Publications of Duncan Thomas

%%    
@article{fds336356,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Seeman, T and Potter, A and Hu, P and Crimmins, E and Herningtyas, EH and Sumantri, C and Frankenberg,
             E},
   Title = {HPLC-based Measurement of Glycated Hemoglobin using Dried
             Blood Spots Collected under Adverse Field
             Conditions.},
   Journal = {Biodemography and Social Biology},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-62},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) measured using high-performance
             liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays with venous blood and
             dried blood spots (DBS) are compared for 143 paired samples
             collected in Aceh, Indonesia. Relative to gold-standard
             venous-blood values, DBS-based values reported by the HPLC
             are systematically upward biased for HbA1c<8% and the
             fraction diabetic (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%) is overstated almost
             five-fold. Inspection of chromatograms from DBS assays
             indicates the % glycosylated calculated by the HPLC excludes
             part of the hemoglobin A which is misidentified as a
             hemoglobin variant. Taking this into account, unbiased
             DBS-based values are computed using data from the
             machine-generated chromatograms. When the DBS are collected
             in a clinic-like setting, under controlled
             humidity/temperature conditions, the recalculated values are
             almost identical to venous-based values. When DBS are
             collected under field conditions, the recalculated values
             are unbiased, but only about half the HbA1c values are
             measured reliably, calling into question the validity of the
             other half. The results suggest that collection conditions,
             particularly humidity, affect the quality of the DBS-based
             measures. Cross-validating DBS-based HbA1c values with
             venous samples collected under exactly the same
             environmental conditions is a prudent investment in
             population-based studies.},
   Doi = {10.1080/19485565.2018.1451300},
   Key = {fds336356}
}

@article{fds329003,
   Author = {Ho, JY and Frankenberg, E and Sumantri, C and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Adult Mortality Five Years after a Natural
             Disaster.},
   Journal = {Population and Development Review},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {467-490},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   Abstract = {Exposure to extreme events has been hypothesized to affect
             subsequent mortality because of mortality selection and
             scarring effects of the event itself. We examine survival at
             and in the five years after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
             and tsunami for a population-representative sample of
             residents of Aceh, Indonesia who were differentially exposed
             to the disaster. For this population, the dynamics of
             selection and scarring are a complex function of the degree
             of tsunami impact in the community, the nature of individual
             exposures, age at exposure, and gender. Among individuals
             from tsunami-affected communities we find evidence for
             positive mortality selection among older individuals, with
             stronger effects for males than for females, and that this
             selection dominates any scarring impact of stressful
             exposures that elevate mortality. Among individuals from
             other communities, where mortality selection does not play a
             role, there is evidence of scarring with property loss
             associated with elevated mortality risks in the five years
             after the disaster among adults age 50 or older at the time
             of the disaster.},
   Doi = {10.1111/padr.12075},
   Key = {fds329003}
}

@article{fds321974,
   Author = {LaFave, D and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Height and cognition at work: Labor market productivity in a
             low income setting.},
   Journal = {Economics and Human Biology},
   Volume = {25},
   Pages = {52-64},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {May},
   Abstract = {Taller workers earn more, particularly in lower income
             settings. It has been argued that adult height is a marker
             of strength which is rewarded in the labor market; a proxy
             for cognitive performance or other dimensions of human
             capital such as school quality; a proxy for health status;
             and a proxy for family background and genetic
             characteristics. As a result, the argument goes, height is
             rewarded in the labor market because it is an informative
             signal of worker quality to an employer. It has also been
             argued that the height premium is driven by occupational and
             sectoral choice. This paper evaluates the relative
             importance of these potential mechanisms underlying the link
             between adult stature and labor market productivity in a
             specific low income setting, rural Central Java, Indonesia.
             Drawing on twelve waves of longitudinal survey data, we
             establish that height predicts hourly earnings after
             controlling education, multiple indicators of cognitive
             performance and physical health status, measures of family
             background, sectoral and occupational choice, as well as
             local area market characteristics. The height premium is
             large and significant in both the wage and self-employed
             sectors indicating height is not only a signal of worker
             quality to employers. Since adult stature is largely
             determined in the first few years of life, we conclude that
             exposures during this critical period have an enduring
             impact on labor market productivity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ehb.2016.10.008},
   Key = {fds321974}
}

@article{fds327861,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Human Capital and Shocks: Evidence on Education, Health and
             Nutrition},
   Journal = {Nber},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds327861}
}

@misc{fds328334,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Friedman, J and Ingwersen, N and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Linear child growth after a natural disaster: a longitudinal
             study of the effects of the 2004 Indian Ocean
             tsunami},
   Journal = {Lancet (London, England)},
   Volume = {389},
   Pages = {21-21},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds328334}
}

@article{fds325569,
   Author = {Brown, R and Montalva, V and Thomas, D and Velásquez,
             A},
   Title = {Impact of Violent Crime on Risk Aversion: Evidence from the
             Mexican Drug War},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   Key = {fds325569}
}

@article{fds321975,
   Author = {LaFave, D and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Farms, Families, and Markets: New Evidence on Completeness
             of Markets in Agricultural Settings.},
   Journal = {Econometrica},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1917-1960},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   Abstract = {The farm household model has played a central role in
             improving the understanding of small-scale agricultural
             households and non-farm enterprises. Under the assumptions
             that all current and future markets exist and that farmers
             treat all prices as given, the model simplifies households'
             simultaneous production and consumption decisions into a
             recursive form in which production can be treated as
             independent of preferences of household members. These
             assumptions, which are the foundation of a large literature
             in labor and development, have been tested and not rejected
             in several important studies including Benjamin (1992).
             Using multiple waves of longitudinal survey data from
             Central Java, Indonesia, this paper tests a key prediction
             of the recursive model: demand for farm labor is unrelated
             to the demographic composition of the farm household. The
             prediction is unambiguously rejected. The rejection cannot
             be explained by contamination due to unobserved
             heterogeneity that is fixed at the farm level, local area
             shocks or farm-specific shocks that affect changes in
             household composition and farm labor demand. We conclude
             that the recursive form of the farm household model is not
             consistent with the data. Developing empirically tractable
             models of farm households when markets are incomplete
             remains an important challenge.},
   Doi = {10.3982/ecta12987},
   Key = {fds321975}
}

@article{fds324346,
   Author = {Ho, JY and Frankenberg, E and Sumantri, C and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Adult Mortality Five Years after a Natural Disaster:
             Evidence from the Indian Ocean Tsunami},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds324346}
}

@article{fds239021,
   Author = {Elo, IT and Frankenberg, E and Gansey, R and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Africans in the American Labor Market.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1513-1542},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   Abstract = {The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has
             grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in
             America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a
             faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The
             composition of African-origin migrants has also changed
             dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority
             were white and came from only three countries; but today,
             about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail
             from across the entire continent. Little is known about the
             implications of these changes for their labor market
             outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of
             the American Community Survey, we present a picture of
             enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation,
             sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female
             migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the
             United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a
             rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics,
             some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and
             Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn
             substantial premiums relative to other African-origin
             migrants. These premiums are especially large among males
             who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such
             as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently,
             mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants
             from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms
             generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including
             levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and
             quality of education in countries of origin, as well as
             selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among
             important unresolved research questions.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-015-0417-y},
   Key = {fds239021}
}

@misc{fds239022,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Ho, JY and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Biological Health Risks and Economic Development},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   Abstract = {With populations aging and the epidemic of obesity spreading
             across the globe, global health risks are shifting toward
             non-communicable diseases. Innovative biomarker data from
             recently conducted population-representative surveys in
             lower, middle and higher income countries are used to
             describe how four key biological health risks –
             hypertension, cholesterol, glucose and inflammation – vary
             with economic development and, within each country, with
             age, gender and education. As obesity rises in lower income
             countries, the burden of non-communicable diseases will rise
             in roughly predictable ways and the costs to society are
             potentially very large. Investigations that explain
             cross-country differences in these relationships will have a
             major impact on advancing understanding of the complex
             interplay between biology, health and development.},
   Key = {fds239022}
}

