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Publications of Paul A. Baker    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds222725,
   Author = {Jenkins, H.S. and Baker, P.A. and Negron-Juarez, R.I.},
   Title = {Eventos extremos de seca na Amazonia revelados pelos
             registros de aneis de arvores},
   Pages = {29-46},
   Booktitle = {Secas na Amazonia},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222725}
}

@article{fds215099,
   Author = {Jenkins, HS and Baker PA and Negrón-Juárez
             RI},
   Title = {Extreme drought events revealed in Amazon tree ring
             records},
   Booktitle = {Amazonian Droughts: A Review},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds215099}
}

@article{fds215101,
   Author = {Clark, P.U. and Shakun, J.D. and Baker, P.A. and et
             al.},
   Title = {Global climate evolution during the last
             deglaciation},
   Journal = {PNAS},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds215101}
}

@article{fds186422,
   Author = {Toney, J. and Y. Huang and S.C. Fritz and P.A. Baker and P. Nyren and E.
             Grimm.},
   Title = {Climatic and environmental controls on the occurrence and
             distribution of long-chain alkenones in lakes of the
             interior United States.},
   Journal = {Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta},
   Year = {2010},
   url = {doi:10.1016/j.gca.2009.11.021},
   Key = {fds186422}
}

@article{fds186423,
   Author = {Fritz, S.C. and Baker, P.A. and Ekdahl, E. and Seltzer, G.O. and Stevens, L.R},
   Title = {Millennial-scale climate variability during the last glacial
             period in the tropical Andes},
   Journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds186423}
}


%% Papers Accepted   
@article{fds345701,
   Author = {Häggi, C and Schefuß, E and Sawakuchi, AO and Chiessi, CM and Mulitza,
             S and Bertassoli, DJ and Hefter, J and Zabel, M and Baker, PA and Schouten,
             S},
   Title = {Modern and late Pleistocene particulate organic carbon
             transport by the Amazon River: Insights from long-chain
             alkyl diols},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {262},
   Pages = {1-19},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2019.07.018},
   Abstract = {© 2019 Elsevier Ltd The relative abundance of the C32 1,15
             long-chain alkyl diol (LCD) is an emerging proxy for the
             input of riverine aquatic particulate organic carbon (POC)
             into coastal oceans. This compound has the potential to
             complement other established proxies reflecting riverine
             terrestrial POC input and allows for a more nuanced
             assessment of riverine POC export to coastal seas. The
             current understanding of this proxy is, however, limited. In
             this study, we compare different indices for riverine
             sediment input to coastal marine waters (i.e. C32 1,15-LCD,
             BIT index and Fe/Ca ratio) in a source-to-sink assessment in
             the Amazon River drainage system and the northeast South
             American continental margin, and we test their down-core
             applicability in a marine gravity core containing late
             Pleistocene fluvial Amazonian sediments. We show that the
             relative abundance of the C32 1,15-LCD is highest in water
             bodies with low flow velocity and low turbidity such as the
             downstream portion of lowland tributaries and floodplain
             lakes. Relative C32 1,15-LCD abundance is lowest in Andean
             white water tributaries where autotrophic productivity is
             hindered by high turbidity and high flow velocity. We also
             find that suspended particulate matter from all major
             tributaries during the extreme 2015 dry season has a similar
             LCD distribution to that of floodplain lakes. This indicates
             that the chemical composition of the tributaries is less
             relevant for the LCD distribution than their physical
             properties such as flow velocity and turbidity. Results from
             marine surface sediments offshore the Amazon River estuary
             show significant positive correlations between all three
             studied proxies. In contrast, we find that the relative C32
             1,15-LCD abundance in the down-core record is
             anti-correlated to the BIT index and Fe/Ca ratio. While BIT
             index and Fe/Ca ratio show high (low) values during Heinrich
             stadials (Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadials), the C32
             1,15-LCD proxy shows the opposite signal. BIT values are
             also higher during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 than during
             MIS 3, in contrast to trends in the C32 1,15-LCD proxy. We
             posit that this pattern arises from a reduction in relative
             C32 1,15-LCD abundance and total LCD productivity in the
             Amazon River during MIS 2 when less-humid conditions and
             lower sea level led to reduced area of floodplains. During
             Heinrich stadials, Andean sediment input increased and led
             to higher turbidity that resulted in lower C32 1,15-LCD
             production. Our study shows that major changes in water
             discharge, sediment transport and river morphology can lead
             to discrepancies between the BIT index and the relative
             abundance of the C32 1,15-LCD. Thus, we suggest that
             Amazonian aquatic and terrestrial POC pools had contrasting
             responses to changes related to both climate (e.g. increased
             Andean precipitation) and river morphology (e.g. steeper
             along-channel slope due to falling and low stand sea
             level).},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2019.07.018},
   Key = {fds345701}
}

@article{fds345472,
   Author = {Kay, RF and Gonzales, LA and Salenbien, W and Martinez, J-N and Cooke,
             SB and Valdivia, LA and Rigsby, C and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Parvimico materdei gen. et sp. nov.: A new platyrrhine from
             the Early Miocene of the Amazon Basin, Peru.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {134},
   Pages = {102628},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.05.016},
   Abstract = {Three field seasons of exploration along the Río Alto Madre
             de Dios in Peruvian Amazonia have yielded a fauna of
             micromammals from a new locality AMD-45, at ∼12.8°S. So
             far we have identified the new primate described here as
             well as small caviomorph rodents, cenolestoid marsupials,
             interatheriid notoungulates, xenarthrans, fish, lizards and
             invertebrates. The site is in the Bala Formation as exposed
             where the river transects a syncline. U-Pb dates on detrital
             zircons constrain the locality's age at between
             17.1 ± 0.7 Ma and 18.9 ± 0.7 Ma, making the fauna
             age-equivalent to that from the Pinturas Formation and the
             older parts of the Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonian
             Argentina (Santacrucian). The primate specimen is an unworn
             M1 of exceptionally small size (equivalent in size to the
             extant callitrichine, Callithrix jacchus, among the smallest
             living platyrrhines and the smallest Eocene-Early Miocene
             platyrrhine yet recorded). Despite its small size it is
             unlike extant callitrichines in having a prominent cingulum
             hypocone. Based on the moderate development of the buccal
             crests, this animal likely had a diet similar to that of
             frugivorous callitrichines, and distinctly different from
             the more similarly-sized gummivores, Cebuella and
             C. jacchus. The phyletic position of the new taxon is
             uncertain, especially given the autapomorphic character of
             the tooth as a whole. Nevertheless, its unusual morphology
             hints at a wholly original and hitherto unknown Amazonian
             fauna, and reinforces the impression of the geographic
             separation of the Amazonian tropics from the more
             geographically isolated southerly parts of the continent in
             Early Miocene times.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.05.016},
   Key = {fds345472}
}

@article{fds341716,
   Author = {Guédron, S and Tolu, J and Brisset, E and Sabatier, P and Perrot, V and Bouchet, S and Develle, AL and Bindler, R and Cossa, D and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Late Holocene volcanic and anthropogenic mercury deposition
             in the western Central Andes (Lake Chungará,
             Chile).},
   Journal = {The Science of the Total Environment},
   Volume = {662},
   Pages = {903-914},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.294},
   Abstract = {Volcanism is one of the major natural processes emitting
             mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, representing a significant
             component of the global Hg budget. The importance of
             volcanic eruptions for local-scale Hg deposition was
             investigated using analyses of Hg, inorganic elemental
             tracers, and organic biomarkers in a sediment sequence from
             Lake Chungará (4520 m a.s.l.). Environmental change and
             Hg deposition in the immediate vicinity of the Parinacota
             volcano were reconstructed over the last 2700 years,
             encompassing the pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic
             periods. Twenty eruptions delivering large amounts of Hg (1
             to 457 μg Hg m-2 yr-1 deposited at the timescale of
             the event) were locally recorded. Peaks of Hg concentration
             recorded after most of the eruptions were attributed to a
             decrease in sedimentation rate together with the rapid
             re-oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg and deposition with
             fine particles and incorporation into lake primary
             producers. Over the study period, the contribution of
             volcanic emissions has been estimated as 32% of the total Hg
             input to the lake. Sharp depletions in primary production
             occurred at each eruption, likely resulting from massive
             volcaniclastic inputs and changes in the lake-water
             physico-chemistry. Excluding the volcanic deposition
             periods, Hg accumulation rates rose from natural background
             values (1.9 ± 0.5 μg m-2 yr-1) by a factor of
             2.3 during the pre-colonial mining period
             (1400-900 yr cal. BP), and by a factor of 6 and 7.6,
             respectively, during the Hispanic colonial epoch
             (400-150 yr cal. BP) and the industrial era
             (~140 yr cal. BP to present). Altogether, the dataset
             indicates that lake primary production has been the main,
             but not limiting, carrier for Hg to the sediment. Volcanic
             activity and climate change are only secondary drivers of
             local Hg deposition relative to the magnitude of regional
             and global anthropogenic emissions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.294},
   Key = {fds341716}
}

@article{fds336120,
   Author = {Marsh, EJ and Bruno, MC and Fritz, SC and Baker, P and Capriles, JM and Hastorf, CA},
   Title = {IntCal, SHCal, or a Mixed Curve? Choosing a 14 C
             Calibration Curve for Archaeological and Paleoenvironmental
             Records from Tropical South America},
   Journal = {Radiocarbon},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {925-940},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2018.16},
   Abstract = {© 2018 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the
             University of Arizona. Because the 14 C calibration curves
             IntCal and SHCal are based on data from temperate latitudes,
             it remains unclear which curve is more suitable for
             archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from tropical
             South America. A review of climate dynamics reveals a
             significant influx of Northern Hemisphere air masses and
             moisture over a substantial part of the continent during the
             South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). Areas affected by the
             SASM receive unknown amounts of input from both hemispheres,
             where an argument could be made for either curve. Until
             localized tree-ring data can resolve this, we suggest using
             a mixed calibration curve, which accounts for inputs from
             both hemispheres, as a third calibration option. We present
             a calibration example from a crucial period of environmental
             and cultural change in the southern Lake Titicaca. Given our
             current lack of data on past 14 C variation in South
             America, our calibrations and chronologies will likely
             change in the future. We hope this paper spurs new research
             into this topic and encourages researchers to make an
             informed and explicit choice of which curve to use, which is
             particularly relevant in research on past
             human-environmental relationships.},
   Doi = {10.1017/RDC.2018.16},
   Key = {fds336120}
}

@article{fds336122,
   Author = {Spanbauer, TL and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Punctuated changes in the morphology of an endemic diatom
             from Lake Titicaca},
   Journal = {Paleobiology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {89-100},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/pab.2017.27},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.
             High levels of biodiversity and endemism in ancient lakes
             have motivated research on evolutionary processes in these
             systems. Drill-core records from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia,
             Peru), an ancient lake in the high-elevation Altiplano,
             record the history of climate, landscape dynamics, and
             diatom evolution. That record was used to examine the
             patterns and drivers of morphological evolution of an
             endemic species complex of diatoms in the lake, the
             Cyclostephanos andinus complex. In an attempt to delineate
             species within the complex based on morphology, no
             discernible evidence was found for species separation based
             on an ordination analysis of multiple characters, but
             multiple populations were detected based on the distribution
             of valve size in individual samples. Likelihood modeling of
             phyletic evolution showed that size evolved through
             punctuated change. Correlation of size trends with
             environmental variables indicates that C. andinus size
             responded to regional environmental change driven by global
             processes that influenced Lake Titicaca by affecting lake
             level and thermal stratification.},
   Doi = {10.1017/pab.2017.27},
   Key = {fds336122}
}

@article{fds332368,
   Author = {Terborgh, JW and Davenport, LC and Belcon, AU and Katul, G and Swenson,
             JJ and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Twenty-three-year timeline of ecological stable states and
             regime shifts in upper Amazon oxbow lakes},
   Journal = {Hydrobiologia},
   Volume = {807},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {99-111},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3384-z},
   Abstract = {© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. Regime shifts
             in shallow lakes are often associated with anthropogenic
             impacts, such as land-use change, non-point source nutrient
             loading, and overfishing. These shifts have mostly been
             examined in lakes in temperate and boreal regions and within
             anthropogenically disturbed basins. Here, it is demonstrated
             that tropical floodplain lakes in a region of virtually no
             human disturbance naturally undergo frequent regime shifts.
             We demonstrate this using satellite imagery to provide a
             23-year time series of 22-oxbow lakes or “cochas” along
             300 km of the Manu River in SE Perú. In any year, a
             majority of these lakes is in a macrophyte-free,
             phytoplankton-dominated state. However, over the 23 years
             covered by images, roughly a third of the lakes experienced
             abrupt shifts to a floating macrophyte state. Macrophyte
             cover persisted for ≤ 3 year. Analysis of water level
             fluctuations sampled on a subset of the lakes for 1 year
             suggests that lake isolation from streams and the main river
             facilitates regime shifts. Multiple forcing factors, both
             internal and external to the lakes themselves, could drive
             the observed regime shifts, but insufficient data exist from
             this remote region to identify the key processes.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10750-017-3384-z},
   Key = {fds332368}
}

@article{fds336123,
   Author = {Weide, DM and Fritz, SC and Hastorf, CA and Bruno, MC and Baker, PA and Guedron, S and Salenbien, W},
   Title = {A ∼6000 yr diatom record of mid- to late Holocene
             fluctuations in the level of Lago Wiñaymarca, Lake Titicaca
             (Peru/Bolivia)},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {179-192},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/qua.2017.49},
   Abstract = {Copyright © University of Washington. Published by
             Cambridge University Press, 2017. A multidecadal-scale
             lake-level reconstruction for Lago Wiñaymarca, the southern
             basin of Lake Titicaca, has been generated from diatom
             species abundance data. These data suggest that ~6500 cal yr
             BP Lago Wiñaymarca was dry, as indicated by a sediment
             unconformity. At ~4400 cal yr BP, the basin began to fill,
             as indicated by the dominance of shallow epiphytic species.
             It remained somewhat saline with extensive wetlands and
             abundant aquatic plants until ~3800 cal yr BP, when
             epiphytic species were replaced by planktic
             saline-indifferent species, suggesting a saline shallow
             lake. Wiñaymarca remained a relatively shallow lake that
             fluctuated on a multidecadal scale until ~1250 cal yr BP,
             when freshwater planktic species increased, suggesting a
             rise in lake level with a concomitant decrease in salinity.
             The lake became gradually fresher, dominated by deep,
             freshwater species from ~850 cal yr BP. By ~80 cal yr BP,
             saline-tolerant species were rare, and the lake was
             dominated by freshwater planktic diatoms, resembling the
             fresh and deep lake of today. These results reveal a more
             dynamic and chronologically specific record of lake-level
             fluctuations and associated ecological conditions that
             provide important new data for paleoclimatologists and
             archaeologists, to better understand human-environmental
             dynamics during the mid- to late Holocene.},
   Doi = {10.1017/qua.2017.49},
   Key = {fds336123}
}

@article{fds328723,
   Author = {Sun, S and Schefuß, E and Mulitza, S and Chiessi, CM and Sawakuchi, AO and Zabel, M and Baker, PA and Hefter, J and Mollenhauer,
             G},
   Title = {Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the
             Amazon system: Lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan
             sediments},
   Journal = {Biogeosciences},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2495-2512},
   Publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-2495-2017},
   Abstract = {The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial
             organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon
             neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to
             compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the
             fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the
             adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments
             from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well
             as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan
             for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon
             isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol
             compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive
             correlations with Al/Si ratios (indicative of the sediment
             grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment
             discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in
             the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential
             preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted
             δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9%) in the main tributaries
             consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation.
             Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S/V) and cinnamyl to
             vanillyl (C/V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody
             angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the
             Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich
             diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin
             compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the
             distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin
             phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100ĝ€mg
             OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon
             River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil
             Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin
             compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of
             the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples
             suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore
             transport does not change the encoded source information.
             Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these
             offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in
             the Amazon River catchment. In sediments from the Amazon
             fan, low lignin content, relatively depleted δ13CTOC values
             and high (Ad/Al)V ratios indicating highly degraded lignin
             imply that a significant fraction of the deposited OCterr is
             derived from petrogenic (sourced from ancient rocks)
             sources.},
   Doi = {10.5194/bg-14-2495-2017},
   Key = {fds328723}
}

@article{fds328722,
   Author = {Latrubesse, EM and Arima, EY and Dunne, T and Park, E and Baker, VR and d’Horta, FM and Wight, C and Wittmann, F and Zuanon, J and Baker, PA and Ribas, CC and Norgaard, RB and Filizola, N and Ansar, A and Flyvbjerg,
             B and Stevaux, JC},
   Title = {Damming the Rivers of the Amazon Basin},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {546},
   Number = {7658},
   Pages = {363-369},
   Year = {2017},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature22333},
   Abstract = {More than a hundred hydropower dams have already been built
             in the Amazon basin and numerous proposals for further dam
             constructions are under consideration. The accumulated
             negative environmental effects of existing dams and proposed
             dams, if constructed, will trigger massive hydrophysical and
             biotic disturbances that will affect the Amazon basin's
             floodplains, estuary and sediment plume. We introduce a Dam
             Environmental Vulnerability Index to quantify the current
             and potential impacts of dams in the basin. The scale of
             foreseeable environmental degradation indicates the need for
             collective action among nations and states to avoid
             cumulative, far-reaching impacts. We suggest institutional
             innovations to assess and avoid the likely impoverishment of
             Amazon rivers.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature22333},
   Key = {fds328722}
}

@article{fds328724,
   Author = {Häggi, C and Sawakuchi, AO and Chiessi, CM and Mulitza, S and Mollenhauer, G and Sawakuchi, HO and Baker, PA and Zabel, M and Schefuß, E},
   Title = {Origin, transport and deposition of leaf-wax biomarkers in
             the Amazon Basin and the adjacent Atlantic},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {192},
   Pages = {149-165},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.07.002},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Paleoenvironmental studies based on
             terrigenous biomarker proxies from sediment cores collected
             close to the mouth of large river systems rely on a proper
             understanding of the processes controlling origin, transport
             and deposition of biomarkers. Here, we contribute to the
             understanding of these processes by analyzing long-chain
             n-alkanes from the Amazon River system. We use the δD
             composition of long-chain n-alkanes from river bed sediments
             from the Amazon River and its major tributaries, as well as
             marine core-top samples collected off northeastern South
             America as tracers for different source areas. The δ13C
             composition of the same compounds is used to differentiate
             between long-chain n-alkanes from modern forest vegetation
             and petrogenic organic matter. Our δ13C results show
             depleted δ13C values (−33 to −36‰) in most samples,
             indicating a modern forest source for most of the samples.
             Enriched values (−31 to −33‰) are only found in a few
             samples poor in organic carbon indicating minor
             contributions from a fossil petrogenic source. Long-chain
             n-alkane δD analyses show more depleted values for the
             western tributaries, the Madeira and Solimões Rivers
             (−152 to −168‰), while n-alkanes from the lowland
             tributaries, the Negro, Xingu and Tocantins Rivers (−142
             to −154‰), yield more enriched values. The n-alkane δD
             values thus reflect the mean annual isotopic composition of
             precipitation, which is most deuterium-depleted in the
             western Amazon Basin and more enriched in the eastern sector
             of the basin. Samples from the Amazon estuary show a mixed
             long-chain n-alkane δD signal from both eastern lowland and
             western tributaries. Marine core-top samples underlying the
             Amazon freshwater plume yield δD values similar to those
             from the Amazon estuary, while core-top samples from outside
             the plume showed more enriched values. Although the
             variability in the river bed data precludes quantitative
             assessment of relative contributions, our results indicate
             that long-chain n-alkanes from the Amazon estuary and plume
             represent an integrated signal of different regions of the
             onshore basin. Our results also imply that n-alkanes are not
             extensively remineralized during transport and that the
             signal at the Amazon estuary and plume includes refractory
             compounds derived from the western sector of the Basin.
             These findings will aid in the interpretation of plant
             wax-based records of marine sediment cores collected from
             the adjacent ocean.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2016.07.002},
   Key = {fds328724}
}

