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Publications of David J. Brady    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Papers Published   
@article{fds337116,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Schindler, J and Perlovsky, L and Rangaswamy, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Phenomenology-based waveform design using Cramer-Rao
             theory},
   Journal = {2004 International Waveform Diversity and Design Conference,
             Wdd 2004 Proceedings},
   Volume = {2018-January},
   Pages = {1-5},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9781509031771},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWDDC.2004.8317555},
   Abstract = {© 2004 IEEE. The Cramer Rao Bound (CRB) establishes a lower
             bound on the error variance of an unbiased parameter
             estimate [5]. We have derived CRBs for target parameter
             estimates using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and allow
             for spatial waveform diversity. The first application is to
             target reflectivity with the assumption that all scatterer
             positions are known. Using a standard scattering model we
             are able to verify theoretical results with numerical
             experiments. The development is then applied to target
             height, assuming the height and ground range are jointly
             estimated for all scatterers simultaneously. Here we show
             that height can in fact be estimated with vertical excursion
             in the aperture.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IWDDC.2004.8317555},
   Key = {fds337116}
}

@article{fds336966,
   Author = {Zhang, W and Cao, L and Zhang, H and Jin, G and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Noise reduction in digital holography based on a filtering
             algorithm},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {10503},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510614918},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2288729},
   Abstract = {© COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted
             for personal use only. Holography is a tool to record the
             object wavefront by interference. Complex amplitude of the
             object wave is coded into a two dimensional hologram.
             Unfortunately, the conjugate wave and background wave would
             also appear at the object plane during reconstruction, as
             noise, which blurs the reconstructed object. From the
             perspective of wave, we propose a filtering algorithm to get
             a noise-reduced reconstruction. Due to the fact that the
             hologram is a kind of amplitude grating, three waves would
             appear when reconstruction, which are object wave, conjugate
             wave and background wave. The background is easy to
             eliminate by frequency domain filtering. The object wave and
             conjugate wave are signals to be dealt with. These two
             waves, as a whole, propagate in the space. However, when
             detected at the original object plane, the object wave would
             diffract into a sparse pattern while the conjugate wave
             would diffract into a diffused pattern forming the noise.
             Hence, the noise can be reduced based on these difference
             with a filtering algorithm. Both amplitude and phase
             distributions are truthfully retrieved in our simulation and
             experimental demonstration.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2288729},
   Key = {fds336966}
}

@article{fds340529,
   Author = {Pang, W and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Configurable cameras with MMS architecture},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {10845},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510623323},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2504750},
   Abstract = {© 2018 SPIE. Monocentric multiscale (MMS) lens architecture
             provides a versatile, compact, high information efficiency
             and low-cost way of building panoramic imagers which can be
             easily tailored to various application scenarios. MMS lens
             consists of two parts, one concentric spherical objective
             lens with large aperture in front and an array of small
             aperture microcameras in rear. This front objective collects
             incoming light and forms a curved focal surface which is
             then being segmented and relayed by the secondary array
             optics. Since the front objective is a spherically symmetric
             element, the configuration of the secondary array optics
             determines the overall imaging space. Each microcamera can
             be used as a building block and offers the flexibility of
             compositing myriad of FoV coverage and easy
             re-configuration. Another merit of this modular design is
             that the design of the secondary optics can be varied from
             channel to channel. In this way, we can construct an imaging
             system with multi-focal lengths, multi-aperture sizes and
             other multi-specifications. This varied channel property
             allows for sub-region adaptive imaging ability. Finally, if
             multiple MMS lenses are co-designed and used jointly, some
             combinational functions can be accomplished. To verify these
             virtues of MMS architecture, we present several design
             examples in this paper. A rectangular and a 360-degree ring
             configuration are demonstrated and show different packing
             choices. Then we illustrate a multi-focal design which shows
             secondary optics of different channels are modified for a
             relatively uniform sampling rate of targeted
             area.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2504750},
   Key = {fds340529}
}

@article{fds331444,
   Author = {Yuan, X and Fang, L and Dai, Q and Brady, DJ and Liu,
             Y},
   Title = {Multiscale gigapixel video: A cross resolution image
             matching and warping approach},
   Journal = {2017 Ieee International Conference on Computational
             Photography, Iccp 2017 Proceedings},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   ISBN = {9781509057450},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCPHOT.2017.7951481},
   Abstract = {© 2017 IEEE. We present a multi-scale camera array to
             capture and synthesize gigapixel videos in an efficient way.
             Our acquisition setup contains a reference camera with a
             short-focus lens to get a large field-of-view video and a
             number of unstructured long-focus cameras to capture
             local-view details. Based on this new design, we propose an
             iterative feature matching and image warping method to
             independently warp each local-view video to the reference
             video. The key feature of the proposed algorithm is its
             robustness to and high accuracy for the huge resolution gap
             (more than 8x resolution gap between the reference and the
             local-view videos), camera parallaxes, complex scene
             appearances and color inconsistency among cameras.
             Experimental results show that the proposed multi-scale
             camera array and cross resolution video warping scheme is
             capable of generating seamless gigapixel video without the
             need of camera calibration and large overlapping area
             constraints between the local-view cameras.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICCPHOT.2017.7951481},
   Key = {fds331444}
}

@article{fds330737,
   Author = {Pang, W and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Parallel MMS gigapixel imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F46-COSI 2017},
   Publisher = {OSA},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557528209},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/COSI.2017.CM2B.3},
   Abstract = {© 2016 OSA. We present a new architecture for monocentric
             multiscale (MMS) gigapixel imagers. This new architecture
             parallels multiple MMS imagers together to interleave a
             continuous wide field-of-view (FOV) coverage, resulting in a
             more compact system layout.},
   Doi = {10.1364/COSI.2017.CM2B.3},
   Key = {fds330737}
}

@article{fds330738,
   Author = {Zhang, W and Cao, L and Cang, J and Jin, G and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Resolution enhancement with a grating in lens-less digital
             holographic imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F47-DH 2017},
   Publisher = {OSA},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557528209},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/DH.2017.M2A.4},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2017. The imaging resolution is enhanced with
             multiple diffraction orders from a grating in front of the
             sensor in lens-less digital holography. A 1024 × 1024 image
             is reconstructed from a 640 × 480 hologram with the
             proposed algorithm.},
   Doi = {10.1364/DH.2017.M2A.4},
   Key = {fds330738}
}

@article{fds330739,
   Author = {Brady, D},
   Title = {Recent advances in gigapixel cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F46-COSI 2017},
   Publisher = {OSA},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557528209},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/COSI.2017.CTu4B.2},
   Abstract = {© 2016 OSA. Continuing advances in computational
             architecture, optical design and software have reduced
             gigapixel camera system volume by more than two orders of
             magnitude and have also greatly advanced system
             utility.},
   Doi = {10.1364/COSI.2017.CTu4B.2},
   Key = {fds330739}
}

@article{fds322143,
   Author = {Odinaka, I and Kaganovsky, Y and Greenberg, JA and Hassan, M and Politte, DG and O'Sullivan, JA and Carin, L and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Spectrally grouped total variation reconstruction for
             scatter imaging using ADMM},
   Journal = {2015 Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging
             Conference, Nss/Mic 2015},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {9781467398626},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7582220},
   Abstract = {© 2015 IEEE. We consider X-ray coherent scatter imaging,
             where the goal is to reconstruct momentum transfer profiles
             (spectral distributions) at each spatial location from
             multiplexed measurements of scatter. Each material is
             characterized by a unique momentum transfer profile (MTP)
             which can be used to discriminate between different
             materials. We propose an iterative image reconstruction
             algorithm based on a Poisson noise model that can account
             for photon-limited measurements as well as various second
             order statistics of the data. To improve image quality,
             previous approaches use edge-preserving regularizers to
             promote piecewise constancy of the image in the spatial
             domain while treating each spectral bin separately. Instead,
             we propose spectrally grouped regularization that promotes
             piecewise constant images along the spatial directions but
             also ensures that the MTPs of neighboring spatial bins are
             similar, if they contain the same material. We demonstrate
             that this group regularization results in improvement of
             both spectral and spatial image quality. We pursue an
             optimization transfer approach where convex decompositions
             are used to lift the problem such that all hyper-voxels can
             be updated in parallel and in closed-form. The group penalty
             introduces a challenge since it is not directly amendable to
             these decompositions. We use the alternating directions
             method of multipliers (ADMM) to replace the original problem
             with an equivalent sequence of sub-problems that are
             amendable to convex decompositions, leading to a highly
             parallel algorithm. We demonstrate the performance on real
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2015.7582220},
   Key = {fds322143}
}

@article{fds325880,
   Author = {McCain, S and Feller, S and Brady, D},
   Title = {Gigapixel television},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F7-COSI 2016},
   Publisher = {OSA},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781943580156},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/COSI.2016.CTh3B.5},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2016. We consider image capture and real-time
             rendering for virtual reality television. Array cameras
             enable multiuser digital pan, tilt, zoom and view point
             translation but require novel optical and electronic
             architectures. © OSA 2016.},
   Doi = {10.1364/COSI.2016.CTh3B.5},
   Key = {fds325880}
}

@article{fds325879,
   Author = {Llull, P and Reeves, G and Carin, L and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Performance assessment of image translation-engineered point
             spread functions},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Volume = {Part F7-COSI 2016},
   Publisher = {OSA},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   ISBN = {9781943580156},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/COSI.2016.CW2D.4},
   Abstract = {© OSA 2016. We demonstrate image translation, a general
             method for task-dependent point spread function engineering.
             Here, we compare the optical performance of variations of
             image translation with several well known imaging methods.
             © OSA 2016.},
   Doi = {10.1364/COSI.2016.CW2D.4},
   Key = {fds325879}
}

@article{fds323370,
   Author = {Greenberg, J and Iniewski, K and Brady, D},
   Title = {CZT detector modeling for coded aperture X-ray diffraction
             imaging applications},
   Journal = {2014 Ieee Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging
             Conference, Nss/Mic 2014},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9781479960972},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NSSMIC.2014.7431271},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. CZT detectors are primary candidates for many
             next-generation X-ray diffraction imaging systems. We have
             conducted a study to evaluate performance tradeoffs and
             limitations of CZT energy-sensitive detectors in coded
             aperture X-ray imaging (CAXI) architectures. We have found,
             as expected, that performance of the coded aperture
             architecture depends critically on energy resolution (ER) of
             the detector. We have also found that spectrum tail, as
             measured for mono-energetic sources, is less important
             although the incomplete charge collection leads to distorted
             system level information. We have built a mathematical model
             for the energy spectrum that can be used to optimize the
             detector geometry (pixel size, detector thickness), detector
             fabrication (injecting vs. non-injecting contacts) and
             operating conditions (HV bias, count rate) for the optimum
             performance of the coded aperture X-ray imaging
             systems.},
   Doi = {10.1109/NSSMIC.2014.7431271},
   Key = {fds323370}
}

@article{fds323371,
   Author = {Holmgren, AD and Odinaka, I and Greenberg, JA and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multi-view coded aperture coherent scatter
             tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9847},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600881},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2223871},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. We use coded apertures and multiple views to
             create a compressive coherent scatter computed tomography
             (CSCT) system. Compared with other CSCT systems, we reduce
             object dose and scan time. Previous work on coded aperture
             tomography resulted in a resolution anisotropy that caused
             poor or unusable momentum transfer resolution in certain
             cases. Complimentary and multiple views resolve the
             resolution issues, while still providing the ability to
             perform snapshot tomography by adding sources and
             detectors.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2223871},
   Key = {fds323371}
}

@article{fds323372,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Snapshot full-volume coded aperture x-ray diffraction
             tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9847},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600881},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2223838},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. X-ray diffraction tomography (XRDT) is a
             well-established technique that makes it possible to
             identify the material composition of an object throughout
             its volume. We show that using coded apertures to structure
             the measured scatter signal gives rise to a family of
             imaging architectures than enables snapshot XRDT in up to
             4-dimensions. We consider pencil, fan, and cone beam
             snapshot XRDT and show results from both experimental and
             simulation-based studies. We find that, while
             lower-dimensional systems typically result in higher imaging
             fidelity, higher-dimensional systems can perform adequately
             for a specific task at orders of magnitude faster scan
             times.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2223838},
   Key = {fds323372}
}

@article{fds323373,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Hassan, M and Brady, DJ and Iniewski,
             K},
   Title = {High precision, medium flux rate CZT spectroscopy for
             coherent scatter imaging},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9847},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600881},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2221913},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. CZT detectors are primary candidates for many
             next-generation X-ray imaging systems. These detectors are
             typically operated in either a high precision, low flux
             spectroscopy mode or a low precision, high flux photon
             counting mode. We demonstrate a new detector configuration
             that enables operation in a high precision, medium flux
             spectroscopy mode, which opens the potential for a variety
             of new applications in medical imaging, non-destructive
             testing and baggage scanning. In particular, we describe the
             requirements of a coded aperture coherent scattering X-ray
             system that can perform fast imaging with accurate material
             discrimination.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2221913},
   Key = {fds323373}
}

@article{fds323374,
   Author = {Hassan, M and Holmgren, A and Greenberg, JA and Odinaka, I and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Impact of detector geometry for compressive fan beam
             snapshot coherent scatter imaging},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9847},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600881},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2224797},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. Previous realizations of coded-aperture X-ray
             diffraction tomography (XRDT) techniques based on pencil
             beams image one line through an object via a single
             measurement but require raster scanning the object in
             multiple dimensions. Fan beam approaches are able to image
             the spatial extent of the object while retaining the ability
             to do material identification. Building on these approaches
             we present our system concept and geometry of combining a
             fan beam with energy sensitive/photon counting detectors and
             a coded aperture to capture both spatial and spectral
             information about an object at each voxel. Using our system
             we image slices via snapshot measurements for four different
             detector configurations and compare their
             results.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2224797},
   Key = {fds323374}
}

@article{fds322146,
   Author = {Odinaka, I and Greenberg, JA and Kaganovsky, Y and Holmgren, A and Hassan, M and Politte, DG and O'Sullivan, JA and Carin, L and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture x-ray diffraction imaging with transmission
             computed tomography side-information},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {9783},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600188},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2216915},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. Coded aperture X-ray diffraction (coherent
             scatter spectral) imaging provides fast and dose-efficient
             measurements of the molecular structure of an object. The
             information provided is spatially-dependent and
             material-specific, and can be utilized in medical
             applications requiring material discrimination, such as
             tumor imaging. However, current coded aperture coherent
             scatter spectral imaging system assume a uniformly or weakly
             attenuating object, and are plagued by image degradation due
             to non-uniform self-attenuation. We propose accounting for
             such non-uniformities in the self-attenuation by utilizing
             an X-ray computed tomography (CT) image (reconstructed
             attenuation map). In particular, we present an iterative
             algorithm for coherent scatter spectral image
             reconstruction, which incorporates the attenuation map, at
             different stages, resulting in more accurate coherent
             scatter spectral images in comparison to their uncorrected
             counterpart. The algorithm is based on a spectrally grouped
             edge-preserving regularizer, where the neighborhood edge
             weights are determined by spatial distances and attenuation
             values.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2216915},
   Key = {fds322146}
}

@article{fds322147,
   Author = {Odinaka, I and Kaganovsky, Y and O'Sullivan, JA and Politte, DG and Holmgren, AD and Greenberg, JA and Carin, L and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Domain and range decomposition methods for coded aperture
             x-ray coherent scatter imaging},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9847},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781510600881},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2224265},
   Abstract = {© 2016 SPIE. Coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter imaging
             is a novel modality for ascertaining the molecular structure
             of an object. Measurements from different spatial locations
             and spectral channels in the object are multiplexed through
             a radiopaque material (coded aperture) onto the detectors.
             Iterative algorithms such as penalized expectation
             maximization (EM) and fully separable spectrally-grouped
             edge-preserving reconstruction have been proposed to recover
             the spatially-dependent coherent scatter spectral image from
             the multiplexed measurements. Such image recovery methods
             fall into the category of domain decomposition methods since
             they recover independent pieces of the image at a time.
             Ordered subsets has also been utilized in conjunction with
             penalized EM to accelerate its convergence. Ordered subsets
             is a range decomposition method because it uses parts of the
             measurements at a time to recover the image. In this paper,
             we analyze domain and range decomposition methods as they
             apply to coded aperture X-ray coherent scatter imaging using
             a spectrally-grouped edge-preserving regularizer and discuss
             the implications of the increased availability of parallel
             computational architecture on the choice of decomposition
             methods. We present results of applying the decomposition
             methods on experimental coded aperture X-ray coherent
             scatter measurements. Based on the results, an underlying
             observation is that updating different parts of the image or
             using different parts of the measurements in parallel,
             decreases the rate of convergence, whereas using the parts
             sequentially can accelerate the rate of convergence.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2224265},
   Key = {fds322147}
}

@article{fds280131,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Lakshmanan, MN and Brady, DJ and Kapadia,
             AJ},
   Title = {Optimization of a coded aperture coherent scatter spectral
             imaging system for medical imaging},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {9412},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781628415025},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2082110},
   Abstract = {© 2015 SPIE. Coherent scatter X-ray imaging is a technique
             that provides spatially-resolved information about the
             molecular structure of the material under investigation,
             yielding material-specific contrast that can aid medical
             diagnosis and inform treatment. In this study, we
             demonstrate a coherent-scatter imaging approach based on the
             use of coded apertures (known as coded aperture coherent
             scatter spectral imaging1, 2) that enables fast,
             dose-efficient, high-resolution scatter imaging of
             biologically-relevant materials. Specifically, we discuss
             how to optimize a coded aperture coherent scatter imaging
             system for a particular set of objects and materials,
             describe and characterize our experimental system, and use
             the system to demonstrate automated material detection in
             biological tissue.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2082110},
   Key = {fds280131}
}