@misc{fds333803,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Laurito, MM and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Demographic Impact of Disasters},
   Pages = {101-108},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral
             Sciences: Second Edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9780080970868},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The frequency and
             magnitude of large-scale disasters in recent years has
             prompted increased interest in better understanding how
             major disruptive events alter key demographic processes.
             This article summarizes evidence establishing that disasters
             have significantly impacted mortality, health, fertility,
             and migration. While these processes are intimately
             interrelated, there have been relatively few integrative
             analyses that draw the evidence together, in large part
             because of inadequate data. Investment in population data
             collection systems to provide scientific evidence in the
             wake of disasters will broaden the depth and scope of
             disaster research, advance understanding of demographic
             changes, and inform policy interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.31059-5},
   Key = {fds333803}
}

@misc{fds333804,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {Experimental Methods in Survey Research in
             Demography},
   Pages = {559-565},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral
             Sciences: Second Edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9780080970868},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Randomized
             controlled trials (RCTs) have been profitably used to
             identify causal effects in population research. However, the
             design and implementation of social experiments is not
             straightforward and it is not clear that it is either
             feasible or desirable to attempt to answer some questions in
             population using only the so-called 'gold standard'
             double-blind RCT. It seems likely that the integration of
             the creative use of theory with the advantages of both RCTs
             and nonexperimental study designs has the greatest hope of
             advancing scientific knowledge about population behaviors
             and processes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.31028-5},
   Key = {fds333804}
}

@article{fds239023,
   Author = {Nobles, J and Frankenberg, E and Thomas, D},
   Title = {The effects of mortality on fertility: population dynamics
             after a natural disaster.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {15-38},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   Abstract = {Understanding how mortality and fertility are linked is
             essential to the study of population dynamics. We
             investigate the fertility response to an unanticipated
             mortality shock that resulted from the 2004 Indian Ocean
             tsunami, which killed large shares of the residents of some
             Indonesian communities but caused no deaths in neighboring
             communities. Using population-representative multilevel
             longitudinal data, we identify a behavioral fertility
             response to mortality exposure, both at the level of a
             couple and in the broader community. We observe a sustained
             fertility increase at the aggregate level following the
             tsunami, which was driven by two behavioral responses to
             mortality exposure. First, mothers who lost one or more
             children in the disaster were significantly more likely to
             bear additional children after the tsunami. This response
             explains about 13 % of the aggregate increase in fertility.
             Second, women without children before the tsunami initiated
             family-building earlier in communities where tsunami-related
             mortality rates were higher, indicating that the fertility
             of these women is an important route to rebuilding the
             population in the aftermath of a mortality shock. Such
             community-level effects have received little attention in
             demographic scholarship.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-014-0362-1},
   Key = {fds239023}
}

@article{fds239024,
   Author = {Hamoudi, A and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Endogenous coresidence and program incidence: South Africa's
             Old Age Pension.},
   Journal = {Journal of Development Economics},
   Volume = {109},
   Pages = {30-37},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0304-3878},
   Abstract = {We investigate whether living arrangements respond to an
             arguably exogenous shift in the distribution of power in
             family economic decision-making. In the early 1990s, the
             South African Old Age Pension was expanded to cover most
             black South Africans above a sex-specific age cut-off
             resulting in a substantial increase in the income of older
             South Africans and potentially their say in the economic
             decisions of their families. Beneficiaries of the program
             are more likely to coreside with adults who have less human
             capital as measured by height and education. Since height
             and education are fixed for adults, this cannot be an effect
             of the pension income but reflects selective changes in
             living arrangements resulting from the pension. The findings
             highlight the endogeneity of living arrangements and
             illustrate the potential value of moving beyond theory and
             data that are confined to a spatially determined definition
             of the household.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jdeveco.2014.03.002},
   Key = {fds239024}
}

@article{fds239025,
   Author = {Gray, C and Frankenberg, E and Gillespie, T and Sumantri, C and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale
             Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami.},
   Journal = {Annals of the Association of American Geographers},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {594-612},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0004-5608},
   Abstract = {Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change
             has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability
             and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially
             affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing
             on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who
             were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004
             Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the
             tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of
             population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and
             multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to
             provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and
             impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The
             data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to
             post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and
             North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the
             tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly
             affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that
             migration after a disaster is less selective overall than
             migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example,
             are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are
             not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In
             our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not
             always operate in expected directions. Low levels of
             socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of
             moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move,
             they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a
             private home. This survey-based approach, though not without
             difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in
             human-environment research, and potentially opens the door
             to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this
             literature.},
   Doi = {10.1080/00045608.2014.892351},
   Key = {fds239025}
}

@article{fds239027,
   Author = {Gillespie, TW and Frankenberg, E and Chum, KF and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery,
             and economic metrics in Sumatra, Indonesia.},
   Journal = {Remote Sensing Letters (Print)},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {286-294},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2150-704X},
   Abstract = {On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the west
             coast of the northern Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in 160,000
             Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological
             Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS)
             nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307
             communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and
             Recovery (STAR), a household survey in Sumatra from 2004 to
             2008. We examined night light time series between the annual
             brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected
             from STAR households and aggregated to the community level.
             There were significant changes in brightness values from
             2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in
             2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light
             values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were
             significant relationships between the nighttime imagery
             brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on
             energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense
             Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can
             be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami
             and other natural disasters and estimate time series
             economic metrics at the community level in developing
             countries.},
   Doi = {10.1080/2150704X.2014.900205},
   Key = {fds239027}
}

@article{fds239026,
   Author = {Cas, AG and Frankenberg, E and Suriastini, W and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {The Impact of Parental Death on Child Well-being: Evidence
             From the Indian Ocean Tsunami},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {437-457},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   url = {http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-014-0279-8},
   Abstract = {Identifying the impact of parental death on the well-being
             of children is complicated because parental death is likely
             to be correlated with other, unobserved factors that affect
             child well-being. Population-representative longitudinal
             data collected in Aceh, Indonesia, before and after the
             December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used to identify the
             impact of parental deaths on the well-being of children aged
             9-17 at the time of the tsunami. Exploiting the
             unanticipated nature of parental death resulting from the
             tsunami in combination with measuring well-being of the same
             children before and after the tsunami, models that include
             child fixed effects are estimated to isolate the causal
             effect of parental death. Comparisons are drawn between
             children who lost one or both parents and children whose
             parents survived. Shorter-term impacts on school attendance
             and time allocation one year after the tsunami are examined,
             as well as longer-term impacts on education trajectories and
             marriage. Shorter- and longer-term impacts are not the same.
             Five years after the tsunami, there are substantial
             deleterious impacts of the tsunami on older boys and girls,
             whereas the effects on younger children are more muted. ©
             2014 The Author(s).},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-014-0279-8},
   Key = {fds239026}
}

@article{fds239028,
   Author = {Weaver, EH and Frankenberg, E and Fried, BJ and Thomas, D and Wheeler,
             SB and Paul, JE},
   Title = {Effect of village midwife program on contraceptive
             prevalence and method choice in Indonesia.},
   Journal = {Studies in Family Planning},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {389-409},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0039-3665},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24323659},
   Abstract = {Indonesia established its Village Midwife Program in 1989 to
             combat high rates of maternal mortality. The program's goals
             were to address gaps in access to reproductive health care
             for rural women, increase access to and use of family
             planning services, and broaden the mix of available
             contraceptive methods. In this study, we use longitudinal
             data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to examine the
             program's effect on contraceptive practice. We find that the
             program did not affect overall contraceptive prevalence but
             did affect method choice. Over time, for women using
             contraceptives, midwives were associated with increased odds
             of injectable contraceptive use and decreased odds of oral
             contraceptive and implant use. Although the Indonesian
             government had hoped that the Village Midwife Program would
             channel women into using longer-lasting methods, the women's
             "switching behavior" indicates that the program succeeded in
             providing additional outlets for and promoting the use of
             injectable contraceptives.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1728-4465.2013.00366.x},
   Key = {fds239028}
}