@article{fds323363,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Silva, CG and Rigsby, CA and Absy, ML and Almeida, RP and Caputo, M and Chiessi, CM and Cruz, FW and Dick, CW and Feakins, SJ and Figueiredo, J and Freeman, KH and Hoorn, C and Jaramillo, C and Kern, AK and Latrubesse, EM and Ledru, MP and Marzoli,
             A and Myrbo, A and Noren, A and Piller, WE and Ramos, MIF and Ribas, CC and Trnadade, R and West, AJ and Wahnfried, I and Willard,
             DA},
   Title = {Trans-Amazon Drilling Project (TADP): Origins and evolution
             of the forests, climate, and hydrology of the South American
             tropics},
   Journal = {Scientific Drilling},
   Volume = {20},
   Pages = {41-49},
   Publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/sd-20-41-2015},
   Abstract = {© Author(s) 2015. This article presents the scientific
             rationale for an ambitious ICDP drilling project to
             continuously sample Late Cretaceous to modern sediment in
             four different sedimentary basins that transect the
             equatorial Amazon of Brazil, from the Andean foreland to the
             Atlantic Ocean. The goals of this project are to document
             the evolution of plant biodiversity in the Amazon forests
             and to relate biotic diversification to changes in the
             physical environment, including climate, tectonism, and the
             surface landscape. These goals require long sedimentary
             records from each of the major sedimentary basins across the
             heart of the Brazilian Amazon, which can only be obtained by
             drilling because of the scarcity of Cenozoic outcrops. The
             proposed drilling will provide the first long, nearly
             continuous regional records of the Cenozoic history of the
             forests, their plant diversity, and the associated changes
             in climate and environment. It also will address fundamental
             questions about landscape evolution, including the history
             of Andean uplift and erosion as recorded in Andean foreland
             basins and the development of west-to-east hydrologic
             continuity between the Andes, the Amazon lowlands, and the
             equatorial Atlantic. Because many modern rivers of the
             Amazon basin flow along the major axes of the old
             sedimentary basins, we plan to locate drill sites on the
             margin of large rivers and to access the targeted drill
             sites by navigation along these rivers.},
   Doi = {10.5194/sd-20-41-2015},
   Key = {fds323363}
}

@article{fds278631,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Fritz, SC},
   Title = {Nature and causes of Quaternary climate variation of
             tropical South America},
   Journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
   Volume = {124},
   Pages = {31-47},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0277-3791},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.06.011},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This selective review of the
             Quaternary paleoclimate of the South American summer monsoon
             (SASM) domain presents viewpoints regarding a range of key
             issues in the field, many of which are unresolved and some
             of which are controversial. (1) El Niño-Southern
             Oscillation variability, while the most important
             global-scale mode of interannual climate variation, is
             insufficient to explain most of the variation of tropical
             South American climate observed in both the instrumental and
             the paleoclimate records. (2) Significant climate variation
             in tropical South America occurs on seasonal to orbital
             (i.e. multi-millennial) time scales as a result of
             sea-surface temperature (SST) variation and ocean-atmosphere
             interactions of the tropical Atlantic. (3) Decadal-scale
             climate variability, linked with this tropical Atlantic
             variability, has been a persistent characteristic of climate
             in tropical South America for at least the past half
             millennium, and likely, far beyond. (4) Centennial-to-millennial
             climate events in tropical South America were of longer
             duration and, perhaps, larger amplitude than any observed in
             the instrumental period, which is little more than a century
             long in tropical South America. These were superimposed upon
             both precession-paced insolation changes that caused
             significant variation in SASM precipitation and
             eccentricity-paced global glacial boundary conditions that
             caused significant changes in the tropical South American
             moisture balance. As a result, river sediment and water
             discharge increased and decreased across tropical South
             America, lake levels rose and fell, paleolakes arose and
             disappeared on the Altiplano, glaciers waxed and waned in
             the tropical Andes, and the tropical rainforest underwent
             significant changes in composition and extent.To further
             evaluate climate forcing over the last glacial cycle
             (~125ka), we developed a climate forcing model that combines
             summer insolation forcing and a proxy for North Atlantic SST
             forcing to reconstruct long-term precipitation variation in
             the SASM domain. The success of this model reinforces our
             confidence in assigning causation to observed
             reconstructions of precipitation. In addition, we propose a
             critical correction for speleothem stable oxygen isotopic
             ratios, which are among the most significant of paleoclimate
             proxies in tropical South America for reconstruction of
             variation of paleo-precipitation (or SASM intensity).
             However, it is already well known that any particular
             δ<sup>18</sup>O value observed in speleothem carbonate is
             affected by two processes that have nothing to do with
             changes in precipitation amount-the influence of temperature
             on carbonate-water isotopic fractionation in the cave and
             the influence of changing δ<sup>18</sup>O of seawater.
             Quantitatively accounting for both "artifacts" can
             significantly alter the interpretations of speleothem
             records. In tropical South America, both adjustments act in
             the same direction and have the tendency to increase the
             true amplitude of the paleo-hydrologic signal (but by
             different amounts in glacial and inter-glacial stages).
             These corrections have even graver implications for the
             interpretation of tropical Northern Hemisphere speleothem
             records (e.g. Chinese speleothems) where the combined
             adjustments tend to decrease or even eliminate the "true"
             signal amplitude.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2015.06.011},
   Key = {fds278631}
}

@article{fds278633,
   Author = {Fornace, KL and Hughen, KA and Shanahan, TM and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Sylva, SP},
   Title = {A 60,000-year record of hydrologic variability in the
             Central Andes from the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf
             waxes in Lake Titicaca sediments},
   Journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
   Volume = {408},
   Pages = {263-271},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0012-821X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.10.024},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. A record of the hydrogen isotopic
             composition of terrestrial leaf waxes (δDwax) in sediment
             cores from Lake Titicaca provides new insight into the
             precipitation history of the Central Andes and controls of
             South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) variability since the
             last glacial period. Comparison of the δDwax record with a
             19-kyr δD record from the nearby Illimani ice core supports
             the interpretation that precipitation δD is the primary
             control on δDwax with a lesser but significant role for
             local evapotranspiration and other secondary influences on
             δDwax. The Titicaca δDwax record confirms overall wetter
             conditions in the Central Andes during the last glacial
             period relative to a drier Holocene. During the last
             deglaciation, abrupt δDwax shifts correspond to
             millennial-scale events observed in the high-latitude North
             Atlantic, with dry conditions corresponding to the
             Bølling-Allerød and early Holocene periods and wetter
             conditions during late glacial and Younger Dryas intervals.
             We observe a trend of increasing monsoonal precipitation
             from the early to the late Holocene, consistent with summer
             insolation forcing of the SASM, but similar hydrologic
             variability on precessional timescales is not apparent
             during the last glacial period. Overall, this study
             demonstrates the relative importance of high-latitude versus
             tropical forcing as a dominant control on glacial SASM
             precipitation variability.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2014.10.024},
   Key = {fds278633}
}

@article{fds278632,
   Author = {Nace, TE and Baker, PA and Dwyer, GS and Silva, CG and Rigsby, CA and Burns, SJ and Giosan, L and Otto-Bliesner, B and Liu, Z and Zhu,
             J},
   Title = {The role of North Brazil Current transport in the
             paleoclimate of the Brazilian Nordeste margin and
             paleoceanography of the western tropical Atlantic during the
             late Quaternary},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {415},
   Pages = {3-13},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.05.030},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Reconstructions
             of surface paleoceanographic conditions of the western
             equatorial Atlantic and past climates of the adjacent
             Northeast Brazilian (the "Nordeste") continental margin were
             undertaken by analyzing sediments from a piston core and
             associated gravity and box cores recovered from 3107 meter
             water depth at 0° 20' N on the equatorial Brazilian
             continental slope. The record is dated by radiocarbon
             analysis and oxygen isotopic stratigraphy of planktonic
             foraminifers and spans from near-modern to approximately 110
             Ka.High-resolution XRF analysis provides insight into the
             paleoclimate history of the Nordeste during the last glacial
             interval. Several large-amplitude and abrupt peaks are
             observed in the time series of Ti/Ca and are usually
             accompanied by peaks of Fe/K. Together these record periods
             of increased precipitation and intense weathering on the
             adjacent continent and increased terrestrial sediment
             discharge from Nordeste rivers into the Atlantic. Within the
             limits of dating accuracy, most Ti/Ca peaks correlate with
             Heinrich events in the North Atlantic. This record thus
             corroborates, and extends back in time, the previous record
             of Arz et al. (1998) determined on sediment cores from
             farther southeast along the Nordeste margin.Stable oxygen
             isotopic analysis and Mg/Ca paleothermometry on the
             near-surface-dwelling planktonic foraminiferal species
             Globierinoides ruber find that mean sea-surface temperature
             (SST) during glacial time (20-55 Ka, n. =. 97) was 23.89.
             ±. 0.79. °C and the mean SST during the late Holocene (0-5
             Ka, n. =. 14) was 26.89. ±. 0.33. °C. SSTs were 0.5-2. °C
             higher and inferred sea-surface salinities were lower during
             most of the periods of elevated Ti/Ca, thus, as observed in
             previous studies, the western equatorial Atlantic was warm
             (at least locally) and the adjacent southern tropical
             continent was wet at the same time that the high-latitude
             North Atlantic was cold.Using the SYNTRACE-CCSM3 fully
             coupled climate model with transient forcing for the period
             22 Ka to present, we find that decreased transport of the
             North Brazil Current co-occurs with reduced Atlantic
             meridional overturning circulation, and colder-than-normal
             SSTs in the North Atlantic region. These simulated
             conditions are invariably associated with significantly
             increased precipitation in the Nordeste region.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.05.030},
   Key = {fds278632}
}

@article{fds278634,
   Author = {Obrochta, SP and Crowley, TJ and Channell, JET and Hodell, DA and Baker,
             PA and Seki, A and Yokoyama, Y},
   Title = {Climate variability and ice-sheet dynamics during the last
             three glaciations},
   Journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
   Volume = {406},
   Pages = {198-212},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0012-821X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.004},
   Abstract = {© 2014. A composite North Atlantic record from DSDP Site
             609 and IODP Site U1308 spans the past 300,000 years and
             shows that variability within the penultimate glaciation
             differed substantially from that of the surrounding two
             glaciations. Hematite-stained grains exhibit similar
             repetitive down-core variations within the Marine Isotope
             Stage (MIS) 8 and 4-2 intervals, but little cyclic
             variability within the MIS 6 section. There is also no
             petrologic evidence, in terms of detrital carbonate-rich
             (Heinrich) layers, for surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet
             through the Hudson Strait during MIS 6. Rather, very high
             background concentration of iceberg-rafted debris (IRD)
             indicates near continuous glacial meltwater input that
             likely increased thermohaline disruption sensitivity to
             relatively weak forcing events, such as expanded sea ice
             over deepwater formation sites. Altered (sub)tropical
             precipitation patterns and Antarctic warming during high
             orbital precession and low 65°N summer insolation appear
             related to high abundance of Icelandic glass shards and
             southward sea ice expansion. Differing European and North
             American ice sheet configurations, perhaps aided by larger
             variations in eccentricity leading to cooler summers, may
             have contributed to the relative stability of the Laurentide
             Ice Sheet in the Hudson Strait region during MIS
             6.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.004},
   Key = {fds278634}
}

@article{fds278635,
   Author = {Zell, C and Kim, JH and Hollander, D and Lorenzoni, L and Baker, P and Silva, CG and Nittrouer, C and Sinninghe Damsté,
             JS},
   Title = {Sources and distributions of branched and isoprenoid
             tetraether lipids on the Amazon shelf and fan: Implications
             for the use of GDGT-based proxies in marine
             sediments},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {139},
   Pages = {293-312},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.038},
   Abstract = {Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in
             river fan sediments have been used successfully to
             reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH
             of the Congo River drainage basin. However, in a previous
             study of Amazon deep-sea fan sediments the reconstructed
             MAATs were ca. 10°C colder than the actual MAAT of the
             Amazon basin. In this study we investigated this apparent
             offset, by comparing the concentrations and distributions of
             brGDGTs in Amazon River suspended particulate matter (SPM)
             and sediments to those in marine SPM and surface sediments.
             The riverine brGDGT input was evident from the elevated
             brGDGT concentrations in marine SPM and surface sediments
             close to the river mouth. The distributions of brGDGTs in
             marine SPM and sediments varied widely, but generally showed
             a higher relative abundance of methylated and cyclic brGDGTs
             than those in the river. Since this difference in brGDGT
             distribution was also found in intact polar lipid
             (IPL)-derived brGDGTs, which were more recently produced,
             the change in the marine brGDGT distribution was most likely
             due to marine in situ production. Consequently, the MAATs
             calculated based on the methylation of branched tetraethers
             (MBT) and the cyclisation of branched tetraethers (CBT) were
             lower and the CBT-derived pH values were higher than those
             of the Amazon basin. However, SPM and sediments from
             stations close to the river mouth still showed MBT/CBT
             values that were similar to those of the river. Therefore,
             we recommend caution when applying the MBT/CBT proxy, it
             should only be used in sediment cores that were under high
             river influence. The influence of riverine derived
             isoprenoid GDGT (isoGDGT) on the isoGDGT-based TEX86
             temperature proxy was also examined in marine SPM and
             sediments. An input of riverine isoGDGTs from the Amazon
             River was apparent, but its influence on the marine TEX86
             was minor since the TEX86 of SPM in the Amazon River was
             similar to that in the marine SPM and sediments. © 2014 The
             Authors.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.038},
   Key = {fds278635}
}

@article{fds278636,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Dick, CW and Eckert, AJ and Horton, BK and Manzoni, S and Ribas, CC and Garzione, CN and Battisti,
             DS},
   Title = {The emerging field of geogenomics: Constraining geological
             problems with genetic data},
   Journal = {Earth Science Reviews},
   Volume = {135},
   Pages = {38-47},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0012-8252},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.04.001},
   Abstract = {The development of a genomics-derived discipline within
             geology is timely, as a result of major advances in
             acquiring and processing geologically relevant genetic data.
             This paper articulates the emerging field of "geogenomics",
             which involves the use of large-scale genetic data to
             constrain geological hypotheses. The paper introduces
             geogenomics and discusses how hypotheses can be addressed
             through collaboration between geologists and evolutionary
             biologists. As an example, geogenomic methods are applied to
             evaluate competing hypotheses regarding the timing of the
             Andean uplift, the closure of the Isthmus of Panama, the
             onset of trans-Amazon drainage, and Quaternary climate
             variation in the Neotropics. © 2014 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.04.001},
   Key = {fds278636}
}

@article{fds278718,
   Author = {Clark, PU and Shakun, JD and Baker, PA and Bartlein, PJ and Brewer, S and Brook, E and Carlson, AE and Cheng, H and Kaufman, DS and Liu, Z and Marchitto, TM and Mix, AC and Morrill, C and Otto-Bliesner, BL and Pahnke, K and Russell, JM and Whitlock, C and Adkins, JF and Blois, JL and Clark, J and Colman, SM and Curry, WB and Flower, BP and He, F and Johnson,
             TC and Lynch-Stieglitz, J and Markgraf, V and McManus, J and Mitrovica,
             JX and Moreno, PI and Williams, JW},
   Title = {Global climate evolution during the last
             deglaciation.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {E1134-E1142},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1116619109},
   Abstract = {Deciphering the evolution of global climate from the end of
             the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 19 ka to the early
             Holocene 11 ka presents an outstanding opportunity for
             understanding the transient response of Earth's climate
             system to external and internal forcings. During this
             interval of global warming, the decay of ice sheets caused
             global mean sea level to rise by approximately 80 m;
             terrestrial and marine ecosystems experienced large
             disturbances and range shifts; perturbations to the carbon
             cycle resulted in a net release of the greenhouse gases
             CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere; and changes in atmosphere
             and ocean circulation affected the global distribution and
             fluxes of water and heat. Here we summarize a major effort
             by the paleoclimate research community to characterize these
             changes through the development of well-dated,
             high-resolution records of the deep and intermediate ocean
             as well as surface climate. Our synthesis indicates that the
             superposition of two modes explains much of the variability
             in regional and global climate during the last deglaciation,
             with a strong association between the first mode and
             variations in greenhouse gases, and between the second mode
             and variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning
             circulation.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1116619109},
   Key = {fds278718}
}

@article{fds278713,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Tapia, P and Spanbauer, T and Westover,
             K},
   Title = {Evolution of the Lake Titicaca basin and its diatom flora
             over the last ~370,000 years},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {317-318},
   Pages = {93-103},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.12.013},
   Abstract = {In recent years, deep drilling undertaken as part of the
             International Continental Drilling Program has generated
             multiple long lacustrine sedimentary records to reconstruct
             continental paleoclimate. In many cases, the tectonic and
             geomorphic history of these basins is under-constrained and
             poorly known, which affects the interpretation of climate
             history from geophysical, geochemical, and paleobiotic
             proxies in the sedimentary record. In addition, non-analog
             biotic assemblages that reflect evolutionary processes may
             constrain the reconstruction of past environments. In the
             drill-core record of Lake Titicaca, spanning the last ~.
             370. ka, the diatom stratigraphy reflects both the influence
             of climate and the long-term evolution of the lake basin and
             its biota. In the upper part of the drill-core sequence,
             glacial intervals were deep and dominated by freshwater
             planktic taxa, and peak interglacial intervals were shallow
             and dominated by benthic species, some with saline
             affinities. In the basal sections of the drill-core record,
             benthic diatoms are dominant in both glacial and
             interglacial units, with freshwater taxa dominating the
             glacial strata. This suggests that the ancient lake basin
             was shallower during intervals of both wet and dry climate,
             and that the modern deep lake may result from a progressive
             subsidence and deepening of the basin over time. In
             addition, morphological evolution in one of the major
             lineages of planktic diatoms, Cyclostephanos, indicates
             substantial change in the limnological environment that
             affected species morphology and may have driven speciation.
             © 2011 Elsevier B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.12.013},
   Key = {fds278713}
}

@article{fds215102,
   Author = {Jenkins HS and Baker PA},
   Title = {Correlating tree growth and climate in four Peruvian tree
             species},
   Journal = {Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds215102}
}

@article{fds278716,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Björck, S and Rigsby, CA and Baker, PA and Calder-Church,
             A and Conley, DJ},
   Title = {Caribbean hydrological variability during the Holocene as
             reconstructed from crater lakes on the island of
             Grenada},
   Journal = {Journal of Quaternary Science},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {829-838},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0267-8179},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jqs.1512},
   Abstract = {Contemporary precipitation patterns in the Caribbean region
             are spatially variable, and the small number of Holocene
             paleoclimatic records may not adequately capture patterns of
             variation in the past. The hydrological history of Grenada
             was inferred from paleolimnological analyses of sediment
             cores from two crater lakes on the island. The basins were
             formed by volcanic activity some time during the Last
             Termination, but were dry between ca 13000 and ca 7200cal a
             BP. After filling, the lakes were initially very shallow,
             and sedimentation was interrupted by a hiatus ca
             6300-5500cal a BP, followed by deposition of a thick tephra
             in both sites. After 5500cal a BP, lake level shows
             considerable multi-centennial variability, superimposed upon
             a long-term trend of generally higher lake level after
             3200cal a BP. The pattern of lake-level variation in Grenada
             shows some similarity with other Caribbean paleoclimatic
             records in terms of the timing of transitions, but differs
             from several classic studies in the sign of inferred
             precipitation change. The differences among records may
             reflect spatially variable precipitation patterns in the
             past in response to the position of the Intertropical
             Convergence Zone and to sea surface temperature influences
             on the trade winds and Caribbean low-level jet. © 2011 John
             Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jqs.1512},
   Key = {fds278716}
}

@article{fds278717,
   Author = {Ballantyne, AP and Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Poulter,
             B},
   Title = {Climate-mediated nitrogen and carbon dynamics in a tropical
             watershed},
   Journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {G2},
   Publisher = {American Geophysical Union (AGU)},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0148-0227},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000290933300001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1029/2010jg001496},
   Key = {fds278717}
}

@article{fds278712,
   Author = {Hanselman, JA and Bush, MB and Gosling, WD and Collins, A and Knox, C and Baker, PA and Fritz, SC},
   Title = {A 370,000-year record of vegetation and fire history around
             Lake Titicaca (Bolivia/Peru)},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {305},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {201-214},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.03.002},
   Abstract = {Fossil pollen and charcoal analyses of sediments from Lake
             Titicaca, Peru/Bolivia, provide a record of palaeoclimatic
             variation spanning four full glacial cycles. Pollen, aquatic
             microfossils, and charcoal, as well as previously published
             data including diatom assemblages, carbonate content, and
             stable carbon isotopic ratios of organic carbon, indicate
             that interglacials were warm and dry whereas the peaks of
             glacials were cold and wet. Each of the interglacials
             documented in the record are somewhat different, with those
             of MIS 5e and MIS 9 inducing lower lake levels and a drier
             vegetation signature than those of MIS 7 and 1. The presence
             of charcoal particles in sediments deposited during previous
             interglacials provides evidence of the long-term role of
             fire in shaping Andean ecosystems. © 2011 Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.03.002},
   Key = {fds278712}
}