@article{fds291361,
   Author = {Kaganovsky, Y and Degirmenci, S and Han, S and Odinaka, I and Politte,
             DG and Brady, DJ and O'Sullivan, JA and Carin, L},
   Title = {Alternating minimization algorithm with iteratively
             reweighted quadratic penalties for compressive transmission
             tomography},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {9413},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781628415032},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2081986},
   Abstract = {© 2015 SPIE. We propose an alternating minimization (AM)
             algorithm for estimating attenuation functions in X-ray
             transmission tomography using priors that promote sparsity
             in the pixel/voxel differences domain. As opposed to
             standard maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) estimation, we use the
             automatic relevance determination (ARD) framework. In the
             ARD approach, sparsity (or compressibility) is promoted by
             introducing latent variables which serve as the weights of
             quadratic penalties, with one weight for each pixel/voxel;
             these weights are then automatically learned from the data.
             This leads to an algorithm where the quadratic penalty is
             reweighted in order to effectively promote sparsity. In
             addition to the usual object estimate, ARD also provides
             measures of uncertainty (posterior variances) which are used
             at each iteration to automatically determine the trade-off
             between data fidelity and the prior, thus potentially
             circumventing the need for any tuning parameters. We apply
             the convex decomposition lemma in a novel way and derive a
             separable surrogate function that leads to a parallel
             algorithm. We propose an extension of branchless
             distance-driven forward/back-projections which allows us to
             considerably speed up the computations associated with the
             posterior variances. We also study the acceleration of the
             algorithm using ordered subsets.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2081986},
   Key = {fds291361}
}

@article{fds323552,
   Author = {Llull, P and Yuan, X and Liao, X and Yang, J and Kittle, D and Carin, L and Sapiro, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Temporal compressive sensing for video},
   Number = {9783319160412},
   Pages = {41-74},
   Publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9783319160412},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16042-9_2},
   Abstract = {© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Video
             camera architects must design cameras capable of
             high-quality, dynamic event capture, while adhering to power
             and communications constraints. Though modern imagers are
             capable of both simultaneous spatial and temporal
             resolutions at micrometer and microsecond scales, the power
             required to sample at these rates is undesirable. The field
             of compressive sensing (CS) has recently suggested a
             solution to this design challenge. By exploiting
             physical-layer compression strategies, one may overlay the
             original scene with a coding sequence to sample at
             sub-Nyquist rates with virtually no additional power
             requirement. The underlying scene may be later estimated
             without significant loss of fidelity. In this chapter, we
             cover a variety of such strategies taken to improve an
             imager’s temporal resolution. Highlighting a new low-power
             acquisition paradigm, we show how a video sequence of high
             temporal resolution may be reconstructed from a single video
             frame taken with a low-framerate camera.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-16042-9_2},
   Key = {fds323552}
}

@article{fds280134,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Anderson, JG and Phillips, ZF and McCain, ST and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Gigapixel whole-body microphotography},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, Fio 2014},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISBN = {1557522863},
   Abstract = {Time-series whole-body microphotography may potentially be
             used for diagnosing skin disease, telemedicine, surgical
             field registration, and epidemiological studies. We
             demonstrate the technology by imaging a volunteer at 0.25
             gigapixel resolution in a snapshot.},
   Key = {fds280134}
}

@article{fds280138,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Furxhi, O and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {W-band imager without mechanical scanning based on an
             echelle spectrometer},
   Journal = {International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and
             Terahertz Waves, Irmmw Thz},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781479938773},
   ISSN = {2162-2027},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2014.6956042},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. We describe a two-dimensional imager in W-band
             using a single heterodyne transceiver and no mechanical
             scanning. By using an echelle grating spectrometer,
             frequencies are mapped onto a 2-D surface in space, so that
             spectral analysis of the signals provides a two-dimensional
             image.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2014.6956042},
   Key = {fds280138}
}

@article{fds280142,
   Author = {Yuan, X and Llull, P and Liao, X and Yang, J and Brady, DJ and Sapiro, G and Carin, L},
   Title = {Low-cost compressive sensing for color video and
             depth},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Computer Society Conference on
             Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition},
   Pages = {3318-3325},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781479951178},
   ISSN = {1063-6919},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2014.424},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. A simple and inexpensive (low-power and
             low-bandwidth) modification is made to a conventional
             off-the-shelf color video camera, from which we recover
             multiple color frames for each of the original measured
             frames, and each of the recovered frames can be focused at a
             different depth. The recovery of multiple frames for each
             measured frame is made possible via high-speed coding,
             manifested via translation of a single coded aperture, the
             inexpensive translation is constituted by mounting the
             binary code on a piezoelectric device. To simultaneously
             recover depth information, a liquid lens is modulated at
             high speed, via a variable voltage. Consequently, during the
             aforementioned coding process, the liquid lens allows the
             camera to sweep the focus through multiple depths. In
             addition to designing and implementing the camera, fast
             recovery is achieved by an anytime algorithm exploiting the
             group-sparsity of wavelet/DCT coefficients.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CVPR.2014.424},
   Key = {fds280142}
}

@article{fds280236,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Hunt, J and Mrozack, A and Brady, D and Smith,
             DR},
   Title = {Simulations of 2D metamaterial apertures for coherent
             computational imaging},
   Journal = {2013 Ieee International Conference on Microwaves,
             Communications, Antennas and Electronic Systems, Comcas
             2013},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9781467357562},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/COMCAS.2013.6685286},
   Abstract = {A metamaterial aperture operating as a leaky waveguide with
             resonating metamaterial irises can sweep its operation
             frequency to modify its complex field pattern with no moving
             parts. By randomly distributing the metamaterials' resonance
             frequencies, we show the aperture can generate random
             illumination patterns well suited for compressive sensing.
             In this way the aperture utilizes the physical layer to
             avoid redundant measurements in the image reconstruction
             process. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/COMCAS.2013.6685286},
   Key = {fds280236}
}

@article{fds280267,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Youn, SH and Brady, DJ and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Alignment and assembly strategies for AWARE-10
             gigapixel-scale cameras},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8836},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000325488100010&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2023370},
   Key = {fds280267}
}

@article{fds280139,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Tremblay, EJ and Ford,
             JE},
   Title = {Optimizing microcamera aperture in gigapixel monocentric
             multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529145},
   Abstract = {Multiscale designs divide the imaging task between a simple
             objective and many complex microcameras. We study imaging
             quality as the microcamera aperture size varies from 0.375
             to 36 mm with 2 and 50 gigapixel objectives. © 2011 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280139}
}

@article{fds280140,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529145},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280140}
}

@article{fds280141,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Brady, DJ and Gehm,
             ME},
   Title = {Image formation in multiscale optical systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557529145},
   Abstract = {We present image formation (IF) strategies developed for
             multiscale imaging systems. In this context, IF takes
             advantage of significant prior knowledge of array geometry
             and relies on parallelizable algorithms to handle the high
             data bandwidth. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280141}
}

@article{fds345484,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Gigagon: A monocentric lens design imaging 40
             gigapixels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781557528926},
   Abstract = {The Gigagon is a f/2.5 five element monocentric lens
             resolving under 2 arcsec over a 120 degree field of view
             intended to image onto megapixel sensors tiled over the
             focal surface. © 2010 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds345484}
}

@article{fds330744,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Schindler, J and Brady, D and Kozma, R and Deming, R and Perlovsky, L},
   Title = {Resolving wall ambiguities using angular diverse synthetic
             arrays},
   Journal = {Ieee International Conference on Neural Networks Conference
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {2758-2763},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {142441380X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IJCNN.2007.4371395},
   Abstract = {Model-based algorithms that attempt to localize targets and
             estimate the structure within a building using data from
             external sensors have received much attention in recent
             years. The potential benefits to homeland security and urban
             warfare are exceedingly apparent. Accurately estimating the
             thickness and dielectric constant of the exterior wall could
             prove to be a critical first step in determining the layout
             within, i.e., the location of interior walls, doorways,
             stairwells, etc. However, data collection using a linear
             sensor arrangement yields an ambiguous two dimensional
             objective function for the wall parameters, rendering
             maximum likelihood methods ineffective. We show that a
             spatially diverse aperture obviates the wall parameter
             ambiguity and allows accurate estimation of thickness and
             permittivity using dynamic logic, an iterative model-based
             approach to maximum likelihood. ©2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IJCNN.2007.4371395},
   Key = {fds330744}
}

@article{fds330745,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Schindler, J and Brady, D and Kozma, R and Deming, R and Perlovsky, L},
   Title = {Dynamic logic applied to SAR data for parameter estimation
             behind walls},
   Journal = {Ieee National Radar Conference Proceedings},
   Pages = {850-855},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {1424402840},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RADAR.2007.374331},
   Abstract = {Identifying and localizing targets within buildings using
             exterior sensors will offer superior advantages to the
             military and law enforcement communities. Research on
             wall-penetrating radar has produced significant advances in
             recent years regarding this topic. However, wall parameter
             ambiguities, multiple reflections, clutter, and measurement
             noise pose significant challenges to developing robust
             detection and estimation methods. In the present work we
             demonstrate can be mitigated using dynamic logic (DL), an
             adaptive method for iterative maximum likelihood. © 2007
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/RADAR.2007.374331},
   Key = {fds330745}
}

@article{fds280136,
   Author = {Willett, RM and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and John, R},
   Title = {Compressive spectral imaging and multiscale reconstruction
             methods},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1557528381},
   Abstract = {In this work we develop a single-shot, dual-disperser
             spectral imaging system and associated multiscale
             photon-limited multispectral reconstruction methods that
             have been designed to exploit the emerging theory of
             compressive sensing. © 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280136}
}

@article{fds323402,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Gehm, M and McCain, S and Guenther, B and Pitsianis, N and Adibi, A},
   Title = {Integrated sensing and processing of Raman spectra for in
             vivo BAC measurement},
   Journal = {Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {274A-274A},
   Publisher = {BLACKWELL PUBLISHING},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds323402}
}

@article{06239919406,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Brady, D and Schindler, J and Perlovsky, L and Rangaswamy, M},
   Title = {Using Cramér-Rao theory for multiple agents},
   Journal = {2005 International Conference on Integration of Knowledge
             Intensive Multi Agent Systems, Kimas'05: Modeling,
             Exploration, and Engineering},
   Volume = {2005},
   Pages = {444-448},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Address = {Milan, Italy},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {078039013X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/KIMAS.2005.1427122},
   Keywords = {Synthetic aperture radar;Algorithms;Signal
             processing;Parameter estimation;Signal receivers;Computational
             complexity;},
   Abstract = {This paper develops Cramér-Rao theory for multi-agent
             system design. We apply Cramér-Rao theory to synthetic
             aperture radar (SAR) in order to establish optimal
             performance bounds that are independent from signal
             processing algorithms. Bounds on the estimation of various
             target parameters are developed, and the extension to
             multiple receivers is considered. © 2005
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/KIMAS.2005.1427122},
   Key = {06239919406}
}

@article{fds323553,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Guo, JP and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Super-resolved point source tracking using birefringent
             impulse response coding},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information
             Sciences, Vols 1 3},
   Pages = {1327-1329},
   Publisher = {JOINT CONFERENCE INFORMATION SCIENCES},
   Editor = {Blair, S and Chakraborty, U and Chen, SH and Cheng, HD and Chiu, DKY and Das, S and Denker, G and Duro, R and Romay, MG and Hung, D and Kerre, EE and VaLeong, H and Lu, CT and Lu, J and Maguire, L and Ngo, CW and Sarfraz, M and Tseng, C and Tsumoto, S and Ventura, D and Wang, PP and Yao, X and Zhang,
             CN and Zhang, K},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds323553}
}

@article{fds323554,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Coded-aperture, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy for
             ethanol detection in biological samples},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 8th Joint Conference on Information
             Sciences, Vols 1 3},
   Pages = {1385-1388},
   Publisher = {JOINT CONFERENCE INFORMATION SCIENCES},
   Editor = {Blair, S and Chakraborty, U and Chen, SH and Cheng, HD and Chiu, DKY and Das, S and Denker, G and Duro, R and Romay, MG and Hung, D and Kerre, EE and VaLeong, H and Lu, CT and Lu, J and Maguire, L and Ngo, CW and Sarfraz, M and Tseng, C and Tsumoto, S and Ventura, D and Wang, PP and Yao, X and Zhang,
             CN and Zhang, K},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds323554}
}

@article{fds330749,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Brady, D and Schindler, J and Perlovsky, L and Rangaswamy, M},
   Title = {Using Cramér-Rao theory for SAR waveform
             design},
   Journal = {Ieee National Radar Conference Proceedings},
   Volume = {2005-January},
   Number = {January},
   Pages = {217-221},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {078038881X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/RADAR.2005.1435822},
   Abstract = {© 2005 IEEE. This paper applies Cramér-Rao theory to
             synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in order to establish optimal
             performance bounds on target parameter estimation. The
             Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) establishes a lower bound on the
             error variance of unbiased or asymptotically efficient
             parameter estimates (L.L. Scharf, 1991). Bounds on the
             estimation of various target parameters are developed, and
             the extension to multistatic SAR (MSAR) is
             considered.},
   Doi = {10.1109/RADAR.2005.1435822},
   Key = {fds330749}
}

@article{fds330750,
   Author = {Bouchereau, F and Brady, D},
   Title = {Bounds on range-resolution degradation using RSSI
             measurements},
   Journal = {Ieee International Conference on Communications},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {3246-3250},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we investigate the fundamental loss of
             ranging resolution using received signal strength indicator
             (RSSI) observations relative to unprocessed received signal
             (URS) measurements. Unlike previous work, this is done for a
             single propagation model that accounts for large-scale
             (log-normal) fading and small-scale (multipath) fading
             effects. Further, this contribution fully accounts for the
             temporal correlation of the log-normal attenuation and the
             multipath channel, which previous work has ignored. Cramer
             Rao bounds on the estimates of range will give us a complete
             description of the effects of data reduction (through RSSI
             observations), multipath, and random attenuation on the
             estimates of range.},
   Key = {fds330750}
}

@article{fds330751,
   Author = {Bouchereau, F and Brady, D},
   Title = {Bounds on wireless location estimation of mobile
             transmitters in a time varying acoustic underwater
             channel},
   Journal = {Oceans Conference Record (Ieee)},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {6},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Wireless localization of multiple mobile underwater
             transmitters becmae a very important area of research.
             Several solutions to the underwater localization problem
             consider the measurement of the first time of arrival of a
             signal coming from a node with unknown location and arriving
             at a receiver with known location. This allows the
             estimation of distance between them and eventually, the
             estimation of the node location by triangulation.},
   Key = {fds330751}
}

@article{fds323555,
   Author = {Gallicchio, J and Cull, E and Kraut, S and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Spatio-spectral triangulation using a rotational shear
             interferometer},
   Journal = {Osa Trends in Optics and Photonics Series},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {207-209},
   Publisher = {OPTICAL SOC AMERICA},
   Editor = {Mait, JN and VanderGracht, J},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1-55752-689-3},
   Key = {fds323555}
}

@article{fds323556,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Potuluri, P},
   Title = {Spatial tomography and coherence microscopy},
   Journal = {Osa Trends in Optics and Photonics Series},
   Volume = {66},
   Pages = {147-149},
   Publisher = {OPTICAL SOC AMERICA},
   Editor = {Mait, JN and VanderGracht, J},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {1-55752-689-3},
   Key = {fds323556}
}

@article{fds331445,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Feller, SD and Kammeyer, D and Cull, E and Fernandes, L and Stack, RA and Brady, R},
   Title = {Information flow in streaming 3D video},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {10298},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.419785},
   Abstract = {© 2017 SPIE. We describe streaming 3D video on the Argus
             sensor space. Argus is a Beowulf-style distributed computer
             with 64 processors and 64 video camera/capture pairs. Argus
             is a test-bed for comparing sensor space modeling and
             reconstruction algorithms. We describe the implementation of
             tomographic and stereo triangulation algorithms on this
             space and consider mappings from the sensor space to
             associated display spaces.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.419785},
   Key = {fds331445}
}

@article{6615723,
   Author = {Tumbar, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Sensor plane processing for multiplex imaging},
   Journal = {2000 Southwest Symposium on Mixed Signal Design, Ssmsd
             2000},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780359755},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SSMSD.2000.836433},
   Keywords = {image processing;image processing equipment;image
             sensors;},
   Abstract = {© 2000 IEEE. Digital imaging systems are fundamentally
             different from analog ones because they differentiate the
             measurement space and the reconstruction space. Multiplex
             systems use this separation to optimize source
             reconstruction. We consider the requirements imposed on
             sensor plane processors by multiplex imaging systems. We
             consider system flexibility, analog/digital split, A/D
             dynamic range, bandwidth, and sensitivity.},
   Doi = {10.1109/SSMSD.2000.836433},
   Key = {6615723}
}

@article{6806097,
   Author = {Balberg, M and Hristova, R and Brady, DJ and Beebe, DJ and Raskin,
             L},
   Title = {Optical detection of molecular beacons in microfluidic
             devices},
   Journal = {1st Annual International Ieee Embs Special Topic Conference
             on Microtechnologies in Medicine and Biology
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {425-428},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Address = {Lyon, France},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780366034},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MMB.2000.893820},
   Keywords = {biological techniques;fibre optic sensors;fluidic
             devices;fluorescence;microfluidics;microorganisms;molecular
             biophysics;spectrophotometry;},
   Abstract = {© 2000 IEEE. Hybridization and detection of E. coli
             ribosomal RNA with molecular beacons labeled with a
             fluorescent dye Is achieved in a microfluidic device. The
             device consists of a four ports mixing chamber, where the
             probes and the target molecules mix by diffusion. The weak
             fluorescent signal is detected by two large core optical
             fibers that are placed on both sides of the channel and
             collect the light emitted in both directions. The fibers are
             coupled to a spectrophotometer. The detection limit for the
             system is 0.2 ftnol.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MMB.2000.893820},
   Key = {6806097}
}