@article{fds239033,
   Author = {Beltrán-Sánchez, H and Thomas, D and Teruel, G and Wheaton, F and Crimmins, EM},
   Title = {Links between socio-economic circumstances and changes in
             smoking behavior in the Mexican population:
             2002-2010.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cross Cultural Gerontology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {339-358},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0169-3816},
   Abstract = {While deleterious consequences of smoking on health have
             been widely publicized, in many developing countries,
             smoking prevalence is high and increasing. Little is known
             about the dynamics underlying changes in smoking behavior.
             This paper examines socio-economic and demographic
             characteristics associated with smoking initiation and
             quitting in Mexico between 2002 and 2010. In addition to the
             influences of age, gender, education, household economic
             resources and location of residence, changes in marital
             status, living arrangements and health status are examined.
             Drawing data from the Mexican Family Life Survey, a rich
             population-based longitudinal study of individuals, smoking
             behavior of individuals in 2002 is compared with their
             behavior in 2010. Logistic models are used to examine
             socio-demographic and health factors that are associated
             with initiating and quitting smoking. There are three main
             findings. First, part of the relationship between education
             and smoking reflects the role of economic resources. Second,
             associations of smoking with education and economic
             resources differ for females and males. Third, there is
             considerable heterogeneity in the factors linked to smoking
             behavior in Mexico indicating that the smoking epidemic may
             be at different stages in different population subgroups.
             Mexico has recently implemented fiscal policies and public
             health campaigns aimed at reducing smoking prevalence and
             discouraging smoking initiation. These programs are likely
             to be more effective if they target particular
             socio-economic and demographic sub-groups.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10823-013-9203-8},
   Key = {fds239033}
}

@article{fds239035,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Sikoki, B and Sumantri, C and Suriastini, W and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Education, Vulnerability, and Resilience after a Natural
             Disaster.},
   Journal = {Ecology and Society},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {16},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1708-3087},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000321257100014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The extent to which education provides protection in the
             face of a large-scale natural disaster is investigated.
             Using longitudinal population-representative survey data
             collected in two provinces on the island of Sumatra,
             Indonesia, before and after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami,
             we examine changes in a broad array of indicators of
             well-being of adults. Focusing on adults who were living,
             before the tsunami, in areas that were subsequently severely
             damaged by the tsunami, better educated males were more
             likely to survive the tsunami, but education is not
             predictive of survival among females. Education is not
             associated with levels of post-traumatic stress among
             survivors 1 year after the tsunami, or with the likelihood
             of being displaced. Where education does appear to play a
             role is with respect to coping with the disaster over the
             longer term. The better educated were far less likely than
             others to live in a camp or other temporary housing, moving,
             instead, to private homes, staying with family or friends,
             or renting a new home. The better educated were more able to
             minimize dips in spending levels following the tsunami,
             relative to the cuts made by those with little education.
             Five years after the tsunami, the better educated were in
             better psycho-social health than those with less education.
             In sum, education is associated with higher levels of
             resilience over the longer term.},
   Doi = {10.5751/ES-05377-180216},
   Key = {fds239035}
}

@article{fds239029,
   Author = {Currie, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Introduction to "early test scores, school quality and ses:
             Longrun effects on wage and employment outcomes"},
   Journal = {Research in Labor Economics},
   Volume = {35},
   Pages = {181-183},
   Publisher = {Emerald Group Publishing Limited},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0147-9121},
   Doi = {10.1108/S0147-9121(2012)0000035009},
   Key = {fds239029}
}

@article{fds239078,
   Author = {McKelvey, C and Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {Fertility Regulation in an Economic Crisis.},
   Journal = {Economic Development and Cultural Change},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {7-38},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0013-0079},
   Abstract = {Substantial international aid is spent reducing the cost of
             contraception in developing countries, as part of a larger
             effort to reduce global fertility and increase investment
             per child worldwide. The importance for fertility behaviors
             of keeping contraceptive prices low, however, remains
             unclear. Targeting of subsidies and insufficient price
             variation have hindered prior attempts to estimate the
             effect of monetary and non-monetary contraceptive costs on
             fertility behavior. Using longitudinal survey data from the
             Indonesia Family Life Survey, we exploit dramatic variation
             in prices and incomes that was induced by the economic
             crisis in the late 1990s to pin down the effect of
             contraceptive availability and costs as well as household
             resources on contraceptive use and method choice. The
             results are unambiguous: monetary costs of contraceptives
             and levels of family economic resources have a very small
             (and well-determined) impact on contraceptive use and choice
             of method.},
   Doi = {10.1086/666950},
   Key = {fds239078}
}

@article{fds239037,
   Author = {Beltran-Sanchez, H and Thomas, D and Wheaton, F and Crimmins,
             E},
   Title = {SMOKING ONSET AND CESSATION IN MEXICO},
   Journal = {Gerontologist},
   Volume = {51},
   Pages = {391-391},
   Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0016-9013},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000303602002452&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds239037}
}

@article{fds239082,
   Author = {Beltrán-Sánchez, H and Crimmins, EM and Teruel, GM and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Links between childhood and adult social circumstances and
             obesity and hypertension in the Mexican population.},
   Journal = {Journal of Aging and Health},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1141-1165},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0898-2643},
   Abstract = {This study examines links between early life circumstances
             and adult socioeconomic status and obesity and hypertension
             in the adult Mexican population.We use data from the Mexican
             Family Life Survey (MxFLS) collected in 2002 for people aged
             20 or older (N = 14,280).We found that men with low
             education and women with more education have significantly
             lower obesity. Women with higher education also have
             significantly less hypertension. Obesity triples the
             likelihood of hypertension among both men and women. Better
             childhood experiences are associated with less hypertension
             among women, but more hypertension among men in rural
             areas.Recent changes in income, nutrition, and infection in
             Mexico may be responsible for the observed high prevalence
             of overweight and obesity and the extremely high odds of
             hypertension among obese young adults.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0898264311422255},
   Key = {fds239082}
}

@article{fds239076,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Gillespie, T and Preston, S and Sikoki, B and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {MORTALITY, THE FAMILY AND THE INDIAN OCEAN
             TSUNAMI.},
   Journal = {The Economic Journal},
   Volume = {121},
   Number = {554},
   Pages = {F162-F182},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0013-0133},
   Abstract = {Over 130,000 people died in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
             The correlates of survival are examined using data from the
             Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a
             population-representative survey collected in Aceh and North
             Sumatra, Indonesia, before and after the tsunami. Children,
             older adults and females were the least likely to survive.
             Whereas socio-economic factors mattered relatively little,
             the evidence is consistent with physical strength playing a
             role. Pre-tsunami household composition is predictive of
             survival and suggests that stronger members sought to help
             weaker members: men helped their wives, parents and
             children, while women helped their children.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1468-0297.2011.02446.x},
   Key = {fds239076}
}

@article{fds239034,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Global aging},
   Pages = {73-89},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Social research on global aging is a rapidly growing field.
             The goal of this chapter is to highlight emerging lines of
             inquiry that are likely to have an important impact on
             science and discusses challenges that have hindered
             progress. The aggregate demographic features that drive
             global aging are discussed. Current patterns and future
             trends in low-income countries with respect to three
             dimensions of aging: health; work and retirement; and living
             arrangements and transfers are shown. Changes in age
             structures have important implications for education and
             work opportunities, taxation of earnings and wealth, savings
             and insurance vehicles, and how earnings are taxed. Life
             expectancy is largely driven by deaths at early ages and so
             increases in life expectancy have presaged major shifts in
             the global burden of disease. Biological markers of health
             status have revolutionized research on population health,
             but relying exclusively on those markers and health-related
             behaviors limits progress on understanding global aging.
             Efforts to conduct population-based studies that measure
             other dimensions of health in the developing world have
             increased knowledge of health conditions, particularly for
             children and women of reproductive age. The evidence on the
             health of men and older adults is more fragmented. The field
             of global aging is in its infancy. It is an exciting area
             for innovative research as it provides unparalleled
             opportunities for making major contributions to both policy
             and science. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-380880-6.00006-X},
   Key = {fds239034}
}

@article{fds239063,
   Author = {Rubalcava, L and Teruel, G and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Investments, time preferences and public transfers paid to
             women.},
   Journal = {Economic Development and Cultural Change},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {507-538},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0013-0079},
   Abstract = {The literature suggests men and women may have different
             preferences. This paper exploits a social experiment in
             which women in treatment households were given a large
             public cash transfer (PROGRESA). In an effort to disentangle
             the effect of additional income in the household from the
             effect of changing the distribution of income within the
             household, the impact of PROGRESA income on savings and
             investments decisions is compared with all other income
             sources (after taking into account participation in the
             program). Additional money in the hands of women is spent on
             small livestock (which are traditionally managed and cared
             for by women), improved nutrition and on child goods
             (particularly clothing). Among single headed households,
             PROGRESA income is not treated differently from other
             income. Direct evidence on inter-temporal preferences
             gathered in the Mexican Family Live Survey indicates that
             women are more patient than males when thinking about the
             future. Taken together, the results suggest that PROGRESA
             income results in a shift in the balance of power within
             households and women allocated more resources towards
             investments in the future.},
   Doi = {10.1086/596617},
   Key = {fds239063}
}

