in
             hypothetical, ambiguous situations and subsequent
             mother-reported aggressive behavior. Specifically, positive
             endorsement of aggressive responses at age 13 was
             significantly related to later aggressive behavior (age
             14-17) for participants with high and medium levels of
             impulsivity, but this association was not significant for
             participants with low levels of impulsivitv. This study
             provides evidence of personality variables as potential
             moderators of the link between SIP and behavior. © 2008
             Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ab.20263},
   Key = {fds272077}

   Author = {Lansford, JE and Miller-Johnson, S and Berlin, LJ and Dodge, KA and Bates, JE and Pettit, GS},
   Title = {Early physical abuse and later violent delinquency: a
             prospective longitudinal study.},
   Journal = {Child Maltreatment},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {233-245},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1077-5595},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {In this prospective longitudinal study of 574 children
             followed from age 5 to age 21, the authors examine the links
             between early physical abuse and violent delinquency and
             other socially relevant outcomes during late adolescence or
             early adulthood and the extent to which the child's race and
             gender moderate these links. Analyses of covariance
             indicated that individuals who had been physically abused in
             the first 5 years of life were at greater risk for being
             arrested as juveniles for violent, nonviolent, and status
             offenses. Moreover, physically abused youth were less likely
             to have graduated from high school and more likely to have
             been fired in the past year, to have been a teen parent, and
             to have been pregnant or impregnated someone in the past
             year while not married. These effects were more pronounced
             for African American than for European American youth and
             somewhat more pronounced for females than for
   Doi = {10.1177/1077559507301841},
   Key = {fds272007}

   Author = {Caprara, GV and Dodge, KA and Pastorelli, C and Zelli,
   Title = {How Marginal Deviations Sometimes Grow Into Serious
   Journal = {Child Development Perspectives},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33-39},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1750-8592},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1750-8606.2007.00007.x},
   Key = {fds272094}

   Author = {Pettit, G.S. and Dodge, K.A.},
   Title = {Violent Children: Bridging Development , Intervention, and
             Public Policy},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology (Special Issue)},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1037//0012-1649.39.2.187},
   Key = {fds45527}

   Author = {McCarty, and C, and McMahon, and J, R and Dodge, TCPPRGKA and member},
   Title = {Domains of risk in the developmental continuity of fire
   Journal = {Behavior Therapy},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {185-195},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80067-X},
   Key = {fds272282}

   Author = {Dodge, KA},
   Title = {The science of youth violence prevention. Progressing from
             developmental epidemiology to efficacy to effectiveness to
             public policy.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1 Suppl},
   Pages = {63-70},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0749-3797},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Public policy in the United States has historically
             considered youth violence as a moral problem to be punished
             after the fact, but growing scientific evidence supports a
             public health perspective on violent behavior as an
             interaction between cultural forces and failures in
             development. Prevention science has provided a bridge
             between an understanding of how chronic violence develops
             and how prevention programs can interrupt that development.
             Articles in this journal supplement provide yet another
             bridge between efficacious university-based programs and
             effective community-based programs. It is suggested that yet
             one more bridge will need to be constructed in future
             research between community-based programs that are known to
             be effective and community-wide implementation of prevention
             efforts at full scale. This last bridge integrates the
             science of children's development, the science of
             prevention, and the science of public policy.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00275-0},
   Key = {fds272157}

   Author = {Ikeda, R. and Dodge, K.A.},
   Title = {The early prevention of violence in children},
   Journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds47957}