@article{fds278721,
   Author = {Ballantyne, AP and Baker, PA and Chambers, JQ and Villalba, R and Argollo, J},
   Title = {Regional differences in south american monsoon precipitation
             inferred from thegrowth and isotopic composition of tropical
             trees},
   Journal = {Earth Interactions},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1-35},
   Publisher = {American Meteorological Society},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1087-3562},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/2010EI277.1},
   Abstract = {The authors present results on the relationship between
             treering proxies and regional precipitation for several
             sites in tropical South America. The responsiveness of
             oxygen isotopes (γ 18 O) and seasonal growth as
             precipitation proxies was first validated by high-resolution
             sampling of a Tachigali myrmecophila from Manaus, Brazil
             (3.1°S, 60.0°W). Monthly growth of Tachigali spp. was
             significantly correlated with monthly precipitation.
             Intra-annual measurements of cellulose γ 18 O in Tachigali
             spp. were also significantly correlated with monthly
             precipitation at a lag of approximately one month. The
             annual ring widths of two tropical tree taxa, Cedrela
             odorata growing in the Amazon (12.6°S, 69.2°W) and
             Polylepis tarapacana growing in the Altiplano (22.0°S,
             66.0°W), were validated using bomb-derived radiocarbon 14
             C. Estimated dates were within two to three years of
             bomb-inferred 14 C dates, indicating that these species
             exhibit annual rings but uncertainties in our chronologies
             remain. A multiproxy record spanning 180 years from Cedrela
             spp. showed a significant negative relationship between
             cellulose γ 18 O and January precipitation. A 150-yr record
             obtained from Polylepis spp. also showed a significant
             negative relationship between γ 18 O and March
             precipitation, whereas annual ring width showed a
             significant positive correlation with December
             precipitation. These proxies were combined in a multivariate
             framework to reconstruct past precipitation, revealing a
             significant increase in monsoon precipitation at the Amazon
             site since 1890 and a significant decrease in monsoon
             precipitation at the Altiplano since 1880. Proxy time series
             also showed spatial and temporal coherence with
             precipitation variability due to El Niño forcing,
             suggesting that oxygen isotopes and ring widths in tropical
             trees may be important diagnostics for identifying regional
             differences in the response of the,tropical hydrologic cycle
             to anthropogenic warming, © 2011.},
   Doi = {10.1175/2010EI277.1},
   Key = {fds278721}
}

@article{fds278711,
   Author = {Craig, N and Aldenderfer, MS and Rigsby, CA and Baker, PA and Blanco,
             LF},
   Title = {Geologic constraints on rain-fed Qocha reservoir
             agricultural infrastructure, northern Lake Titicaca Basin,
             Peru},
   Journal = {Journal of Archaeological Science},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2897-2907},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0305-4403},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.05.005},
   Abstract = {This paper reports new data on qocha ponds from the Rio
             Pucara-Azángaro interfluvial zone, northern Lake Titicaca
             Basin, Peru. Qocha are a little known form of Andean
             agriculture that developed around 800-500 B.C. and remain in
             use today. Prior estimates suggested that in the study area,
             there were more than 25,000 qocha. While most Andean sunken
             beds are excavated to reach groundwater, qocha are rain-fed
             ponds. How these rain-fed ponds functioned has been an open
             question, but one that is answered in part by research
             presented in this paper. We suggest that a thick impermeable
             stratum of clay that was possibly deposited by paleolake
             "Minchin" created a perched water table that makes rain-fed
             qocha reservoir agriculture possible. Field geology shows
             that within the study area, this stratum only exists under
             Terrace E. Based on this model, we hypothesized that
             persistently used qocha should only be found on Terrace E.
             To test this hypothesis we used remotely sensed data to
             inventory qocha and to determine their distribution by each
             terrace present. We identified 11,737 qocha. By area 93.77%
             and by count 94.33% of the qocha are located on Terrace E.
             These results strongly supported our hypothesis. This case
             study illustrates that the long term viability of this form
             of agriculture is made possible by a physical context that
             is beyond human control. © 2011 Elsevier
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jas.2011.05.005},
   Key = {fds278711}
}

@article{fds278710,
   Author = {Li, W and Zhang, P and Ye, J and Li, L and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Impact of two different types of El Niño events on the
             Amazon climate and ecosystem productivity},
   Journal = {Journal of Plant Ecology},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {91-99},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1752-9921},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtq039},
   Abstract = {Aims The Amazon basin plays an important role in the global
             carbon budget. Interannual climate variability associated
             with El Niño can affect the Amazon ecosystem carbon
             balance. In recent years, studies have suggested that there
             are two different types of El Ninos: eastern-Pacific (EP) El
             Niño and central-Pacific (CP) El Niño. The impacts of two
             types of El Niño on the Amazon climate and Amazon ecosystem
             are analyzed in the study. Methods A composite method has
             been applied to highlight the common features for the EP-
             and CP-El Niño events using observational data, IPCC-AR4
             model output. Potential impacts of the two different types
             of El Niño on ecosystem carbon sequestration over the
             Amazon have been investigated using a process-based
             biogeochemical model, the Biome-BioGeochemical Cycles model
             (Biome-BGC). Important Findings Below-normal rainfall is
             observed year round in northern, central and eastern
             Amazonia during EP-El Niño years. During CP-El Niño years,
             negative rainfall anomalies are observed in most of the
             Amazon during the austral summer wet season, while there is
             average or above-average precipitation in other seasons. EP-
             and CP-El Niño events produce strikingly different
             precipitation anomaly pattern in the tropical and
             subtropical Andes during the austral fall season: wetter
             conditions prevail during EP-El Niño years and drier
             conditions during CP-El Niño years. Temperatures are
             above-average year round throughout tropical South America
             during EP-El Niño events, especially during austral summer.
             During CP-El Niño events, average or slightly above-average
             temperatures prevail in the tropics, but these temperatures
             are less extreme than EP year's temperature except in
             austral fall. These precipitation and temperature anomalies
             influence ecosystem productivity and carbon sequestration
             throughout the Amazon. Using the Biome-BGC model, we find
             that net ecosystem production (NEP) in the EP-El Niño years
             is below average, in agreement with most previous studies;
             such results indicate that the Amazon region acts as a net
             carbon source to the atmosphere during EP-El Niño years. In
             the CP-El Niño years, NEP does not differ significantly
             from its climatological value, suggesting that the Amazon
             forest remains a carbon sink for the atmosphere. Thus, even
             if CP-El Niño events increase in frequency or amplitude
             under global warming climate as predicted in some Global
             Climate Models, the Amazon rainforest may remain a carbon
             sink to the atmosphere during El Niño years in the near
             future. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University
             Press on behalf of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy
             of Sciences and the Botanical Society of
             China.},
   Doi = {10.1093/jpe/rtq039},
   Key = {fds278710}
}

@article{fds278723,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Ekdahl, E and Seltzer, GO and Stevens,
             LR},
   Title = {Millennial-scale climate variability during the Last Glacial
             period in the tropical Andes},
   Journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {1017-1024},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0277-3791},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.01.001},
   Abstract = {Millennial-scale climate variation during the Last Glacial
             period is evident in many locations worldwide, but it is
             unclear if such variation occurred in the interior of
             tropical South America, and, if so, how the low-latitude
             variation was related to its high-latitude counterpart. A
             high-resolution record, derived from the deep drilling of
             sediments on the floor of Lake Titicaca in the southern
             tropical Andes, is presented that shows clear evidence of
             millennial-scale climate variation between ∼60 and 20 ka
             BP. This variation is manifested by alternations of two
             interbedded sedimentary units. The two units have
             distinctive sedimentary, geochemical, and paleobiotic
             properties that are controlled by the relative abundance of
             terrigenous or nearshore components versus pelagic
             components. The sediments of more terrigenous or nearshore
             nature likely were deposited during regionally wetter
             climates when river transport of water and sediment was
             higher, whereas the sediments of more pelagic character were
             deposited during somewhat drier climates regionally. The
             majority of the wet periods inferred from the Lake Titicaca
             sediment record are correlated with the cold events in the
             Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment cores,
             indicating that increased intensity of the South American
             summer monsoon was part of near-global scale climate
             excursions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.01.001},
   Key = {fds278723}
}

@article{fds278724,
   Author = {Toney, JL and Huang, Y and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Grimm, E and Nyren,
             P},
   Title = {Climatic and environmental controls on the occurrence and
             distributions of long chain alkenones in lakes of the
             interior United States},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1563-1578},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2009.11.021},
   Abstract = {Long chain alkenones (LCA) are temperature-sensitive lipids
             with great potential for quantitative reconstruction of past
             continental climate. We conducted the first survey for
             alkenone biomarkers from 55 different lakes in the Northern
             Great Plains and Nebraska Sand Hills of the United States.
             Among those surveyed, we found 13 lakes that contain LCAs in
             the surface sediments. The highest concentrations of
             alkenones in sediments are found in cold (mean annual air
             temperature ∼11 °C versus 17 °C in our warmest sites),
             brackish to mesosaline (salinity = 8.5-9.7 g/L), and
             alkaline (pH = 8.4-9.0) lakes with high concentrations of
             sodium and sulfate. The dynamics of stratification and
             nutrient availability also appear to play a role in LCA
             abundance, as early spring mixing promotes a bloom of
             alkenone-producing haptophytes. Four of the
             alkenone-containing sites contain the C37:4 alkenone;
             however, we discovered an unprecedented lacustrine alkenone
             distribution in a cluster of lakes, with a total absence of
             C37:4 alkenone. We attribute this unusual composition to a
             different haptophyte species and show that the
             sulfate:carbonate ratio may control the occurrence of these
             two distinct populations. We created a new in-situ
             temperature calibration for lacustrine sites that contain
             C37:4 using a water-column calibration from Lake George, ND
             and show that U37K is linearly correlated to lake water
             temperature (R2 = 0.74), but U37K′ is not. A number of
             lakes contain an unidentified compound series that elutes
             close to the LCAs, highlighting the importance of routine
             GC-MS examination prior to using lacustrine LCAs for
             paleotemperature reconstructions. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gca.2009.11.021},
   Key = {fds278724}
}

@article{fds278715,
   Author = {Craig, N and Aldenderfer, M and Rigsby, C and Baker, P and Flores,
             L},
   Title = {Geologic constraints on a form of sustainable agriculture: a
             remote sensing inventory of rain fed q'ocha agricultural
             infrastructure, northern Lake Titicaca Basin,
             Peru},
   Journal = {Latin American Antiquity},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds278715}
}

@article{fds278719,
   Author = {Toney, J and Huang, Y and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Grimm, EC and Nyren,
             PE},
   Title = {Holocene spring temperature in the Northern Great Plains,
             U.S and shifting boundary conditions},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds278719}
}

@article{fds278720,
   Author = {Li, W and Zhang, P and Ye, J and Li, L and Baker, P},
   Title = {Impacts of the two types of El Nino Events on the Amazon
             forest},
   Journal = {Journal of Plant Ecology},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds278720}
}

@article{fds278726,
   Author = {Rigsby, CA and Hemric, EM and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Late Quaternary Paleohydrology of the Madre de Dios River,
             southwestern Amazon Basin, Peru},
   Journal = {Geomorphology},
   Volume = {113},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {158-172},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0169-555X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.11.017},
   Abstract = {Late Quaternary climatic and hydrologic variability
             triggered changes in fluvial deposition and erosion along
             the course of the Madre de Dios River, Peru, the largest
             tributary basin of the Madeira basin, itself the largest
             tributary basin of the Amazon. Three laterally extensive,
             Quaternary-age, terrace tracts are present within the Madre
             de Dios basin. Analysis of sedimentary facies, present in
             the modern cut banks and terraced sequences, along with
             radiocarbon dates on fossil wood and leaf material preserved
             in the terraced strata, allow reconstruction of the Late
             Quaternary depositional history of the sedimentary
             sequences, including determination of the approximate timing
             of aggradation and downcutting episodes and its relationship
             to the timing of past climate change in this portion of the
             Amazon basin and beyond. The Quaternary sediments underlying
             the terraces most often recorded deposition in a
             coarse-grained meandering fluvial system. The T3 terrace,
             the highest terrace, is underlain by the Miocene (?) Ipururi
             Formation, which is unconformably overlain by the late
             Miocene-Pleistocene (?) (> 48,000 cal yrs BP) Madre de Dios
             Formation, a multistory coarse-sandy to gravelly channel and
             point bar complex. The latter was downcut before 29,850 ±
             100 cal yrs BP. This downcut landscape was infilled by
             meandering fluvial strata characterized by gravelly channel
             deposits in a sequence dominated by floodplain and lateral
             accretion deposits. These strata were in turn downcut to
             form the T2 terrace before 11,970 ± 100 cal yrs BP. A
             third episode of aggradation resulted in the deposition of a
             sand-dominated meandering channel complex that infilled the
             T2 valley and was subsequently downcut after 3780 ± 50 cal
             yrs BP. This most recent terrace is infilled by the modern
             fluvial sediment, which has been actively aggrading since at
             least 870 ± 50 cal yrs BP. Importantly, the Madre de Dios
             fluvial system actively aggraded between 30,000 and
             25,000 cal yrs BP, (and likely much younger, as dated
             samples were, thus far, only found near the base of the T2
             sequence). This observation implies that some combination of
             (1) increased precipitation and decreased temperature, (2)
             decreased evapotranspiration and increased runoff, (3)
             increased Andean glacial erosion and increased sediment
             supply, and (4) decreased atmospheric CO2 (hence decreased
             rain-forest primary productivity and altered rain-forest
             physiology/ecology), entering the last glacial maximum
             period brought about increased floodplain deposition in the
             southwestern Amazon. Elsewhere in the Amazon basin few, if
             any, fluvial sediments of this age range have been observed.
             The start of the next major phase of aggradation coincided
             with the Younger Dryas and suggested that floodplain
             sedimentation in the lowlands was again related to cold and
             wet conditions in the adjacent highlands (and perhaps in the
             lowlands as well) and that Madre de Dios history was also
             tied to large-scale global climate. This aggradation may
             have continued throughout the early and mid-Holocene, until
             at least 3,780 cal yr BP. If so (and this is uncertain),
             this episode of sedimentation took place during a dry
             period. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.geomorph.2008.11.017},
   Key = {fds278726}
}

@article{fds278709,
   Author = {Latrubesse, EM and Baker, PA and Argollo, J},
   Title = {Geomorphology of Natural Hazards and Human-induced Disasters
             in Bolivia},
   Journal = {Developments in Earth Surface Processes},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {181-194},
   Booktitle = {Geomorphology of Natural Hazards and Human-Exacerbated
             Disasters in Latin America,},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0928-2025},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0928-2025(08)10010-4},
   Abstract = {Bolivia is a large and diverse nation in its geography, its
             culture, and its economy. Poverty levels are high throughout
             the nation, with a large part of the population having only
             limited access to essential services, including education,
             health, and sound housing. In 2007, Bolivia was ranked 117th
             out of 177 countries on the Human Development Index, a
             standardized measure combining life expectancy, literacy,
             education, and overall standard of living (UNDP, 2007). This
             is the third lowest index in the Western Hemisphere. Because
             of these socioeconomic conditions, Bolivia is highly
             vulnerable to hazards, both natural and man-made. The
             political, economic, and physical geography of Bolivia has
             been thoroughly reviewed by Montes de Oca (1997). Although
             Bolivia is in a tectonically and volcanically active region,
             neither seismic nor volcanic events have historically
             produced as large an impact (measured by total loss of life
             or livelihood) as have hydrometeorological events, including
             floods, landslides, droughts, and frost. Climate change is
             predicted to increase future temperatures in all parts of
             the nation, further accelerating the loss of mountain
             glaciers and snowpack and exacerbating the impact of drought
             in semiarid agricultural regions. Predictions of future
             precipitation changes vary according to the particular
             climate model, but the most robust result points to a
             possible increase in the intensity of wet-season
             precipitation (more wet days per year) over large parts of
             Amazonia and southern South America (IPCC, 2007, p. 896).
             The latter would increase the flooding hazard of much of
             lowland Bolivia that has already been subjected to
             widespread flooding for the past three years (2006-2008). ©
             2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0928-2025(08)10010-4},
   Key = {fds278709}
}

@article{fds278727,
   Author = {Leavitt, PR and Fritz, SC and Anderson, NJ and Baker, PA and Blenckner,
             T and Bunting, L and Catalan, J and Conley, DJ and Hobbs, WO and Jeppesen,
             E and Korhola, A and McGowan, S and Rühland, K and Rusak, JA and Simpson,
             GL and Solovieva, N and Werneo, J},
   Title = {Paleolimnological evidence of the effects on lakes of energy
             and mass transfer from climate and humans},
   Journal = {Limnology and Oceanography},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {6 PART 2},
   Pages = {2330-2348},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0024-3590},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.2009.54.6_part_2.2330},
   Abstract = {The premise of this article is that climate effects on lakes
             can be quantified most effectively by the integration of
             process-oriented limnological studies with paleolimnological
             research, particularly when both disciplines operate within
             a common conceptual framework. To this end, the energy
             (E)-mass (m) flux framework (Em flux) is developed and
             applied to selected retrospective studies to demonstrate
             that climate variability regulates lake structure and
             function over diverse temporal and spatial scales through
             four main pathways: rapid direct transfer of E to the lake
             surface by irradiance, heat, and wind; slow indirect effects
             of E via changes in terrestrial development and subsequent m
             subsidies to lakes; direct influx of m as precipitation,
             particles, and solutes from the atmosphere; and indirect
             influx of water, suspended particles, and dissolved
             substances from the catchment. Sedimentary analyses are used
             to illustrate the unique effects of each pathway on lakes
             but suggest that interactions among mechanisms are complex
             and depend on the landscape position of lakes, catchment
             characteristics, the range of temporal variation of
             individual pathways, ontogenetic changes in lake basins, and
             the selective effects of humans on m transfers. In
             particular, preliminary synthesis suggests that m influx can
             overwhelm the direct effects of E transfer to lakes,
             especially when anthropogenic activities alter m subsidies
             from catchments. © 2009, by the American Society of
             Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.4319/lo.2009.54.6_part_2.2330},
   Key = {fds278727}
}

@article{fds173021,
   Author = {Craig, N. and Aldenderfer, M. and Baker, P. and Rigsby,
             C.},
   Title = {Terminal Archaic Settlement Pattern and Land Cover Change in
             the Rio Ilave, Southwestern Lake Titicaca Basin,
             Perú.},
   Booktitle = {The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds173021}
}

@article{fds278722,
   Author = {Jenkins, HS and Baker, P and Guilderson, TP},
   Title = {Extreme drought events revealed in Amazon tree ring
             records},
   Journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds278722}
}

@article{fds278725,
   Author = {Williams, HL and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Carbon cap and trade: How Wall Street will game the regs and
             trash the planet},
   Journal = {Counterpunch (Online)},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds278725}
}

@article{fds278708,
   Author = {Ekdahl, EJ and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Rigsby, CA and Coley,
             K},
   Title = {Holocene multidecadal- to millennial-scale hydrologic
             variability on the South American Altiplano},
   Journal = {The Holocene},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {867-876},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0959-6836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959683608093524},
   Abstract = {Precipitation on the South American Altiplano varies at a
             range of temporal scales. A long-term secular increase in
             moisture availability from the early/mid Holocene to the
             present, driven by increasing summer insolation resulting
             from precessional changes in the Earth's orbit, has been
             documented in earlier studies. However, higher frequency
             Holocene variability is not yet understood. Here we present
             high-resolution diatom assemblage data from two small
             Altiplano lakes, Lago Lagunillas and Lago Umayo, indicating
             changes in effective moisture in the southern tropical Andes
             at decadal, centennial and millennial timescales throughout
             the mid to late Holocene. A strong millennial-scale
             component, similar in pacing to periods of increased
             ice-rafted debris flux in the North Atlantic, is observed in
             both lake records, which suggests that regional
             precipitation and North Atlantic climate variability are
             coupled at these scales. The interpretation of the higher
             frequency variability is hampered by the small number of
             high-resolution continental and marine records for
             comparison. © 2008 SAGE Publications.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0959683608093524},
   Key = {fds278708}
}

@article{fds278707,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Ballantyne, A and Tapia, P and Cheng, H and Edwards, RL},
   Title = {Corrigendum to "Quaternary glaciation and hydrologic
             variation in the South American tropics as reconstructed
             from the Lake Titicaca drilling project" [Quaternary
             Research 68 (2007) 410-420] (DOI:10.1016/j.yqres.2007.07.008)},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {342},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0033-5894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2008.01.004},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yqres.2008.01.004},
   Key = {fds278707}
}

@article{fds278706,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Ballantyne, A and Tapia, P and Cheng, H and Edwards, RL},
   Title = {Quaternary glaciation and hydrologic variation in the South
             American tropics as reconstructed from the Lake Titicaca
             drilling project},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {410-420},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-5894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2007.07.008},
   Abstract = {A 136-m-long drill core of sediments was recovered from
             tropical high-altitude Lake Titicaca, Bolivia-Peru, enabling
             a reconstruction of past climate that spans four cycles of
             regional glacial advance and retreat and that is estimated
             to extend continuously over the last 370,000 yr. Within the
             errors of the age model, the periods of regional glacial
             advance and retreat are concordant respectively with global
             glacial and interglacial stages. Periods of ice advance in
             the southern tropical Andes generally were periods of
             positive water balance, as evidenced by deeper and fresher
             conditions in Lake Titicaca. Conversely, reduced glaciation
             occurred during periods of negative water balance and
             shallow closed-basin conditions in the lake. The apparent
             coincidence of positive water balance of Lake Titicaca and
             glacial growth in the adjacent Andes with Northern
             Hemisphere ice sheet expansion implies that regional water
             balance and glacial mass balance are strongly influenced by
             global-scale temperature changes, as well as by precessional
             forcing of the South American summer monsoon. © 2007
             University of Washington.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yqres.2007.07.008},
   Key = {fds278706}
}