@article{fds239064,
   Author = {Friedman, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic
             Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993 - 2000.},
   Journal = {The World Bank Economic Review},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-76},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0258-6770},
   Abstract = {The 1997 Indonesian financial crisis resulted in severe
             economic dislocation and political upheaval, and the
             detrimental consequences for economic welfare, physical
             health, and child education have been established in several
             studies. The crisis also adversely impacted the
             psychological well-being of the Indonesian population.
             Comparing responses of the same individuals interviewed
             before and after the crisis, we document substantial
             increases in several different dimensions of psychological
             distress among male and female adults across the entire age
             distribution. In addition, the imprint of the crisis can be
             seen in the differential impacts of the crisis on low
             education groups, the rural landless, and residents in those
             provinces that were most affected by the crisis. Elevated
             levels of psychological distress persist even after
             indicators of economic well-being such as household
             consumption had returned to pre-crisis levels, suggesting
             the deleterious effects of the crisis on the psychological
             well-being of the Indonesian population may be longer
             lasting than the impacts on economic well-being.},
   Doi = {10.1093/wber/lhn013},
   Key = {fds239064}
}

@article{fds239075,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Friedman, J and Gillespie, T and Ingwersen, N and Pynoos, R and Rifai, IU and Sikoki, B and Steinberg, A and Sumantri, C and Suriastini, W and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Mental health in Sumatra after the tsunami.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1671-1677},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18633091},
   Abstract = {We assessed the levels and correlates of posttraumatic
             stress reactivity (PTSR) of more than 20,000 adult tsunami
             survivors by analyzing survey data from coastal Aceh and
             North Sumatra, Indonesia.A population-representative sample
             of individuals interviewed before the tsunami was traced in
             2005 to 2006. We constructed 2 scales measuring PTSR by
             using 7 symptom items from the Post Traumatic Stress
             Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version. One scale
             measured PTSR at the time of interview, and the other
             measured PTSR at the point of maximum intensity since the
             disaster.PTSR scores were highest for respondents from
             heavily damaged areas. In all areas, scores declined over
             time. Gender and age were significant predictors of PTSR;
             markers of socioeconomic status before the tsunami were not.
             Exposure to traumatic events, loss of kin, and property
             damage were significantly associated with higher PTSR
             scores.The tsunami produced posttraumatic stress reactions
             across a wide region of Aceh and North Sumatra. Public
             health will be enhanced by the provision of counseling
             services that reach not only people directly affected by the
             tsunami but also those living beyond the area of immediate
             impact.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.2007.120915},
   Key = {fds239075}
}

@article{fds239062,
   Author = {Stillman, S and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Nutritional status during an economic crisis: Evidence from
             Russia},
   Journal = {The Economic Journal},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {531},
   Pages = {1385-1417},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0013-0133},
   Abstract = {Between 1996 and 1998, Russia experienced a spectacular
             decline in economic activity which was followed by a
             dramatic rebound between 1998 and 2000. We use panel data to
             examine the impact of variation in household resources on
             six dimensions of nutritional status, distinguishing
             longer-run from short-term fluctuations in resources.
             Nutritional status is very resilient to short-term variation
             in household resources. Gross energy intake, adult weight
             and child stature change very little as expenditure deviates
             from its long-run average. Longer-run resources have a
             substantively large, positive and significant effect on
             energy intake, diet quality, adult weight and child stature.
             The evidence indicates that individuals and households are
             able to weather short-term fluctuations in economic
             resources, at least in terms of maintaining body mass and
             energy intake. © Journal compilation © 2008 by the Royal
             Economic Society.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1468-0297.2008.02174.x},
   Key = {fds239062}
}

@misc{fds323828,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {Comments on collecting and utilizing biological indicators
             in social science surveys},
   Pages = {149-155},
   Booktitle = {Biosocial Surveys},
   Publisher = {National Academies Press},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0309108683},
   Doi = {10.17226/11939},
   Key = {fds323828}
}

@article{fds239061,
   Author = {Rubalcava, LN and Teruel, GM and Thomas, D and Goldman,
             N},
   Title = {The healthy migrant effect: new findings from the Mexican
             Family Life Survey.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
   Volume = {98},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {78-84},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0090-0036},
   Abstract = {We used nationally representative longitudinal data from the
             Mexican Family Life Survey to determine whether recent
             migrants from Mexico to the United States are healthier than
             other Mexicans. Previous research has provided little
             scientific evidence that tests the "healthy migrant"
             hypothesis.Estimates were derived from logistic regressions
             of whether respondents moved to the United States between
             surveys in 2002 and 2005, by gender and urban versus rural
             residence. Covariates included physical health measurements,
             self-reported health, and education measured in 2002. Our
             primary sample comprised 6446 respondents aged 15 to 29
             years.Health significantly predicted subsequent migration
             among females and rural males. However, the associations
             were weak, few health indicators were statistically
             significant, and there was substantial variation in the
             estimates between males and females and between urban and
             rural dwellers.On the basis of recent data for Mexico, the
             largest source of migrants to the United States, we found
             generally weak support for the healthy migrant
             hypothesis.},
   Doi = {10.2105/ajph.2006.098418},
   Key = {fds239061}
}

@misc{fds239060,
   Author = {Strauss, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Chapter 54 Health over the Life Course},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {3375-3474},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Development Economics},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780444531001},
   ISSN = {1573-4471},
   Abstract = {In recent years, significant advances have been made in
             better understanding the complex relationships between
             health and development. This reflects the combined effects
             of methodological innovations at both the theoretical and
             empirical level, the integration of insights from the
             biological and health sciences into economic analyses as
             well as improvements in the quantity and quality of data on
             population health and socio-economic status. To provide a
             foundation for discussing these advances, we describe static
             and dynamic models of the evolution of health over the life
             course in conjunction with the inter-relationships between
             health, other human capital outcomes and economic
             prosperity. Facts about health and development at both the
             aggregate and individual levels are presented along with a
             discussion of the importance of measurement. We proceed to
             review the empirical literature with a goal of highlighting
             emerging lines of scientific inquiry that are likely to have
             an important impact on the field. We begin with recent work
             that relates health events in early life, including in
             utero, to health, human capital and economic success in
             later life. We then turn to adult health and its
             relationship with socio-economic success, exploring the
             impact of health on economic outcomes and vice versa as well
             as the links between health and consumption smoothing.
             Recent evidence from the empirical literature on the
             micro-level impacts of HIV/AIDS on development is
             summarized. We conclude that developments on the horizon
             suggest a very exciting future for scientific research in
             this area. © 2008.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1573-4471(07)04054-5},
   Key = {fds239060}
}

@article{fds239073,
   Author = {Gillespie, TW and Chu, J and Frankenberg, E and Thomas,
             D},
   Title = {Assessment and Prediction of Natural Hazards from Satellite
             Imagery.},
   Journal = {Progress in Physical Geography},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {459-470},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0309-1333},
   Abstract = {Since 2000, there have been a number of spaceborne
             satellites that have changed the way we assess and predict
             natural hazards. These satellites are able to quantify
             physical geographic phenomena associated with the movements
             of the earth's surface (earthquakes, mass movements), water
             (floods, tsunamis, storms), and fire (wildfires). Most of
             these satellites contain active or passive sensors that can
             be utilized by the scientific community for the remote
             sensing of natural hazards over a number of spatial and
             temporal scales. The most useful satellite imagery for the
             assessment of earthquake damage comes from high-resolution
             (0.6 m to 1 m pixel size) passive sensors and moderate
             resolution active sensors that can quantify the vertical and
             horizontal movement of the earth's surface. High-resolution
             passive sensors have been used to successfully assess flood
             damage while predictive maps of flood vulnerability areas
             are possible based on physical variables collected from
             passive and active sensors. Recent moderate resolution
             sensors are able to provide near real time data on fires and
             provide quantitative data used in fire behavior models.
             Limitations currently exist due to atmospheric interference,
             pixel resolution, and revisit times. However, a number of
             new microsatellites and constellations of satellites will be
             launched in the next five years that contain increased
             resolution (0.5 m to 1 m pixel resolution for active
             sensors) and revisit times (daily ≤ 2.5 m resolution
             images from passive sensors) that will significantly improve
             our ability to assess and predict natural hazards from
             space.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0309133307083296},
   Key = {fds239073}
}