@article{fds330755,
   Author = {Sirlceci, B and Brady, D and Burman, J},
   Title = {Restricted total least squares solutions for hyperspectral
             imagery},
   Journal = {2015 Ieee International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and
             Signal Processing (Icassp)},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {624-627},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780362934},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICASSP.2000.862059},
   Abstract = {© 2000 IEEE. Hyperspectral image processing is a
             pixel-by-pixel approach to the detection and localization of
             features by spectral analysis techniques. Usually, partial
             knowledge about the feature, noise, and clutter spectra are
             provided, and the problem is to 'unmix' each pixel, or to
             estimate the relative concentrations of the reference
             spectra on a per pixel basis. A popular method of linear
             spectral unmixing for hyperspectral imagery is linear least
             squares. Linear least square approaches are appropriate when
             observational errors predominate and are inappropriate when
             significant modeling errors are present. The least square
             approach has some disadvantages, especially in cases with
             few, poorly known references or significant reference
             variation throughout an image. approach is presented and
             evaluated on experimental data. Although proposed RTLS
             require more calculations than linear least squares, its
             relative error performance is much better. In this article,
             Restricted Total Least Squares(RTLS).},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICASSP.2000.862059},
   Key = {fds330755}
}

@article{fds330754,
   Author = {Sung, S and Brady, D},
   Title = {Spectral spatial equalization for OFDM in time-varying
             frequency-selective multipath channels},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal
             Processing Workshop},
   Volume = {2000-January},
   Pages = {434-438},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780363396},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SAM.2000.878046},
   Abstract = {© 2000 IEEE. Orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM)
             transmission over a time-variant frequency-selective
             multipath fading channel suffers from significant
             attenuation on faded frequency regions as well as
             inter-channel interference (ICI) due to the loss of
             subchannel orthogonality. To mitigate signal fading and ICI,
             we introduce a frequency-space domain equalization (FSDE)
             using an antenna array. Unlike conventional combining
             diversity or selection diversity, this scheme differs in
             that it attempts to prevent the occurrence of the
             frequency-selective fading and ICI rather than compensates
             for them. A FSDE on the received OFDM signal is performed by
             space-time Fourier transform (STFT) and frequency-domain
             equalization (FDE). While a time-domain Fourier transform in
             STFT demodulates OFDM signals, a space-domain Fourier
             transform attenuates the OFDM signals arriving at the
             antenna array through unwanted paths. This approach includes
             the blind estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) for
             the multiple paths by employing the cyclostationarity of the
             OFDM signal. A FDE is applied to the output of the STFT to
             compensate for the effect of the remaining ICI. The
             effectiveness of FSDE is examined in terms of the resulting
             frequency-selective fading, ICI and SINR
             gain.},
   Doi = {10.1109/SAM.2000.878046},
   Key = {fds330754}
}

@article{fds330757,
   Author = {Preisig, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Adaptive equalization for underwater wireless
             communications},
   Journal = {Icassp, Ieee International Conference on Acoustics, Speech
             and Signal Processing Proceedings},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {1077-1080},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Wireless acoustic communications through the underwater
             channel presents many challenges. On one hand, the channel
             is often characterized by an extended time-varying multipath
             structure spanning a hundred or more symbols, limited
             channel coherence times, and high signal loss due to
             absorption resulting in limited available bandwidth. On the
             other hand, many applications for which wireless
             communications through this channel would be useful impose
             severe limits on the available power and the cost of the
             required hardware. These constraints limit not only the
             available transmit power but also the available
             computational power. Thus, modulation and demodulation
             approaches must be developed which can cope with the often
             difficult channel conditions but which also require only
             limited resources. This paper reviews the salient features
             of the underwater acoustic propagation environment, presents
             several techniques which have been developed to provide
             reliable communications in this environment, and highlights
             some of the remaining challenges.},
   Key = {fds330757}
}

@article{fds330759,
   Author = {Johnson, M and Brady, D and Grund, M},
   Title = {Reducing the computational requirements of adaptive
             equalization in underwater acoustic communications},
   Journal = {Oceans Conference Record (Ieee)},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {1405-1410},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {A key component in coherent underwater acoustic
             communication systems is an adaptive equalizer capable of
             tracking changes in the acoustic environment. The
             computation requirements of this equalizer can be very high,
             requiring substantial computation hardware and high power
             consumption. Several techniques have been devised for
             reducing the computational load of the equalizer by
             exploiting structure in the acoustic environment. In
             essence, these methods trade equalizer decoding performance
             for computational efficiency by reducing the number of
             equalizer parameters, the complexity of the update
             algorithm, or the rate of parameter updating. In this paper,
             a generalized equalizer model is developed combining several
             such complexity reduction techniques. From this viewpoint,
             the potential and limitations of each technique are
             discussed. Results are presented showing that computation
             savings in excess of an order of magnitude are
             possible.},
   Key = {fds330759}
}

@article{fds330758,
   Author = {Kocic, M and Brady, D and Stojanovic, M},
   Title = {Sparse equalization for real-time digital underwater
             acoustic communications},
   Journal = {Oceans Conference Record (Ieee)},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {1417-1422},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Due to the very long reverberation time of many ocean
             channels, the size of the adaptive filters required for
             conventional equalization becomes large, rendering the
             computational complexity of the adaptive receiver
             unacceptable for many cases of practical interest. To
             overcome this problem we exploit the natural sparseness of
             the reverberation pattern. By focusing only on those
             intervals which contain a significant portion of the signal
             energy, the sparse equalization method provides data
             detection using a minimum complexity adaptive receiver
             subject to an upper bound on the signal estimation error.
             Experimental results demonstrate an order of magnitude
             reduction in computational complexity with a negligible loss
             in performance.},
   Key = {fds330758}
}

@article{fds330762,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Brady, D},
   Title = {Asymptotic coding gains in multiuser systems},
   Journal = {Ieee Vehicular Technology Conference},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {619-623},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {In this work the asymptotic multiuser coding gain (AMCG) as
             well as asymptotic multiuser efficiency (AME) are found for
             K coded asynchronous users and a variety of multiuser
             detectors, including optimum (MLS), multistage, decorrelated
             and conventional detectors. Since the direct sequence can be
             viewed as a special kind of block repetition codes, it gives
             zero (dB) coding gain in power-limited application. It is
             shown that some block encoding schemes with (n, k), k > 1
             can provide direct-sequence spread-spectrum modulation and
             give positive coding gain. These systems combined with the
             narrow-band signature waveforms are shown to outperform
             their conventional approachs with the same bandwidth
             expansion constraint.},
   Key = {fds330762}
}

@article{fds330769,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Brady, D},
   Title = {Narrowband waveform design for near-far resistant
             asynchronous CDMA communications},
   Journal = {Ieee Milcom},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {583-587},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {A technique to design narrowband signature waveforms for
             asynchronous code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is
             proposed. These waveforms are specially tailored for a class
             of near-far resistant multiuser detectors. They are strictly
             time-limited, satisfy a root mean square (RMS) bandwidth
             constraint, and provide a prescribed worst-case near-far
             resistance. The optimization criterion is either the maximum
             worst-case pairwise near-far resistance (NFR), or the
             maximum worst-case pairwise asymptotic multiuser efficiency
             (AME) of L-shot decorrelating detector over all relative
             delays of users. These signal set are shown to be immune to
             synchronization errors as well by using slope constraints of
             partial cross-correlations over relative delays. Complex
             signature waveforms are also considered. It is shown that
             'chipless' waveforms provide a substantial increase in
             performance in near-far situations over their chip-based
             counterparts using the same transmission
             bandwidth.},
   Key = {fds330769}
}

@article{fds330770,
   Author = {Brady, D and Merakos, LF},
   Title = {Throughput performance of multiuser detection in unslotted
             contention channels},
   Journal = {Proceedings Ieee Infocom},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {610-617},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {The throughput of a centralized packet receiver capable of
             demodulating all overlapping unit-length packets provided
             that T-length packet headers do not overlap but K packets
             overlap at any one time, is analyzed. Violating one of the
             stated conditions suggests that the remainder of the busy
             period is unresolvable. Assuming that the aggregate packet
             arrival process is Poisson, the throughput is analyzed as a
             function of the total offered load, the maximum number of
             resolvable overlapping packets, and the fractional header
             duration. The throughput of the analyzed functions are
             given. Numerical results illustrate the improvement in
             throughput due to multiuser detection which suggest a
             technique for finding the minimum complexity multiuser
             receiver as a function of other system parameters.},
   Key = {fds330770}
}

@article{fds330768,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Adaptive multiuser receivers with diversity reception for
             nonselective Rayleigh fading asynchronous CDMA
             channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Milcom},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {982-986},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We investigate the performance of low-complexity
             decor-relating multiuser receivers with diversity reception
             in frequency-nonselective Rayleigh fading asynchronous CDMA
             channels. The impact of fading dynamics on the
             differentially coherent receivers with equal-gain combining
             is quantified. We also analyze an adaptive coherent
             multiuser receiver utilizing decision-directed carrier
             recovery and maximal ratio combining, and bound its error
             probability showing the impact of imperfect channel
             estimates and multiple-access interference. Both multiuser
             receivers have superior performance compared to their
             conventional counterparts. The comparison of two receiver
             structures indicates that the coherent decorrelating
             detector with diversity reception is preferable in
             nonselective fading CDMA channels with memory.},
   Key = {fds330768}
}

@article{fds330766,
   Author = {Kocic, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Complexity-constrained LS estimation for sparse
             systems},
   Journal = {Ieee International Symposium on Information Theory
             Proceedings},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {The Sparse RLS (SRLS) algorithm, suitable for large-order
             sparse channels, chooses to update a subset of taps which
             will minimize the computational complexity of the algorithm
             given the constraint of maximum allowable increases in Mean
             Squared Error (MSE). The ability to predict the increase in
             MSE due to decision to neglect some of the taps is essential
             for its implementation. To illustrate the principles behind
             the algorithm, an example is presented by way of an
             experimental transmission of known data through an unknown
             shallow-water acoustic channel.},
   Key = {fds330766}
}

@article{fds330767,
   Author = {Kocic, M and Brady, D and Merriam, S},
   Title = {Reduced-complexity RLS estimation for shallow-water
             channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Sympsium on Autonomous Underwater Vehicle
             Technology},
   Pages = {165-170},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {An adjustable complexity, recursive least squares (RLS)
             estimation algorithm is presented, which is suitable for
             adaptive equalization and source localization in
             shallow-water acoustic channels. The algorithm adjusts its
             computational complexity, measured in FLOPS per update, in a
             decreasing fashion with the relative signal strength, by
             ignoring 'insignificant' dimensions of the channel. The
             algorithm reverts to the well-known fast RLS algorithms when
             the signal quality is weak, and may be combined with reduced
             period updating techniques. Examples illustrate
             computational savings in excess of one order of magnitude,
             permitting a tripling of the maximum data rate through these
             complexity - limited communication channels.},
   Key = {fds330767}
}

@article{fds330764,
   Author = {Kocic, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Complexity-constrained LS estimation for sparse
             systems},
   Journal = {Ieee International Symposium on Information Theory
             Proceedings},
   Pages = {116},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {0780320158},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISIT.1994.394872},
   Abstract = {In an increasing number of applications the complexity of
             so-called fast RLS algorithms is prohibitive for real-time
             RLS estimation. One notable example is the adaptive
             equalization problem for intersymbol interference channels,
             where the number of equalizer taps grows linearly with the
             data rate. Due to the substantial memory in some ISI
             channels (for example the shallow-water acoustic telemetry
             channel) the uncoded data rate of real-time telemetry is
             limited not by the channel distortion or background noise,
             but by the complexity of the tap update algorithms. © 1994
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ISIT.1994.394872},
   Key = {fds330764}
}

@article{fds330765,
   Author = {Brady, D and Merakos, LF},
   Title = {Throughput performance of multiuser detection in unslotted
             contention channels},
   Journal = {Ieee International Symposium on Information Theory
             Proceedings},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {In this work we analyze the throughput of a centralized
             packet receiver which utilizes multiuser detection in an
             unslotted contention channel. The receiver is capable of
             demodulating all overlapping, unit-length packets, provided
             that the T-length packet headers do not overlap, and at most
             K packets overlap at any one time. If one of these
             conditions is violated, the remainder of the busy period is
             assumed to be unresolvable. Assuming that the aggregate
             packet arrival process is Poisson, we analyze the throughput
             as a function of the total offered load (λ), the maximum
             number of resolvable overlapping packets (K), and the
             fractional header duration (T). We derive an iterative
             expression for the throughput for K = 2 or 3, generalizable
             to larger K, which permits solution of the throughput to
             arbitrary accuracy. A closed form solution is given for the
             case K = 2 and T = 0.5. We provide bounds on the throughput
             for arbitrary K, λ, and T, which are more convenient than
             the exact approach for T > 0 or large K. Numerical results
             illustrate the improvement in throughput due to multiuser
             detection, and suggest a technique for finding the minimum
             complexity multiuser receiver (minimum K) as a function of
             other system parameters.},
   Key = {fds330765}
}

@article{fds342408,
   Author = {Gray, SD and Preisig, JC and Brady, D},
   Title = {Adaptive multiuser detection in dispersive channels with
             array observations},
   Journal = {Conference Record Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems
             and Computers},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {801-805},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0818664053},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACSSC.1994.471572},
   Abstract = {© 1995 IEEE. We present a multiuser receiver which is
             capable of operating in time-variant channels with severe
             multipath. For each active user, the receiver consists of a
             multi-input, single-output filter followed by a single-user
             adaptive equalizer. The array processing filter is chosen to
             maximize an averaged performance metric which measures
             reduction in the interference from multiple asynchronous
             cochannel users and the reduction in intersym-bol
             interference caused by lime spreading of the transmitted
             signal. The single-user adaptive equalizer that follows the
             array processing filter eliminates the remaining intersymbol
             interference prior to hard symbol decisions. Receiver
             performance is demonstrated using data obtained from two
             acoustic channels where two cochannel users are transmitting
             in shallow-water at 18 and 30 nautical miles from the
             receiver array.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACSSC.1994.471572},
   Key = {fds342408}
}

@article{fds330773,
   Author = {Gray, SD and Brady, D},
   Title = {Asymptotic multiuser efficiency of two-stage detection in
             mismatched AWGN channels},
   Journal = {Proceedings Ieee Military Communications
             Conference},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {758-762},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {0780309537},
   Abstract = {In this paper we investigate the loss of near-far resistance
             for two multiuser detectors due to imperfect channel
             estimation in the additive white Gaussian noise multiple
             access channel. The symbol error rates and the Asymptotic
             Multiuser Efficiencies (AMEs) of the two-stage hard-limiting
             detector are determined for imperfect channel knowledge in
             the two-user asynchronous channel. The degradation of the
             AME due to channel mismatch is described for a variety of
             mismatch conditions, including errors in estimation of
             timing and complex amplitude. It is shown that when perfect
             knowledge of the channel does not exist, the two-stage
             detector become near-far limited. Also presented is a
             comparison of the exponentially complex maximum likelihood
             sequence detector and the hard-decision two-stage detector
             with imperfect knowledge of the channel.},
   Key = {fds330773}
}

@article{fds330774,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D and Catipovic, J},
   Title = {Adaptive equalization techniques for interference
             suppression in shallow water acoustic telemetry
             channels},
   Journal = {Conference Record Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems
             and Computers},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {1554-1558},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {0818641207},
   Abstract = {Despite the severe propagation conditions in shallow water
             acoustic telemetry channels, coherent high-speed data
             transmission may be established using adaptive receivers
             based on a decision feedback equalizer (DFE) structure. The
             performance of a DFE in shallow water acoustic networks is
             affected by substantial cochannel interference from acoustic
             modems, in addition to extended, time-varying ISI and large
             Doppler fluctuations. In this paper we address the
             interference suppression ability of a DFE by evaluating a
             channel-specific structure for reliable interference
             suppression and dynamic channel tracking. The DFE
             performance is compared to adaptive multiuser receiver which
             jointly performs adaptive equalization and multiple-access
             interference cancellation.},
   Key = {fds330774}
}

@article{fds342515,
   Author = {Brady, D},
   Title = {Volume holographic data storage in photo-organic
             media},
   Journal = {Conference Digest Joint International Symposium on Optical
             Memory and Optical Data Storage, Omods 1993},
   Pages = {112-113},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780312864},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OMODS.1993.696746},
   Doi = {10.1109/OMODS.1993.696746},
   Key = {fds342515}
}

@article{fds330775,
   Author = {Brady, D},
   Title = {Asymptotic multiuser efficiency for 2-stage detectors in
             AWGN channels},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 1993 Ieee International Symposium on
             Information Theory},
   Pages = {50},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780308786},
   Abstract = {In the AWGN multiple-access channel with binary phase-shift
             keying modulation, the kth user error probability for a
             given demodulator vanishes exponentially with the noise
             level as -ηk SNRk/2, where ηk is the asymptotic multiuser
             efficiency (AME), and SNRk is the received
             signal-to-background-noise ratio. Thus, the asymptotic
             multiuser efficiency is an attenuation of the error rate
             exponent for isolated transmission and maximum a posteriori
             demodulation, and provides a simple yet precise means of
             comparing multiuser receivers for sufficiently low noise
             levels. To date, this parameter is only known for the
             following receivers in the 2-user, asynchronous AWGN
             channel: the maximum likelihood sequence detector, the
             decorrelating detector, the linear MMSE detector, and the
             conventional detector. In this talk the asymptotic multiuser
             efficiencies for a class of detectors for the 2-user,
             asynchronous AWGN channel: will be presented. This class may
             be loosely described as receivers which estimate and
             subtract multiple-access interference (MAI) by using
             tentative data decisions, and includes the two-stage
             detectors with both conventional or decorrelated tentative
             decisions. The asymptotic multiuser efficiencies for this
             class of detectors clearly indicate regions for which a
             given user should avoid updating tentative decisions and
             suggest combinations of the above receivers to improve
             single-user performance. This technique applies to the AME
             of soft tentative decision strategies as well, and we
             demonstrate that the near-far resistance of two-stage
             detectors may be markedly improved using soft decision
             nonlinearities. Below we present an outline of the approach
             for conventional tentative decisions.},
   Key = {fds330775}
}