@article{fds278704,
   Author = {Ballantyne, AP and Rybczynski, N and Baker, PA and Harington, CR and White, D},
   Title = {Pliocene Arctic temperature constraints from the growth
             rings and isotopic composition of fossil
             larch},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {242},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {188-200},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.05.016},
   Abstract = {Instrumental records reveal that the current rate of Arctic
             warming greatly exceeds mean global warming. However, Arctic
             temperatures during the Pliocene were considerably warmer
             than present, making it an excellent time period for
             investigating potential consequences of current warming
             trends. Here we focus on an early Pliocene (4 to 5 Ma) peat
             deposit from Ellesmere Island, characterized by a remarkable
             fossil assemblage representative of a modern boreal forest.
             Among the fossils are well-preserved samples of an extinct
             larch (Larix groenlandii), which were exploited as an
             archive of paleoclimatic information. We reconstruct
             Pliocene terrestrial temperatures in the high Arctic using a
             novel approach that combines measurements of ring-width and
             oxygen isotopes. This technique was calibrated by analyzing
             modern analog larch growing at the northern extent of their
             range and accounting for biotic fractionation of oxygen
             isotopes using a global database of modern trees. Based on
             this approach, we estimated mean annual temperature in the
             Arctic during the Pliocene to be - 5.5 ± 1.9 °C,
             indicating that Arctic temperatures were 14.2 °C warmer
             than today. This more precise multi-proxy estimate is
             slightly warmer than previous estimates derived from
             empirical evidence and general circulation models. Our
             results also demonstrate that the biotic fractionation of
             oxygen isotopes in cellulose is non-linear and dependent
             upon regional factors affecting aridity, such as latitude
             and elevation. Therefore the simultaneous measurement of
             oxygen isotopes and morphological characteristics in
             paleovegetation can be useful in constraining climatic
             variables of Earth's past. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.05.016},
   Key = {fds278704}
}

@article{fds278705,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Tapia, P and Garland,
             J},
   Title = {Spatial and temporal variation in cores from Lake Titicaca,
             Bolivia/Peru during the last 13,000 yrs},
   Journal = {Quaternary International},
   Volume = {158},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-29},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1040-6182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2006.05.014},
   Abstract = {We compared the stratigraphy of sediment cores that span the
             last 13,000 yrs from three sites in the main basin of Lake
             Titicaca, Boliva/Peru as indicators of regional
             paleoclimate. The cores show similar patterns of change
             after ∼6400 calendar yrs before present (cal yr BP) but
             differ before that time. Site NE98-PC2, which is near the
             Rio Illave and its delta, shows differences in diatom
             species composition and in calcium carbonate concentrations
             relative to cores from the other two sites, particularly
             during times of inferred high precipitation. In contrast,
             the carbon isotopic stratigraphy of the three sites is
             relatively similar. The magnetic susceptibility data suggest
             that the proximity of site NE98-PC2 to the river and delta
             resulted in higher loads of detrital sediment prior to 6400
             yr BP, whereas pelagic sources contributed most of the
             sediment at the other sites. These differences highlight the
             potential for spatial heterogeneity of sediment records in
             large lake systems and the importance of evaluating multiple
             cores for robust interpretation of paleoenvironmental
             history. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.quaint.2006.05.014},
   Key = {fds278705}
}

@article{fds278702,
   Author = {Rigsby, CA and Bradbury, JP and Baker, PA and Rollins, SM and Warren,
             MR},
   Title = {Late Quaternary palaeolakes, rivers, and wetlands on the
             Bolivian Altiplano and their palaeoclimatic
             implications},
   Journal = {Journal of Quaternary Science},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {671-691},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0267-8179},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jqs.986},
   Abstract = {Drill cores of sediments from the Rio Desaguadero valley,
             Bolivia, provide new information about the climate of
             tropical South America over the past 50 000 years. The
             modern Rio Desaguadero is fed by Lake Titicaca overflow (and
             by local tributaries) in the wetter northern Altiplano and
             discharges into Lake Poopo in the more arid central
             Altiplano. During the late Quaternary the Rio Desaguadero
             valley was the site of several generations of palaeolakes
             and wetlands that formed during periods of increased
             precipitation and local runoff, augmented by increased
             overflow from Lake Titicaca. Sediments recovered by drilling
             in eight localities along the 390-km long valley of the Rio
             Desaguadero yield a regional history of lacustrine
             sedimentation and effective precipitation. Lacustrine strata
             in the drill cores record 12 distinct wet periods in the
             past 50 000 years. Four of these wet periods resulted in the
             formation of major palaeolakes in the Rio Desaguadero
             valley: during the last glacial maximum from before 20 000
             to 16 000 cal. yr BP, during the late glacial from about 14
             000 to 12 000 cal. yr BP, in the early Holocene from about
             10 000 to 7900 cal. yr BP, and in the late Holocene from
             4500 cal. yr BP to present. The period that appears to have
             been most arid was between 7900 and 4500 cal. yr BP. The
             Altiplano wet periods were generally synchronous with North
             Atlantic cold events (respectively, the last glacial
             maximum, the Younger Dryas, the 8200 cal. yr BP event, and
             the Neoglacial) implying a relationship between past
             precipitation variability in tropical South America and
             North Atlantic sea-surface temperature. Copyright © 2005
             John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jqs.986},
   Key = {fds278702}
}

@article{fds278703,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Garland, J and Ekdahl,
             E},
   Title = {Holocene hydrologic variation at Lake Titicaca,
             Bolivia/Peru, and its relationship to North Atlantic climate
             variation},
   Journal = {Journal of Quaternary Science},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {7-8},
   Pages = {655-662},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0267-8179},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jqs.987},
   Abstract = {A growing number of sites in the Northern Hemisphere show
             centennial- to millennial-scale climate variation that has
             been correlated with change in solar variability or with
             change in North Atlantic circulation. However, it is unclear
             how (or whether) these oscillations in the climate system
             are manifest in the Southern Hemisphere because of a lack of
             sites with suitably high sampling resolution. In this paper,
             we reconstruct the lake-level history of Lake Titicaca,
             using the carbon isotopic content of sedimentary organic
             matter, to evaluate centennial- to millennial-scale
             precipitation variation and its phasing relative to sites in
             the Northern Hemisphere. The pattern and timing of
             lake-level change in Lake Titicaca is similar to the
             ice-rafted debris record of Holocene Bond events,
             demonstrating a possible coupling between precipitation
             variation on the Altiplano and North Atlantic sea-surface
             temperatures (SSTs). The cold periods of the Holocene Bond
             events correspond with periods of increased precipitation on
             the Altiplano. Holocene precipitation variability on the
             Altiplano is anti-phased with respect to precipitation in
             the Northern Hemisphere monsoon region. More generally, the
             tropical Andes underwent large changes in precipitation on
             centennial-to-millennial timescales during the Holocene.
             Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jqs.987},
   Key = {fds278703}
}

@article{fds278714,
   Author = {Ballantyne, AP and Lavine, M and Crowley, TJ and Liu, J and Baker,
             PB},
   Title = {Meta-analysis of tropical surface temperatures during the
             Last Glacial Maximum},
   Journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Publisher = {American Geophysical Union (AGU)},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021217},
   Abstract = {The magnitude of tropical cooling during the Last Glacial
             Maximum (LGM) has been the subject of uncertainty for over
             25 years. We use principles of meta-analysis as an objective
             approach to reconcile estimates from different proxies. This
             approach treats each observation as a random estimate of the
             true mean and weights estimates by their reported precision.
             We assigned global uncertainties to proxies and derived a
             new regional standard deviation for temperatures calculated
             from the Sr/Ca ratio in tropical corals (σ = 1.4°C). Using
             a Bayesian spatial interpolation scheme, we estimate a mean
             cooling of LGM tropical sea surface temperatures of -2.7 ±
             0.5°C (±σ) and surface air temperatures of -5.4 ± 0.3°C
             (±σ). Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical
             Union.},
   Doi = {10.1029/2004GL021217},
   Key = {fds278714}
}

@article{fds278700,
   Author = {Chepstow-Lusty, A and Bush, MB and Frogley, MR and Baker, PA and Fritz,
             SC and Aronson, J},
   Title = {Vegetation and climate change on the Bolivian Altiplano
             between 108,000 and 18,000 yr ago},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {90-98},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-5894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yqres.2004.09.008},
   Abstract = {A 90,000-yr record of environmental change before 18,000 cal
             yr B.P. has been constructed using pollen analyses from a
             sediment core obtained from Salar de Uyuni (3653 m above sea
             level) on the Bolivian Altiplano. The sequence consists of
             alternating mud and salt, which reflect shifts between wet
             and dry periods. Low abundances of aquatic species between
             108,000 and 50,000 yr ago (such as Myriophyllum and
             Isoëtes) and marked fluctuations in Pediastrum suggest
             generally dry conditions dominated by saltpans. Between
             50,000 yr ago and 36,000 cal yr B.P., lacustrine sediments
             become increasingly dominant. The transition to the
             formation of paleolake "Minchin" begins with marked rises in
             Isoëtes and Myriophyllum, suggesting a lake of moderate
             depth. Similarly, between 36,000 and 26,000 cal yr B.P., the
             transition to paleolake Tauca is also initiated by rises in
             Isoëtes and Myriophyllum; the sustained presence of
             Isoëtes indicates the development of flooded littoral
             communities associated with a lake maintained at a higher
             water level. Polylepis tarapacana-dominated communities were
             probably an important component of the Altiplano terrestrial
             vegetation during much of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and
             previous wet phases. © 2004 University of Washington. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yqres.2004.09.008},
   Key = {fds278700}
}

@article{fds278701,
   Author = {Cronin, TM and Dowsett, HJ and Dwyer, GS and Baker, PA and Chandler,
             MA},
   Title = {Mid-Pliocene deep-sea bottom-water temperatures based on
             ostracode Mg/Ca ratios},
   Journal = {Marine Micropaleontology},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {249-261},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0377-8398},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/7000 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We studied magnesium:calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios in shells of the
             deep-sea ostracode genus Krithe from a short interval in the
             middle Pliocene between 3.29 and 2.97 Ma using deep-sea
             drilling sites in the North and South Atlantic in order to
             estimate bottom water temperatures (BWT) during a period of
             climatic warmth. Results from DSDP and ODP Sites 552A, 610A,
             607, 658A, 659A, 661A and 704 for the period Ma reveal both
             depth and latitudinal gradients of mean Mg/Ca values.
             Shallower sites (552A, 610A and 607) have higher mean Mg/Ca
             ratios (10.3, 9.7, 10.1 mmol/mol) than deeper sites (661A,
             6.3 mmol/mol), and high latitude North Atlantic sites (552A,
             610A, 607) have higher Mg/Ca ratios than low latitude (658A:
             9.8 mmol/mol, 659A: 7.7 mmol/mol, 661A: 6.3 mmol/mol) and
             Southern Ocean (704: 8.0 mmol/mol) sites. Converting Mg/Ca
             ratios into estimated temperatures using the calibration of
             Dwyer et al. (1995) [Dwyer, G.S., Cronin, T.M., Baker, P.A.,
             Raymo, M.E., Buzas, J.S., Corrège, T., 1995. North Atlantic
             deepwater temperature change during late Pliocene and late
             Quaternary climatic cycles. Science 270, 1347-1351] suggests
             that mean middle Pliocene bottom water temperatures at the
             study sites in the deep Atlantic were about the same as
             modern temperatures. However, brief pulses of elevated BWT
             occurred several times between 3.29 and 2.97 Ma in both the
             North and South Atlantic Ocean suggesting short-term changes
             in deep ocean circulation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.marmicro.2004.12.003},
   Key = {fds278701}
}

@article{fds278699,
   Author = {Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Lowenstein, TK and Seltzer, GO and Rigsby,
             CA and Dwyer, GS and Tapia, PM and Arnold, KK and Ku, TL and Luo,
             S},
   Title = {Hydrologic variation during the last 170,000 years in the
             southern hemisphere tropics of South America},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {95-104},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-5894},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6625 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Despite the hypothesized importance of the tropics in the
             global climate system, few tropical paleoclimatic records
             extend to periods earlier than the last glacial maximum
             (LGM), about 20,000 years before present. We present a
             well-dated 170,000-year time series of hydrologic variation
             from the southern hemisphere tropics of South America that
             extends from modern times through most of the penultimate
             glacial period. Alternating mud and salt units in a core
             from Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia reflect alternations between
             wet and dry periods. The most striking feature of the
             sequence is that the duration of paleolakes increased in the
             late Quaternary. This change may reflect increased
             precipitation, geomorphic or tectonic processes that
             affected basin hydrology, or some combination of both. The
             dominance of salt between 170,000 and 140,000 yr ago
             indicates that much of the penultimate glacial period was
             dry, in contrast to wet conditions in the LGM. Our analyses
             also suggest that the relative influence of insolation
             forcing on regional moisture budgets may have been stronger
             during the past 50,000 years than in earlier times. © 2003
             University of Washington. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yqres.2003.08.007},
   Key = {fds278699}
}

@article{fds278694,
   Author = {Grove, MJ and Baker, PA and Cross, SL and Rigsby, CA and Seltzer,
             GO},
   Title = {Application of strontium isotopes to understanding the
             hydrology and paleohydrology of the Altiplano,
             Bolivia-Peru},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {194},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {281-297},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00282-7},
   Abstract = {Strontium concentrations and strontium isotopic ratios were
             measured in natural waters and carbonate sediments from
             throughout the Bolivian and Peruvian Altiplano in order to
             improve hydrologic and paleohydrologic mass balances with
             the ultimate goal of better understanding the paleoclimatic
             history of the central Andes. Rivers flowing into Lake
             Titicaca have a wide range of strontium isotopic ratios that
             exhibit spatial patterns consistent with the lithologies of
             the different drainage basins. Because of the limited
             exchange of water between the two main sub-basins of Lake
             Titicaca, Lago Grande and Lago Huiñaimarca, and between the
             sub-basins of Lago Huiñaimarca, there are significant
             differences in strontium isotopic ratios between the
             sub-basins. Calculated elemental balances of strontium in
             Lake Titicaca are in reasonable agreement with previously
             published budgets of water and major elements. However, the
             strontium isotopic budget indicates that the lake is not in
             isotopic steady state. This also implies that the
             major-element budgets are unlikely to be in steady state.
             Lake Titicaca had a higher-than-modern strontium isotopic
             ratio during the early and middle Holocene. Elevated values
             persisted in Lago Grande until at least 2000 cal yr BP,
             consistent with other evidence that modern hydrologic
             conditions (namely overflow) were not established until that
             time. An isotopic budget calculated for late-Pleistocene
             paleolake Tauca in the central Altiplano suggests that
             between 70% and 83% of its riverine inputs were derived from
             Lake Titicaca overflow. This calculated flow represents
             about a 30-fold increase over the average discharge of the
             modern Río Desaguadero at Desaguadero or a seven-fold
             increase over its average discharge into Lago Poopó. The
             strontium isotopic budget (if complete) precludes the
             possibility that decreased evaporation alone could have
             accounted for the existence of paleolake Tauca. © 2003
             Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00282-7},
   Key = {fds278694}
}

@article{fds278695,
   Author = {Rigsby, CA and Baker, PA and Aldenderfer, MS},
   Title = {Fluvial history of the Rio Ilave valley, Peru, and its
             relationship to climate and human history},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {194},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {165-185},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00276-1},
   Abstract = {Fluvial strata and landforms in the Rio Ilave valley (Peru)
             document a history of Holocene aggradation and downcutting
             that is correlative with regional climatic events and
             provides an environmental context for human occupation of
             the river valley. Periods of aggradation correspond to
             periods of high (or rising) level in Lake Titicaca and
             elsewhere on the Altiplano, and increased sediment
             accumulation in the Rio Ilave valley. Downcutting episodes
             correspond to periods of low level in Lake Titicaca and low
             or rapidly decreasing sedimentation rates in the Ilave
             delta. There are five terrace tracts (T1 through T5) present
             in this southwestern Lake Titicaca tributary. These tracts
             occur as both paired and unpaired terraces and have average
             heights from 1.4 to 24.3 m above the valley floor. The major
             part of the fluvial sequence was deposited during the time
             period from prior to the Last Glacial Maximum until about
             8300 calendar years Before Present (cal BP) - a period of
             generally high (but variable) precipitation on the Altiplano
             and high water level in Lake Titicaca. Initial deposition
             (aggradation) was followed by successive downcutting to the
             T4 and T3 terrace surfaces. Initial downcutting began
             immediately after precipitation, runoff, and sediment load
             decreased while base level dropped. It was followed by a
             period of episodic equilibrium and minor downcutting that
             included a prolonged period of soil formation between ∼
             8350 and 6780 cal BP. The major pulses of downcutting likely
             occurred between ∼ 6000 and 4500 cal BP and were
             coincident with periods of decreased precipitation on the
             Altiplano and decreasing levels of Lake Titicaca. Two final
             periods of infilling, resulting in deposition of the T2 and
             T1 terrace sediments at ∼ 4000 to 2500 cal BP and ∼ 2000
             to 1600 cal BP (during periods of rising water level in Lake
             Titicaca, lacustrine sedimentation in the Rio Desaguadero
             valley, and increased sedimentation offshore the Ilave
             delta), were separated by brief equilibrium stages and a
             brief downcutting event. This fluvial history, when coupled
             with regional paleoclimatic data, relates to the region's
             preceramic through Tiwanaku-period archeological records.
             Archeological evidence indicates that humans occupied the
             Ilave valley as early as 10 000 cal BP. The higher terraces
             (T3, T4 and T5) were occupied for at least 5000 years, but
             humans did not utilize the lower terraces (T1 and T2) until
             after ∼ 4400-3700 cal BP. Our results confirm that these
             lower terraces would not have been available for either
             occupation or agriculture until after ∼ 4000 cal BP. ©
             2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00276-1},
   Key = {fds278695}
}

@article{fds278696,
   Author = {Tapia, PM and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Dunbar,
             RB},
   Title = {A late quaternary diatom record of tropical climatic history
             from Lake Titicaca (Peru and Bolivia)},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {194},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {139-164},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00275-X},
   Abstract = {A composite high-resolution diatom stratigraphy from three
             piston cores and one box-core in the deep sub-basin of Lake
             Titicaca reveals large moisture variations during the past
             30 kyr in the Altiplano region. Diatom sequences indicate
             orbital and millennial-scale variability in water level and
             salinity. The pelagic freshwater diatom species Cyclotella
             andina and Cyclotella stelligera dominate Glacial-age
             sediments, suggesting that the lake was above its present
             outlet, Generally, wet conditions continued until 11 000 cal
             yr BP, as indicated by high percentages of freshwater
             planktonic diatoms. Large pulses of benthic diatom species
             between about 11 000 and 10 000 cal yr BP suggest brief
             intervals of large-amplitude declines in lake level. During
             the early Holocene (10 000-8500 cal yr BP), a freshwater
             diatom assemblage suggests overflowing conditions. Pelagic
             freshwater diatoms are replaced ca, 8500 cal yr BP by the
             salinity-indifferent species Cyclotella meneghiniana and by
             benthic taxa, indicating the beginning of lake regression.
             During the mid-Holocene (6000-3500 cal yr BP), the abundance
             of the saline taxon Chaetoceros muelleri, coupled with high
             abundances of epiphytic and epipelic diatoms, indicates
             maximum salinity and lowest lake levels in the entire 30 000
             year record. Lake transgression began ca. 4000 cal yr BP,
             and the lake achieved modern levels by about 1500 cal yr BP.
             These water-level changes imply changes in effective
             moisture, most likely resulting from large precipitation
             changes. Precipitation was high throughout the Last Glacial
             Maximum (21 000-18 000 cal yr BP), likely due to an enhanced
             South American Summer Monsoon during peak summer insolation
             in the Southern Hemisphere. In contrast, the mid-Holocene
             transition was dryer than today in association with an
             austral summer insolation minimum and the subsequent
             weakening of the summer monsoon. © 2003 Elsevier Science
             B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00275-X},
   Key = {fds278696}
}