@misc{fds239040,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {Household Responses to the Financial Crisis in Indonesia:
             Longitudinal Evidence on Poverty, Resources, and
             Well-Being},
   Pages = {517-560},
   Booktitle = {Globalization and Poverty},
   Year = {2007},
   url = {http://ipl.econ.duke.edu/dthomas},
   Key = {fds239040}
}

@article{fds239038,
   Author = {Seltzer, JA and Bachrach, CA and Bianchi, SM and Bledsoe, CH and Casper,
             LM and Chase-Lansdale, PL and Diprete, TA and Hotz, VJ and Morgan, SP and Sanders, SG and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Explaining Family Change and Variation: Challenges for
             Family Demographers.},
   Journal = {Journal of Marriage and the Family},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {908-925},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-2445},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20376277},
   Abstract = {Twenty years ago, the National Institute of Child Health and
             Human Development (NICHD) issued a request for proposals
             that resulted in the National Survey of Families and
             Households (NSFH), a unique survey valuable to a wide range
             of family scholars. This paper describes the efforts of an
             interdisciplinary group of family demographers to build on
             the progress enabled by the NSFH and many other theoretical
             and methodological innovations. Our work, also supported by
             NICHD, will develop plans for research and data collection
             to address the central question of what causes family change
             and variation. We outline the group's initial assessments of
             orienting frameworks, key aspects of family life to study,
             and theoretical and methodological challenges for research
             on family change. Finally, we invite family scholars to
             follow our progress and to help develop this shared public
             good.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00183.x},
   Key = {fds239038}
}

@article{fds239074,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Suriastini, W and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Can expanding access to basic healthcare improve children's
             health status? Lessons from Indonesia's 'midwife in the
             village' programme.},
   Journal = {Population Studies},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {5-19},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0032-4728},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15764131},
   Abstract = {In the 1990s, the Indonesian government placed over 50,000
             midwives in communities throughout the country. We examine
             how this expansion in health services affected children's
             height-for-age. To address the problem that midwives were
             not randomly allocated to communities, the estimation
             exploits the biology of childhood growth, the timing of the
             introduction of midwives to communities, and rich
             longitudinal data. The evidence indicates that the
             nutritional status of children fully exposed to a midwife
             during early childhood is significantly better than that of
             their peers of the same age and cohort in communities
             without a midwife. The former are also better off than
             children assessed at the same age from the same communities
             but who were born before the midwife arrived. Within
             communities, the improvement in nutritional status across
             cohorts is greater where midwives were introduced than where
             they were not. This result is robust to the inclusion of
             community fixed effects.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0032472052000332674},
   Key = {fds239074}
}

@article{fds239072,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and McKee, D and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Health consequences of forest fires in Indonesia.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {109-129},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15782898},
   Abstract = {We combined data from a population-based longitudinal survey
             with satellite measures of aerosol levels to assess the
             impact of smoke from forest fires that blanketed the
             Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra in late 1997 on
             adult health. To account for unobserved differences between
             haze and nonhaze areas, we compared changes in the health of
             individual respondents. Between 1993 and 1997, individuals
             who were exposed to haze experienced greater increases in
             difficulty with activities of daily living than did their
             counterparts in nonhaze areas. The results for respiratory
             and general health, although more complicated to interpret,
             suggest that haze had a negative impact on these dimensions
             of health.},
   Doi = {10.1353/dem.2005.0004},
   Key = {fds239072}
}

@article{fds239071,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Beegle, K and Frankenberg, E and Sikoki, B and Strauss, J and Teruel, G},
   Title = {Education in a crisis},
   Journal = {Journal of Development Economics},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {53-85},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   Abstract = {The year 1998 saw the onset of a major economic and
             financial crisis in Indonesia. GDP fell by 12% that year.
             The effect on education of the next generation is examined.
             On average, household spending on education declined, most
             dramatically among the poorest households. Spending
             reductions were particularly marked in poor households with
             more young children, while there was a tendency to protect
             education spending in poor households with more older
             children. The evidence on school enrollments mirrors these
             findings. Poor households apparently sought to protect
             investments in the schooling of older children at the
             expense of the education of younger children. © 2004
             Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jdeveco.2003.12.004},
   Key = {fds239071}
}

@article{fds239059,
   Author = {Smith, JP and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Remembrances of things past: Test-retest reliability of
             retrospective migration histories},
   Journal = {Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series a
             (Statistics in Society)},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-49},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0964-1998},
   Abstract = {Matched retrospective life history data collected from the
             same individuals in two waves of the Malaysian Family Life
             Survey provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the quality
             of long-term recall data in a rapidly changing developing
             country. Recall quality, measured by consistency of
             incidence and dating of moves reported 12 years apart, is
             higher among the better educated. Respondents better
             remember more salient moves, those linked with other
             important life events such as marriage, childbirth or a job
             change and moves that lasted a long time. Migrations that
             dim in memory as time passes are typically shorter duration
             or local moves, often made while the respondent was young.
             The dating of moves is also significantly improved when
             linked with other salient events. Our findings suggest
             concrete and practical steps that can be followed to improve
             the quality of retrospective life-histories collected in
             field surveys. © 2003 Royal Statistical
             Society.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1467-985X.00257},
   Key = {fds239059}
}

@article{fds239070,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Smith, JP and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Economic shocks, wealth, and welfare},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {280-321},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {March},
   Abstract = {The immediate effects of the Asian crisis on the well-being
             of Indonesians are examined using the Indonesia Family Life
             Survey, an ongoing longitudinal household survey. There is
             tremendous diversity in the effect of the shock: For some
             households, it was devastating; for others it brought new
             opportunities. A wide array of mechanisms was adopted in
             response to the crisis. Households combined to more fully
             exploit benefits of scale economies in consumption. Labor
             supply increased even as real wages collapsed. Households
             reduced spending on semidurables while maintaining
             expenditures on foods. Rural households used wealth,
             particularly gold, to smooth consumption.},
   Doi = {10.2307/1558746},
   Key = {fds239070}
}

@article{fds239058,
   Author = {Garces, E and Thomas, D and Currie, J},
   Title = {Longer-term effects of head start},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Volume = {92},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {999-1012},
   Publisher = {American Economic Association},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/1853 Duke open access
             repository},
   Abstract = {Specially collected data on adults in the Panel Study of
             Income Dynamics are used to provide evidence on the
             longer-term effects of Head Start, an early intervention
             program for poor preschool-age children. Whites who attended
             Head Start are, relative to their siblings who did not,
             significantly more likely to complete high school, attend
             college, and possibly have higher earnings in their early
             twenties. African-Americans who participated in Head Start
             are less likely to have been booked or charged with a crime.
             There is some evidence of positive spillovers from older
             Head Start children to their younger siblings. (JEL J24,
             I38).},
   Doi = {10.1257/00028280260344560},
   Key = {fds239058}
}

@article{fds239068,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {Health, nutrition and prosperity: a microeconomic
             perspective.},
   Journal = {Bulletin of the World Health Organization},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {106-113},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0042-9686},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11953788},
   Abstract = {A positive correlation between health and economic
             prosperity has been widely documented, but the extent to
             which this reflects a causal effect of health on economic
             outcomes is very controversial. Two classes of evidence are
             examined. First, carefully designed random assignment
             studies in the laboratory and field provide compelling
             evidence that nutritional deficiency - particularly iron
             deficiency - reduces work capacity and, in some cases, work
             output. Confidence in these results is bolstered by a good
             understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Some
             random assignment studies indicate an improved yield from
             health services in the labour market. Second, observational
             studies suggest that general markers of nutritional status,
             such as height and body mass index (BMI), are significant
             predictors of economic success although their interpretation
             is confounded by the fact that they reflect influences from
             early childhood and family background. Energy intake and
             possibly the quality of the diet have also been found to be
             predictive of economic success in observational studies.
             However, the identification of causal pathways in these
             studies is difficult and involves statistical assumptions
             about unobserved heterogeneity that are difficult to test.
             Illustrations using survey data demonstrate the practical
             importance of this concern. Furthermore, failure to take
             into account the dynamic interplay between changes in health
             and economic status has led to limited progress being
             reported in the literature. A broadening of random
             assignment studies to measure the effects of an intervention
             on economic prosperity, investment in population-based
             longitudinal socioeconomic surveys, and application of
             emerging technologies for a better measure of health in
             these surveys will yield very high returns in improving our
             understanding of how health influences economic
             prosperity.},
   Key = {fds239068}
}

