Sarcophagus fragment
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Fragment of a marble Sarcophagus
ca. 230-240 ACE
Duke Museum of Art


  1. Boatwright, MT. "Women and Gender in the Forum Romanum." Transactions of the American Philological Association  vol. 141 no. 1, Johns Hopkins University Press  105-141. [doi]

    This article explores the evidence for women and gender in the Forum Romanum, investigating (primarily through literary sources) women's use of this space, and (primarily archaeologically) historical women's signification there by images and structures. The illustrated analysis proceeds chronologically from the Republic to the early third century C.E. Authors report women's presence in the civic Forum as abnormal, even transgressive through the Julio-Claudian period. The paucity of women's depictions and patronage here until the second century c.E. echoes constructs of Livy, Seneca the Younger, Tacitus, and others. The mid-imperial Forum, however, marks changes in Roman ideology as well as topography. © 2011 by the American Philological Association.