@article{fds278697,
   Author = {Paduano, GM and Bush, MB and Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Seltzer,
             GO},
   Title = {A vegetation and fire history of Lake Titicaca since the
             last glacial maximum},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {194},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {259-279},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00281-5},
   Abstract = {Fine-resolution fossil pollen and charcoal analyses
             reconstruct a vegetation and fire history in the area
             surrounding Lake Titicaca (3810 m, Peru/Bolivia) since ca,
             27 500 cal yr BP (hereafter BP). Time control was based on
             26 accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates.
             Seventeen AMS dates and 155 pollen and charcoal samples
             between ca. 17 500 BP and ca. 3100 BP allow a
             centennial-scale reconstruction of deglacial and early- to
             mid-Holocene events. Local and regional fire signals were
             based on the separation of two charcoal size fractions, ≥
             180 μm and 179-65 μm. Charcoal abundance correlated
             closely with the proportion of woody taxa present in the
             pollen spectra. Little or no pollen was detected in the
             sedimentary record prior to ca. 21 000 BP. Very cold
             climatic conditions prevailed, with temperatures suggested
             to be at least 5-8°C cooler than present. Increases in
             pollen concentration suggest initial warming at ca. 21 000
             BP with a more significant transition toward deglaciation
             ca. 17 700 BP. Between 17 700 BP and 13 700 BP, puna brava
             is progressively replaced by puna and sub-puna elements. The
             most significant changes between the Pleistocene and the
             Holocene floras were largely complete by 13 700 BP,
             providing an effective onset of near-modern conditions
             markedly earlier than in other Andean records. Fire first
             occurs in the catchment at ca. 17 700 BP and becomes
             progressively more important as fuel loads increase. No
             evidence is found of a rapid cooling and warming coincident
             with the Younger Dryas chron. A dry event between ca. 9000
             BP and 3100 BP, with a peak between 6000 and 4000 BP, is
             inferred from changes in the composition of aquatics, and
             the marsh community as pollen of Cyperaceae is replaced by
             Poaceae, Apiaceae, Plantago and the shrub Polylepis. Human
             disturbance of the landscape is evident in the pollen
             spectra after ca. 3100 BP with the appearance of weed
             species. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00281-5},
   Key = {fds278697}
}

@article{fds278640,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Bush, M and Fritz, S and Rigsby, CA and Seltzer, G and Silman, M},
   Title = {Last Glacial Maximum in an Andean cloud forest environment
             (Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia): Comment},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e26-e27},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of America},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613-31.1.e26},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613-31.1.e26},
   Key = {fds278640}
}

@article{fds278698,
   Author = {Rowe, HD and Guilderson, TP and Dunbar, RB and Southon, JR and Seltzer,
             GO and Mucciarone, DA and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Late Quaternary lake-level changes constrained by
             radiocarbon and stable isotope studies on sediment cores
             from Lake Titicaca, South America},
   Journal = {Global and Planetary Change},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {273-290},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0921-8181},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8181(03)00031-6},
   Abstract = {We present and compare AMS-14C geochronologies for sediment
             cores recovered from Lake Titicaca, South America.
             Radiocarbon dates from three core sites constrain the timing
             of late Quaternary paleoenvironmental changes in the Central
             Andes and highlight the site-specific factors that limit the
             radiocarbon geochronometer. With the exception of
             mid-Holocene sediments, all cores are generally devoid of
             macrophyte fragments, thus bulk organic fractions are used
             to build core chronologies. Comparisons of radiocarbon
             results for chemically defined fractions (bulk decalcified,
             humate, humin) suggest that ages derived from all fractions
             are generally coherent in the post-13,500 yr BP time
             interval. In the pre-13,500 yr BP time interval, ages
             derived from humate extracts are significantly younger
             (300-7000 years) than ages from paired humin residues. Gross
             age incoherencies between paired humate and humin
             sub-fractions in pre-13,500 yr BP sediments from all core
             sites probably reflect the net downward migration of
             humates. Ages derived from bulk decalcified fractions at our
             shallow water (90 m) and deep water (230 m) core sites
             consistently fall between ages derived from humate and humin
             sub-fractions in the pre-13,500 yr BP interval, reflecting
             that the bulk decalcified fraction is predominantly a
             mixture of humate and humin sub-fractions. Bulk decalcified
             ages from the pre-13,500 yr BP interval at our intermediate
             depth core site (150 m) are consistently older than humate
             (youngest) and humin sub-fractions. This uniform,
             reproducible pattern can be explained by the mobilization of
             a relatively older organic sub-fraction during and after the
             re-acidification step following the alkaline treatment of
             the bulk sediment. The inferred existence of this
             'alkali-mobile, acid-soluble' sub-fraction implies a
             different depositional/post-depositional history that is
             potentially associated with a difference in source material.
             While internally consistent geochronologies can be developed
             for the Lake Titicaca sequence using different organic
             fractions, mobile organic sub-fractions and fractions
             containing mobile sub-fractions should generally be avoided
             in geochronology studies. Consequently, we believe humin
             and/or bulk decalcified ages provide the most consistent
             chronologies for the post-13,500 yr BP interval, and humin
             ages provide the most representative ages for sedimentation
             prior to 13,500 yr BP interval. Using the age model derived
             from the deep water core site and a previously published
             isotope-based lake-level reconstruction, we present a
             qualitative record of lake level in the context of several
             ice-core records from the western hemisphere. We find the
             latest Pleistocene lake-level response to changing
             insolation began during or just prior to the
             Bølling/Allerød period. Using the isotope-based lake-level
             reconstruction, we also find the 85-m drop in lake level
             that occurred during the mid-Holocene was synchronous with
             an increase in the variability of ice-core δ18O from a
             nearby icecap, but was not reflected in any of the polar
             ice-core records recovered from the interior of Antarctica
             and Greenland. © 2003 Published by Elsevier
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0921-8181(03)00031-6},
   Key = {fds278698}
}

@article{fds278692,
   Author = {Gieskes, JM and Simoneit, BRT and Goodfellow, WD and Baker, PA and Mahn,
             C},
   Title = {Hydrothermal geochemistry of sediments and pore waters in
             Escanaba Trough - ODP Leg 169},
   Journal = {Applied Geochemistry},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1435-1456},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0883-2927},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00111-7},
   Abstract = {Geochemical studies of pore fluids and solid phases in two
             Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) drill sites (Sites 1037 and
             1038) in the Escanaba Trough off Northern California have
             provided further data on the hydrothermal processes
             associated with the spreading of the Gorda Ridge. Previous
             work in the area of ODP Site 1038 includes the discovery of
             a hydrothermal system and associated sulfide deposits
             centered around an uplifted sediment hill in this sedimented
             extensional environment. This earlier work provided some
             insights into the present nature of venting; however, only
             deep drilling investigations can provide the means to fully
             understand the genesis and evolution of this system and
             associated hydrothermal deposits. ODP Leg 169 is the third
             deep drilling operation to explore the magnitude, genesis,
             and evolution of hydrothermal systems on sedimented ridges.
             Previous studies centered on the Guaymas Basin in the Gulf
             of California and the Middle Valley in the NE Pacific Ocean.
             Pore water studies in the reference ODP Site 1037 and in the
             hydrothermally active area of ODP Site 1038 have revealed
             the presence of a complex system of hydrothermally
             originated fluids. Whereas the data in the reference site
             indicate recent hydrothermal activity in the basal part of
             the drill site, the evidence in Site 1038 suggests that
             fluids of hydrothermal origin spread out at shallow depths
             around the central hill, causing substantial sediment
             alteration as well as deposition of hydrothermal sulfides in
             the near surface zone of the sediments. A second major
             discovery at Site 1038 was the evidence for fluid phase
             separation at depth at temperatures possibly in excess of
             400°C. This conclusion is based on the presence of both low
             Cl and high Cl fluids. The latter appear to be advected
             rapidly towards the surface, presumably along cracks and
             faults. The low Cl fluids, however, appear to be transported
             laterally along sandy horizons in the sediments, thus
             signifying two very different migration pathways for high Cl
             and low Cl hydrothermally phase separated fluids. Studies of
             the organic geochemistry of dissolved gases and matured
             organic matter corroborate these findings of extensive
             hydrothermal alteration of the sediments. © 2002 Elsevier
             Science Ltd. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00111-7},
   Key = {fds278692}
}

@article{fds278693,
   Author = {Gieskes, JM and Simoneit, BRT and Shanks, WC and Goodfellow, WD and James, RH and Baker, PA and Ishibashi, JI},
   Title = {Geochemistry of fluid phases and sediments: Relevance to
             hydrothermal circulation in Middle Valley, ODP Legs 139 and
             169},
   Journal = {Applied Geochemistry},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1381-1399},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0883-2927},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00108-7},
   Abstract = {Geochemical and isotopic studies of pore fluids and solid
             phases recovered from the Dead Dog and Bent Hill
             hydrothermal sites in Middle Valley (Ocean Drilling Program
             Leg 169) have been compared with similar data obtained
             previously from these sites during Ocean Drilling Program
             Leg 139. Although generally the hydrothermal systems reflect
             non-steady state conditions, the data allow an assessment of
             the history of the hydrothermal processes. Sediment K/A1
             ratios as well as the distribution of anhydrite in the
             sediments suggest that the Dead Dog hydrothermal field has
             been, and still is, active. In contrast, similar data in the
             Bent Hill hydrothermal field indicate a waning of
             hydrothermal activity. Pore fluid and hydrothermal vent data
             in the Dead Dog hydrothermal field are similar in nature to
             the data collected during ODP Leg 139. In the area of the
             Bent Hill sulfide deposit, however, the pore water data
             indicate that recent wholesale flushing of the sediment
             column with relatively unaltered seawater has obliterated a
             previous record of hydrothermal activity in the pore fluids.
             Data from the deepest part of Hole 1035A in the Bent Hill
             locality show the presence of hydrothermal fluids at greater
             depths in this area. This suggests the origin of the
             hydrothermal fluids found to be emanating from Hole 1035F,
             which constitutes one of the first man made hydrothermal
             vents in the Middle Valley hydrothermal system. Similarly,
             CORKed Hole 858G, because of seal failures, has acted as a
             hydrothermal vent, with sulfide deposits forming inside the
             CORK. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0883-2927(02)00108-7},
   Key = {fds278693}
}

@article{fds328725,
   Author = {Seltzer, GO and Rodbell, DT and Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Tapia, PM and Rowe, HD and Dunbar, RB},
   Title = {Early deglaciation in the tropical Andes -
             Response},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {298},
   Number = {5591},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   Key = {fds328725}
}

@article{fds278691,
   Author = {Seltzer, GO and Rodbell, DT and Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Tapia, PM and Rowe, HD and Dunbar, RB},
   Title = {Early warming of tropical South America at the last
             glacial-interglacial transition.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {296},
   Number = {5573},
   Pages = {1685-1686},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1070136},
   Abstract = {Glaciation in the humid tropical Andes is a sensitive
             indicator of mean annual temperature. Here, we present
             sedimentological data from lakes beyond the glacial limit in
             the tropical Andes indicating that deglaciation from the
             Last Glacial Maximum led substantial warming at high
             northern latitudes. Deglaciation from glacial maximum
             positions at Lake Titicaca, Peru/Bolivia (16 degrees S), and
             Lake Junin, Peru (11 degrees S), occurred 22,000 to 19,500
             calendar years before the present, several thousand years
             before the Bølling-Allerød warming of the Northern
             Hemisphere and deglaciation of the Sierra Nevada, United
             States (36.5 degrees to 38 degrees N). The tropical Andes
             deglaciated while climatic conditions remained regionally
             wet, which reflects the dominant control of mean annual
             temperature on tropical glaciation.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1070136},
   Key = {fds278691}
}

@article{fds278690,
   Author = {D'Agostino, K and Seltzer, G and Baker, P and Fritz, S and Dunbar,
             R},
   Title = {Late-Quaternary lowstands of Lake Titicaca: Evidence from
             high-resolution seismic data},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {179},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {97-111},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00411-4},
   Abstract = {Approximately 600 km of high-resolution seismic reflection
             data were collected to investigate the late-Quaternary
             stratigraphic development of Lake Titicaca. The focus of
             this report is on two seismic sequence boundaries, which are
             interpreted as erosional surfaces formed at times of low
             lake level. The younger erosional surface occurs as much as
             90 m below the present lake level and up to 8 m below the
             present sediment-water interface. This erosional surface is
             interpreted to be coeval with a well-documented early- to
             mid-Holocene lowstand, dated between ∼ 8000 and 3600 cal
             yr BP. An earlier and previously unknown erosional surface
             occurs at a sub-bottom depth of approximately 30 m, and as
             much as 240 m below the present lake level, which implies a
             major late-Pleistocene lowstand of Lake Titicaca. By
             extrapolation of sedimentation rates from the upper ∼ 14 m
             of sediment, we estimate the age of this older lowstand at >
             90000 cal yr BP. Both lowstands of Lake Titicaca indicated
             by the seismic data are likely to have been a response to
             climatic change in the region. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00411-4},
   Key = {fds278690}
}

@article{fds278689,
   Author = {Baker, PA},
   Title = {Paleoclimate. Trans-Atlantic climate connections.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {296},
   Number = {5565},
   Pages = {67-68},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11935013},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1071162},
   Key = {fds278689}
}

@article{fds278688,
   Author = {Rowe, HD and Dunbar, RB and Mucciarone, DA and Seltzer, GO and Baker,
             PA and Fritz, S},
   Title = {Insolation, moisture balance and climate change on the South
             American Altiplano since the Last Glacial
             Maximum},
   Journal = {Climatic Change},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {175-199},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0165-0009},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013090912424},
   Abstract = {Sediment cores from Lake Titicaca contain proxy records of
             past lake level and hydrologic change on the South American
             Altiplano. Large downcore shifts in the isotopic composition
             of organic carbon, C/N, wt. %Corg, %CaCO3, and % biogenic
             silica illustrate the dynamic changes in lake level that
             occurred during the past 20,000 years. The first cores taken
             from water depths greater than 50 meters in the northern
             subbasin of the lake are used to develop and extend the
             paleolake-level record back to the Last Glacial Maximum
             (LGM). Quantitative estimates of lake level are developed
             using transfer functions based on the δ13C of modern
             lacustrine organic sources and the δ13C of modern
             sedimented organic matter from core-tops. Lake level was
             slightly higher than modern during much of the post-LGM
             (20,000-13,500 yr BP) and lake water was fresh under the
             associated outflow conditions. The Pleistocene/Holocene
             transition (13,500-7,500 yr BP) was a period of gradual
             regression, punctuated by minor trangressions. Following a
             brief highstand at about 7250 yr BP, lake level dropped
             rapidly to 85 m below the modern level, reaching maximum
             lowstand conditions by 6250 yr BP. Lake level increased
             rapidly between 5000 yr BP and 4000 yr BP, and less rapidly
             between 4000 yr BP and 1500 yr BP. Lake level remained
             relatively high throughout the latest Holocene with only
             minor fluctuations (< 12 meters). Orbitally induced changes
             in solar insolation, coupled with long-term changes in El
             Niño-Southern Oscillation variability, are the most likely
             driving forces behind millennial-scale shifts in lake level
             that reflect regional-scale changes in the moisture balance
             of the Atlantic-Amazon-Altiplano hydrologic
             system.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1013090912424},
   Key = {fds278688}
}

@article{fds278684,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Fritz, SC and Seltzer, GO},
   Title = {Lake Titicaca: An archive of South American
             paleoclimate},
   Journal = {Geotimes},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {20-21},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0016-8556},
   Key = {fds278684}
}

@article{fds278686,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Rigsby, CA and Seltzer, GO and Fritz, SC and Lowenstein,
             TK and Bacher, NP and Veliz, C},
   Title = {Tropical climate changes at millennial and orbital
             timescales on the Bolivian Altiplano.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {409},
   Number = {6821},
   Pages = {698-701},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11217855},
   Abstract = {Tropical South America is one of the three main centres of
             the global, zonal overturning circulation of the equatorial
             atmosphere (generally termed the 'Walker' circulation).
             Although this area plays a key role in global climate
             cycles, little is known about South American climate
             history. Here we describe sediment cores and down-hole
             logging results of deep drilling in the Salar de Uyuni, on
             the Bolivian Altiplano, located in the tropical Andes. We
             demonstrate that during the past 50,000 years the Altiplano
             underwent important changes in effective moisture at both
             orbital (20,000-year) and millennial timescales.
             Long-duration wet periods, such as the Last Glacial
             Maximum--marked in the drill core by continuous deposition
             of lacustrine sediments--appear to have occurred in phase
             with summer insolation maxima produced by the Earth's
             precessional cycle. Short-duration, millennial events
             correlate well with North Atlantic cold events, including
             Heinrich events 1 and 2, as well as the Younger Dryas
             episode. At both millennial and orbital timescales, cold sea
             surface temperatures in the high-latitude North Atlantic
             were coeval with wet conditions in tropical South America,
             suggesting a common forcing.},
   Doi = {10.1038/35055524},
   Key = {fds278686}
}

@article{fds278685,
   Author = {Cross, SL and Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Fritz, SC and Dunbar,
             RB},
   Title = {Late quaternary climate and hydrology of tropical South
             America inferred from an isotopic and chemical model of Lake
             Titicaca, Bolivia and Peru},
   Journal = {Quaternary Research},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-5894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/qres.2001.2244},
   Abstract = {A simple mass balance model provides insight into the
             hydrologic, isotopic, and chemical responses of Lake
             Titicaca to past climatic changes. Latest Pleistocene
             climate of the Altiplano is assumed to have been 20% wetter
             and 5°C colder than today, based on previous modeling. Our
             simulation of lacustrine change since 15,000 cal yr B.P. is
             forced by these modeled climate changes. The latest
             Pleistocene Lake Titicaca was deep, fresh, and overflowing.
             The latest Pleistocene riverine discharge from the lake was
             about 8 times greater than the modern average, sufficient to
             allow the expansion of the great paleolake Tauca on the
             central Altiplano. The lake δ18O value averaged about -
             13‰ SMOW (the modern value is about -4.2‰). The early
             Holocene decrease in precipitation caused Lake Titicaca to
             fall below its outlet and contributed to a rapid desiccation
             of paleolake Tauca. Continued evaporation caused the 100-m
             drop in lake level, but only a slight (1-2‰) increase
             (relative to modern) in δ18O of early Holocene lake waters.
             This Holocene lowstand level of nearly 100 m was most likely
             produced by a precipitation decrease, relative to modern, of
             about 40%. The lake was saline as recently as 2000 cal yr
             B.P. The timing of these hydrologic changes is in general
             agreement with calculated changes of insolation forcing of
             the South American summer monsoon. © 2001 University of
             Washington.},
   Doi = {10.1006/qres.2001.2244},
   Key = {fds278685}
}

@article{fds278687,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Fritz, SC and Dunbar, RB and Grove, MJ and Tapia, PM and Cross, SL and Rowe, HD and Broda, JP},
   Title = {The history of South American tropical precipitation for the
             past 25,000 years.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {291},
   Number = {5504},
   Pages = {640-643},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11158674},
   Abstract = {Long sediment cores recovered from the deep portions of Lake
             Titicaca are used to reconstruct the precipitation history
             of tropical South America for the past 25,000 years. Lake
             Titicaca was a deep, fresh, and continuously overflowing
             lake during the last glacial stage, from before 25,000 to
             15,000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr B.P.),
             signifying that during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the
             Altiplano of Bolivia and Peru and much of the Amazon basin
             were wetter than today. The LGM in this part of the Andes is
             dated at 21,000 cal yr B.P., approximately coincident with
             the global LGM. Maximum aridity and lowest lake level
             occurred in the early and middle Holocene (8000 to 5500 cal
             yr B.P.) during a time of low summer insolation. Today,
             rising levels of Lake Titicaca and wet conditions in
             Amazonia are correlated with anomalously cold sea-surface
             temperatures in the northern equatorial Atlantic. Likewise,
             during the deglacial and Holocene periods, there were
             several millennial-scale wet phases on the Altiplano and in
             Amazonia that coincided with anomalously cold periods in the
             equatorial and high-latitude North Atlantic, such as the
             Younger Dryas.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.291.5504.640},
   Key = {fds278687}
}