@article{fds239069,
   Author = {Smith, JP and Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E and Beegle, K and Teruel,
             G},
   Title = {Wages, employment and economic shocks: Evidence from
             Indonesia},
   Journal = {Journal of Population Economics},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {161-193},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {After over a quarter century of sustained economic growth,
             Indonesia was struck by a large and unanticipated crisis at
             the end of the 20th Century. Real GDP declined by about 12%
             in 1998. Using 13 years of annual labor force data in
             conjunction with two waves of a household panel, the
             Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), this paper examines the
             impact of the crisis on labor market outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1007/PL00003837},
   Key = {fds239069}
}

@article{fds239067,
   Author = {Beegle, K and Frankenberg, E and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Bargaining power within couples and use of prenatal and
             delivery care in Indonesia.},
   Journal = {Studies in Family Planning},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {130-146},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0039-3665},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449862},
   Abstract = {Indonesian women's power relative to that of their husbands
             is examined to determine how it affects use of prenatal and
             delivery care. Holding household resources constant, a
             woman's control over economic resources affects the couple's
             decision-making. Compared with a woman with no assets that
             she perceives as being her own, a woman with some share of
             household assets influences reproductive health decisions.
             Evidence suggests that her influence on service use also
             varies if a woman is better educated than her husband, comes
             from a background of higher social status than her
             husband's, or if her father is better educated than her
             father-in-law. Therefore, both economic and social
             dimensions of the distribution of power between spouses
             influence use of services, and conceptualizing power as
             multidimensional is useful for understanding couples'
             behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1728-4465.2001.00130.x},
   Key = {fds239067}
}

@article{fds239066,
   Author = {Frankenberg, E and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Women's health and pregnancy outcomes: do services make a
             difference?},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {253-265},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11392911},
   Abstract = {We use data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey to
             investigate the impact of a major expansion in access to
             midwifery services on health and pregnancy outcomes for
             women of reproductive age. Between 1990 and 1998 Indonesia
             trained some 50,000 midwives. Between 1993 and 1997 these
             midwives tended to be placed in relatively poor communities
             that were relatively distant from health centers. We show
             that additions of village midwives to communities between
             1993 and 1997 are associated with a significant increase in
             body mass index in 1997 relative to 1993 for women of
             reproductive age, but not for men or for older women. The
             presence of a village midwife during pregnancy is also
             associated with increased birthweight. Both results are
             robust to the inclusion of community-level fixed effects, a
             strategy that addresses many of the concerns about biases
             because of nonrandom program placement.},
   Doi = {10.1353/dem.2001.0014},
   Key = {fds239066}
}

@article{fds239057,
   Author = {Currie, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Early test scores, school quality and SES: Longrun effects
             on wage and employment outcomes},
   Journal = {Research in Labor Economics},
   Volume = {20},
   Pages = {103-132},
   Publisher = {Emerald (MCB UP )},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0147-9121},
   Abstract = {This study uses data from the British National Child
             Development Survey (NCDS) to examine interactions between
             socio-economic status (SES), children's test scores, and
             future wages and employment. We find that children of lower
             SES have both lower age 16 test scores and higher returns to
             these test scores in terms of age 33 wages and employment
             probabilities than high-SES children. We then examine
             determinants of age 16 scores. Conditional on having had the
             same age 7 mathematics scores, high-SES children go on to
             achieve higher age 16 mathematics scores than children of
             low or middle-SES. They are also much more likely to pass
             O-levels in English and Mathematics. These differences are
             either eliminated or greatly reduced when observable
             measures of school quality are added to the model,
             suggesting that high-SES children get better age 16 test
             scores at least in part because they attended better
             schools. On the other hand, conditional on age 7 scores,
             low-SES children achieve higher age 16 reading scores than
             high-SES children and the estimated relationship between the
             two is not affected by the addition of school quality
             variables. This observation provides evidence consistent
             with the conjecture that success in reading may be less
             dependent on school quality than success in mathematics. ©
             2001.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0147-9121(01)20039-9},
   Key = {fds239057}
}

@article{fds239065,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E and Smith, JP},
   Title = {Lost but not forgetten: Attrition and follow-up in the
             Indonesia family life survey},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {556-592},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-166X},
   Abstract = {Data from three waves of the Indonesia Family Life Survey
             (IFLS) are used to examine follow-up and attrition in the
             context of a large scale panel survey conducted in a
             low-income setting. Household-level attrition between the
             baseline and first follow-up four years later is less than 6
             percent; the cumulative attrition between the baseline and
             second follow-up after a five-year hiatus is 5 percent.
             Attrition is low in the IFLS because movers are followed:
             around 12 percent of households that were interviewed in the
             first follow-up had moved from their location at baseline.
             About half of those households were "local movers." The
             other half, many of whom had moved to a new province, were
             interviewed during a second sweep through the study areas
             ("second tracking"). Regression analyses indicate that in
             terms of household-level characteristics at baseline,
             households interviewed during second tracking are very
             similar to those not interviewed in the follow-up surveys.
             Local movers are more similar to the households found in the
             baseline location in the follow-ups. The results suggest
             that the information content of households interviewed
             during second tracking is probably high. The cost of
             following those respondents is relatively modest in the
             IFLS. Although the analytical value of reinterviewing movers
             will vary depending on the specifics of the research, we
             conclude that, in general, tracking movers is a worthwhile
             investment in longitudinal household surveys conducted in
             settings where communication infrastructure is
             limited.},
   Doi = {10.2307/3069630},
   Key = {fds239065}
}

@article{fds333805,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Frankenberg, E},
   Title = {The measurement and interpretation of health in social
             surveys},
   Publisher = {RAND},
   Year = {2000},
   Abstract = {Health status is hard to measure. It is widely recognized
             that health is multi-dimensional reflecting the combination
             of an array of factors that include physical, mental and
             social well-being, genotype and phenotype influences as well
             as expectations and information. A multitude of health
             indicators have been used in scientific studies drawing on
             data from both the developed and developing world.
             Understanding what those indicators measure is central if
             the results reported in the studies are to be interpreted in
             a meaningful way...},
   Key = {fds333805}
}

@article{fds239054,
   Author = {Currie, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {The intergenerational transmission of "intelligence": Down
             the slippery slopes of The Bell Curve},
   Journal = {Industrial Relations},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {297-330},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Herrnstein and Murray report that conditional on maternal
             "intelligence" (AFQT scores), child test scores are little
             affected by variations in socioeconomic status. Using the
             same data, we demonstrate that their finding is very
             fragile. We explore the effect of adopting a more
             representative sample of children, including blacks and
             Latinos, allowing nonlinearities in the relationships, and
             incorporating richer measures of socioeconomic status.
             Making any one of these changes overturns their finding:
             Socioeconomic status and child test scores are positively
             and significantly related. Evidence is presented suggesting
             AFQT scores are likely better markers for family background
             than "intelligence".},
   Doi = {10.1111/0019-8676.00131},
   Key = {fds239054}
}

@article{fds239056,
   Author = {Currie, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Does Head Start help hispanic children?},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Economics},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {235-262},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Poor educational attainment is a persistent problem among US
             hispanic children, relative to non-hispanics. Many of these
             children are immigrants and/or come from households that use
             a minority language in the home. This paper examines the
             effects of participation in a government sponsored preschool
             program called Head Start on these children. We find that
             large and significant benefits accrue to Head Start children
             when we compare them to siblings who did not participate in
             the program. On average, Head Start closes at least 1/4 of
             the gap in test scores between hispanic children and
             non-hispanic white children, and 2/3 of the gap in the
             probability of grade repetition. However, we find that the
             benefits of Head Start are not evenly distributed across
             sub-groups. © Elsevier Science S.A.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0047-2727(99)00027-4},
   Key = {fds239056}
}