@article{fds330776,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Comparison of differentially coherent and coherent multiuser
             detection with imperfect phase estimates in a Rayleigh
             fading channel},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 1993 Ieee International Symposium on
             Information Theory},
   Pages = {48},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780308786},
   Abstract = {Multiuser detectors have superior performance over their
             single-user counterparts in a multiple-access channel,
             assuming perfect knowledge of system parameters. In this
             paper we extend the analysis of multiuser detectors in
             fading channels by incorporating the effects of imperfect
             parameter estimates on symbol error probability. This type
             of analysis should be useful in designing multiuser
             receivers, showing the error rate sensitivity to channel
             parameter mismatch.},
   Key = {fds330776}
}

@article{fds343779,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {On multiuser detection in asynchronous CDMA flat Rayleigh
             fading channels},
   Journal = {Ieee International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile
             Radio Communications, Pimrc},
   Pages = {123-127},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0780308417},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PIMRC.1992.279951},
   Abstract = {© 1992 IEEE. In this paper the performance analysis of
             lowcomplexity decorrelating detectors will be presented for
             both coherent and differentially coherent transmission over
             the multiple-access, frequencynonselective Rayleigh fading
             channel. While it is known that correlation-type receivers
             are near-far limited in the case when a single fading path
             dominates, it is shown that the aforementioned multiuser
             detectors eliminate the bit error rate floor, alleviate the
             near-far problem, and rival optimum demodulation for
             isolated transmission. The results herein apply to wideband
             and narrowband CDMA systems.},
   Doi = {10.1109/PIMRC.1992.279951},
   Key = {fds343779}
}

@article{fds342841,
   Author = {Brady, D and Catipovic, J},
   Title = {An adaptive, soft-decision multiuser receiver for underwater
             acoustical channels},
   Journal = {Conference Record Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems
             and Computers},
   Pages = {1137-1141},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {0818631600},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ACSSC.1992.269121},
   Abstract = {© 1992 IEEE. An underwater acoustic local area network
             (ALAN) is being deployed which permits two-way data
             telemetry between many high-rate, ocean-bottom sensors and a
             central, surface-deployed receiver in the 10- 40kHz vertical
             acoustical channel [1]. The oceanbottom nodes initiate the
             transmission process by requesting data channel time slots
             through a common narrowband request channel. Request packets
             overlap in time and frequency in this scenario, and the
             throughput and average transmission delay rely heavily on
             the successful resolution of the request channel collisions.
             This paper describes the design and performance of a request
             channel receiver capable of resolving collisions between
             several asynchronous and cochannel packets. The receiver
             algorithm differs from: standard capture schemes (by
             demodulating the data from both strong and weak
             transmitters), conventional spread-spectrum receivers (by
             overcoming the near-far problem), and existing
             multiple-access demodulation techniques (by adapting to the
             number of interfering signals, and the unknown phase,
             Doppler, amplitude and timing of each signal in the
             collision). The receiver demodulates the collided packets by
             decision-directed techniques, it differs from known
             decision-directed multiple-access receivers [2] [3] [4]
             through a novel method of estimating the interference for
             each user which minimizes error propagation due to
             inaccurate tentative decisions [5] [6]. An in-water
             experiment illustrates that this technique is extremely
             desirable for collision resolution in underwater acoustic
             local area networks, and also for underwater autonomous
             vehicles with both sidescan sonar as well as acoustic
             telemetry links.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ACSSC.1992.269121},
   Key = {fds342841}
}

@article{fds343778,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Coherent and differentially coherent multiuser detectors for
             asynchronous CDMA frequency-selective channels},
   Journal = {Proceedings Ieee Military Communications Conference
             Milcom},
   Volume = {1992-October},
   Pages = {442-446},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {078030585X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MILCOM.1992.244040},
   Abstract = {© 1992 IEEE. The authors consider an asynchronous CDMA
             (code-division multiple-access) frequency-selective Rayleigh
             fading channel in which a central receiver has knowledge of
             the signature waveforms of all users. Low-complexity
             coherent and differentially coherent multiuser detectors are
             analyzed for this scenario. The receivers consist of a bank
             of matched filters followed by a multipath decorrelating
             detector, appropriate multipath diversity combining, and
             demodulation. The performance of the derived detectors is
             expressed by the single-user error rate. The conventional
             single-user RAKE receiver suffers from near-far effects in
             the multiuser scenario, due to the fading nature of the
             channel. This results in an error probability floor for high
             signal-to-noise ratios and limits the multiple-access
             capability of the system. In contrast, both multiuser
             detectors alleviate the near-far problem, providing
             significant performance improvement in the CDMA
             frequency-selective fading channel.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MILCOM.1992.244040},
   Key = {fds343778}
}

@article{91080258299,
   Author = {Brady, D and Verdu, S},
   Title = {A semi-classical analysis of optical code division multiple
             access},
   Journal = {Conference Digest. Leos Summer Topical on Optical Multiple
             Access Networks},
   Pages = {43-44},
   Address = {Monterey, CA, USA},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OMAN.1990.205430},
   Keywords = {Multiplexing;Codes, Symbolic;},
   Abstract = {The exact error rate has been derived for the noncoherent,
             optical matched-filter CDMA receiver, which decides for the
             data of a single user by comparing a photoelectron count to
             a threshold. The results differ from those of previous work
             in that they adhere fully to the semiclassical model of
             light and do not depend on limit theorems for large user
             groups or strong received optical fields. The analysis is
             valid for arbitrary quantum efficiencies, binary signature
             sequences, random gain distributions, and dark currents, and
             it is broad in application. Single-user demodulation based
             on a conditionally compound-Poisson observation has been
             considered, focusing on the special case of prime codes,
             equal energies, and utility-gain photodetectors in order to
             compare the optimal threshold and minimum error rate to
             those obtained using the approximations discussed. It has
             been found that the approximation of perfect
             optical-to-electrical conversion yields poor estimates of
             the error rate and optimal threshold at moderate incident
             optical intensities and dark currents. Further, the combined
             approximation of perfect optical-to-electrical conversion
             and Gaussian-distributed MAI yields an underestimate of the
             optimal threshold and an error rate that is neither an upper
             nor a lower bound. It has also been shown that when prime
             sequences are employed, the chip-synchronous approximation
             leads to an overestimate of the error rate.},
   Key = {91080258299}
}

@article{fds330781,
   Author = {Brady, D and Verdu, S},
   Title = {Probability of error of an optical DPSK detector under
             Brownian laser phase noise},
   Volume = {25 n 13},
   Pages = {198},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Summary form only given, as follows. The authors analyze an
             optical, direct-detection DPSK receiver whose error
             probability is quantum-limited as the transmitting laser
             linewidth vanishes. The receiver design is based on a binary
             equiprobable hypothesis test with doubly stochastic point
             process observations, the conditional random rates of which
             depend on the transmitting laser phase noise, which is
             modeled as a Brownian motion. The receiver structure
             consists of a simple, delay-and-sum optical preprocessor
             followed by a photodetector. Upper and lower bounds on the
             receiver bit error rate are derived by developing bounds on
             the conditional rates of the point process, and it is shown
             that the error probability bounds converge to the true value
             as the transmitting laser linewidth decreases. Bounds on the
             power penalty are derived for parameters corresponding to
             existing semiconductor injection lasers, and are seen to be
             less than the limiting power penalty for the balanced DPSK
             receiver.},
   Key = {fds330781}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds338074,
   Author = {Zhang, W and Cao, L and Brady, DJ and Zhang, H and Cang, J and Zhang, H and Jin, G},
   Title = {Twin-Image-Free Holography: A Compressive Sensing
             Approach.},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {121},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {093902},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.121.093902},
   Abstract = {Holographic reconstruction is troubled by the
             phase-conjugate wave front arising from Hermitian symmetry
             of the complex field. The so-called twin image obfuscates
             the reconstruction in solving the inverse problem. Here we
             quantitatively reveal how and how much the twin image
             affects the reconstruction and propose a compressive sensing
             (CS) approach to reconstruct a hologram completely free from
             the twin image. Using the canonical basis, the incoherence
             condition of CS is naturally satisfied by the Fourier
             transformation associated with wave propagation. With the
             propagation kernel function related to the distance, the
             object wave diffracts into a sharp pattern while the
             phase-conjugate wave diffracts into a diffuse pattern. An
             iterative algorithm using a total variation sparsity
             constraint could filter out the diffuse conjugated signal
             and overcome the inherent physical symmetry of holographic
             reconstruction. The feasibility is verified by simulation
             and experimental results, as well as a comparative study to
             an existing phase retrieval method.},
   Doi = {10.1103/physrevlett.121.093902},
   Key = {fds338074}
}

@article{fds337707,
   Author = {Pang, W and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Field of view in monocentric multiscale cameras.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {6999-7005},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.57.006999},
   Abstract = {Conventionally, the field of view of a camera is understood
             as the angular extent of a convex circular or rectangular
             region. Parallel camera architectures with computational
             image stitching, however, allow implementation of a field of
             view with an arbitrary shape. Monocentric multiscale lenses
             further allow the implementation of an arbitrary field of
             view in camera volumes comparable to conventional
             single-lens systems. In contrast with conventional
             wide-field-of-view systems, multiscale design can also
             achieve nearly uniform resolution across the entire field of
             view. This paper presents several design studies obtaining
             unconventional fields of view using this
             approach.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.57.006999},
   Key = {fds337707}
}

@article{fds333254,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Pang, W and Li, H and Ma, Z and Tao, Y and Cao,
             X},
   Title = {Parallel cameras},
   Journal = {Optica},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-137},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.5.000127},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Optical Society of America. Parallel lens systems
             and parallel image signal processing enable cost efficient
             and compact cameras to capture gigapixel scale images. This
             paper reviews the context of such cameras in the developing
             field of computational imaging and discusses how parallel
             architectures impact optical and electronic processing
             design. Using an array camera operating system initially
             developed under the Defense Advanced Research Projects
             Agency Advanced Wide FOV Architectures for Image
             Reconstruction and Exploitation program, we illustrate the
             state of parallel camera development with example 100
             megapixel videos.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OPTICA.5.000127},
   Key = {fds333254}
}

@article{fds339270,
   Author = {Liu, Y and Yuan, X and Suo, J and Brady, D and Dai, Q},
   Title = {Rank Minimization for Snapshot Compressive
             Imaging},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
             Intelligence},
   Pages = {1-1},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2018.2873587},
   Abstract = {IEEE Snapshot compressive imaging (SCI) refers to
             compressive imaging systems where multiple frames are mapped
             into a single measurement, with video compressive imaging
             and hyperspectral compressive imaging as two representative
             applications. Though exciting results of high-speed videos
             and hyperspectral images have been demonstrated, the poor
             reconstruction quality precludes SCI from wide
             applications.This paper aims to boost the reconstruction
             quality of SCI via exploiting the high-dimensional structure
             in the desired signal. We build a joint model to integrate
             the nonlocal self-similarity of video/hyperspectral frames
             and the rank minimization approach with the SCI sensing
             process. Following this, an alternating minimization
             algorithm is developed to solve this non-convex problem. We
             further investigate the special structure of the sampling
             process in SCI to tackle the computational workload and
             memory issues in SCI reconstruction. Both simulation and
             real data (captured by four different SCI cameras) results
             demonstrate that our proposed algorithm leads to significant
             improvements compared with current state-of-the-art
             algorithms. We hope our results will encourage the
             researchers and engineers to pursue further in compressive
             imaging for real applications.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TPAMI.2018.2873587},
   Key = {fds339270}
}

@article{fds333255,
   Author = {Zhang, W and Cao, L and Jin, G and Brady, D},
   Title = {Full field-of-view digital lens-free holography for
             weak-scattering objects based on grating
             modulation},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {A164-A171},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.57.00A164},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Optical Society of America. Grating-based
             single-shot digital lens-free holography with spatial
             spectral multiplexing is proposed to realize full
             field-of-view (FOV) imaging for weak-scattering objects.
             Multiple object waves are generated by a one-dimensional
             grating that is placed in near contact with the object to
             avoid the cross talk among different diffraction orders
             during reconstruction. A multiplexed off-axis hologram is
             created by interference between the object waves and
             reference wave and captured by an image sensor in one shot.
             Multiple imaging areas corresponding to the captured object
             waves can be simultaneously retrieved during reconstruction.
             A formula which guarantees full FOV imaging without cross
             talk or information loss is presented. The imaging
             experiments of a USAF resolution target are presented to
             demonstrate the feasibility of this method.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.57.00A164},
   Key = {fds333255}
}

@article{fds331443,
   Author = {Zhang, H and Cao, L and Zhang, H and Zhang, W and Jin, G and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Efficient block-wise algorithm for compressive
             holography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {24991-25003},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.25.024991},
   Abstract = {Compressive holography is a relatively time-consuming image
             estimation in convex optimized problem. We propose an
             efficient block-wise algorithm to limit the searching space
             and reduce the calculation time while keeping the
             reconstruction quality. The effective anti-aliasing boundary
             of the sub-hologram is located to determine the block size
             for compressive reconstruction in the total-variation
             two-step iterative shrinkage/thresholding algorithm. Padded
             sub-holograms could be reconstructed in parallel by using
             multi-core processors. Compared with the traditional
             compressive holography, the block-wise algorithm could take
             approximately 1/50 of the reconstruction time and achieve an
             improved reconstruction quality.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.25.024991},
   Key = {fds331443}
}

@article{fds330734,
   Author = {Chen, LS and Yue, T and Cao, X and Ma, Z and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {High-resolution spectral video acquisition},
   Journal = {Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic
             Engineering},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1250-1260},
   Publisher = {Zhejiang University Press},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/FITEE.1700098},
   Abstract = {© 2017, Zhejiang University and Springer-Verlag GmbH
             Germany. Compared with conventional cameras, spectral
             imagers provide many more features in the spectral domain.
             They have been used in various fields such as material
             identification, remote sensing, precision agriculture, and
             surveillance. Traditional imaging spectrometers use
             generally scanning systems. They cannot meet the demands of
             dynamic scenarios. This limits the practical applications
             for spectral imaging. Recently, with the rapid development
             in computational photography theory and semiconductor
             techniques, spectral video acquisition has become feasible.
             This paper aims to offer a review of the state-of-the-art
             spectral imaging technologies, especially those capable of
             capturing spectral videos. Finally, we evaluate the
             performances of the existing spectral acquisition systems
             and discuss the trends for future work.},
   Doi = {10.1631/FITEE.1700098},
   Key = {fds330734}
}

@article{fds330735,
   Author = {Pang, W and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Galilean monocentric multiscale optical systems.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {20332-20339},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.25.020332},
   Abstract = {The first generation of monocentric multiscale gigapixel
             cameras used Keplerian designs to enable full field
             coverage. This paper considers alternative designs that
             remove the requirement that adjacent subimages overlap.
             Removing this constraint enables Galilean designs that
             reduce system volume and improve relative illumination and
             image quality. The entrance aperture can also be moved to
             more closely approximate telecentricity and gaps in the
             field of view can be filled using multiple co-boresighted
             MMS cameras. Even with multiple cameras, Galilean systems
             can still reduce the total volume by 10 times relative to
             previous Keplerian designs.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.25.020332},
   Key = {fds330735}
}

@article{fds330736,
   Author = {Zhao, Y and Yue, T and Chen, L and Wang, H and Ma, Z and Brady, DJ and Cao,
             X},
   Title = {Heterogeneous camera array for multispectral light field
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {14008-14022},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.25.014008},
   Abstract = {Multispectral light field acquisition is challenging due to
             the increased dimensionality of the problem. In this paper,
             inspired by anaglyph theory (i.e. the ability of human eyes
             to synthesize colored stereo perception from
             color-complementary (such as red and cyan) views), we
             propose to capture the multispectral light field using
             multiple cameras with different wide band filters. A
             convolutional neural network is used to extract the joint
             information of different spectral channels and to pair the
             cross-channel images. In our experiment, results on both
             synthetic data and real data captured by our prototype
             system validate the effectiveness and accuracy of proposed
             method.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.25.014008},
   Key = {fds330736}
}

@article{fds330166,
   Author = {Amsden, JJ and Gehm, ME and Russell, ZE and Chen, EX and Di Dona and ST and Wolter, SD and Danell, RM and Kibelka, G and Parker, CB and Stoner, BR and Brady, DJ and Glass, JT},
   Title = {Coded Apertures in Mass Spectrometry.},
   Journal = {Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry (Palo Alto,
             Calif.)},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {141-156},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anchem-061516-045256},
   Abstract = {The use of coded apertures in mass spectrometry can break
             the trade-off between throughput and resolution that has
             historically plagued conventional instruments. Despite their
             very early stage of development, coded apertures have been
             shown to increase throughput by more than one order of
             magnitude, with no loss in resolution in a simple 90-degree
             magnetic sector. This enhanced throughput can increase the
             signal level with respect to the underlying noise, thereby
             significantly improving sensitivity to low concentrations of
             analyte. Simultaneous resolution can be maintained,
             preventing any decrease in selectivity. Both one- and
             two-dimensional (2D) codes have been demonstrated. A 2D code
             can provide increased measurement diversity and therefore
             improved numerical conditioning of the mass spectrum that is
             reconstructed from the coded signal. This review discusses
             the state of development, the applications where coding is
             expected to provide added value, and the various instrument
             modifications necessary to implement coded apertures in mass
             spectrometers.},
   Doi = {10.1146/annurev-anchem-061516-045256},
   Key = {fds330166}
}