   Author = {Schwartz, D and Dodge, KA and Coie, JD and Hubbard, JA and Cillessen,
             AH and Lemerise, EA and Bateman, H},
   Title = {Social-cognitive and behavioral correlates of aggression and
             victimization in boys' play groups.},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {431-440},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {A contrived play group procedure was utilized to examine the
             behavioral and social-cognitive correlates of reactive
             aggression, proactive aggression, and victimization via
             peers. Eleven play groups, each of which consisted of six
             familiar African-American 8-year-old boys, met for 45-min
             sessions on five consecutive days. Social-cognitive
             interviews were conducted following the second and fourth
             sessions. Play group interactions were videotaped and
             examined by trained observers. High rates of proactive
             aggression were associated with positive outcome
             expectancies for aggression/assertion, frequent displays of
             assertive social behavior, and low rates of submissive
             behavior. Reactive aggression was associated with hostile
             attributional tendencies and frequent victimization by
             peers. Victimization was associated with submissive
             behavior, hostile attributional bias, reactive aggression,
             and negative outcome expectations for aggression/assertion.
             These results demonstrate that there is a theoretically
             coherent and empirically distinct set of correlates
             associated with each of the examined aggression subtypes,
             and with victimization by peers.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1022695601088},
   Key = {fds272216}

   Author = {Lochman, JE and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Distorted perceptions in dyadic interactions of aggressive
             and nonaggressive boys: effects of prior expectations,
             context, and boys' age.},
   Journal = {Development and Psychopathology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {495-512},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0954-5794},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {This study examined distorted self- and peer perceptions in
             aggressive and nonaggressive boys at preadolescent and early
             adolescent age levels. Subjects completed semantic
             differential ratings of themselves and of their peer
             partners following two brief dyadic discussion tasks with
             competitive inductions and a game-playing task with a
             cooperative induction. Subjects also rated their
             expectations for self- and peer behavior prior to the two
             competitive interaction tasks. Research assistants later
             rated videotapes of the interactions. Aggressive boys had
             more distorted perceptions of dyadic behavior as they
             overperceived aggression in their partners and
             underperceived their own aggressiveness. These distorted
             perceptions of aggression carried over for aggressive boys
             into the third interaction task with a cooperative
             induction, indicating these boys' difficulty in modulating
             these perceptions when the overt demand for conflict is no
             longer present in the situation. Results also indicated that
             aggressive boys' perceptions of their own behavior after the
             first interaction task is substantially affected by their
             prior expectations, in comparison to nonaggressive boys who
             rely more on their actual behavior to form their
   Doi = {10.1017/S0954579498001710},
   Key = {fds272217}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A. and Bates, J.E. and Pettit, G.S.},
   Title = {How the experience of physical abuse leads a child to become
             chronically violent toward others},
   Pages = {263-288},
   Booktitle = {Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology, Vol.
             8: Developmental perspectives on trauma},
   Publisher = {Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press},
   Editor = {D. Cicchetti and S.L. Toth},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds39008}

   Author = {Schwartz, D and Dodge, KA and Pettit, GS and Bates,
   Title = {The Early Socialization of Aggressive Victims of
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {665-675},
   Year = {1997},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {This study reports the first prospective investigation of
             the early family experiences of boys who later emerged as
             both aggressive and bullied (i.e., aggressive victims)
             during their middle childhood years. It was hypothesized
             that a history of violent victimization by adults leads to
             emotion dysregulation that results in a dual pattern of
             aggressive behavior and victimization by peers. Interviews
             with mothers of 198 5-year-old boys assessed preschool home
             environments. Four to 5 years later, aggressive behavior and
             peer victimization were assessed in the school classroom.
             The early experiences of 16 aggressive victims were
             contrasted with those of 21 passive (nonaggressive) victims,
             33 nonvictimized aggressors, and 128 normative boys.
             Analyses indicated that the aggressive victim group had
             experienced more punitive, hostile, and abusive family
             treatment than the other groups. In contrast, the
             nonvictimized aggressive group had a history of greater
             exposure to adult aggression and conflict, but not
             victimization by adults, than did the normative group,
             whereas the passive victim group did not differ from the
             normative group on any home environment variable.},
   Key = {fds272222}