@article{fds239055,
   Author = {Strauss, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Literature},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {766-817},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds239055}
}

@article{fds239051,
   Author = {Smith, JP and Thomas, D},
   Title = {On the road. Marriage and mobility in Malaysia},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {805-832},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Migration choices of husbands and wives in a dynamic and
             developing country are studied in the context of an economic
             model of the household. Data are drawn from the second wave
             of the Malaysia Family Life Survey. Exploiting the
             retrospective histories, we compare moves that take place
             before marriage with those made during the marriage; among
             the latter, moves that are made with the spouse are
             distinguished from those made alone. The evidence indicates
             that male mobility is primarily economic in motivation and
             related to labor market factors. Moves by women, however,
             seem to be more closely related to fertility or family
             considerations. Migration is apparently not simply an
             individual decision; the attributes of the spouse are an
             important influence on mobility, albeit in an asymmetric
             manner. Moving toward a broader definition of the household,
             we find the characteristics of the parents, parents-in-law,
             and also the (relative) age and gender of siblings all
             influence mobility in a rich, if complex,
             way.},
   Doi = {10.2307/146399},
   Key = {fds239051}
}

@article{fds239052,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Strauss, J},
   Title = {Health and wages: evidence on men and women in urban
             Brazil.},
   Journal = {Journal of Econometrics},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {159-185},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Survey data indicate that different dimensions of health
             affect the wages of men and women in urban Brazil. Height
             has a large and significant effect on wages: taller men and
             women earn more. Body mass index (BMI) is associated with
             higher wages of males, especially among the less-educated,
             suggesting that strength may be rewarded with higher wages.
             Low levels of per capita calorie and protein intakes reduce
             wages of market-workers, but not the self-employed. After
             controlling for height, BMI, and calories, the influence of
             proteins is greater at higher levels, presumably reflecting
             the impact of higher-quality diets.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0304-4076(96)01811-8},
   Key = {fds239052}
}

@article{fds239050,
   Author = {Lavy, V and Strauss, J and Thomas, D and de Vreyer,
             P},
   Title = {Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in
             Ghana.},
   Journal = {Journal of Health Economics},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {333-357},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0167-6296},
   Abstract = {This paper analyzes the effect of quality and accessibility
             of health services and other public infrastructure on the
             health of children in Ghana. We focus on child survival,
             child height and weight using data from the Ghana Living
             Standards Survey. The results suggest an important role for
             public health policy in eliminating the rural-urban
             disparities in health status and particularly in improving
             the health status of rural children and reducing their
             mortality rates. Increased availability of birth services
             and other related child programs, as well as Improved water
             and sanitation infrastructure would have an immediate
             payoff.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0167-6296(95)00021-6},
   Key = {fds239050}
}

@article{fds239048,
   Author = {Thomas, D},
   Title = {Education Across Generations in South Africa},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {330-334},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds239048}
}

@article{fds239049,
   Author = {Strauss, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Measurement and Mismeasurement of Social
             Indicators},
   Journal = {American Economic Review},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {30-34},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds239049}
}

@article{fds239047,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Maluccio, J},
   Title = {Fertility, contraceptive choice, and public policy in
             Zimbabwe},
   Journal = {The World Bank Economic Review},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {189-222},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Zimbabwe has invested massively in public infrastructure
             since independence in 1980. The impact of these investments
             on demographic outcomes is examined using household survey
             data matched with two community level surveys. A woman's
             education is a powerful predictor of both fertility and
             contraceptive use. These relationships are far from linear
             and have changed shape in recent years. After controlling
             for household resources, both the availability and quality
             of health and family planning services have an important
             impact on the adoption of modern contraceptives. In
             particular, outreach programs such as mobile family planning
             clinics and community-based distributors (CBDS) have been
             especially successful. However, not all women are equally
             served by this infrastructure. For example, CBDS have a
             bigger impact on younger, better educated women, while
             mobile family planning clinics appear to have more success
             with older, less educated women.},
   Doi = {10.1093/wber/10.1.189},
   Key = {fds239047}
}

@article{fds239053,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Lavy, V and Strauss, J},
   Title = {Public policy and anthropometric outcomes in the Côte
             d'Ivoire},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Economics},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {155-192},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Household survey data from the Côte d'Ivoire are used to
             examine the impact of public policies on child height, child
             weight for height and adult body mass index. Economic
             adjustment programs in the 1980s were accompanied by reduced
             availability and quality of health care services and
             increases in relative food prices. The health of Ivorians
             was probably adversely affected by these changes. Basic
             services, such as immunizations and having simple materials,
             such as common drugs, in stock is associated with improved
             child health. Higher food prices have a significantly
             detrimental impact on the health of both children and
             adults.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0047-2727(95)01530-2},
   Key = {fds239053}
}

@misc{fds239045,
   Author = {Strauss, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Chapter 34 Human resources: Empirical modeling of household
             and family decisions},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {PART A},
   Pages = {1883-2023},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Development Economics},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780444823014},
   ISSN = {1573-4471},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1573-4471(05)80006-3},
   Key = {fds239045}
}

@article{fds239031,
   Author = {Currie, J and Thomas, D},
   Title = {Medical care for children: public insurance, private
             insurance, and racial differences in utilization},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {135-162},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Data from two waves of the Child-Mother module of the US
             National Longitudinal Surveys are used to examine the
             medical care received by children. The authors compare those
             covered by Medicaid, by private health insurance and those
             with no insurance coverage at all. There are substantial
             differences in the impact of public and private health
             insurance and these effects also differ between blacks and
             whites. White children on Medicaid tend to have more doctor
             checkups that any other children and white children on
             Medicaid or a private insurance plan have a higher number of
             doctor visits for illness. In contrast, for black children,
             neither Medicaid nor private insurance coverage is
             associated with any advantage in terms of the number of
             doctor visits for illness. Black children with private
             coverage are no more likely than those with no coverage to
             have doctor checkups. The results suggest that private and
             public health insurance mean different things to different
             children, and that national insurance coverage will not
             equalize utilization of care. -from Authors},
   Doi = {10.2307/146194},
   Key = {fds239031}
}

@article{fds239032,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Maluccio, J},
   Title = {Contraceptive choice, fertility, and public policy in
             Zimbabwe},
   Journal = {World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study Working
             Paper},
   Volume = {109},
   Pages = {43-US$6.95},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The determinants of contraceptive use in Zimbabwe are
             examined using individual-level survey data in conjunction
             with two special community surveys. The spotlight is focused
             on the role of the availability and quality of community
             health and family planning services. The impact of the
             household resources and individual characteristics, in
             particular education and measures of income, are also taken
             into consideration. In order to evaluate the distributional
             impact of investments in health programs, special attention
             is paid to differences in the effects of the programs across
             educational groups. The study proceeds to investigate the
             determinants of fertility outcomes and then turns to the
             impact of contraceptive use on fertility, taking account of
             the fact that both reflect, the outcome of choices by
             couples. The results indicate that the availability and
             quality of family planning and health services in the
             community are associated with higher rates of adoption of
             modern contraceptives. -from Authors},
   Key = {fds239032}
}

@article{fds239046,
   Author = {Lavy, V and Strauss, J and Thomas, D and De Vreyer,
             P},
   Title = {The impact of the quality of health care on children's
             nutrition and survival in Ghana},
   Journal = {World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study Working
             Paper},
   Volume = {106},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The authors use objectively measured anthropometric
             outcomes, which reflect the nutritional status of an
             individual, as health indicators, focusing on child height
             (by age and sex) and weight (by height). Also analyzes the
             determinants of the probability of child survival, a measure
             considered to be an alternative indicator of health status.
             The results presented suggest an important role for public
             health policy in eliminating the rural-urban disparities in
             health status and particularly in improving the health
             status of rural children and reducing their mortality rates.
             In urban areas they were unable to precisely measure many of
             the effects of health infrastructure on child outcomes.
             However, in rural areas the findings suggest that increasing
             the provision of basic health services, such as adequate
             supplies of basic drugs, will yield high social returns in
             terms of improved child health and survival probabilities.
             -from Authors},
   Key = {fds239046}
}

