A type IIA string (or F-theory) compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold is believed to be dual to a heterotic string on a K3 surface times a 2-torus (or on a K3 surface). We consider how the resulting moduli space of hypermultiplets is identified between these two pictures in the case of the E8 × E8 heterotic string. As examples we discuss SU(2)-bundles and G2-bundles on the K3 surface and the case of point-like instantons. We are lead to a rather beautiful identification between the integral cohomology of the Calabi-Yau threefold and some integral structures on the heterotic side somewhat reminiscent of mirror symmetry. We discuss the consequences for probing nonperturbative effects in the both the type IIA string and the heterotic string.