@article{fds331204,
   Author = {Gollub, JN and Yurduseven, O and Trofatter, KP and Arnitz, D and F
             Imani, M and Sleasman, T and Boyarsky, M and Rose, A and Pedross-Engel,
             A and Odabasi, H and Zvolensky, T and Lipworth, G and Brady, D and Marks,
             DL and Reynolds, MS and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Large Metasurface Aperture for Millimeter Wave Computational
             Imaging at the Human-Scale.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {42650},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42650},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at
             millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of
             frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of
             spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images
             of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is
             driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of
             frequencies (17.5-26.5 GHz) and switched between a
             collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High
             fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for
             each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the
             manner in which the field scatters from objects in the
             scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational
             imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically
             large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding
             requirements, we introduce computational methods and
             calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate
             imaging performance.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep42650},
   Key = {fds331204}
}

@article{fds330187,
   Author = {Zhu, R and Richard, JT and Brady, DJ and Marks, DL and Everitt,
             HO},
   Title = {Compressive sensing and adaptive sampling applied to
             millimeter wave inverse synthetic aperture
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {2270-2284},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.25.002270},
   Abstract = {In order to improve speed and efficiency over traditional
             scanning methods, a Bayesian compressive sensing algorithm
             using adaptive spatial sampling is developed for single
             detector millimeter wave synthetic aperture imaging. The
             application of this algorithm is compared to random sampling
             to demonstrate that the adaptive algorithm converges faster
             for simple targets and generates more reliable
             reconstructions for complex targets.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.25.002270},
   Key = {fds330187}
}

@article{fds322144,
   Author = {Cao, X and Yue, T and Lin, X and Lin, S and Yuan, X and Dai, Q and Carin, L and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Computational Snapshot Multispectral Cameras: Toward dynamic
             capture of the spectral world},
   Journal = {Ieee Signal Processing Magazine},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {95-108},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2016.2582378},
   Abstract = {© 2016 IEEE. Multispectral cameras collect image data with
             a greater number of spectral channels than traditional
             trichromatic sensors, thus providing spectral information at
             a higher level of detail. Such data are useful in various
             fields, such as remote sensing, materials science,
             biophotonics, and environmental monitoring. The massive
             scale of multispectral data-at high resolutions in the
             spectral, spatial, and temporal dimensions-has long
             presented a major challenge in spectrometer design. With
             recent developments in sampling theory, this problem has
             become more manageable through use of undersampling and
             constrained reconstruction techniques. This article presents
             an overview of these state-of-the-art multispectral
             acquisition systems, with a particular focus on snapshot
             multispectral capture, from a signal processing perspective.
             We propose that undersampling-based multispectral cameras
             can be understood and compared by examining the efficiency
             of their sampling schemes, which we formulate as the
             spectral sensing coherence information between their sensing
             matrices and spectrum-specific bases learned from a
             large-scale multispectral image database. We analyze
             existing snapshot multispectral cameras in this manner, and
             additionally discuss their optical performance in terms of
             light throughput and system complexity.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MSP.2016.2582378},
   Key = {fds322144}
}

@article{fds322145,
   Author = {Yuan, X and Liao, X and Llull, P and Brady, D and Carin,
             L},
   Title = {Efficient patch-based approach for compressive depth
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {27},
   Pages = {7556-7564},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.55.007556},
   Abstract = {We present efficient camera hardware and algorithms to
             capture images with extended depth of field. The camera
             moves its focal plane via a liquid lens and modulates the
             scene at different focal planes by shifting a fixed binary
             mask, with synchronization achieved by using the same
             triangular wave to control the focal plane and the
             pizeoelectronic translator that shifts the mask. Efficient
             algorithms are developed to reconstruct the all-in-focus
             image and the depth map from a single coded exposure, and
             various sparsity priors are investigated to enhance the
             reconstruction, including group sparsity, tree structure,
             and dictionary learning. The algorithms naturally admit a
             parallel computational structure due to the independent
             patch-level operations. Experimental results on both
             simulation and real datasets demonstrate the efficacy of the
             new hardware and the inversion algorithms.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.55.007556},
   Key = {fds322145}
}

@article{fds323368,
   Author = {Hassan, M and Greenberg, JA and Odinaka, I and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Snapshot fan beam coded aperture coherent scatter
             tomography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {18277-18289},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.24.018277},
   Abstract = {We use coherently scattered X-rays to measure the molecular
             composition of an object throughout its volume. We image a
             planar slice of the object in a single snapshot by
             illuminating it with a fan beam and placing a coded aperture
             between the object and the detectors. We characterize the
             system and demonstrate a resolution of 13 mm in range and 2
             mm in cross-range and a fractional momentum transfer
             resolution of 15%. In addition, we show that this technique
             allows a 100x speedup compared to previously-studied pencil
             beam systems using the same components. Finally, by scanning
             an object through the beam, we image the full 4-dimensional
             data cube (3 spatial and 1 material dimension) for complete
             volumetric molecular imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.24.018277},
   Key = {fds323368}
}

@article{fds323369,
   Author = {Nichols, JM and Judd, KP and Olson, CC and Novak, K and Waterman, JR and Feller, S and McCain, S and Anderson, J and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Range performance of the DARPA AWARE wide field-of-view
             visible imager.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {4478-4484},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.55.004478},
   Abstract = {In a prior paper, we described a new imaging architecture
             that addresses the need for wide field-of-view imaging
             combined with the resolution required to identify targets at
             long range. Over the last two years substantive improvements
             have been made to the system, both in terms of the size,
             weight, and power of the camera as well as to the optics and
             data management software. The result is an overall
             improvement in system performance, which we demonstrate via
             a maritime target identification experiment.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.55.004478},
   Key = {fds323369}
}

@article{fds323375,
   Author = {Llull, P and Bange, L and Phillips, Z and Davis, K and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Characterization of the AWARE 40 wide-field-of-view visible
             imager},
   Journal = {Optica},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1086-1089},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.2.001086},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Optical Society of America. High-resolution,
             wide-field-of-view photography has undergone substantial
             improvements since the advent of multiscale lens design.
             Here, we present and evaluate a multiscale camera capable of
             a 10 μrad instantaneous field of view over a 36° field of
             view. We experimentally verify this camera’s optical
             performance at the individual microcamera level and report a
             2.4 gigapixel panorama stitched from five snapshots. The
             results are consistent with the use of parallel camera
             arrays to produce scalable imagery at a substantial
             resolution range.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OPTICA.2.001086},
   Key = {fds323375}
}

@article{fds280203,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Mrozack, A and MacCabe, K and Llull,
             P},
   Title = {Compressive tomography},
   Journal = {Advances in Optics and Photonics},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {756-813},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AOP.7.000756},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Optical Society of America. Compressive tomography
             consists of estimation of high-dimensional objects from
             lower dimensional measurements. We review compressive
             tomography using radiation fields, including geometric,
             wave, and statistical field models. We find coded apertures
             most appropriate for compressive coding with geometric
             models, spatial and frequency subsampling most appropriate
             for wave models, and temporal modulation most appropriate
             for statistical models. In each case, we show that
             compressive measurement enables snapshot 3D imaging,
             eliminating or reducing the need to sacrifice temporal
             resolution in multidimensional imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AOP.7.000756},
   Key = {fds280203}
}

@article{fds323551,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Bange, LM and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Feedback stitching for gigapixel video},
   Journal = {Journal of Electronic Imaging},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {063006-063006},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.JEI.24.6.063006},
   Abstract = {© 2015 SPIE and ISandT. Methods of stitching static
             panoramas are unsuitable for video-rate stitching from
             camera arrays, because these methods are too computationally
             intensive for real-time operation and do not take advantage
             of prior knowledge of camera positions or the coherence
             between successive frames of a video sequence. We propose
             feedback stitching, which embeds the stitching process in a
             feedback loop, so that as new frames are captured, any new
             stitching errors occurring in the video sequence are
             analyzed and corrected as the sequence progresses. These
             algorithms are suitable for multiscale cameras, a camera
             array technology proven to be capable of gigapixel snapshot
             and video imaging, to allow for real-time compensation of
             any registration or parallax errors.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.JEI.24.6.063006},
   Key = {fds323551}
}

@article{fds291360,
   Author = {Kaganovsky, Y and Han, S and Degirmenci, S and Politte, DG and Brady,
             DJ and O’Sullivan, JA and Carin, L},
   Title = {Alternating minimization algorithm with automatic relevance
             determination for transmission tomography under poisson
             noise},
   Journal = {Siam Journal on Imaging Sciences},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {2087-2132},
   Publisher = {Society for Industrial & Applied Mathematics
             (SIAM)},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/141000038},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We
             propose a globally convergent alternating minimization (AM)
             algorithm for image reconstruction in transmission
             tomography, which extends automatic relevance determination
             (ARD) to Poisson noise models with Beer’s law. The
             algorithm promotes solutions that are sparse in the
             pixel/voxel– difference domain by introducing additional
             latent variables, one for each pixel/voxel, and then
             learning these variables from the data using a hierarchical
             Bayesian model. Importantly, the proposed AM algorithm is
             free of any tuning parameters with image quality comparable
             to standard penalized likelihood methods. Our algorithm
             exploits optimization transfer principles which reduce the
             problem into parallel one-dimensional optimization tasks
             (one for each pixel/voxel), making the algorithm feasible
             for large-scale problems. This approach considerably reduces
             the computational bottleneck of ARD associated with the
             posterior variances. Positivity constraints inherent in
             transmission tomography problems are also enforced. We
             demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for
             x-ray computed tomography using synthetic and real-world
             datasets. The algorithm is shown to have much better
             performance than prior ARD algorithms based on approximate
             Gaussian noise models, even for high photon flux. Sample
             code is available from http://www.yankaganovsky.
             com/#!code/c24bp.},
   Doi = {10.1137/141000038},
   Key = {fds291360}
}

@article{fds322148,
   Author = {Llull, P and Yuan, X and Carin, L and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Image translation for single-shot focal tomography},
   Journal = {Optica},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {822-825},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.2.000822},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Optical Society of America. Focus and depth of field
             are conventionally addressed by adjusting longitudinal lens
             position. More recently, combinations of deliberate blur and
             computational processing have been used to extend depth of
             field. Here we show that dynamic control of transverse and
             longitudinal lens position can be used to decode focus and
             extend depth of field without degrading static resolution.
             Our results suggest that optical image stabilization systems
             may be used for autofocus, extended depth of field, and 3D
             imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OPTICA.2.000822},
   Key = {fds322148}
}

@article{fds291359,
   Author = {Wang, L and Huang, J and Yuan, X and Krishnamurthy, K and Greenberg, J and Cevher, V and Rodrigues, MRD and Brady, D and Calderbank, R and Carin,
             L},
   Title = {Signal recovery and system calibration from multiple
             compressive poisson measurements},
   Journal = {Siam Journal on Imaging Sciences},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1923-1954},
   Publisher = {Society for Industrial & Applied Mathematics
             (SIAM)},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/140998779},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. The
             measurement matrix employed in compressive sensing typically
             cannot be known precisely a priori and must be estimated via
             calibration. One may take multiple compressive measurements,
             from which the measurement matrix and underlying signals may
             be estimated jointly. This is of interest as well when the
             measurement matrix may change as a function of the details
             of what is measured. This problem has been considered
             recently for Gaussian measurement noise, and here we develop
             this idea with application to Poisson systems. A
             collaborative maximum likelihood algorithm and alternating
             proximal gradient algorithm are proposed, and associated
             theoretical performance guarantees are established based on
             newly derived concentration-of-measure results. A Bayesian
             model is then introduced, to improve flexibility and
             generality. Connections between the maximum likelihood
             methods and the Bayesian model are developed, and example
             results are presented for a real compressive X-ray imaging
             system.},
   Doi = {10.1137/140998779},
   Key = {fds291359}
}

@article{fds280128,
   Author = {Yuan, X and Tsai, TH and Zhu, R and Llull, P and Brady, D and Carin,
             L},
   Title = {Compressive hyperspectral imaging with side
             information},
   Journal = {Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Signal
             Processing},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {964-976},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1932-4553},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSTSP.2015.2411575},
   Abstract = {© 2007-2012 IEEE. A blind compressive sensing algorithm is
             proposed to reconstruct hyperspectral images from
             spectrally-compressed measurements. The wavelength-dependent
             data are coded and then superposed, mapping the
             three-dimensional hyperspectral datacube to a
             two-dimensional image. The inversion algorithm learns a
             dictionary in situ from the measurements via global-local
             shrinkage priors. By using RGB images as side information of
             the compressive sensing system, the proposed approach is
             extended to learn a coupled dictionary from the joint
             dataset of the compressed measurements and the corresponding
             RGB images, to improve reconstruction quality. A prototype
             camera is built using a liquid-crystal-on-silicon modulator.
             Experimental reconstructions of hyperspectral datacubes from
             both simulated and real compressed measurements demonstrate
             the efficacy of the proposed inversion algorithm, the
             feasibility of the camera and the benefit of side
             information.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JSTSP.2015.2411575},
   Key = {fds280128}
}

@article{fds280129,
   Author = {Tsai, T-H and Llull, P and Yuan, X and Carin, L and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Spectral-temporal compressive imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {4054-4057},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.40.004054},
   Abstract = {This Letter presents a compressive camera that integrates
             mechanical translation and spectral dispersion to compress a
             multi-spectral, high-speed scene onto a monochrome,
             video-rate detector. Experimental reconstructions of 17
             spectral channels and 11 temporal channels from a single
             measurement are reported for a megapixel-scale monochrome
             camera.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.40.004054},
   Key = {fds280129}
}

@article{fds280132,
   Author = {Chen, EX and Russell, ZE and Amsden, JJ and Wolter, SD and Danell, RM and Parker, CB and Stoner, BR and Gehm, ME and Glass, JT and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Order of Magnitude Signal Gain in Magnetic Sector Mass
             Spectrometry Via Aperture Coding.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Society for Mass
             Spectrometry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1633-1640},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1044-0305},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-015-1178-y},
   Abstract = {Miniaturizing instruments for spectroscopic applications
             requires the designer to confront a tradeoff between
             instrument resolution and instrument throughput [and
             associated signal-to-background-ratio (SBR)]. This work
             demonstrates a solution to this tradeoff in sector mass
             spectrometry by the first application of one-dimensional
             (1D) spatially coded apertures, similar to those previously
             demonstrated in optics. This was accomplished by replacing
             the input slit of a simple 90° magnetic sector mass
             spectrometer with a specifically designed coded aperture,
             deriving the corresponding forward mathematical model and
             spectral reconstruction algorithm, and then utilizing the
             resulting system to measure and reconstruct the mass spectra
             of argon, acetone, and ethanol. We expect the application of
             coded apertures to sector instrument designs will lead to
             miniature mass spectrometers that maintain the high
             performance of larger instruments, enabling field detection
             of trace chemicals and point-of-use mass
             spectrometry.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13361-015-1178-y},
   Key = {fds280132}
}

@article{fds280130,
   Author = {Xie, Y and Tsai, T-H and Konneker, A and Popa, B-I and Brady, DJ and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Single-sensor multispeaker listening with acoustic
             metamaterials.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {34},
   Pages = {10595-10598},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1502276112},
   Abstract = {Designing a "cocktail party listener" that functionally
             mimics the selective perception of a human auditory system
             has been pursued over the past decades. By exploiting
             acoustic metamaterials and compressive sensing, we present
             here a single-sensor listening device that separates
             simultaneous overlapping sounds from different sources. The
             device with a compact array of resonant metamaterials is
             demonstrated to distinguish three overlapping and
             independent sources with 96.67% correct audio recognition.
             Segregation of the audio signals is achieved using physical
             layer encoding without relying on source characteristics.
             This hardware approach to multichannel source separation can
             be applied to robust speech recognition and hearing aids and
             may be extended to other acoustic imaging and sensing
             applications.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1502276112},
   Key = {fds280130}
}

@article{fds291362,
   Author = {Tsai, T-H and Yuan, X and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Spatial light modulator based color polarization
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {11912-11926},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.23.011912},
   Abstract = {We describe a compressive snapshot color polarization imager
             that encodes spatial, spectral, and polarization information
             using a liquid crystal modulator. We experimentally show
             that polarization imaging is compressible by multiplexing
             polarization states and present the reconstruction results.
             This compressive camera captures the spatial distribution of
             four polarizations and three color channels. It achieves
             <0.027° spatial resolution, 10(3) average extinction ratio,
             and >30 PSNR.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.23.011912},
   Key = {fds291362}
}

@article{fds280133,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive sensing in the EO/IR.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {C14-C22},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.54.000c14},
   Abstract = {We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to
             electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We
             introduce the field through a discussion of historical
             antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework.
             Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are
             presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and
             used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where
             CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success
             stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility
             of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open
             challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.54.000c14},
   Key = {fds280133}
}