   Author = {Bierman, KL and Coie, JD and Dodge, KA and Greenberg, MT and Lochman,
             JE and McMahon, RJ},
   Title = {Implementing a comprehensive program for the prevention of
             conduct problems in rural communities: The fast track
   Journal = {American Journal of Community Psychology},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {493-514},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0091-0562},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Childhood conduct problems are predictive of a number of
             serious long-term difficulties (e.g., school failure,
             delinquent behavior, and mental health problems), making the
             design of effective prevention programs a priority. The Fast
             Track Program is a demonstration project currently underway
             in four demographically diverse areas of the United States,
             testing the feasibility and effectiveness of a
             comprehensive, multicomponent prevention program targeting
             children at risk for conduct disorders. This paper describes
             some lessons learned about the implementation of this
             program in a rural area. Although there are many areas of
             commonality in terms of program needs, program design, and
             implementation issues in rural and urban sites, rural areas
             differ from urban areas along the dimensions of geographical
             dispersion and regionalism, and community stability and
             insularity. Rural programs must cover a broad geographical
             area and must be sensitive to the multiple, small and
             regional communities that constitute their service area.
             Small schools, homogeneous populations, traditional values,
             limited recreational, educational and mental health
             services, and politically conservative climates are all more
             likely to emerge as characteristics of rural rather than
             urban sites (Sherman, 1992). These characteristics may both
             pose particular challenges to the implementation of
             prevention programs in rural areas, as well as offer
             particular benefits. Three aspects of program implementation
             are described in detail: (a) community entry and program
             initiation in rural areas, (b) the adaptation of program
             components and service delivery to meet the needs of rural
             families and schools, and (c) issues in administrative
             organization of a broadly dispersed tricounty rural
             prevention program. © 1997 Plenum Publishing
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1024659622528},
   Key = {fds272230}

   Author = {Stormshak, and A, E and Bellanti, and J, C and Bierman, and L, K and Dodge,
             TCPPRGKA and member},
   Title = {The quality of the sibling relationship and the development
             of social competence and behavioral control in aggressive
   Journal = {Developmental Psychology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0012-1649},
   Abstract = {To understand the relations between sibling interactions and
             the social adjustment of children with behavior problems, 53
             aggressive 1st- and 2nd-grade children, their mothers, and
             their siblings were interviewed about positive and negative
             aspects of the sibling relationship. When conflict and
             warmth were considered together, 3 types of sibling dyads
             emerged: conflictual (high levels of conflict, low levels of
             warmth), involved (moderate levels of conflict and warmth),
             and supportive (low levels of conflict, high levels of
             warmth). On most measures of social adjustment at school,
             children in involved sibling relationships showed better
             adjustment than did children in conflictual relationships.
             Results are discussed in terms of a developmental model for
             at-risk children in which some sibling relationships may
             foster the development of social skills in addition to
             providing emotional support, which may enhance adjustment at
             school. Copyright 1996 by the American Psychological
             Association, Inc.},
   Key = {fds272231}

   Author = {Crick, NR and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Social Information-Processing Mechanisms in Reactive and
             Proactive Aggression},
   Journal = {Child Development},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {993-1002},
   Year = {1996},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Theories of aggressive behavior and ethological observations
             in animals and children suggest the existence of distinct
             forms of reactive (hostile) and proactive (instrumental)
             aggression. Toward the validation of this distinction,
             groups of reactive aggressive, proactive aggressive, and
             nonaggressive children were identified (n = 624
             9-12-year-olds). Social information-processing patterns were
             assessed in these groups by presenting hypothetical
             vignettes to subjects. 3 hypotheses were tested: (1) only
             the reactive-aggressive children would demonstrate hostile
             biases in their attributions of peers' intentions in
             provocation situations (because such biases are known to
             lead to reactive anger); (2) only proactive-aggressive
             children would evaluate aggression and its consequences in
             relatively positive ways (because proactive aggression is
             motivated by its expected external outcomes); and (3)
             proactive-aggressive children would select instrumental
             social goals rather than relational goals more often than
             nonaggressive children. All 3 hypotheses were at least
             partially supported.},
   Key = {fds272237}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A. and Bates, J.E. and Pettit, G.S.},
   Title = {Mechanisms in the cycle of violence(Reprint)},
   Booktitle = {World Society for the Protection of Animals},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds38940}