@article{fds239079,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Muvandi, I},
   Title = {The demographic transition in southern Africa: reviewing the
             evidence from Botswana and Zimbabwe.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {217-227},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   Abstract = {Part, but not all, of the observed decline in the number of
             children ever born reported in the 1984 CPS and the 1988 DHS
             in Botswana and Zimbabwe can be attributed to differences in
             sample composition: women in the 1988 survey appear to be
             better educated than women of the same cohort in the 1984
             survey. Blanc and Rutstein argue that differences in
             education levels in the pairs of surveys are not
             significant. However, weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov
             statistics, a comparison of average years of schooling, and
             the proportions of women who complete primary school or
             attend secondary school all indicate that the differences
             are, in fact, significant. This is true in both Botswana and
             Zimbabwe. Blanc and Rutstein also claim that these
             differences do not account for any of the observed decline
             in fertility between the surveys of women age 15 to 49.
             Their methodology follows cohorts of women rather than
             age-groups and thus cannot possibly address this issue.
             Furthermore, to interpret their results, response error and
             respondent education must be uncorrelated: this is a key
             assumption which is violated by the data. We stand by our
             conclusions and argue for caution when aggregate statistics
             from the CPS and the DHS are used to make projections about
             the course of fertility and population growth in Botswana
             and Zimbabwe.},
   Doi = {10.2307/2061883},
   Key = {fds239079}
}

@article{fds239081,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Muvandi, I},
   Title = {The demographic transition in southern Africa: another look
             at the evidence from Botswana and Zimbabwe.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {185-207},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0070-3370},
   Abstract = {Botswana and Zimbabwe have been acclaimed as being on the
             vanguard of the demographic transition in sub-Saharan
             Africa. This paper examines the comparability of the CPS and
             the DHS data for each country and finds that part of the
             observed decline in aggregate fertility rates in both
             countries can be attributed to differences in sample
             composition. Women of the same cohort tend to be better
             educated in the second survey relative to the first. This
             fact explains part-but not all-of the observed fertility
             decline; for example, it appears to account for up to half
             the observed decline among women age 25-34 in 1984 in
             Zimbabwe. © 1994 Population Association of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.2307/2061881},
   Key = {fds239081}
}

@article{fds239030,
   Author = {Thomas, D},
   Title = {Like father, like son; like mother, like daughter: parental
             resources and child height},
   Journal = {The Journal of Human Resources},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {950-988},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Using household survey data from the United States, Brazil,
             and Ghana, examines the relationship between parental
             education and child height, an indicator of health and
             nutritional status. In all three countries, the education of
             the mother has a bigger effect on her daughter's height;
             paternal education, in contrast, has a bigger impact on his
             son's height. There are, apparently, differences in the
             allocation of household resources depending on the gender of
             the child and these differences vary with the gender of the
             parent. These results are quite robust and persist even
             after including controls for unobserved household fixed
             effects. If relative education of parents and nonlabor
             income are indicators of power in household allocation
             decision, then these results, along with
             difference-in-difference of estimated income effects,
             suggest that gender differences in resource allocations
             reflect both technological differences in child rearing and
             differences in the preferences of parents. -from
             Author},
   Doi = {10.2307/146131},
   Key = {fds239030}
}

@article{fds239080,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Muvandi, I},
   Title = {How fast is fertility declining in Botswana and
             Zimbabwe?},
   Journal = {World Bank Discussion Papers},
   Volume = {258},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Botswana and Zimbabwe have been acclaimed as being on the
             vanguard of the demographic transition in sub-Saharan
             Africa. Key data that are cited to support this claim are
             the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (CPS) and Demographic
             Health Surveys (DHS) which were conducted in both countries.
             Ths paper examines the comparability of these data sources
             and finds that at least part of the observed decline in
             aggregate fertility rates in both countries can be
             attributed to differences in sample composition. In Botswana
             and Zimbabwe, women of the same cohort are better educated
             in the second survey relative to the first. Since education
             and fertility are negatively correlated, this fact explains
             part - but not all - of the observed fertility decline
             across the surveys. For example, it accounts for up to half
             the decline among the cohort of women aged 25 to 34 in 1984
             in Zimbabwe. The DHS included a complete birth history
             whereas the CPS asked only summary questions about the
             number of children ever born. There is evidence that
             differences in the structure of the instruments also raise
             questions about the comparability of the two data sources.
             -Authors},
   Key = {fds239080}
}

@article{fds239044,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Strauss, J},
   Title = {Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child
             height.},
   Journal = {Journal of Development Economics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {301-331},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0304-3878},
   Abstract = {The relation between parental characteristics, community
             characteristics and child height is examined using Brazilian
             household survey data, matched with information collected at
             the municipio level. Child height is significantly affected
             by local infrastructure, particularly the availability of
             modern sewerage, piped water and electricity. Higher sugar
             and dairy prices are associated with lower child height,
             although mothers with at least elementary schooling are able
             to counteract the deleterious impact of prices. Negative
             price effects are, however, largest for children in higher
             expenditure households suggesting that the impact of
             mother's education on child height does not solely reflect
             resource availability. © 1992.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0304-3878(92)90042-8},
   Key = {fds239044}
}

@article{fds239036,
   Author = {Thomas, D},
   Title = {Testing for sectoral differences in child anthropometric
             status in Zimbabwe: A comment},
   Journal = {Health Policy and Planning},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {181-186},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {June},
   Doi = {10.1093/heapol/7.2.181},
   Key = {fds239036}
}

@article{fds239020,
   Author = {Thomas, D},
   Title = {Gender differences in household resource
             allocations},
   Journal = {World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study Working
             Paper},
   Volume = {79},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Using household survey data from the United States, Brazil
             and Ghana, examines the relationship between parental
             education and child height, an indicator of health and
             nutritional status. In all three countries, the education of
             the mother has a bigger effect on her daughter's height;
             paternal education, in contrast, has a bigger impact on his
             son's height. There are, apparently, differences in the
             allocation of household resources depending on the gender of
             the child and these differences vary with the gender of the
             parent. In Ghana, the education of a woman who is better
             educated than her husband has a bigger impact on the height
             of her daughter than her son. In Brazil, a woman's nonlabor
             income has a positive impact on the health of her daughter
             but not her son's health. If relative education of parents
             and non-labor income are indicators of power in a household
             bargaining game, then these results suggest that gender
             differences in resource allocations reflect both
             technological differences in child rearing and differences
             in the preferences of parents. -Author},
   Key = {fds239020}
}

@article{fds239042,
   Author = {Strauss, J and Barbosa, M and Teixeira, S and Thomas, D and Gomes
             Junior, R},
   Title = {Role of education and extension in the adoption of
             technology: A study of upland rice and soybean farmers in
             Central-West Brazil},
   Journal = {Agricultural Economics (United Kingdom)},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {341-359},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0169-5150},
   Abstract = {This paper explores reduced form determinants of the
             adoption of certain technologies by upland rice and soybean
             farmers in the Center-West region of Brazil. We merge
             community level data on the availability and quality of
             publicly provided infrastructure, principally extension, to
             the farm level data containing information on farmer human
             capital as well as land quantity and quality. By using
             community level measures of availability and quality of
             extension, we avoid problems of endogeneity of farm level
             measures of extension use. We find positive impacts of
             farmer education on the diffusion process, in accordance
             with other studies. We also isolate effects of the quality
             in regional extension investment as measured by the average
             experience of technical extension staff. These results
             indicate that investments in human capital of extension
             workers does have a payoff in terms of farmer adoption of
             improved cultivation practices. © 1991.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0169-5150(91)90027-I},
   Key = {fds239042}
}

@article{fds239041,
   Author = {Thomas, D and Strauss, J and Henriques, M},
   Title = {Child survival, height for age and household characteristics
             in Brazil.},
   Journal = {Journal of Development Economics},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {197-234},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0304-3878},
   Abstract = {"The impact of household characteristics on child survival
             and height, conditional on age, is examined using household
             survey data from Brazil. Parental education is found to have
             a very strong positive effect on both outcomes and this is
             robust to the inclusion of household income and also
             parental heights, which partly proxy for unobserved family
             background characteristics. We find that income effects are
             significant and positive for child survival but
             insignificant for for child height although the latter
             depends on identification assumptions. Parental height has a
             large positive impact on child height and on survival rates
             even after controlling for all other observable
             characteristics."},
   Doi = {10.1016/0304-3878(90)90022-4},
   Key = {fds239041}
}