@article{fds280137,
   Author = {Russell, ZE and Chen, EX and Amsden, JJ and Wolter, SD and Danell, RM and Parker, CB and Stoner, BR and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Glass,
             JT},
   Title = {Two-dimensional aperture coding for magnetic sector mass
             spectrometry.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Society for Mass
             Spectrometry},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {248-256},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1044-0305},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-014-1051-4},
   Abstract = {In mass spectrometer design, there has been a historic
             belief that there exists a fundamental trade-off between
             instrument size, throughput, and resolution. When
             miniaturizing a traditional system, performance loss in
             either resolution or throughput would be expected. However,
             in optical spectroscopy, both one-dimensional (1D) and
             two-dimensional (2D) aperture coding have been used for many
             years to break a similar trade-off. To provide a viable path
             to miniaturization for harsh environment field applications,
             we are investigating similar concepts in sector mass
             spectrometry. Recently, we demonstrated the viability of 1D
             aperture coding and here we provide a first investigation of
             2D coding. In coded optical spectroscopy, 2D coding is
             preferred because of increased measurement diversity for
             improved conditioning and robustness of the result. To
             investigate its viability in mass spectrometry, analytes of
             argon, acetone, and ethanol were detected using a custom
             90-degree magnetic sector mass spectrometer incorporating 2D
             coded apertures. We developed a mathematical forward model
             and reconstruction algorithm to successfully reconstruct the
             mass spectra from the 2D spatially coded ion positions. This
             2D coding enabled a 3.5× throughput increase with minimal
             decrease in resolution. Several challenges were overcome in
             the mass spectrometer design to enable this coding,
             including the need for large uniform ion flux, a wide gap
             magnetic sector that maintains field uniformity, and a high
             resolution 2D detection system for ion imaging. Furthermore,
             micro-fabricated 2D coded apertures incorporating support
             structures were developed to provide a viable design that
             allowed ion transmission through the open elements of the
             code.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13361-014-1051-4},
   Key = {fds280137}
}

@article{fds280135,
   Author = {Yang, J and Liao, X and Yuan, X and Llull, P and Brady, DJ and Sapiro, G and Carin, L},
   Title = {Compressive sensing by learning a Gaussian mixture model
             from measurements.},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Image Processing : a Publication of the
             Ieee Signal Processing Society},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {106-119},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1057-7149},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tip.2014.2365720},
   Abstract = {Compressive sensing of signals drawn from a Gaussian mixture
             model (GMM) admits closed-form minimum mean squared error
             reconstruction from incomplete linear measurements. An
             accurate GMM signal model is usually not available a priori,
             because it is difficult to obtain training signals that
             match the statistics of the signals being sensed. We propose
             to solve that problem by learning the signal model in situ,
             based directly on the compressive measurements of the
             signals, without resorting to other signals to train a
             model. A key feature of our method is that the signals being
             sensed are treated as random variables and are integrated
             out in the likelihood. We derive a maximum marginal
             likelihood estimator (MMLE) that maximizes the likelihood of
             the GMM of the underlying signals given only their linear
             compressive measurements. We extend the MMLE to a GMM with
             dominantly low-rank covariance matrices, to gain
             computational speedup. We report extensive experimental
             results on image inpainting, compressive sensing of
             high-speed video, and compressive hyperspectral imaging (the
             latter two based on real compressive cameras). The results
             demonstrate that the proposed methods outperform
             state-of-the-art methods by significant margins.},
   Doi = {10.1109/tip.2014.2365720},
   Key = {fds280135}
}

@article{fds280144,
   Author = {Yang, J and Yuan, X and Liao, X and Llull, P and Brady, DJ and Sapiro, G and Carin, L},
   Title = {Video compressive sensing using Gaussian mixture
             models.},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Image Processing : a Publication of the
             Ieee Signal Processing Society},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4863-4878},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1057-7149},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tip.2014.2344294},
   Abstract = {A Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed
             for video reconstruction from temporally compressed video
             measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video
             patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed
             based on analytic expressions. The GMM-based inversion
             method benefits from online adaptive learning and parallel
             computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed
             inversion method with videos reconstructed from simulated
             compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive
             video camera. We also use the GMM as a tool to investigate
             adaptive video compressive sensing, i.e., adaptive rate of
             temporal compression.},
   Doi = {10.1109/tip.2014.2344294},
   Key = {fds280144}
}

@article{fds280145,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Gollub, J and Driscoll, T and Lipworth, G and Mrozack, A and Reynolds, MS and Brady, DJ and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial microwave holographic imaging
             system.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2109-2119},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.31.002109},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a microwave imaging system that combines
             advances in metamaterial aperture design with emerging
             computational imaging techniques. The flexibility inherent
             to guided-wave, complementary metamaterials enables the
             design of a planar antenna that illuminates a scene with
             dramatically varying radiation patterns as a function of
             frequency. As frequency is swept over the K-band
             (17.5-26.5 GHz), a sequence of pseudorandom radiation
             patterns interrogates a scene. Measurements of the return
             signal versus frequency are then acquired and the scene is
             reconstructed using computational imaging methods. The
             low-cost, frequency-diverse static aperture allows
             three-dimensional images to be formed without mechanical
             scanning or dynamic beam-forming elements. The metamaterial
             aperture is complementary to a variety of computational
             imaging schemes, and can be used in conjunction with other
             sensors to form a multifunctional imaging platform. We
             illustrate the potential of multisensor fusion by
             integrating an infrared structured-light and optical image
             sensor to accelerate the microwave scene reconstruction and
             to provide a simultaneous visualization of the
             scene.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.31.002109},
   Key = {fds280145}
}

@article{fds280150,
   Author = {Lakshmanan, MN and Kapadia, AJ and Sahbaee, P and Wolter, SD and Harrawood, BP and Brady, D and Samei, E},
   Title = {An X-ray scatter system for material identification in
             cluttered objects: A Monte Carlo simulation
             study},
   Journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section
             B: Beam Interactions With Materials and Atoms},
   Volume = {335},
   Pages = {31-38},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0168-583X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2014.05.021},
   Abstract = {The analysis of X-ray scatter patterns has been demonstrated
             as an effective method of identifying specific materials in
             mixed object environments, for both biological and
             non-biological applications. Here we describe an X-ray
             scatter imaging system for material identification in
             cluttered objects and investigate its performance using a
             large-scale Monte Carlo simulation study of one-thousand
             objects containing a broad array of materials. The Geant4
             Monte Carlo source code for Rayleigh scatter physics was
             modified to model coherent scatter diffraction in bulk
             materials based on experimentally measured form factors for
             33 materials. The simulation was then used to model coherent
             scatter signals from a variety of targets and clutter
             (background) materials in one thousand randomized objects.
             The resulting scatter images were used to characterize four
             parameters of the imaging system that affected its ability
             to identify target materials: (a) the arrangement of
             materials in the object, (b) clutter attenuation, (c) type
             of target material, and (d) the X-ray tube current. We found
             that the positioning of target materials within the object
             did not significantly affect their detectability; however, a
             strong negative correlation was observed between the target
             detectability and the clutter attenuation of the object. The
             imaging signal was also found to be relatively invariant to
             increases in X-ray tube current above 1 mAs for most
             materials considered in the study. This work is the first
             Monte Carlo study to our knowledge of a large population of
             cluttered object of an X-ray scatter imaging system for
             material identification and lays the foundation for
             large-scale studies of the effectiveness of X-ray scatter
             imaging systems for material identification in complex
             samples. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nimb.2014.05.021},
   Key = {fds280150}
}

@article{fds280143,
   Author = {Pang, S and Hassan, M and Greenberg, J and Holmgren, A and Krishnamurthy, K and Brady, D},
   Title = {Complementary coded apertures for 4-dimensional x-ray
             coherent scatter imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {22925-22936},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.22.022925},
   Abstract = {X-ray scattering has played a key role in non-destructive
             materials characterization due to the material-specific
             coherent scattering signatures. In the current energy
             dispersive coherent scatter imaging systems, including
             selected volume tomography and coherent scatter computed
             tomography, each object voxel is measured at a single
             scatter angle, which suffers from slow acquisition time. The
             employment of coded apertures in x-ray scatter imaging
             systems improves the photon collection efficiency, making it
             promising for real time volumetric imaging and material
             identification. In this paper, we propose a volumetric x-ray
             scatter imaging system using a pair of complementary coded
             apertures: a coded aperture on the detector side introduces
             multiplexed measurement on an energy-sensitive detector
             array; a complementary source-side coded aperture
             selectively illuminates the object to decouple the ambiguity
             due to the increased parallelization for 4D imaging. The
             system yields the 1D coherent scattering form factor at each
             voxel in 3D. We demonstrate tomographic imaging and material
             identification with the system and achieve a spatial
             resolution ~1 cm and a normalized momentum transfer
             resolution, Δq/q, of 0.2.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.22.022925},
   Key = {fds280143}
}

@article{fds280148,
   Author = {Chen, EX and Gehm, M and Danell, R and Wells, M and Glass, JT and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Compressive mass analysis on quadrupole ion trap
             systems.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Society for Mass
             Spectrometry},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1295-1304},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1044-0305},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13361-014-0894-z},
   Abstract = {Conventionally, quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometers eject
             ions of different mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) in a sequential
             fashion by performing a scan of the rf trapping voltage
             amplitude. Due to the inherent sparsity of most mass
             spectra, the detector measures no signal for much of the
             scan time. By exploiting this sparsity property, we propose
             a new compressive and multiplexed mass analysis
             approach--multi Resonant Frequency Excitation (mRFE)
             ejection. This new approach divides the mass spectrum into
             several mass subranges and detects all the subrange spectra
             in parallel for increased mass analysis speed. Mathematical
             estimation of standard mass spectrum is demonstrated while
             statistical classification on the parallel measurements
             remains viable because of the sparse nature of the mass
             spectra. This method can reduce mass analysis time by a
             factor of 3-6 and increase system duty cycle by 2×. The
             combination of reduced analysis time and accurate compound
             classification is demonstrated in a commercial quadrupole
             ion trap (QIT) system.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13361-014-0894-z},
   Key = {fds280148}
}

@article{fds280153,
   Author = {Kaganovsky, Y and Li, D and Holmgren, A and Jeon, H and MacCabe, KP and Politte, DG and O'Sullivan, JA and Carin, L and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Compressed sampling strategies for tomography.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1369-1394},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.31.001369},
   Abstract = {We investigate new sampling strategies for projection
             tomography, enabling one to employ fewer measurements than
             expected from classical sampling theory without significant
             loss of information. Inspired by compressed sensing, our
             approach is based on the understanding that many real
             objects are compressible in some known representation,
             implying that the number of degrees of freedom defining an
             object is often much smaller than the number of
             pixels/voxels. We propose a new approach based on
             quasi-random detector subsampling, whereas previous
             approaches only addressed subsampling with respect to source
             location (view angle). The performance of different sampling
             strategies is considered using object-independent figures of
             merit, and also based on reconstructions for specific
             objects, with synthetic and real data. The proposed approach
             can be implemented using a structured illumination of the
             interrogated object or the detector array by placing a coded
             aperture/mask at the source or detector side, respectively.
             Advantages of the proposed approach include (i) for
             structured illumination of the detector array, it leads to
             fewer detector pixels and allows one to integrate detectors
             for scattered radiation in the unused space; (ii) for
             structured illumination of the object, it leads to a reduced
             radiation dose for patients in medical scans; (iii) in the
             latter case, the blocking of rays reduces scattered
             radiation while keeping the same energy in the transmitted
             rays, resulting in a higher signal-to-noise ratio than that
             achieved by lowering exposure times or the energy of the
             source; (iv) compared to view-angle subsampling, it allows
             one to use fewer measurements for the same image quality, or
             leads to better image quality for the same number of
             measurements. The proposed approach can also be combined
             with view-angle subsampling.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.31.001369},
   Key = {fds280153}
}

@article{fds280152,
   Author = {Furxhi, O and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Echelle crossed grating millimeter wave beam
             scanner.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {16393-16407},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.22.016393},
   Abstract = {We present a two-dimensional, active, millimeter-wave,
             electronic beam scanner, with Doppler capabilities for
             stand-off imaging. The two-dimensional scan is achieved by
             mapping the millimeter wave spectrum to space using a pair
             of crossed gratings. The active transceiver and heterodyne
             quadrature detection allow the measurement of the relative
             phase between two consecutive measurements and the synthesis
             of the scene's Doppler signature. The frame rate of the
             imager is currently limited by the sweep rate of the vector
             network analyzer which is used to drive the millimeter wave
             extenders. All of the beam steering components are passive
             and can be designed to operate at any wavelength. The system
             design, characterization and measurements are presented and
             further uses and improvements are suggested.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.22.016393},
   Key = {fds280152}
}

@article{fds280154,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Heimbeck, M and Marks, DL and Richard, J and Everitt, HO and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Adaptive millimeter-wave synthetic aperture imaging for
             compressive sampling of sparse scenes.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {13515-13530},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.22.013515},
   Abstract = {We apply adaptive sensing techniques to the problem of
             locating sparse metallic scatterers using high-resolution,
             frequency modulated continuous wave W-band RADAR. Using a
             single detector, a frequency stepped source, and a lateral
             translation stage, inverse synthetic aperture RADAR
             reconstruction techniques are used to search for one or two
             wire scatterers within a specified range, while an adaptive
             algorithm determined successive sampling locations. The
             two-dimensional location of each scatterer is thereby
             identified with sub-wavelength accuracy in as few as 1/4 the
             number of lateral steps required for a simple raster scan.
             The implications of applying this approach to more complex
             scattering geometries are explored in light of the various
             assumptions made.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.22.013515},
   Key = {fds280154}
}

@article{fds280175,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Llull, PR and Phillips, Z and Anderson, JG and Feller, SD and Vera, EM and Son, HS and Youn, S-H and Kim, J and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Nichols, JM and Judd, KP and Duncan, MD and Waterman, JR and Stack, RA and Johnson, A and Tennill, R and Olson, CC},
   Title = {Characterization of the AWARE 10 two-gigapixel
             wide-field-of-view visible imager.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {C54-C63},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.53.000c54},
   Abstract = {System requirements for many military electro-optic and IR
             camera systems reflect the need for both wide-field-of-view
             situational awareness as well as high-resolution imaging for
             target identification. In this work we present a new imaging
             system architecture designed to perform both functions
             simultaneously and the AWARE 10 camera as an example at
             visible wavelengths. We first describe the basic system
             architecture and user interface followed by a laboratory
             characterization of the system optical performance. We then
             describe a field experiment in which the camera was used to
             identify several maritime targets at varying range. The
             experimental results indicate that users of the system are
             able to correctly identify ~10 m targets at between 4 and 6
             km with 70% accuracy.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.53.000c54},
   Key = {fds280175}
}

@article{fds323401,
   Author = {Xie, Y and Tsai, TH and Brady, DJ and Cummer, SA},
   Title = {Compressive acoustic imaging with metamaterials.},
   Journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of
             America},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2394},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.4877922},
   Abstract = {Compressive imaging has brought revolutionary design
             methodologies to imaging systems. By shuffling and
             multiplexing the object information space, the imaging
             system compresses data on the physical layer and enables
             employing fewer sensors and acquiring less data than
             traditional isomorphic mapping imaging systems. Recently
             metamaterials have been investigated for designing
             compressive imager. Metamaterials are engineered materials
             with properties that are usually unattainable in nature.
             Acoustic metamaterials can possess highly anisotropy,
             strongly dispersion, negative dynamic density, or bulk
             modulus, and they open up new possibilities of wave-matter
             interaction and signal modulation. In this work, we
             designed, fabricated, and tested a metamaterial-based single
             detector, 360 degree field of view compressive acoustic
             imager. Local resonator arrays are design to resonate
             randomly in both spatial and spectrum dimensions to favor
             compressive imaging task. The presented experimental results
             show that with only about 60 measured values, the imager is
             able to reconstruct a scene of more than 1000 sampling
             points in space, achieving a compression ratio of about
             20:1. Multiple static and moving target imaging task were
             performed with this low cost, single detector,
             non-mechanical scanning compressive imager. Our work paves
             the way for designing metamaterials based compressive
             acoustic imaging system.},
   Doi = {10.1121/1.4877922},
   Key = {fds323401}
}

@article{fds280239,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Hassan, M and Krishnamurthy, K and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Structured illumination for tomographic X-ray diffraction
             imaging.},
   Journal = {The Analyst},
   Volume = {139},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {709-713},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0003-2654},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3an01641b},
   Abstract = {Tomographic imaging of the molecular structure of an object
             is important for a variety of applications, ranging from
             medical and industrial radiography to security screening.
             X-ray diffraction imaging is the preeminent technique for
             performing molecular analysis of large volumes. Here we
             propose and demonstrate a new measurement architecture to
             improve the source and detector efficiency for diffraction
             imaging. In comparison with previous techniques, our
             approach reduces the required overall scan time by 1-2
             orders of magnitude, which makes possible real-time scanning
             of a broad range of materials over a large volume using a
             table-top setup. This method, which relies on structuring
             spatially the illumination incident on an object moving
             relative to the X-ray source, is compatible with existing
             systems and has the potential to significantly enhance
             performance in an array of areas, such as medical diagnostic
             imaging and explosives detection.},
   Doi = {10.1039/c3an01641b},
   Key = {fds280239}
}

@article{fds280251,
   Author = {Youn, SH and Son, HS and Marks, DL and Shaw, JM and McLaughlin, PO and Feller, SD and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Optical performance test and validation of microcameras in
             multiscale, gigapixel imagers.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {3712-3723},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.22.003712},
   Abstract = {Wide field-of-view gigapixel imaging systems capable of
             diffraction-limited resolution and video-rate acquisition
             have a broad range of applications, including sports event
             broadcasting, security surveillance, astronomical
             observation, and bioimaging. The complexity of the system
             integration of such devices demands precision optical
             components that are fully characterized and qualified before
             being integrated into the final system. In this work, we
             present component and assembly level characterizations of
             microcameras in our first gigapixel camera, the AWARE-2.
             Based on the results of these measurements, we revised the
             optical design and assembly procedures to construct the
             second generation system, the AWARE-2 Retrofit, which shows
             significant improvement in image quality.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.22.003712},
   Key = {fds280251}
}

@article{fds280125,
   Author = {Zhu, R and Furxhi, O and Marks, D and Brady, D},
   Title = {Millimeter wave surface and reflectivity estimation based on
             sparse time of flight measurements},
   Journal = {International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and
             Terahertz Waves, Irmmw Thz},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2027},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2014.6956301},
   Abstract = {© 2014 IEEE. We present a novel active millimeter wave
             imaging technique that can be used to estimate target
             surface and reflectivity. This technique requires no
             mechanical scanning but requires only a sparse array of
             detectors. The illumination beam requires no focusing or
             collimation. The reconstruction is based on the time of
             flight information from the reflected signal.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2014.6956301},
   Key = {fds280125}
}