@article{fds322136,
   Author = {Dwyer, GS and Cronin, TM and Baker, PA and Rodriguez-Lazaro,
             J},
   Title = {Changes in North Atlantic deep-sea temperature during
             climatic fluctuations of the last 25,000 years based on
             ostracode Mg/Ca ratios},
   Journal = {Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {n/a-n/a},
   Publisher = {American Geophysical Union (AGU)},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GC000046},
   Abstract = {© Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union. We
             reconstructed three time series of last glacial-to-present
             deep-sea temperature from deep and intermediate water
             sediment cores from the western North Atlantic using Mg/Ca
             ratios of benthic ostracode shells. Although the Mg/Ca data
             show considerable variability ("scatter") that is common to
             single-shell chemical analyses, comparisons between cores,
             between core top shells and modern bottom water temperatures
             (BWT), and comparison to other paleo-BWT proxies, among
             other factors, suggest that multiple-shell average Mg/Ca
             ratios provide reliable estimates of BWT history at these
             sites. The BWT records show not only glacial-to-interglacial
             variations but also indicate BWT changes during the
             deglacial and within the Holocene interglacial stage. At the
             deeper sites (4500- and 3400-m water depth), BWT decreased
             during the last glacial maximum (LGM), the late Holocene,
             and possibly during the Younger Dryas. Maximum deep-sea
             warming occurred during the latest deglacial and early
             Holocene, when BWT exceeded modern values by as much as
             2.5°C. This warming was apparently most intense around 3000
             m, the depth of the modern-day core of North Atlantic deep
             water (NADW). The BWT variations at the deeper water sites
             are consistent with changes in thermohaline circulation:
             warmer BWT signifies enhanced NADW influence relative to
             Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Thus maximum NADW production
             and associated heat flux likely occurred during the early
             Holocene and decreased abruptly around 6500 years B.P., a
             finding that is largely consistent with paleonutrient
             studies in the deep North Atlantic. BWT changes in
             intermediate waters (1000-m water depth) of the subtropical
             gyre roughly parallel the deep BWT variations including
             dramatic mid-Holocene cooling of around 4°C. Joint
             consideration of the Mg/Ca-based BWT estimates and benthic
             oxygen isotopes suggests that the cooling was accompanied by
             a decrease in salinity at this site. Subsequently,
             intermediate waters warmed to modern values that match those
             of the early Holocene maximum of ∼7°C. Intermediate water
             BWT changes must also be driven by changes in ocean
             circulation. These results thus provide independent evidence
             that supports the hypothesis that deep-ocean circulation is
             closely linked to climate change over a range of timescales
             regardless of the mean climate state. More generally, the
             results further demonstrate the potential of benthic Mg/Ca
             ratios as a tool for reconstructing past ocean and climate
             conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1029/2000GC000046},
   Key = {fds322136}
}

@article{fds278682,
   Author = {Cronin, TM and Dwyer, GS and Baker, PA and Rodriguez-Lazaro, J and DeMartino, DM},
   Title = {Orbital and suborbital variability in North Atlantic bottom
             water temperature obtained from deep-sea ostracod Mg/Ca
             ratios},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {45-57},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6479 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Magnesium/calcium (Mg/Ca) ratios were measured in the
             deep-sea ostracod (Crustacea) genus Krithe from Chain core
             82-24-4PC from the western mid-Atlantic Ridge (3427 m) in
             order to estimate ocean circulation and bottom water
             temperature (BWT) variability over the past 200,000 years.
             Mg/Ca ratios have been used as a paleothermometer because
             the ratios are controlled primarily by ambient water
             temperatures at the time the organism secretes its adult
             carapace. Over the past two glacial-interglacial cycles,
             Mg/Ca values oscillated between about 7 mmol/mol and 12
             mmol/mol, equivalent to a BWT range of 0 to > 3.5°C. The
             lowest values were obtained on specimens from glacial marine
             isotope stages (MISs) 2, 4 and 6; the highest values were
             obtained from specimens from the early part of the Holocene
             interglacial (MIS 1), and also from MISs 5 and 7. These
             trends suggest that BWTs in the North Atlantic Ocean
             fluctuate over orbital time scales. Suborbital variability
             in Mg/Ca ratios and BWT was also observed for the past
             100,000 years. Ratios rose from ~8 mmol/mol to ~10 mmol/mol
             (implying a BWT increase of ~1 to 3°C) during 14 Mg/Ca
             excursions. The highest ratios were found in Krithe dated at
             approximately 32, 36-38, 43, 48, 73, 85 and 93 ka. Although
             the age model for the Chain 82-24-4PC and temporal
             resolution do not allow precise correlation, some of these
             deep-sea bottom temperature excursions appear to correspond
             to Heinrich events recorded in other regions of the North
             Atlantic and perhaps Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial events
             recorded in Greenland ice cores. If confirmed, this would
             support the hypothesis that millennial-scale oscillations of
             climate in the North Atlantic are capable of affecting
             global climate via thermohaline circulation changes. (C)
             2000 Elsevier Science B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-0182(00)00104-8},
   Key = {fds278682}
}

@article{fds278683,
   Author = {Cross, SL and Baker, PA and Seltzer, GO and Fritz, SC and Dunbar,
             RB},
   Title = {A new estimate of the Holocene lowstand level of Lake
             Titicaca, central Andes, and implications for tropical
             palaeohydrology},
   Journal = {The Holocene},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {21-32},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/095968300671452546},
   Abstract = {New evidence from piston cores and high-resolution seismic
             reflection data shows that water levels in Lake Titicaca
             were as much as 100 m below the present level during the
             early to mid-Holocene (between >6 and 3.8 14C kyr BP).
             Climatological and modelling studies indicate that Lake
             Titicaca rainfall depends on convective activity in upwind
             Amazonia; the lake-level data therefore suggest a drier
             Amazon Basin during this time. This view is bolstered by an
             excellent match between the Titicaca lake-level curve and
             decreased methane concentrations in Greenland ice,
             previously ascribed to drying of low-latitude wetlands
             (Blunier et al., 1995). The postglacial history of Lake
             Titicaca fits a global pattern of lake-level change in the
             tropics, characterized by opposite phasing between the
             Southern and Northern Hemispheres. This pattern is most
             likely the result of orbital controls over the intensity of
             summer insolation.},
   Doi = {10.1191/095968300671452546},
   Key = {fds278683}
}

@article{fds278681,
   Author = {Malone, MJ and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Temperature dependence of the strontium distribution
             coefficient in calcite: An experimental study from 40° to
             200°c and application to natural diagenetic
             calcites},
   Journal = {Journal of Sedimentary Research},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {216-223},
   Publisher = {Society for Sedimentary Geology},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1527-1404},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/jsr.69.216},
   Abstract = {The temperature dependence of Sr coprecipitation with
             calcite was determined experimentally in solutions with
             Sr/Ca ratios and ionic strengths closely resembling marine
             pore fluids. Aragonite-to-calcite and dolomite-to-calcite
             transformations were conducted over a temperature range from
             40° to 200°C. Temperature dependence of the distribution
             coefficient of strontium in calcite (DSrc) is significant.
             DSrc in aragonite-to-calcite experiments varied from 0.046
             at 40°C to 0.068 at 200°C. DSrc in dolomite-to-calcite
             experiments varied front 0.034 at 40°C to 0.062 at 200°C.
             Experimental values of DSrc are somewhat dependent on the
             precursor phase. The experimental results are applied to
             natural diagenetic and hydrothermal calcites recovered from
             the sediment-covered Middle Valley part of the Juan de Fuca
             Ridge spreading center (Ocean Drilling Program Holes 857C
             and 858D). Low-Mg calcites from Hole 858D have Sr contents
             appropriate for their present-day in situ temperatures and
             pore-water Sr values. In contrast, high-Mg calcites from
             Hole 858D that precipitated from supersaturated pore waters
             at inferred high growth rates have elevated Sr contents
             relative to calculated equilibrium values. The Sr contents
             of calcites from Hole 857C are close to predicted
             equilibrium values in some instances but are substantially
             different in others. Deviations from predicted equilibrium
             Sr contents, especially in nodules, are attributed to the
             formation of mixed generations of carbonate precipitating
             with increasing burial depths and temperatures through pore
             waters with variable Sr composition. Copyright © 1999, SEPM
             (Society for Sedimentary Geology).},
   Doi = {10.2110/jsr.69.216},
   Key = {fds278681}
}

@article{fds278680,
   Author = {Zierenberg, RA and Fouquet, Y and Miller, DJ and Bahr, JM and Baker, PA and Bjerkgård, T and Brunner, CA and Duckworth, RC and Gable, R and Gieskes, J and Goodfellow, WD and Gröschel-Becker, HM and Guèrin,
             G and Ishibashi, J and Iturrino, G and James, RH and Lackschewitz, KS and Marquez, LL and Nehlig, P and Peter, JM and Rigsby, CA and Schultheiss,
             P and Shanks, WC and Simoneit, BRT and Summit, M and Teagle, DAH and Urbat,
             M and Zuffa, GG},
   Title = {The deep structure of a sea-floor hydrothermal
             deposit},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {392},
   Number = {6675},
   Pages = {485-488},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/33126},
   Abstract = {Hydrothermal circulation at the crests of mid-ocean ridges
             plays an important role in transferring heat from the
             interior of the Earth. A consequence of this hydrothermal
             circulation is the formation of metallic ore bodies known as
             volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits. Such
             deposits, preserved on land, were important sources of
             copper for ancient civilizations and continue to provide a
             significant source of base metals (for example, copper and
             zinc). Here we present results from Ocean Drilling Program
             Leg 169, which drilled through a massive sulphide deposit on
             the northern Juan de Fuca spreading centre and penetrated
             the hydrothermal feeder zone through which the metal-rich
             fluids reached the sea floor. We found that the style of
             feeder-zone mineralization changes with depth in response to
             changes in the pore pressure of the hydrothermal fluids and
             discovered a stratified zone of high-grade copper-rich
             replacement mineralization below the massive sulphide
             deposit. This copper-rich zone represents a type of
             mineralization not previously observed below sea-floor
             deposits, and may provide new targets for land-based mineral
             exploration.},
   Doi = {10.1038/33126},
   Key = {fds278680}
}

@article{fds278639,
   Author = {Seltzer, GO and Baker, P and Cross, S and Dunbar, R and Fritz,
             S},
   Title = {High-resolution seismic reflection profiles from Lake
             Titicaca, Peru-Bolivia: Evidence for Holocene aridity in the
             tropical Andes},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {167-170},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0167:HRSRPF>2.3.CO},
   Abstract = {High-resolution seismic reflection profiles of the sediments
             of Lake Titicaca, Peru-Bolivia, suggest that lake levels in
             the recent past were considerahly lower than today. Incised
             channels on the major deltas extend to depths of 85 m below
             modern lake level. Erosional truncation of onlapping seismic
             reflectors is found at similar depths. This interpretation
             of the seismic data is supported by analyses of sediment
             cores from the lake, which indicate that there was a
             significant drop in lake level during the early to
             mid-Holocene.},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0167:HRSRPF>2.3.CO},
   Key = {fds278639}
}

@article{fds278676,
   Author = {Cronin, TM and Dwyer, GS and Baker, PA and Rodriguez-Lazaro, J and Briggs, WM},
   Title = {Deep-sea ostracode shell chemistry (Mg:Ca ratios) and Late
             Quaternary Arctic Ocean history},
   Journal = {Geological Society, London, Special Publications},
   Volume = {111},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {117-134},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of London},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0305-8719},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.111.01.08},
   Abstract = {The magnesium:calcium (Mg:Ca) and strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca)
             ratios were investigated in shells of the benthic ostracode
             genus Krithe obtained from 64 core-tops from water depths of
             73 to 4411 m in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic seas to
             determine the potential of ostracode shell chemistry for
             palaeoceanographic study. Shells from the Polar Surface
             Water (-1 to -1.5°C) had Mg:Ca molar ratios of about
             0.006-0.008; shells from Arctic Intermediate Water (+0.3 to
             +2.0°C) ranged from 0.09 to 0.013. Shells from the abyssal
             plain and ridges of the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins
             and the Norwegian and Greenland seas had a wide scatter of
             Mg:Ca ratios ranging from 0.007 to 0.012 that may signify
             post-mortem chemical alteration of the shells from Arctic
             deep-sea environments below about 1000 m water depth. There
             is a positive correlation (r2 =0.59) between Mg:Ca ratios
             and bottom-water temperature in Krithe shells from Arctic
             and Nordic seas from water depths <900m. Late Quaternary
             Krithe Mg:Ca ratios were analysed downcore using material
             from the Gakkel Ridge (water depths 3047 and 3899 m), the
             Lomonosov Ridge (water depth 1051 m) and the Amundsen Basin
             (water depth 4226 m) to test the core-top Mg:Ca temperature
             calibration. Cores from the Gakkel and Lomonosov ridges
             display a decrease in Mg:Ca ratios during the interval
             spanning the last glacial/deglacial transition and the
             Holocene, perhaps related to a decrease in bottom water
             temperatures or other changes in benthic
             environments.},
   Doi = {10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.111.01.08},
   Key = {fds278676}
}

@article{fds278678,
   Author = {Malone, MJ and Baker, PA and Burns, SJ},
   Title = {Hydrothermal dolomitization and recrystallization of
             dolomite breccias from the Miocene Monterey formation,
             Tepusquet area, California},
   Journal = {Journal of Sedimentary Research},
   Volume = {66},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {976-990},
   Publisher = {Society for Sedimentary Geology},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1527-1404},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/D426845A-2B26-11D7-8648000102C1865D},
   Abstract = {Dolomite breccias from the Miocene Monterey Formation,
             Tepusquet area, California are composed of dolomitic
             siliceous mudstones that are extensively fractured and
             filled with white, coarse-grained saddle dolomites.
             Fracturing and brecciation are much more extensive and
             intense in the Tepusquet area than in most other outcrops of
             the Monterey Formation. Despite the intensity of brecciation
             and its potential importance as an analog to Monterey
             fractured hydrocarbon reservoirs, no detailed petrographic,
             cristallographic, or geochemical analyses have been
             performed on the breccias from the Tepusquet area. In the
             present study, petrographic, crystallographic, and
             geochemical analyses show that the vein-filling dolomites
             were precipitated from hydrothermal fluids that were
             associated with hydrocarbon migration, and that the early
             diagenetic matrix dolomites have been recrystallized,
             resetting their geochemical and crystallographic properties.
             Recrystallization of matrix dolomites is indicated by the
             uniformly negative β 18O compositions (x̄ = -7.1‰), low
             Sr contents (x̄ = 230 ppm), low Na contents (x̄ = 364
             ppm), contracted unit cells (x̄: a = 4.812 Å, c = 16.058
             Å), high degree of cation order, high Mg content (x̄ =
             46.1 mol% MgCO 3) as compared to most Monterey dolomites,
             and increasing 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios with decreasing Sr content.
             Vein dolomites have large variation in stoichiometry
             (41.7-49.0 mol% MgCO 3), Sr content (124-414 ppm), unit-cell
             dimensions (a: 4.806-4.829 Å, c: 16.013-16.178 Å), and
             cation order (Ca site occupancy: 0.73-0.93, Mg site:
             0.68-0.94). Recrystallization of some vein dolomites is
             indicated by the covariance of mol% MgCO 3 with Sr, δ 18O,
             cation order, and unit-cell parameters. The covariance of δ
             18O with mol% MgCO 3 is the inverse of the trend expected
             for the recrystallization of dolomite during burial
             diagenesis, possibly because of recrystallization during
             up-lift. Vein dolomites have higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values than
             matrix dolomites. The least radiogenic matrix dolomites (the
             least recrystallized as inferred from the δ 18O
             composition) have 87Sr/ 86Sr apparent ages (13.0 and 15.5 Ma
             ± 0.3) that agree well with the previously mapped age of
             the brecciated unit. The more recrystallized matrix
             dolomites have higher 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (apparent ages too
             young for the lower Monterey Formation), thus recording the
             evolution of Sr isotopic composition of the pore fluid. The
             close chemical similarity of the vein dolomites and the most
             recrystallized matrix dolomites, the episodic association
             between hydrocarbons and the vein dolomites, and the
             recrystallization trends in the matrix dolomites, all
             indicate that evolved formation waters were the source of
             the hydrothermal fluids that precipitated the vein
             dolomites.},
   Doi = {10.1306/D426845A-2B26-11D7-8648000102C1865D},
   Key = {fds278678}
}

@article{fds278675,
   Author = {Cronin, TM and Dwyer, GS and Baker, PA and Rodriguez-Lazaro, J and Briggs, WMJ},
   Title = {Deep-sea ostracode shell chemistry (Mg:Ca ratios) and late
             Quaternary Arctic Ocean history},
   Journal = {Late Quaternary Palaeoceanography of the North Atlantic
             Margins},
   Pages = {117-134},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The magnesium:calcium (Mg:Ca) and strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca)
             ratios were investigated in shells of the benthic ostracode
             genus Krithe obtained from 64 core-tops from water depths of
             73 to 4411 m in the Arctic Ocean and Nordic seas to
             determine the potential of ostracode shell chemistry for
             paleoceanographic study. Shells from the abyssal plain and
             ridges of the Nansen, Amundsen and Makarov basins and the
             Norwegian and Greenland seas had a wide scatter of Mg:Ca
             ratios ranging from 0.007 to 0.012 that may signify
             post-mortem chemical alteration of the shells from Arctic
             deep-sea environments below about 1000 m water depth. There
             is a positive correlation (r2=0.59) between Mg:Ca ratios and
             bottom-water temperature in Krithe shells from water depths
             <900 m.},
   Key = {fds278675}
}

@article{fds278677,
   Author = {Malone, MJ and Baker, PA and Burns, SJ},
   Title = {Recrystallization of dolomite: An experimental study from
             50-200°C},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2189-2207},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(96)00062-2},
   Abstract = {The recrystallization of dolomite was investigated
             experimentally from 50° to 200°C for durations up to
             approximately one year. A synthetic, mixed Ca-Mg carbonate
             (41.7 mol% MgCO3 and with no observable ordering reflections
             on X-ray diffraction patterns) was recrystallized in
             solutions with ionic strengths similar to seawater in two
             sets of time series experiments. Dolomite recrystallization
             reaction rates were initially rapid, but slowed
             significantly with duration of the experiments. Reaction
             rates were highly temperature dependent. Dolomite completely
             recrystallized within 286 hours at 200°C, whereas less than
             30% recrystallization was attained in 336 days at 50°C.
             Increases in mol% MgCO3 of the recrystallized dolomites were
             initially rapid, but slowed with extent of reaction. Despite
             complete recrystallization at 200°C, a stoichiometric
             dolomite was never achieved (a maximum of 48.6 mol% MgCO3
             was attained). Unit cell dimensions, measured by X-ray
             diffraction, decreased with increasing extents of
             recrystallization and largely responded to changes in
             stoichiometry. Increases in cation ordering during
             recrystallization lagged behind increases in mol% MgCO3.
             Significant increases in cation order were only observed in
             the 200°C experiments. Coprecipitation of Sr with dolomite
             varied as a function of temperature and degree of
             recrystallization. Strontium distribution coefficients, DSr
             = (Sr/Ca)recrystallized dolomite/ (Sr/Ca)solution, ranged
             from a maximum of 0.22 (8% recrystallization) at 50°C to a
             minimum of 0.044 (100% recrystallization) at 200°C. DSr
             varied primarily as a function of the extent of
             recrystallization, probably due to thermodynamic effects
             such as variable stoichiometry and, to a lesser extent,
             cation order of the dolomite. Likewise, Na contents of
             dolomites decreased with increasing temperature and degree
             of recrystallization. The most significant decrease in Na
             concentrations occurred rapidly suggesting that Na may be a
             sensitive indicator of the early recrystallization
             process.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(96)00062-2},
   Key = {fds278677}
}

@article{fds278674,
   Author = {Dwyer, GS and Cronin, TM and Baker, PA and Raymo, ME and Buzas, JS and Corrège, T},
   Title = {North atlantic deepwater temperature change during late
             pliocene and late quaternary climatic cycles},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {270},
   Number = {5240},
   Pages = {1347-1351},
   Publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science
             (AAAS)},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6997 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Variations in the ratio of magnesium to calcium (Mg/Ca) in
             fossil ostracodes from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 607 in
             the deep North Atlantic show that the change in bottom water
             temperature during late Pliocene 41,000-year obliquity
             cycles averaged 1.5°C between 3.2 and 2.8 million years ago
             (Ma) and increased to 2.3°C between 2.8 and 2.3 Ma,
             coincidentally with the intensification of Northern
             Hemisphere glaciation. During the last two 100,000-year
             glacial-to-interglacial climatic cycles of the Quaternary,
             bottom water temperatures changed by 4.5°C. These results
             show that glacial deepwater cooling has intensified since
             3.2 Ma, most likely as the result of progressively
             diminished deep-water production in the North Atlantic and
             of the greater influence of Antarctic bottom water in the
             North Atlantic during glacial periods. The ostracode Mg/Ca
             data also allow the direct determination of the temperature
             component of the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope record
             from Site 607, as well as derivation of a hypothetical
             sea-level curve for the late Pliocene and late Quaternary.
             The effects of dissolution on the Mg/Ca ratios of ostracode
             shells appear to have been minimal.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.270.5240.1347},
   Key = {fds278674}
}

@article{fds278669,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Cross, SL},
   Title = {A note on the carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen contents of
             hydrothermally altered sediments, Middle Valley, Juan de
             Fuca Ridge},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp Leg 139, Middle Valley, Juan
             De Fuca Ridge},
   Pages = {307-312},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Inorganic carbon varies inversely with organic carbon
             throughout much of the sediment column. This results from
             the precipitation of diagenetic carbonate cements that
             contain carbon partly derived from an organic carbon source.
             This organic carbon may be of remote or in-situ derivation.
             Most importantly, sulfur content and sulfur isotopic,
             compositions of sulfides increase with increasing burial
             depth. -from Authors},
   Key = {fds278669}
}