   Author = {Lochman, JE and Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Social-cognitive processes of severely violent, moderately
             aggressive, and nonaggressive boys.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {366-374},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {This study examined social-cognitive processes of aggressive
             and nonaggressive boys at preadolescent and early adolescent
             age levels. The social-cognitive variables included
             processing of cues, attributions, social problem solving,
             affect labeling, outcome expectations, and perceived
             competence and self-worth. Results indicated that a wide
             range of social-cognitive processes is distorted and
             deficient for violent and moderately aggressive children,
             and that different types of social cognition contribute
             unique variance in discriminating among groups. Severely
             violent boys at both age levels had difficulties with cue
             recall, attributions, social problem solving, general
             self-worth, and a pattern of endorsing unusually positive
             affects that they may experience in different settings.
             Moderately aggressive boys shared some of the
             social-cognitive difficulties demonstrated by severely
             violent boys, but they also displayed indications that their
             aggression may be more planfully aimed to achieve expected
             outcomes. When the moderately aggressive and the violent
             boys differed from the nonaggressive boys on attributional
             biases and low perceived self-worth, a continuum existed
             with violent boys displaying more extreme social-cognitive
             dysfunctions than the moderately aggressive boys. These
             findings carry implications for cognitive-behavioral
             intervention with severely violent and moderately aggressive
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006X.62.2.366},
   Key = {fds272246}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A. and Bates, J.E. and Pettit, G.S.},
   Title = {Mechanisms in the cycle of violence(Reprint)},
   Booktitle = {Interpersonal violence within the Home},
   Publisher = {Madison, WI: Wm. C. Brown Publishers},
   Editor = {S.D. Herzberger},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds38937}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A.},
   Title = {Studying mechanisms in the cycle of violence},
   Pages = {19-36},
   Booktitle = {The Science and Psychiatry of Violence},
   Publisher = {London: Butterworth-Heinemann},
   Editor = {C. Thompson},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds38964}

   Author = {Dodge, K.A. and Bates, J.E. and Pettit, G.S.},
   Title = {Mechanisms in the cycle of violence(Reprint)},
   Booktitle = {Primis Developmental Psychology Reader},
   Publisher = {New York: McGraw-Hill},
   Editor = {R.D. Parke and B.J. Tinsley},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds38939}

   Author = {Dodge, KA},
   Title = {Youth violence},
   Journal = {Tennessee Teacher},
   Volume = {60},
   Pages = {2},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds272265}

   Author = {Dodge, KA and Bates, JE and Pettit, GS},
   Title = {Mechanisms in the cycle of violence},
   Journal = {Science},
   Volume = {250},
   Number = {4988},
   Pages = {1678-1683},
   Year = {1990},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   Abstract = {Two questions concerning the effect of physical abuse in
             early childhood on the child's development of aggressive
             behavior are the focus of this article. The first is whether
             abuse per se has deleterious effects. In earlier studies, in
             which samples were nonrepresentative and family ecological
             factors (such as poverty, marital violence, and family
             instability) and child biological variables (such as early
             health problems and temperament) were ignored, findings have
             been ambiguous. Results from a prospective study of a
             representative sample of 309 children indicated that
             physical abuse is indeed a risk factor for later aggressive
             behavior even when the other ecological and biological
             factors are known. The second question concerns the
             processes by which antisocial development occurs in abused
             children. Abused children tended to acquire deviant patterns
             of processing social information, and these may mediate the
             development of aggressive behavior.},
   Key = {fds272276}