@article{fds280146,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Roadmap for commercial gigapixel cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Multiscale array cameras allow 10-100x improvements in
             commercial camera resolution. This talk discussed the
             optical manufacturing, electronic processing and
             communications and cloud software ecosystem that enables
             economical multiscale cameras. © 2014 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280146}
}

@article{fds280147,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive millimeter wave and X-ray tomography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Compressive tomography consists of estimation of high
             dimensional objects from measurements distributed over lower
             dimensions. Examples include reconstruction of 3D spectral
             data cubes from 2D focal planes and reconstruction of 3D
             volumes from 2D x-ray projections or holograms. Compressive
             tomographic estimation is improved if projections are
             structured to randomize the sampling phase space. To
             illustrate this principle, we show that structured x-ray
             illumination enables improvements in reconstructed image
             quality for compressed measurements relative to full Radon
             sampling and that structured millimeter wave illumination
             improves estimation of 3D surfaces. © 2014
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280147}
}

@article{fds280151,
   Author = {Lakshmanan, MN and Kapadia, AJ and Harrawood, BP and Brady, D and Samei,
             E},
   Title = {X-ray coherent scatter imaging for surgical margin
             detection: A Monte Carlo study},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {9033},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2043856},
   Abstract = {Instead of having the entire breast removed (a mastectomy),
             breast cancer patients often receive a breast con-serving
             surgery (BCS) for removal of only the breast tumor. If
             post-surgery analysis reveals ta missed margin around the
             tumor tissue excised through the BCS procedure, the
             physician must often call the patient back for another
             surgery, which is both difficult and risky for the patient.
             If this “margin detectionâ€could be performed
             during the BCS procedure itself, the surgical team could use
             the analysis to ensure that all tumor tissue was removed in
             a single surgery, thereby potentially reducing the number of
             call backs from breast cancer surgery. We describe here a
             potential technique to detect surgical tumor margins in
             breast cancer using x-ray coherent scatter imaging. In this
             study, we demonstrate the imaging ability of this technique
             using Monte Carlo simulations. © 2014 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2043856},
   Key = {fds280151}
}

@article{fds280225,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Structured illumination for compressive x-ray diffraction
             tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9020},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2048264},
   Abstract = {Coherent x-ray scatter (also know as x-ray diffraction) has
             long been used to non-destructively investigate the
             molecular structure of materials for industrial, medical,
             security, and fundamental purposes. Unfortunately, molecular
             tomography based on coherent scatter typically requires long
             scan times and/or large incident fluxes, which has limited
             the practical applicability of such schemes. One can
             overcome the conventional challenges by employing
             compressive sensing theory to optimize the information
             obtained per incident photon. We accomplish this in two
             primary ways: we use a coded aperture to structure the
             incident illumination and realize massive measurement
             parallelization and use photon-counting, energy-sensitive
             detection to recover maximal information from each detected
             photon. We motivate and discuss here the general imaging
             principles, investigate different coding and sampling
             strategies, and provide results from theoretical studies for
             our structured illumination scheme. We find that this
             approach promises real-time molecular tomography of bulk
             objects without a loss in imaging performance. © 2014
             SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2048264},
   Key = {fds280225}
}

@article{fds280228,
   Author = {Holmgren, AD and Maccabe, KP and Tornai, MP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture x-ray scatter tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {9020},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2048267},
   Abstract = {We present a system for X-ray tomography using a coded
             aperture. A fan beam illuminates a 2D cross-section of an
             object and our coded aperture system produces a tomographic
             image from each static snapshot; as such, we can reconstruct
             either a static object scanned in 3D or an x-ray video of a
             non-static object. © 2014 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2048267},
   Key = {fds280228}
}

@article{fds280256,
   Author = {Greenberg, J and Krishnamurthy, K and Brady, D},
   Title = {Compressive single-pixel snapshot x-ray diffraction
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-114},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.39.000111},
   Abstract = {We present a method for realizing snapshot, depth-resolved
             material identification using only a single, energysensitive
             pixel. To achieve this result, we employ a coded aperture
             with subpixel features to modulate the energy spectrum of
             coherently scattered photons and recover the object
             properties using an iterative inversion algorithm based on
             compressed sensing theory. We demonstrate high-fidelity
             object estimation at x-ray wavelengths for a variety of
             compression ratios exceeding unity. © 2013 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.39.000111},
   Key = {fds280256}
}

@article{fds280262,
   Author = {Arce, GR and Brady, DJ and Carin, L and Arguello, H and Kittle,
             DS},
   Title = {Compressive coded aperture spectral imaging: An
             introduction},
   Journal = {Ieee Signal Processing Magazine},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {105-115},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-5888},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2013.2278763},
   Abstract = {Maging spectroscopy involves the sensing of a large amount
             of spatial information across a multitude of wavelengths.
             Conventional approaches to hyperspectral sensing scan
             adjacent zones of the underlying spectral scene and merge
             the results to construct a spectral data cube. Push broom
             spectral imaging sensors, for instance, capture a spectral
             cube with one focal plane array (FPA) measurement per
             spatial line of the scene [1], [2]. Spectrometers based on
             optical bandpass filters sequentially scan the scene by
             tuning the bandpass filters in steps. The disadvantage of
             these techniques is that they require scanning a number of
             zones linearly in proportion to the desired spatial and
             spectral resolution. This article surveys compressive coded
             aperture spectral imagers, also known as coded aperture
             snapshot spectral imagers (CASSI) [1], [3], [4], which
             naturally embody the principles of compressive sensing (CS)
             [5], [6]. The remarkable advantage of CASSI is that the
             entire data cube is sensed with just a few FPA measurements
             and, in some cases, with as little as a single FPA shot. ©
             1991-2012 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MSP.2013.2278763},
   Key = {fds280262}
}

@article{fds280258,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Krishnamurthy, K and Lakshmanan, M and MacCabe, K and Wolter, S and Kapadia, A and Brady, D},
   Title = {Coding and sampling for compressive x-ray diffraction
             tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8858},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2027128},
   Abstract = {Coded apertures and energy resolving detectors may be used
             to improve the sampling efficiency of x-ray tomography and
             increase the physical diversity of x-ray phenomena measured.
             Coding and decompressive inference enable increased
             molecular specificity, reduced exposure and scan times. We
             outline a specific coded aperture x-ray coherent scatter
             imaging architecture that demonstrates the potential of such
             schemes. Based on this geometry, we develop a physical model
             using both a semi-analytic and Monte Carlo-based framework,
             devise an experimental realization of the system, describe a
             reconstruction algorithm for estimating the object from raw
             data, and propose a classification scheme for identifying
             the material composition of the object at each location. ©
             2013 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2027128},
   Key = {fds280258}
}

@article{fds280226,
   Author = {Yuan, X and Yang, J and Llull, P and Liao, X and Sapiro, G and Brady, DJ and Carin, L},
   Title = {Adaptive temporal compressive sensing for
             video},
   Journal = {2013 Ieee International Conference on Image Processing, Icip
             2013 Proceedings},
   Pages = {14-18},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/8941 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {This paper introduces the concept of adaptive temporal
             compressive sensing (CS) for video. We propose a CS
             algorithm to adapt the compression ratio based on the
             scene's temporal complexity, computed from the compressed
             data, without compromising the quality of the reconstructed
             video. The temporal adaptivity is manifested by manipulating
             the integration time of the camera, opening the possibility
             to realtime implementation. The proposed algorithm is a
             generalized temporal CS approach that can be incorporated
             with a diverse set of existing hardware systems. © 2013
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICIP.2013.6738004},
   Key = {fds280226}
}

@article{fds280227,
   Author = {Yang, J and Yuan, X and Liao, X and Llull, P and Sapiro, G and Brady, DJ and Carin, L},
   Title = {Gaussian mixture model for video compressive
             sensing},
   Journal = {2013 Ieee International Conference on Image Processing, Icip
             2013 Proceedings},
   Pages = {19-23},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIP.2013.6738005},
   Abstract = {A Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based algorithm is proposed
             for video reconstruction from temporal compressed
             measurements. The GMM is used to model spatio-temporal video
             patches, and the reconstruction can be efficiently computed
             based on analytic expressions. The developed GMM
             reconstruction method benefits from online adaptive learning
             and parallel computation. We demonstrate the efficacy of the
             proposed GMM with videos reconstructed from simulated
             compressive video measurements and from a real compressive
             video camera. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICIP.2013.6738005},
   Key = {fds280227}
}

@article{fds280250,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Krishnamurthy, K and Lipworth, G and Smith, DR and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Imaging of diffuse objects with dispersive
             imagers},
   Journal = {International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and
             Terahertz Waves, Irmmw Thz},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2027},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2013.6665888},
   Abstract = {Dispersive imagers measure multiple speckle realizations of
             the object to be estimated. This poses a challenge for
             coherent imaging as classically objects are backpropagated
             and then despeckled. We present initial findings on an
             intensity based method for estimating the scattering
             density. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2013.6665888},
   Key = {fds280250}
}

@article{fds280264,
   Author = {Nakamura, T and Kittle, DS and Youn, SH and Feller, SD and Tanida, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Autofocus for a multiscale gigapixel camera.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {33},
   Pages = {8146-8153},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000327467200039&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {In recent studies, the advanced wide field of view
             architectures for image reconstruction and exploitation
             (AWARE) multiscale camera, which is composed of a
             monocentric objective lens and an array of microcameras, was
             developed for the realization of snapshot wide field of view
             and high resolution imaging. This paper describes
             accelerated autofocus (AF) methods for the AWARE system
             based on a hierarchical spatial algorithm and an iterative
             temporal algorithm. In the algorithms, sensor positions of
             each microcamera are hierarchically scanned with contrast
             detection to effectively search for a focusing distance. The
             positions are then updated iteratively for dynamic scenes
             using temporal information. The algorithms are theoretically
             analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The developed AF
             methods can be used for the realization of the temporal
             gigapixel imaging by the AWARE system.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.52.008146},
   Key = {fds280264}
}

@article{fds280265,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Hahn, J and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay
             optics: erratum.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {27284-27285},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.21.027284},
   Abstract = {A coding error was found in calculating the optimal packing
             distribution of our geodesic array. The error was corrected
             and the new optimization results in slightly improved
             packing density. The overall approach and algorithm remain
             unchanged.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.21.027284},
   Key = {fds280265}
}

@article{fds280266,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Marks, DL and MacCabe, KP and O'Sullivan,
             JA},
   Title = {Coded apertures for x-ray scatter imaging.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {32},
   Pages = {7745-7754},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.52.007745},
   Abstract = {We examine coding strategies for coded aperture scatter
             imagers. Scatter imaging enables tomography of compact
             regions from snapshot measurements. We present coded
             aperture designs for pencil and fan beam geometries, and
             compare their singular value spectra with that of the Radon
             transform and selected volume tomography. We show that under
             dose constraints scatter imaging improves conditioning over
             alternative techniques, and that specially designed coded
             apertures enable snapshot 1D and 2D tomography.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.52.007745},
   Key = {fds280266}
}

@article{fds280259,
   Author = {Greenberg, JA and Krishnamurthy, K and Brady, D},
   Title = {Snapshot molecular imaging using coded energy-sensitive
             detection.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {25480-25491},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.21.025480},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a technique for measuring the range-resolved
             coherent scatter form factors of different objects from a
             single snapshot. By illuminating the object with an x-ray
             pencil beam and placing a coded aperture in front of a
             linear array of energy-sensitive detector elements, we
             record the coherently scattered x-rays. This approach yields
             lateral, range, and momentum transfer resolutions of 1 mm, 5
             mm, and 0.2 nm⁻¹, respectively, which is sufficient for
             the distinguishing a variety of solids and liquids. These
             results indicate a path toward real-time volumetric
             molecular imaging for non-destructive examination in a
             variety of applications, including medical diagnostics,
             quality inspection, and security detection.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.21.025480},
   Key = {fds280259}
}

@article{fds280273,
   Author = {Lipworth, G and Mrozack, A and Hunt, J and Marks, DL and Driscoll, T and Brady, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on
             the physical layer.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1603-1612},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000322591800017&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We introduce the concept of a metamaterial aperture, in
             which an underlying reference mode interacts with a designed
             metamaterial surface to produce a series of complex field
             patterns. The resonant frequencies of the metamaterial
             elements are randomly distributed over a large bandwidth
             (18-26 GHz), such that the aperture produces a rapidly
             varying sequence of field patterns as a function of the
             input frequency. As the frequency of operation is scanned,
             different subsets of metamaterial elements become active, in
             turn varying the field patterns at the scene. Scene
             information can thus be indexed by frequency, with the
             overall effectiveness of the imaging scheme tied to the
             diversity of the generated field patterns. As the quality
             (Q-) factor of the metamaterial resonators increases, the
             number of distinct field patterns that can be generated
             increases-improving scene estimation. In this work we
             provide the foundation for computational imaging with
             metamaterial apertures based on frequency diversity, and
             establish that for resonators with physically relevant
             Q-factors, there are potentially enough distinct
             measurements of a typical scene within a reasonable
             bandwidth to achieve diffraction-limited reconstructions of
             physical scenes.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.30.001603},
   Key = {fds280273}
}

@article{fds280275,
   Author = {Rajwade, A and Kittle, D and Tsai, TH and Brady, D and Carin,
             L},
   Title = {Coded hyperspectral imaging and blind compressive
             sensing},
   Journal = {Siam Journal on Imaging Sciences},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {782-812},
   Publisher = {Society for Industrial & Applied Mathematics
             (SIAM)},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1936-4954},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/120875302},
   Abstract = {Blind compressive sensing (CS) is considered for
             reconstruction of hyperspectral data imaged by a coded
             aperture camera. The measurements are manifested as a
             superposition of the coded wavelength-dependent data, with
             the ambient three-dimensional hyperspectral datacube mapped
             to a two-dimensional measurement. The hyperspectral datacube
             is recovered using a Bayesian implementation of blind CS.
             Several demonstration experiments are presented, including
             measurements performed using a coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imager (CASSI) camera. The proposed approach is
             capable of efficiently reconstructing large hyperspectral
             datacubes. Comparisons are made between the proposed
             algorithm and other techniques employed in compressive
             sensing, dictionary learning, and matrix factorization. ©
             2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.},
   Doi = {10.1137/120875302},
   Key = {fds280275}
}

@article{fds280277,
   Author = {MacCabe, KP and Holmgren, AD and Tornai, MP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Snapshot 2D tomography via coded aperture x-ray scatter
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Appl Opt},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {4582-4589},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23842254},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a fan beam coded aperture x-ray scatter
             imaging system that acquires a tomographic image from each
             snapshot. This technique exploits the cylindrical symmetry
             of the scattering cross section to avoid the scanning motion
             typically required by projection tomography. We use a coded
             aperture with a harmonic dependence to determine range and a
             shift code to determine cross range. Here we use a
             forward-scatter configuration to image 2D objects and use
             serial exposures to acquire tomographic video of motion
             within a plane. Our reconstruction algorithm also estimates
             the angular dependence of the scattered radiance, a step
             toward materials imaging and identification.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.52.004582},
   Key = {fds280277}
}

@article{fds280278,
   Author = {Kapadia, AJ and Lakshmanan, MN and Krishnamurthy, K and Sahbaee, P and Chawla, A and Wolter, S and Maccabe, K and Brady, D and Samei,
             E},
   Title = {Monte-Carlo simulations of a coded-aperture X-ray scatter
             imaging system for molecular imaging},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {8668},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2008484},
   Abstract = {In this work, we demonstrate the ability to determine the
             material composition of a sample by measuring coherent
             scatter diffraction patterns generated using a
             coded-aperture x-ray scatter imaging (CAXSI) system. Most
             materials are known to exhibit unique diffraction patterns
             through coherent scattering of low-energy x-rays. However,
             clinical x-ray imagers typically discard scatter radiation
             as noise that degrades image quality. Through the addition
             of a coded aperture, the system can be sensitized to
             coherent scattered photons that carry information about the
             identity and location of the scattering material. In this
             work, we demonstrate this process using a Monte-Carlo
             simulation of a CAXSI system. A simulation of a CAXSI system
             was developed in GEANT4 with modified physics libraries to
             model coherent scatter diffraction patterns in materials.
             Simulated images were generated from 10 materials including
             plastics, hydrocarbons, and biological tissue. The materials
             were irradiated using collimated pencil- and fan-beams with
             energies of 160 kVp. The diffraction patterns were imaged
             using a simulated 2D detector and mathematically
             deconstructed using an analytical projection model that
             accounted for the known x-ray source spectrum. The
             deconstructed diffraction patterns were then matched with a
             library of known coherent scatter form-factors of different
             materials to determine the identity of the scatterer at
             different locations in the object. The results showed good
             agreement between the measured and known scatter patterns
             from the materials, demonstrating the ability to image and
             identify materials at different 3D locations within an
             object using a projection-based CAXSI system. © 2013
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2008484},
   Key = {fds280278}
}

@article{fds280276,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Hagen, N and Durham, M and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Wide-field compact catadioptric telescope spanning 0.7-14
             μm wavelengths.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {4334-4342},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000320708500031&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We present a wide-field compact f-1.2, f-1.6 effective
             illumination catadioptric telescope that spans the
             wavelengths 0.7-14.0 μm. Such a telescope replaces several
             telescopes designed for different infrared bands, while
             having a track length shorter than most single-band
             telescopes. Incorporated with a suitable multiband focal
             plane array, many wavelength bands may be imaged
             simultaneously in the same instrument. We have constructed
             and tested prototypes of the telescopes and found the
             performance is near the predicted values.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.52.004334},
   Key = {fds280276}
}