@article{fds278670,
   Author = {Perkins, RD and Dwyer, GS and Rosoff, DB and Fuller, J and Baker, PA and Lloyd, RM},
   Title = {Salina sedimentation and diagenesis: West Caicos Island,
             British West Indies},
   Journal = {Dolomites: a Volume in Honour of Dolomieu},
   Pages = {37-54},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Up to 2.4 m of Holocene sediment have accumulated in an
             elongate topographic low (3 km long by 0.5 km wide) bounded
             on the west by Pleistocene aeolianite and isolated from
             shallow platform waters on the east by a series of oolitic
             beach and beach/dune sequences of Holocene age. The salina
             is fed by marine groundwaters that primarily seep through
             the underlying Pleistocene bedrock. The stratigraphic
             succession of the salina indicates a trend towards
             increasing marine restriction, grading from marine
             wackestones, packstones and grainstones at the base, upward
             through microbially laminated mudstones into gypsum mush in
             the uppermost part of the section. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278670}
}

@article{fds278671,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Cross, SL and Burns, SJ},
   Title = {Geochemistry of carbonate nodules and cements and
             implications for hydrothermal circulation, Middle Valley,
             Juan de Fuca Ridge},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp Leg 139, Middle Valley, Juan
             De Fuca Ridge},
   Pages = {313-329},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The chemical sources for carbonate precipitation include
             alteration of basement rocks (calcium and strontium),
             diffusion from seawater (magnesium), recrystallization of
             biogenic calcite (calcium and carbon), oxidation of
             sedimentary organic matter (carbon), and oxidation of
             thermogenic methane (carbon). It is hypothesized from
             chemical data that Hole 858D intersected a fault zone at 28
             m below the seafloor. The fault zone is believed to be a
             major conduit for the hydrothermal fluids discharging at the
             nearby vent. -Authors},
   Key = {fds278671}
}

@article{fds278672,
   Author = {MALONE, MJ and BAKER, PA and BURNS, SJ},
   Title = {Recrystallization of dolomite: evidence from the Monterey
             Formation (Miocene), California},
   Journal = {Sedimentology},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1223-1239},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3091.1994.tb01450.x},
   Abstract = {Dolomites from the upper calcareous‐siliceous member of
             the Miocene Monterey Formation exposed west of Santa
             Barbara, California, were analysed for geochemical, isotopic
             and crystallographic variation. The data clearly document
             the progressive recrystallization of dolomite during burial
             diagenesis in marine pore fluids. Recrystallization is
             recognized by the following compositional and
             crystallographic variations. Dolomites have decreasing δ18O
             and δ13C compositions, decreasing Sr contents and
             increasing Mg contents with increasing burial depths and
             temperatures from east to west in the study area. δ18O
             values vary from 5·3‰ in the east to − 5·5‰ PDB in
             the west and are interpreted to reflect the greater extent
             and higher temperature of dolomite recrystallization in the
             west. δ13C values correlate with δ18O and decrease from
             13·6‰ in the east to − 8·7‰ PDB in the west. Sr
             concentrations correlate positively with δ18O values and
             decrease from a mean of 750 ppm in the east to a mean of 250
             ppm in the west. Mol% MgCO3 values inversely correlate with
             δ18O values and increase from a minimum of 41·0 in the
             east to a maximum of 51·4 in the west. Rietveld refinements
             of powder X‐ray diffraction data indicate that the more
             recrystallized dolomites have more contracted unit cells and
             increased cation ordering. The fraction of the Ca sites in
             the dolomites that are occupied by Ca atoms increases
             slightly with the approach to stoichiometry. The fraction of
             the Mg sites occupied by Mg atoms strongly correlates with
             mol% MgCO3. Even in early diagenetic, non‐stoichiometric
             dolomites, there is little substitution of Mg in Ca sites.
             During recrystallization, the amount of Mg substituting for
             Ca in Ca sites decreases even further. Most of the disorder
             in the least recrystallized, non‐stoichiometric dolomites
             is related to substitution of excess Ca on Mg sites.
             Copyright © 1994, Wiley Blackwell. All rights
             reserved},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1365-3091.1994.tb01450.x},
   Key = {fds278672}
}

@article{fds278673,
   Author = {Rigsby, CA and Zierenberg, RA and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Sedimentary and diagenetic structures and textures in
             turbiditic and hemiturbiditic strata as revealed by
             whole-core X-radiography, Middle Valley, northern Juan de
             Fuca Ridge},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp Leg 139, Middle Valley, Juan
             De Fuca Ridge},
   Pages = {105-111},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Reveals primary sedimentary structures in mud-rich units
             that allow us to distinguish between mud turbites and
             pelagic deposits. They reveal three distinct ichnofauna
             assemblages that record depositional environments with
             different levels of oxygen and different sedimentation rates
             as well as eight major carbonate and pyrite diagenetic
             morphologies. The X-radiographs delineate the extent of
             metalliferous turbidites and debris flows at Site 856. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278673}
}

@article{fds278667,
   Author = {Zempolich, WG and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Experimental and natural mimetic dolomitization of aragonite
             ooids},
   Journal = {Journal of Sedimentary Petrology},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {596-606},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Comparison of experimental fabrics with calcitized,
             partially dolomitized and completely dolomitized aragonite
             ooids of the late Proterozoic Beck Spring Dolomite indicates
             that mimetic concentric fabric originates by aragonite
             dissolution and early dolomite precipitation within porous
             cortical laminae. Importantly, these experimental and
             natural "replacement' fabrics show that fine-scale dolomite
             ooid fabrics are not indicative of "primary' dolomite
             precipitation. -from Authors},
   Key = {fds278667}
}

@article{fds278638,
   Author = {Burns, SJ and Baker, PA and Elderfield, H},
   Title = {Timing of carbonate mineral precipitation and fluid flow in
             sea- floor basalts, northwest Indian Ocean},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {255-258},
   Year = {1992},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0255:TOCMPA>2.3.CO},
   Abstract = {The strontium isotope ratios of authigenic carbonates from
             sea-floor basalts have been determined. The samples include
             calcites from 57.2 Ma crust from Ocean Drilling Project
             (ODP) Site 715, and calcites, aragonites, and siderites from
             63.7 Ma crust from ODP Site 707. At Site 715, calcite
             precipitation may have begun at any time after the basalts
             cooled, and it continued until approximately 31 Ma, or 26
             m.y. after basalt eruption. At Site 707, aragonite and
             siderite did not begin to precipitate until at least 30 and
             28 Ma, respectively. Calcite precipitation began at
             approximately 32 Ma and continued until 22 Ma. These ages
             suggest that vein mineral deposition and low-temperature
             fluid circulation in the ocean crust may continue for much
             longer periods of time than previously observed.
             -Authors},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0255:TOCMPA>2.3.CO},
   Key = {fds278638}
}

@article{fds278666,
   Author = {Burns, SJ and Baker, PA and Elderfield, H},
   Title = {Timing of carbonate mineral precipitation and fluid flow in
             sea- floor basalts, northwest Indian Ocean},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {255-258},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of America},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0255:tocmpa>2.3.co;2},
   Abstract = {The strontium isotope ratios of authigenic carbonates from
             sea-floor basalts have been determined. The samples include
             calcites from 57.2 Ma crust from Ocean Drilling Project
             (ODP) Site 715, and calcites, aragonites, and siderites from
             63.7 Ma crust from ODP Site 707. At Site 715, calcite
             precipitation may have begun at any time after the basalts
             cooled, and it continued until approximately 31 Ma, or 26
             m.y. after basalt eruption. At Site 707, aragonite and
             siderite did not begin to precipitate until at least 30 and
             28 Ma, respectively. Calcite precipitation began at
             approximately 32 Ma and continued until 22 Ma. These ages
             suggest that vein mineral deposition and low-temperature
             fluid circulation in the ocean crust may continue for much
             longer periods of time than previously observed.
             -Authors},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1992)020<0255:tocmpa>2.3.co;2},
   Key = {fds278666}
}

@article{fds278664,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Stout, PM and Kastner, M and Elderfield,
             H},
   Title = {Large-scale lateral advection of seawater through oceanic
             crust in the central equatorial Pacific},
   Journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
   Volume = {105},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {522-533},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0012-821X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(91)90189-O},
   Abstract = {The existence of large-scale lateral advection of water
             through basaltic crust in the central equatorial Pacific
             Ocean is demonstrated by the calcium, magnesium, strontium,
             sulfate, and strontium isotopic compositions of pore waters
             from the overlying sediments. The advection is believed to
             extend throughout the region of the equatorial
             high-productivity sediment bulge from about 110 to 160°W
             and from about 5°S to 8°N. The corresponding crustal ages
             of this region vary from east to west from about 15 to about
             70 Ma, respectively. This advection is responsible for the
             low-conductive heat flows previously observed throughout the
             region. The flow is recognized by the following
             characteristic pore water compositional variations. Calcium
             and magnesium concentrations remain nearly constant downhole
             from the sediment-water interface to basement. Species, such
             as strontium, sulfate, and strontium isotopes, which are
             more affected by diagenetic reactions in the sediment
             column, depart from seawater values with increasing depth in
             the sediments, but then they display concentration reversals
             near basement. At the sediment-basement interface, pore
             waters are chemically and isotopically nearly
             indistinguishable from present-day seawater. Fluid flow in
             basement is rapid, having a calculated average residence
             time in oceanic crust of about 20,000 years and an inferred
             pore fluid velocity between 1 and 10 m y-1. Because of the
             short reaction time between basement rocks and fluids, as
             well as the low temperature of this fluid, the chemistry of
             basement water remains similar to seawater. As a result,
             despite the important impact of this process on oceanic heat
             flow, the flow may have little effect on the long-term major
             element composition of seawater. © 1991.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0012-821X(91)90189-O},
   Key = {fds278664}
}

@article{fds278668,
   Author = {Droxler, AW and Morse, JW and Glaser, KS and Haddad, GA and Baker,
             PA},
   Title = {Surface sediment carbonate mineralogy and water column
             chemistry: Nicaragua Rise versus the Bahamas},
   Journal = {Marine Geology},
   Volume = {100},
   Number = {1-4},
   Pages = {277-289},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0025-3227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(91)90236-W},
   Abstract = {Periplatform surface sediments were studied for carbonate
             mineralogy in conjunction with analyses of the water column
             for carbonate chemistry on the eastern Northern Nicaragua
             Rise (NNR) in the Caribbean Sea. The results show a strong
             correspondence between variations and disappearance, with
             increasing water depth, of metastable carbonate minerals
             (fine aragonite and magnesian calcite) and their respective
             saturation levels in the overlying waters. Similar
             correspondence between variations in sediment proportions of
             fine aragonite and magnesian calcite and their respective
             saturation levels has previously been established in the
             Bahamas. There are, however, significant differences between
             the two areas. The sharp decrease in aragonite content and
             the measured aragonite saturation level occur at 4000 m in
             the Bahamas, compared to 1800 m on the eastern NNR. In both
             areas, magnesian calcite minima correspond to the in situ
             PCO2 maxima in the water column. The magnesian calcite
             minimum, however, is at 950 m in the Bahamas and 750 m on
             the eastern NNR. Magnesian calcite disappears in the Bahamas
             at 3800 m and at 2000 m on the eastern NNR. These results
             demonstrate the importance of the influence of overlying
             water chemistry on the preservation of metastable carbonate
             minerals in off-bank periplatform sediments, and they
             clearly demonstrate the difference in terms of carbonate
             preservation between the poorly ventilated waters of the
             Caribbean Sea and the well-oxygenated waters of the adjacent
             Atlantic Ocean. They also open the possibility of obtaining
             paleoceanographic information on the depth of the CO2
             maximum (O2 minimum) and its separation from the aragonite
             saturation depth in at least some areas. ©
             1991.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0025-3227(91)90236-W},
   Key = {fds278668}
}

@article{fds278660,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Malone, MJ and Burns, SJ and Swart,
             PK},
   Title = {Minor element and stable isotopic composition of the
             carbonate fine fraction: Site 709, Indian
             Ocean},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp, Leg 115, Mascarene
             Plateau},
   Pages = {661-675},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Iron and manganese concentrations, and, to a lesser extent,
             magnesium and strontium concentrations and carbon isotopic
             ratios are affected by early diagenetic reactions. These
             reactions are best observed in a slumped interval of
             sediments that occurs between 13.0 and 17.5 Ma. As a result
             of microbial reduction of manganese and iron oxides and
             dissolved sulfate, it is hypothesized that small amounts of
             mixed-metal carbonate cements are precipitated. These have
             low carbon isotopic ratios and high concentrations of
             metals. -from Authors},
   Key = {fds278660}
}

@article{fds278661,
   Author = {Malone, MJ and Baker, PA and Burns, SJ and Swart,
             PK},
   Title = {Geochemistry of periplatform carbonate sediments, Leg 115,
             Site 716 Maldives Archipelago, (Indian Ocean)},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp, Leg 115, Mascarene
             Plateau},
   Pages = {647-659},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Site 716 is a continuous sequence (upper Miocene to
             Holocene) of periplatform oozes and chalks from the Maldives
             Ridge, Indian Ocean. Mineralogical and geochemical studies
             of these carbonate sediments indicate that submarine burial
             diagenesis has played an important role in the induration of
             sediments at this site. Metastable carbonates,
             high-magnesium calcite (HMC) and aragonite, convert to
             low-maganesium calcite (LMC) rapidly, within 1.1 and 6.0 Ma,
             respectively. Positive shifts in oxygen isotopic composition
             record episodes of cementation during burial diagenesis.
             Intervals with increased accumulation rates of metastable
             components have undergone more rapid diagenesis than
             intervals with predominantly pelagic deposition. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278661}
}

@article{fds278662,
   Author = {Baker, P and Allen, M},
   Title = {Occurrence of dolomite in Neogene phosphatic
             sediments},
   Journal = {Phosphate Deposits of the World, Vol. 3. Neogene to Modern
             Phosphorites},
   Pages = {73-86},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Dolomite precipitation in phosphatic sediments may take
             place within the zone of sulfate reduction or in the deeper
             zone of methanogenesis. High abundances of dolomite in a
             sediment require that most of this dolomite formed at
             shallow burial depths. Phosphate precipitation occurs
             shallower and faster than dolomite precipitation. Most of
             the apatite in a phosphorite deposit precipitates within a
             few centimeters of the sediment-water interface in the
             uppermost zone of sulfate reduction. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278662}
}

@article{fds278663,
   Author = {Burns, SJ and Swart, PK and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Geochemistry of secondary carbonates in Leg 115 basalts:
             tracers of basalt/seawater interaction},
   Journal = {Proc., Scientific Results, Odp, Leg 115, Mascarene
             Plateau},
   Pages = {93-101},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This report presents the results of a study of the stable
             isotopic and chemical composition of secondary carbonate
             minerals precipitated within basalts at Ocean Drilling
             Program Sites 707 and 715. The geochemistry of Site 715
             samples indicates that they precipitated from
             seawater-dominated fluids, at low temperatures, as is
             typical of secondary carbonates from most Deep Sea Drilling
             Project sites. Site 707 carbonates precipitated at low
             temperatures in a fairly closed system, in which
             basalt-seawater interaction has greatly influenced the
             chemistry of the pore fluids. The reactions occurring within
             the system before and in conjunction with secondary
             carbonate precipitation include oxidation of isotopically
             light methane, derived from fluids circulating within the
             basalts, and reduction of substantial amounts of iron and
             manganese oxides from the basalts. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278663}
}

@article{fds278665,
   Author = {Dunbar, RB and Marty, RC and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Cenozoic marine sedimentation in the Sechura and Pisco
             basins, Peru},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {235-261},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-0182},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-0182(90)90179-B},
   Abstract = {The central and northern Peruvian margin consists of a
             series of 8 paired forearc basins which may be separated
             into an inner set of shelf basins and a seaward set of slope
             basins. We have examined the Cenozoic stratigraphy of the
             onshore portions of the Sechura Basin (5-7°S) and Pisco
             Basin (13-16°S), two shelf basins which have accumulated
             marine sediment discontinuously since the mid to late
             Eocene. Cenozoic sediments in the Pisco Basin were deposited
             during at least three major transgressive cycles. Each
             sequence is preserved as a similar vertical progression of
             facies including coarse nearshore bioclastic conglomerates
             and sandstones grading upwards into sandy siltstones and
             mudstones, and capped by biogenic deposits including
             diatomites, diatomaceous mudstones, dolomitic horizons, and
             phosphate deposits. Stratigraphic nomenclature for the Pisco
             Basin has recently evolved; a stratigraphy presented here
             includes the Eocene Caballas Fm., upper Eocene Los Choros
             fm., upper Eocene to lowermost Oligocene Yumaque fm.,
             uppermost Oligocene to middle Miocene Chilcatay fm., and
             upper Miocene to Pliocene Pisco Fm. Major hiatuses in the
             Pisco Basin span the Late Cretaceous to middle Eocene, early
             to late Oligocene, middle Miocene, and late
             Pliocene/Pleistocene to Recent. Cenozoic sediments of the
             Sechura Basin were deposited within at least 4 major
             transgressive cycles with hiatuses during the Paleocene to
             middle Eocene, Oligocene, early to middle Miocene, and late
             Miocene. Based on recent biostratigraphic studies, sediments
             enriched in biogenic components accumulated between about
             40-36 Ma, 24-16 Ma, and 11-3 Ma in the Pisco Basin and
             between 40-37 Ma and 8.5-4.5 Ma in the Sechura Basin. In
             both basins, the most diatomaceous sediments are restricted
             to the Late Eocene and Late Miocene through Pliocene. The
             temporal distribution of biogenic sediments suggests that
             high productivity conditions linked to coastal upwelling
             have occurred episodically since at least the Late Eocene.
             The occurrence of diatomites and phosphorites is diachronous
             between the Pisco and Sechura Basins and between the
             Peruvian forearc and other circum-Pacific Monterey Formation
             analogs, a reflection of the strong influence of local
             tectonism on sedimentation patterns. The volume of Neogene
             sediments along the Peruvian forearc is nearly twice that of
             the Monterey Fm.; despite basin-to-basin facies
             diachroneity, these deposits very likely contributed to
             fluctuations of the late Miocene carbon/CO2 system by acting
             as large carbon sinks. © 1990.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0031-0182(90)90179-B},
   Key = {fds278665}
}

@article{fds278641,
   Author = {McGowran, B and Marty, R and Dunbar, RB and Martin, JB and Baker,
             PA},
   Title = {Comment on "Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal
             desert, coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and
             Pacific circulation before the terminal Eocene
             event"},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {957-959},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of America},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1989AV57600022&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1989)017<0957:CAROLE>2.3.CO;2},
   Key = {fds278641}
}

@article{fds278658,
   Author = {Shukla, V and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Sedimentology and geochemistry of dolostones},
   Journal = {Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Dolostones},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This publication is the result of a symposium held in
             Raleigh, North Carolina, September 1986. The 18 separately
             abstracted papers are arranged into the following
             categories: techniques and experimental studies; organogenic
             dolomites; dolomites in Mississippi Valley-type ore
             deposits; rock-water interactions during dolomitization;
             geochemistry of dolomite textures and fabrics; dolomite
             diagenesis; and case histories of dolomite origins. A
             subject index is included. -A.W.Hall},
   Key = {fds278658}
}

@article{fds278656,
   Author = {Burns, SJ and Baker, PA and Showers, WJ},
   Title = {The factors controlling the formation and chemistry of
             dolomite in organic-rich sediments: Miocene Drakes Bay
             formation, California},
   Journal = {Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Dolostones},
   Pages = {41-52},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {These siliceous mudstones contain many small dolomite
             nodules, probably formed without a precursor biogenic
             calcite supplying Ca or HCO3- for dolomitization. Dolomite
             formation preferentially took place in sediment layers
             slightly richer in organic C than the surrounding sediments.
             Illustrates changes in the isotopic composition of dissolved
             CO2 that occurred with depth. The isotopic analyses show
             that dolomite formation did not begin until the pore waters
             were free of dissolved sulfate. -from Authors},
   Key = {fds278656}
}

@article{fds278659,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Bloomer, SH},
   Title = {The origin of celestite in deep-sea carbonate
             sediments},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {335-339},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(88)90088-9},
   Abstract = {Several celestite nodules were recovered on DSDP Leg 90 from
             four drilling sites on the Lord Howe Rise, southwest Pacific
             Ocean. The sediments at these sites are predominantly very
             pure calcareous nannofossil oozes and chalks. As a result of
             a higher-than average accumulation rate, they undergo
             relatively rapid burial diagenesis, which causes the
             expulsion of Sr from the biogenic calcite, to the
             interstitial waters. Another result of the high accumulation
             rate is the occurrence of microbial sulfate reduction in the
             interstitial waters. The downcore Sr increase is
             proportionately greater than the sulfate decrease, and
             celestite precipitates below about 100 m subbottom at each
             of these sites. The celestite contains high concentrations
             of many substituent cations: 4.3-7.8 mole% BaSO4, 1.7-6.4
             mole% CaSO4, 1100-2600 ppm Al, and 400-750 ppm K. Ion
             activity products of Sr and sulfate at each site were
             calculated from the Pitzer equations and the measured
             concentrations of porewater constituents, and are in close
             agreement with the celestite solubility product corrected
             for in situ temperatures and pressures. Strontium
             concentrations of the porewaters are nearly at equilibrium
             with respect to celestite, and are controlled by the extent
             of microbial sulfate reduction. Celestite solubility
             increases with increasing water depth, in excellent
             agreement with values of the standard state partial molal
             volume change. © 1988.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(88)90088-9},
   Key = {fds278659}
}

@article{fds343227,
   Author = {Shukla, V and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Sedimentology and geochemistry of dolostones},
   Journal = {Sedimentology and Geochemistry of Dolostones},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This publication is the result of a symposium held in
             Raleigh, North Carolina, September 1986. The 18 separately
             abstracted papers are arranged into the following
             categories: techniques and experimental studies; organogenic
             dolomites; dolomites in Mississippi Valley-type ore
             deposits; rock-water interactions during dolomitization;
             geochemistry of dolomite textures and fabrics; dolomite
             diagenesis; and case histories of dolomite origins. A
             subject index is included. -A.W.Hall},
   Key = {fds343227}
}

@article{fds278637,
   Author = {Marty, R and Dunbar, R and Martin, JB and Baker, P},
   Title = {Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal desert,
             coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and Pacific
             circulation before the terminal Eocene event},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {819-822},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)?016<0818:LEDFTP>?2.3.CO},
   Abstract = {Previously undocumented late Eocene diatomaceous sediments
             are present near Fundo Desbarrancado (FD) in southern Peru.
             These sediments are similar to Miocene diatomite from the
             same area but, unlike the Miocene diatomite, the FD
             sediments contain cherty layers, are enriched in CaCO3, have
             a diverse and abundant radiolarian fauna, and possess
             varved-massive and millimetre- and metre-scale
             biogenic-terrigenous alternations. The FD sediments are part
             of an Eocene sequence that includes the clastic sediments of
             the Paracas Formation, and they are correlative to the Chira
             Formation of northern Peru. The Paleogene biogenic sediments
             of western South America show that coastal upwelling
             developed in the eastern Pacific before the latest Eocene,
             argue for the existence of a proto-Humboldt current at this
             time, and suggest that the terminal Eocene event was the
             culmination of gradual changes and not a catastrophic event
             at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. -Authors},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1988)?016<0818:LEDFTP>?2.3.CO},
   Key = {fds278637}
}

@article{fds278657,
   Author = {Marty, R and Dunbar, R and Martin, JB and Baker, P},
   Title = {Late Eocene diatomite from the Peruvian coastal desert,
             coastal upwelling in the eastern Pacific, and Pacific
             circulation before the terminal Eocene event},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {818-822},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of America},
   Year = {1988},
   ISSN = {0091-7613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1988)016<0818:LEDFTP>2.3.CO;2},
   Abstract = {Previously undocumented late Eocene diatomaceous sediments
             are present near Fundo Desbarrancado (FD) in southern Peru.
             These sediments are similar to Miocene diatomite from the
             same area but, unlike the Miocene diatomite, the FD
             sediments contain cherty layers, are enriched in CaCO3, have
             a diverse and abundant radiolarian fauna, and possess
             varved-massive and millimetre- and metre-scale
             biogenic-terrigenous alternations. The FD sediments are part
             of an Eocene sequence that includes the clastic sediments of
             the Paracas Formation, and they are correlative to the Chira
             Formation of northern Peru. The Paleogene biogenic sediments
             of western South America show that coastal upwelling
             developed in the eastern Pacific before the latest Eocene,
             argue for the existence of a proto-Humboldt current at this
             time, and suggest that the terminal Eocene event was the
             culmination of gradual changes and not a catastrophic event
             at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary. © 1988 Geological Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1988)016<0818:LEDFTP>2.3.CO;2},
   Key = {fds278657}
}

@article{fds278654,
   Author = {Burns, SJ and Baker, PA},
   Title = {A geochemical study of dolomite in the Monterey Formation,
             California.},
   Journal = {Journal of Sedimentary Petrology},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {128-139},
   Publisher = {Society for Sedimentary Geology},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-4472},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/212F8AC6-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D},
   Abstract = {Monterey sections with dolomites with low trace-element
             contents contain higher percentages of dolomite and have
             lower sedimentation rates and lower detrital mineral
             contents than sections with dolomites with high
             trace-element contents. Differences in iron and manganese
             contents of dolomites from different sections are probably
             attributable to variation in the amount of readily available
             iron and possible manganese oxide coatings on detrital
             minerals. Whether a dolomite forms in or below the zone of
             organic-matter oxidation by microbial sulfate reduction also
             may affect the availability of iron and manganese. In the
             zone of sulfate reduction, reduced iron, and possibly
             manganese, may be precipitated as sulfide minerals rather
             than be incorporated into dolomite. -from
             Authors},
   Doi = {10.1306/212F8AC6-2B24-11D7-8648000102C1865D},
   Key = {fds278654}
}

@article{fds278653,
   Author = {Baker, PA},
   Title = {Pore-water chemistry of carbonate-rich sediments, Lord Howe
             Rise, southwest Pacific Ocean.},
   Journal = {Initial Reports Dsdp, Leg 90, Noumea, New Caledonia to
             Wellington, New Zealand. Part 2},
   Pages = {1249-1256},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {At all sites on Leg 90 on the carbonate-rich Lord Howe Rise,
             Ca2+ concentrations increase and Mg2+ concentrations
             decrease with increasing sub-bottom depth. The value of
             ddCa2+/dMg2+ averages -0.45 mol/mol at these sites, an
             unusually small negative value in comparison with sites on
             basaltic crust. This supports the argument that the crust of
             the Lord Howe Rise is siliceous. Carbonate recrystallization
             is indicated by large increases in Sr2+ concentrations with
             depth at all sites. The greater the degree of microbial
             sulfate reduction, the higher is the pore water Sr2+
             concentration. -from Author},
   Key = {fds278653}
}

@article{fds278655,
   Author = {Gardner, JV and Nelson, CS and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Distribution and character of pale green laminae in sediment
             from Lord Howe Rise: a probable late Neogene and Quaternary
             tephrostratigraphic record.},
   Journal = {Initial Reports Dsdp, Leg 90, Noumea, New Caledonia to
             Wellington, New Zealand. Part 2},
   Pages = {1145-1159},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The volcanic origin of the laminae is suggested by (1)
             similar temporal distribution of the laminae and the
             distribution of volcanic ash layers elsewhere in the
             southwest Pacific; (2) the high abundances of authigenic
             smectite in the laminae; and (3) the common occurrence of
             iron sulfides in proximity to most of the laminae. -from
             Authors},
   Key = {fds278655}
}

@article{fds328727,
   Author = {Boardman, MR and Neumann, AC and Baker, PA and Dulin, LA and Kenter, RJ and Hunter, GE and Kiefer, KB},
   Title = {Banktop responses to Quaternary fluctuations in sea level
             recorded in periplatform sediments},
   Journal = {Geology},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {28-28},
   Publisher = {Geological Society of America},
   Year = {1986},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<28:brtqfi>2.0.co;2},
   Doi = {10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<28:brtqfi>2.0.co;2},
   Key = {fds328727}
}

@article{fds278652,
   Author = {Kennett, JP and Von Der Borch and C and Baker, PA and Barton, CE and Boersma, A and Cauler, JP and Dudley, WC and Gardner, JV and Jenkins,
             DG and Lohman, WH and Martini, E and Merrill, RB and Morin, R and Nelson,
             CS and Robert, C and Srinivasan, MS and Stein, R and Takeuchi, A and Murphy, MG},
   Title = {Palaeotectonic implications of increased late Eocene-early
             Oligocene volcanism from South Pacific DSDP
             sites},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {316},
   Number = {6028},
   Pages = {507-511},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/316507a0},
   Abstract = {Late Eocene-early Oligocene (42-35 Myr) sediments cored at
             two DSDP sites in the south-west Pacific contain evidence of
             a pronounced increase in local volcanic activity,
             particularly in close association with the Eocene-Oligocene
             boundary. This pulse of volcanism is coeval with that in New
             Zealand and resulted from the development of an Indo-
             Australian / Pacific Plate boundary through the region
             during the late Eocene. The late Eocene / earliest Oligocene
             was marked by widespread volcanism and tectonism throughout
             the Pacific and elsewhere, and by one of the most important
             episodes of Cenozoic climatic cooling. © 1985 Nature
             Publishing Group.},
   Doi = {10.1038/316507a0},
   Key = {fds278652}
}

@article{fds278651,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Burns, SJ},
   Title = {Occurrence and formation of dolomite in organic-rich
             continental margin sediments.},
   Journal = {Bulletin, American Association of Petroleum
             Geologists},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1917-1930},
   Year = {1985},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Dolomite forms in sediments over large areas of the
             ocean-floor. The most common environment is organic-rich
             calcareous continental margin sediments.-K.A.R.},
   Key = {fds278651}
}

@article{fds278648,
   Author = {Kennett, JP and Von Der Borch and C and Baker, PA and Barton, CE and Boersma, A and Dudley, WC and Gardner, JV and Jenkins, DG and Lohman, W and Morin, R and Martini, R and Merrill, RB and Nelson, CS and Robert, C and Srinivasan, MS and Stein, R and Takeuchi, A},
   Title = {Deep-Sea Drilling Project Leg 90: The South Pacific
             Cenozoic},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {303},
   Number = {5912},
   Pages = {18-19},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/303018a0},
   Doi = {10.1038/303018a0},
   Key = {fds278648}
}

@article{fds278650,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Kastner, M and Byerlee, JD and Lockner,
             DA},
   Title = {Pressure solution and hydrothermal recrystallization of
             carbonate sediments - an experimental study -
             reply},
   Journal = {Marine Geology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {179-181},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0025-3227},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(83)90097-X},
   Doi = {10.1016/0025-3227(83)90097-X},
   Key = {fds278650}
}

@article{fds278647,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Gieskes, JM and Elderfield, H},
   Title = {Diagenesis of carbonates in deep-sea sediments - evidence
             from Sr/Ca ratios and interstitial dissolved Sr
             data.},
   Journal = {Journal of Sedimentary Petrology},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {71-82},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Laboratory determinations have been made of the distribution
             coefficient of Sr in calcite. Chemical analyses of several
             deep- sea carbonate sediment sections and their associated
             porewaters demonstrate that these values are appropriate for
             use in diagenetic studies. The distribution of Sr in the
             pore waters and sediments has been modelled. It is concluded
             that recrystallization of these carbonates is essentially
             isochemical. Recrystallization of the bulk of the calcite in
             deep-sea sections is largely complete within the upper few
             hundred meters. These results have important implications
             for the study of oxygen isotopic compositions of
             foraminifers and coccoliths. A distribution coefficient of
             Mg in calcite sediments has been estimated. -from Authors
             distribution coefficient recrystallization isochemical
             oxygen isotopic compositions},
   Key = {fds278647}
}

@article{fds278649,
   Author = {Elderfield, H and Gieskes, JM and Baker, PA and Oldfield, RK and Hawkesworth, CJ and Miller, R},
   Title = {87Sr 86Sr and  18O
             16O ratios, interstitial water chemistry and
             diagenesis in deep-sea carbonate sediments of the Ontong
             Java Plateau},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2259-2268},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1982},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(82)90199-5},
   Abstract = {Interstitial waters and sediments from DSDP sites 288 and
             289 contain information on the chemistry and diagenesis of
             carbonate in deep-sea sediments and on the role of volcanic
             matter alteration processes. Sr Ca ratios are species
             dependent in unaltered foraminifera from site 289 and atom
             ratios (1.2-1.6 × 10-3) exceed those predicted by
             distribution coefficent data (~0.4 × 10-3). During
             diagenesis Sr Ca ratios of carbonates decrease and reach the
             theoretical distribution at a depth which is identical to
             the depth of Sr isotopic equilibration, where 87Sr 86Sr
             ratios of interstitial waters and carbonates converge. Mg Ca
             ratios in the carbonates do not increase with depth as found
             in some other DSDP sites, possibly because of diagenetic
             re-equilibration with interstitial waters showing decreasing
             Mg2+/Ca2+ ratios with depth due to Ca input and Mg removal
             by alteration of volcanic matter. Interstitial 18O 16O
             ratios increase with depth at site 289 to δ18O = 0.67%.
             (SMOW), reflecting carbonate recrystallization at elevated
             temperatures ( $ ̌= 20°C), the first recorded evidence of
             this effect in interstitial waters. Interstitial Sr2+
             concentrations reach high levels, up to 1 mM, chiefly
             because of carbonate recrystallization. However, 87Sr 86Sr
             ratios decrease from 0.7092 to less than 0.7078, lower than
             for contemporaneous sea water, showing that there is a
             volcanic input of strontium at depth. This volcanic
             component is recorded in the Sr isotopic composition of
             recrystallized calcites. Isotopic compositions of the
             unrecrystallized calcites suggests that the rate of increase
             of the 87Sr 86Sr ratio of sea water with time has been
             faster since 3 my ago than in the preceding 13 my. ©
             1982.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(82)90199-5},
   Key = {fds278649}
}

@article{fds278646,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Kastner, M},
   Title = {Constraints on the formation of sedimentary
             dolomite},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {213},
   Number = {4504},
   Pages = {214-216},
   Publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science
             (AAAS)},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.213.4504.214},
   Abstract = {The experimental replacement of calcite and aragonite by
             dolomite under a variety of conditions indicates that
             dolomitization can take place in marine and lacustrine
             environments under two conditions: (i) low dissolved sulfate
             concentrations and (ii) insubstantial contemporaneous silica
             diagenesis. Common sites for dolomite formation are areas
             where the dissolved sulfate concentration is reduced by
             microbial sulfate reduction, through the mixing of seawater
             with large amounts of fresh water, or where low-sulfate
             alkaline lacustrine environments prevail. Even under these
             conditions, dolomite formation may be inhibited by the
             concurrent transformation of opal-A (amorphous silica) to
             opal-CT (disordered cristobalite and tridymite), whereas the
             subsequent transformation of opal-CT to quartz favors the
             formation of dolomite. Copyright © 1981
             AAAS.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.213.4504.214},
   Key = {fds278646}
}

@article{fds278645,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Kastner, M and Byerlee, JD and Lockner,
             DA},
   Title = {Pressure solution and hydrothermal recrystallization of
             carbonate sediments — An experimental study},
   Journal = {Marine Geology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {185-203},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-3227(80)90058-4},
   Abstract = {The extent of calcite recrystallization was determined in
             pressure-solution and hydrothermal experiments which were
             conducted on deep-sea carbonates of low-Mg calcite, Iceland
             spar, and reagent-grade calcite powder. In the
             pressure-solution experiments, wet sediments were subjected
             to confining pressures of 500–1500 bars and pore pressures
             of 150–500 bars, at temperatures between 22° and 180°C,
             for 21–240 h. The hydrothermal experiments were performed
             in sealed teflon-coated bombs at 200°C, zero effective
             stress, in sulfate-free sea water, for two weeks. The
             hydrothermal system was solution-dominated. The extent of
             calcite recrystallization was determined by measuring the
             oxygen isotopic compositions of the pore fluids and solids
             before and after each experiment. Scanning Electron
             Microscope observations, porosity and specific surface-area
             measurements were performed. In fine-grained carbonate
             samples subjected to high effective stresses, the mechanism
             for recrystallization apparently involves both relief of
             strain energy at grain-to-grain contacts and decrease in
             surface free energy by decreasing the surface area, while in
             coarse-grained carbonates, relief of strain energy appears
             to be the most important control of recrystallization. In
             the hydrothermal experiments, however, decrease in surface
             free energy is the only driving force for recrystallization.
             Effective stress increased the rate of calcite
             recrystallization. In both pressure-solution and
             hydrothermal experiments, clay minerals retarded the
             reaction. The effects of diatomite and basaltic glass on the
             extent of calcite recrystallization was investigated only in
             the hydrothermal experiments. Both admixed non-carbonate
             materials retarded the reaction, diatomite being the most
             effective inhibitor. Surface chemical reactions seem to be
             responsible for the observed inhibitions of calcite
             recrystallization. Increases in the extent of calcite
             recrystallization with increasing ionic strength were
             observed in hydrothermal experiments in NaCl solutions of
             five different ionic strengths. © 1980, All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0025-3227(80)90058-4},
   Key = {fds278645}
}

@article{fds278644,
   Author = {Weber, JN and Deines, P and Weber, PH and Baker, PA},
   Title = {Depth related changes in the 13C 12C ratio of skeletal
             carbonate deposited by the Caribbean reef-frame building
             coral Montastrea annularis: further implications of a model
             for stable isotope fractionation by scleractinian
             corals},
   Journal = {Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-39},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0016-7037},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(76)90191-5},
   Abstract = {Systematic variations in the isotopic composition of
             skeletal carbonate deposited by the Caribbean reef-frame
             building coral Montastrea annularis are correlated with
             water depth, location of the corallites within the corallum,
             and polyp packing density, as is demonstrated by isotope
             ratio measurements for 426 samples collected at 4.6 m depth
             intervals between 0 and 27.4 m at St. Croix, U.S. Virgin
             Islands. These data support a model, based on a study of
             Indo-Pacific scleractinians, proposed earlier for stable
             isotope fractionation by corals. Of particular interest is
             the fact that, within this species, ecotypic differentiation
             into shallow-water and deep-water subpopulations, with a
             boundary close to 20m, is reflected by changes in skeletal
             °13C. Stable isotope geochemical studies of both modern and
             fossil coral-derived carbonate may contribute to the
             solution of several problems having geologic and
             paleontologic significance. © 1976.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(76)90191-5},
   Key = {fds278644}
}

@article{fds278642,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Weber, JN},
   Title = {Coral growth rate: Variation with depth},
   Journal = {Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {135-139},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1975},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9201},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0031-9201(75)90031-X},
   Abstract = {Light and temperature are two of the most important physical
             factors affecting rates of growth of reef corals. The effect
             of light has been determined by X-radiographic measurement
             of long-term growth rates for 89 colonies of the coral
             Montastrea annularis collected over a 27.5-m depth range
             from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. These measurements, in
             conjunction with measurements of skeletal density, have
             established that M. annularis calcifies most rapidly at
             intermediate depths, and they have confirmed the
             identification of two distinct populations within this
             important frame-building species. © 1975.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0031-9201(75)90031-X},
   Key = {fds278642}
}

@article{fds278643,
   Author = {Baker, PA and Weber, JN},
   Title = {Coral growth rate: Variation with depth},
   Journal = {Earth and Planetary Science Letters},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-61},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1975},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0012-821X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(75)90160-0},
   Abstract = {Light and temperature are two of the most important physical
             factors affecting rates of growth of reef corals. The effect
             of light has been determined by X-radiographic measurement
             of long-term growth rates for 89 colonies of the coral
             Montastrea annularis collected over a 27.5-m depth range
             from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. These measurements, in
             conjunction with measurements of skeletal density, have
             established that M. annularis calcifies most rapidly at
             intermediate depths, and they have confirmed the
             identification of two distinct populations within this
             important frame-building species. © 1975.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0012-821X(75)90160-0},
   Key = {fds278643}
}


%% Papers Submitted   
@article{fds222726,
   Author = {Zell, C. and Kima, J.-H. and Hollander, D. and Lorenzoni, L. and Baker, P. and Silva, C. and Nittrouer, C. and Sinninghe, J.},
   Title = {Sources and distribution of branched and isoprenoid
             tetraether lipids on the Amazon shelf and fan: implications
             for the use of GDGT-based paleothermometers in marine
             sediments},
   Journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222726}
}

@article{fds186428,
   Author = {Jenkins, H.S. and Baker, P. and Guilderson,
             T.P.},
   Title = {Extreme drought events revealed in Amazon tree ring
             records},
   Journal = {Geophysical Research Letters},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds186428}
}


%% Book Chapters   
@misc{fds170552,
   Author = {Latrubesse, E. and Baker, P. and Argollo, J.},
   Title = {Geomorphology of natural hazards and human-induced disasters
             in Bolivia},
   Booktitle = {Geomorphology of Natural Hazards and Human-Excacerbated
             Disasters in Latin America},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds170552}
}

@misc{fds170557,
   Author = {Craig, N. and Aldenderfer, M. and Baker, P. and Rigsby,
             C.},
   Title = {Terminal Archaic Settlement Pattern and Land Cover Change in
             the Rio Ilave, Southwestern Lake Titicaca Basin,
             Perú},
   Booktitle = {The Archaeology of Anthropogenic Environments},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds170557}
}

@misc{fds170551,
   Author = {Baker, P.A. and Fritz, S.C. and Burns, S.J. and Ekdahl, E.J. and Rigsby, C.A.},
   Title = {The nature and origin of decadal to millennial scale climate
             variability in the southern tropics of South America: the
             Holocene record of Lago Umayo, Peru},
   Booktitle = {Past Climate Variability in South America and Surrounding
             Regions},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds170551}
}


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