@article{fds280280,
   Author = {Kittle, DS and Marks, DL and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A testbed for wide-field, high-resolution, gigapixel-class
             cameras.},
   Journal = {Rev Sci Instrum},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {053107},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23742532},
   Abstract = {The high resolution and wide field of view (FOV) of the
             AWARE (Advanced Wide FOV Architectures for Image
             Reconstruction and Exploitation) gigapixel class cameras
             present new challenges in calibration, mechanical testing,
             and optical performance evaluation. The AWARE system
             integrates an array of micro-cameras in a multiscale design
             to achieve gigapixel sampling at video rates. Alignment and
             optical testing of the micro-cameras is vital in compositing
             engines, which require pixel-level accurate mappings over
             the entire array of cameras. A testbed has been developed to
             automatically calibrate and measure the optical performance
             of the entire camera array. This testbed utilizes
             translation and rotation stages to project a ray into any
             micro-camera of the AWARE system. A spatial light modulator
             is projected through a telescope to form an arbitrary object
             space pattern at infinity. This collimated source is then
             reflected by an elevation stage mirror for pointing through
             the aperture of the objective into the micro-optics and
             eventually the detector of the micro-camera. Different
             targets can be projected with the spatial light modulator
             for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the
             system, fiducials in the overlap regions for registration
             and compositing, distortion mapping, illumination profiles,
             thermal stability, and focus calibration. The mathematics of
             the testbed mechanics are derived for finding the positions
             of the stages to achieve a particular incident angle into
             the camera, along with calibration steps for alignment of
             the camera and testbed coordinate axes. Measurement results
             for the AWARE-2 gigapixel camera are presented for MTF,
             focus calibration, illumination profile, fiducial mapping
             across the micro-camera for registration and distortion
             correction, thermal stability, and alignment of the camera
             on the testbed.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.4804199},
   Key = {fds280280}
}

@article{fds280283,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Wide-field astronomical multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {The Astronomical Journal},
   Volume = {145},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {128-128},
   Publisher = {IOP Publishing},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0004-6256},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/145/5/128},
   Abstract = {In order to produce sufficiently low aberrations with a
             large aperture, telescopes have a limited field of view.
             Because of this narrow field, large areas of the sky at a
             given time are unobserved. We propose several telescopes
             based on monocentric reflective, catadioptric, and
             refractive objectives that may be scaled to wide fields of
             view and achieve 1.″1 resolution, which in most locations
             is the practical seeing limit of the atmosphere. The
             reflective and Schmidt catadioptric objectives have
             relatively simple configurations and enable large fields to
             be captured at the expense of the obscuration of the mirror
             by secondary optics, a defect that may be managed by image
             plane design. The refractive telescope design does not have
             an obscuration but the objective has substantial bulk. The
             refractive design is a 38 gigapixel camera which consists of
             a single monocentric objective and 4272 microcameras.
             Monocentric multiscale telescopes, with their wide fields of
             view, may observe phenomena that might otherwise be
             unnoticed, such as supernovae, glint from orbital space
             debris, and near-earth objects. © 2013. The American
             Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/145/5/128},
   Key = {fds280283}
}

@article{fds304126,
   Author = {Llull, P and Liao, X and Yuan, X and Yang, J and Kittle, D and Carin, L and Sapiro, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {10526-10545},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://arxiv.org/abs/1302.2575v1},
   Abstract = {We use mechanical translation of a coded aperture for code
             division multiple access compression of video. We discuss
             the compressed video's temporal resolution and present
             experimental results for reconstructions of > 10 frames of
             temporal data per coded snapshot.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.21.010526},
   Key = {fds304126}
}

@article{fds280282,
   Author = {Kittle, DS and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Automated calibration and optical testing of the AWARE-2
             gigapixel multiscale camera},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8660},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2008836},
   Abstract = {Gigapixel-class cameras present new challenges in
             calibration, mechanical testing, and optical performance
             evaluation. The AWARE-2 gigapixel camera has nearly
             one-hundred micro-cameras covering a 120 degree wide by 40
             degree tall field of view, with one pixel spanning an 8
             arcsec field angle. Viewing the imagery requires stitching
             the sub-images together by applying an accurate mapping of
             registration parameters over the entire field of view. For
             this purpose, a testbed has been developed to automatically
             calibrate and test each micro-camera in the array. Using
             translation stages, rotation stages, and a spatial light
             modulator for object space, this testbed can project any
             test scene into a specified micro-camera, building up image
             quality metrics and a registration look-up table over the
             entire array. © 2013 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2008836},
   Key = {fds280282}
}

@article{fds280281,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Marks, DL and Feller, S and Gehm, M and Golish, D and Vera,
             E and Kittle, D},
   Title = {Petapixel photography and the limits of camera information
             capacity},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8657},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2014274},
   Abstract = {The monochromatic single frame pixel count of a camera is
             limited by diffraction to the space-bandwidth product,
             roughly the aperture area divided by the square of the
             wavelength. We have recently shown that it is possible to
             approach this limit using multiscale lenses for cameras with
             space bandwidth product between 1 and 100 gigapixels. When
             color, polarization, coherence and time are included in the
             image data cube, camera information capacity may exceed 1
             petapixel/second. This talk reviews progress in the
             construction of DARPA AWARE gigapixel cameras and describes
             compressive measurement strategies that may be used in
             combination with multiscale systems to push camera capacity
             to near physical limits. © 2013 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2014274},
   Key = {fds280281}
}

@article{fds280284,
   Author = {Tsai, T-H and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture snapshot spectral polarization
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2153-2161},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000316988100032&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {We describe a single-shot polarization spectral imager that
             combines two birefringent crystals with a binary coded
             aperture to encode the spatial, spectral and polarization
             data cube for compressive sampling on a two-dimensional (2D)
             detector array. We use a total variation prior to
             reconstruct the four-dimensional (4D) data cube from the
             single 2D measurement. The 4D data cube includes 1500×1240
             pixels in the spatial domain, 19 wavelength channels between
             400 and 680 nm and two Stokes parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.52.002153},
   Key = {fds280284}
}

@article{fds280287,
   Author = {Son, HS and Johnson, A and Stack, RA and Shaw, JM and McLaughlin, P and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Optomechanical design of multiscale gigapixel digital
             camera.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1541-1549},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478755},
   Abstract = {Recent developments in multiscale imaging systems have
             opened up the possibility for commercially viable wide-field
             gigapixel cameras. While multiscale design principles allow
             tremendous simplification of the optical design, they place
             increased emphasis on optomechanics and system level
             integration of the camera as a whole. In this paper we
             present the optomechanical design of a prototype
             two-gigapixel system (AWARE-2) that has been constructed and
             tested.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.52.001541},
   Key = {fds280287}
}

@article{fds280161,
   Author = {Krishnamurthy, K and Mrozack, A and Maggioni, M and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Multiscale, dictionary-based speckle denoising},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We propose a multiscale, dictionary-based, data-adaptive
             estimation method to recover intensities from
             multiplicative, speckle data. The proposed method preserves
             the edges and textures in the underlying image while
             smoothing intensities in homogenous regions. © OSA
             2013.},
   Key = {fds280161}
}

@article{fds280163,
   Author = {Vera, E and Golish, D and Gong, Q and Kittle, D and Feller, S and Brady, D and Gehm, M},
   Title = {Efficient model-based tonemapping of high dynamic range
             gigapixel images},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present a technique to address the tonemapping of high
             dynamic range (HDR) gigapixel images. The proposed method
             relies on extracting low-dimensional models from
             lowresolution proxy images, and can be efficiently
             implemented in a parallel manner. © OSA
             2013.},
   Key = {fds280163}
}

@article{fds280164,
   Author = {Vera, E and Golish, D and Gong, Q and Kelly, K and Kittle, D and Feller, S and Brady, D and Gehm, M},
   Title = {Color image formation for multiscale gigapixel
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present the current development of the image formation
             pipeline for color gigapixel images obtained by the AWARE-10
             multiscale camera.We introduce a camera simulator, the
             modifications to the scalable pipeline, and the challenges
             for creating seamless color gigapixel panoramas. © 2013
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280164}
}

@article{fds280202,
   Author = {Zhu, R and Tsai, TH and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture snapshot spectral imager based on liquid
             crystal spatial light modulator},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe the use of a liquid crystal on silicon modulator
             to jointly code spatial and spectral features for snapshot
             spectral imaging. We demonstrate compressive measurement of
             megapixel multispectral image with 5 nm resolution. © OSA
             2013.},
   Key = {fds280202}
}

@article{fds280204,
   Author = {MacCabe, KP and Holmgren, AD and Greenberg, JA and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Coding for X-ray scatter imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present coding strategies for x-ray scatter imaging, with
             focus on pencil and fan beam geometries. Coded apertures
             spatially modulate the scatter signal prior to measurement,
             and appropriate reconstruction algorithms recover the
             tomographic images. © OSA 2013.},
   Key = {fds280204}
}

@article{fds280219,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {A wide-field catadioptric monocentric multiscale telescope
             with all-spherical glass optics},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Monocentric multiscale design combines a common objective
             optic with an array of secondary apertures to enable wide
             field of view high resolution imaging. Here we describe a
             15o field of view with 1.1 arcsecond ifov. © OSA
             2013.},
   Key = {fds280219}
}

@article{fds280220,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Optical design for computational imaging instruments
             (invited paper)},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Using electronic sensors and computation, optical
             instruments that acquire images solely for algorithmic
             interpretation are increasingly frequent. High depth of
             focus, high resolution, and wide fields are simultaneously
             achieved with joint optical and computational designs. ©
             OSA 2013.},
   Key = {fds280220}
}

@article{fds280221,
   Author = {Llull, P and Liao, X and Yuan, X and Yang, J and Kittle, D and Carin, L and Sapiro, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive sensing for video using a passive coding
             element},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present a prototype system that utilizes mechanical
             translation of a passive coding element to compress
             high-speed temporal information into low-framerate video
             sequences. Reconstructions of 148 frames per experimental
             coded snapshot are reported. © OSA 2013.},
   Key = {fds280221}
}

@article{fds280222,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Heimbeck, M and Marks, DL and Richard, J and Everitt, HO and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Adaptive scanning for synthetic aperture
             imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Synthetic aperture imagers measure the space-bandwidth
             product of full-apertures by moving a single detector. We
             show results from an adaptive sensing experiment that
             demonstrate a three times speedup over full-scans. © 2013
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280222}
}

@article{fds280237,
   Author = {Iliopoulos, AS and Hu, J and Pitsianis, N and Sun, X and Gehm, M and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Big snapshot stitching with scarce overlap},
   Journal = {2013 Ieee High Performance Extreme Computing Conference,
             Hpec 2013},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HPEC.2013.6670349},
   Abstract = {We address certain properties that arise in gigapixel-scale
             image stitching for snapshot images captured with a novel
             micro-camera array system, AWARE-2. This system features a
             greatly extended field of view and high optical resolution,
             offering unique sensing capabilities for a host of important
             applications. However, three simultaneously arising
             conditions pose a challenge to existing approaches to image
             stitching, with regard to the quality of the output image as
             well as the automation and efficiency of the image
             composition process. Put simply, they may be described as
             the sparse, geometrically irregular, and noisy (S.I.N.)
             overlap amongst the fields of view of the constituent
             micro-cameras. We introduce a computational pipeline for
             image stitching under these conditions, which is scalable in
             terms of complexity and efficiency. With it, we also
             substantially reduce or eliminate ghosting effects due to
             misalignment factors, without entailing manual intervention.
             Our present implementation of the pipeline leverages the
             combined use of multicore and GPU architectures. We present
             experimental results with the pipeline on real image data
             acquired with AWARE-2. © 2013 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/HPEC.2013.6670349},
   Key = {fds280237}
}

@article{fds280286,
   Author = {Hunt, J and Driscoll, T and Mrozack, A and Lipworth, G and Reynolds, M and Brady, D and Smith, DR},
   Title = {Metamaterial apertures for computational
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {339},
   Number = {6117},
   Pages = {310-313},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23329043},
   Abstract = {By leveraging metamaterials and compressive imaging, a
             low-profile aperture capable of microwave imaging without
             lenses, moving parts, or phase shifters is demonstrated.
             This designer aperture allows image compression to be
             performed on the physical hardware layer rather than in the
             postprocessing stage, thus averting the detector, storage,
             and transmission costs associated with full
             diffraction-limited sampling of a scene. A guided-wave
             metamaterial aperture is used to perform compressive image
             reconstruction at 10 frames per second of two-dimensional
             (range and angle) sparse still and video scenes at K-band
             (18 to 26 gigahertz) frequencies, using frequency diversity
             to avoid mechanical scanning. Image acquisition is
             accomplished with a 40:1 compression ratio.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1230054},
   Key = {fds280286}
}

@article{fds280388,
   Author = {Chen, S and Li, P and Brady, D and Lehman, B},
   Title = {Determining the optimum grid-connected photovoltaic inverter
             size},
   Journal = {Solar Energy},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {96-116},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0038-092X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.09.012},
   Abstract = {This paper discusses the practical factors that may
             influence the inverter sizing strategy. Effects of various
             factors are studied separately by isolating parameters in
             the simulations. These factors include irradiance and
             temperature conditions of the photovoltaic (PV) installation
             location, PV incentives, electricity rates, and inverter
             intrinsic parameters such as overload protection schemes and
             efficiency curves. Specifically, examples of nine different
             geographic locations in the US are simulated and discussed
             with realistic parameters to show that the optimum inverter
             size varies notably by location and context. © 2012
             Elsevier Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.solener.2012.09.012},
   Key = {fds280388}
}

@article{fds280271,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Kim, J},
   Title = {Oversampled triangulation of AWARE-10 monocentric ball lens
             using an auto-stigmatic microscope},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {22206-22214},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.022206},
   Abstract = {In our development of multiscale, gigapixel camera
             architectures, there is a need for an accurate
             three-dimensional position alignment of large monocentric
             lenses relative to hemispherical dome structures. In this
             work we describe a method for estimating the position of the
             objective lens in our AWARE-10 four-gigapixel camera using
             the retro-reflected signal of a custom-designed
             auto-stigmatic microscope. We show that although the
             physical constraints of the system limit the numerical
             aperture of the microscope probe beam to around 0.016, which
             results in poor sensitivity in the axial direction, the
             lateral sensitivity is more than sufficient to verify that
             the position of the objective is within optical tolerances.
             © 2013 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.21.022206},
   Key = {fds280271}
}

@article{fds280274,
   Author = {Youn, SH and Marks, DL and McLaughlin, PO and Brady, DJ and Kim,
             J},
   Title = {Efficient testing methodologies for microcameras in a
             gigapixel imaging system},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8788},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2020739},
   Abstract = {Multiscale parallel imaging - based on a monocentric optical
             design - promises revolutionary advances in diverse imaging
             applications by enabling high resolution, real-time image
             capture over a wide field-of-view (FOV), including sport
             broadcast, wide-field microscopy, astronomy, and security
             surveillance. Recently demonstrated AWARE-2 is a gigapixel
             camera consisting of an objective lens and 98 microcameras
             spherically arranged to capture an image over FOV of 120 by
             50, using computational image processing to form a composite
             image of 0.96 gigapixels. Since microcameras are capable of
             individually adjusting exposure, gain, and focus, true
             parallel imaging is achieved with a high dynamic range. From
             the integration perspective, manufacturing and verifying
             consistent quality of microcameras is a key to successful
             realization of AWARE cameras. We have developed an efficient
             testing methodology that utilizes a precisely fabricated dot
             grid chart as a calibration target to extract critical
             optical properties such as optical distortion, veiling glare
             index, and modulation transfer function to validate imaging
             performance of microcameras. This approach utilizes an AWARE
             objective lens simulator which mimics the actual objective
             lens but operates with a short object distance, suitable for
             a laboratory environment. Here we describe the principles of
             the methodologies developed for AWARE microcameras and
             discuss the experimental results with our prototype
             microcameras. Reference Brady, D. J., Gehm, M. E., Stack, R.
             A., Marks, D. L., Kittle, D. S., Golish, D. R., Vera, E. M.,
             and Feller, S. D., "Multiscale gigapixel photography,"
             Nature 486, 386 - 389 (2012). © 2013 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2020739},
   Key = {fds280274}
}

@article{fds280279,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Youn, SH and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Wide-field microscopy using microcamera arrays},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {8589},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2002860},
   Abstract = {A microcamera is a relay lens paired with image sensors.
             Microcameras are grouped into arrays to relay overlapping
             views of a single large surface to the sensors to form a
             continuous synthetic image. The imaged surface may be curved
             or irregular as each camera may independently be dynamically
             focused to a different depth. Microcamera arrays are akin to
             microprocessors in supercomputers in that both join
             individual processors by an optoelectronic routing fabric to
             increase capacity and performance. A microcamera may image
             ten or more megapixels and grouped into an array of several
             hundred, as has already been demonstrated by the DARPA AWARE
             Wide-Field program with multiscale gigapixel photography. We
             adapt gigapixel microcamera array architectures to
             wide-field microscopy of irregularly shaped surfaces to
             greatly increase area imaging over 1000 square millimeters
             at resolutions of 3 microns or better in a single snapshot.
             The system includes a novel relay design, a sensor
             electronics package, and a FPGA-based networking fabric.
             Biomedical applications of this include screening for skin
             lesions, wide-field and resolution-agile microsurgical
             imaging, and microscopic cytometry of millions of cells
             performed in situ. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2002860},
   Key = {fds280279}
}

@article{fds280380,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Guenther, BD and Brady, DJ and Krishnamurthy, K and Willett, R},
   Title = {Coded-aperture Raman imaging for standoff explosive
             detection},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8358},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.919292},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the design of a deep-UV Raman imaging
             spectrometer operating with an excitation wavelength of 228
             nm. The designed system will provide the ability to detect
             explosives (both traditional military explosives and
             home-made explosives) from standoff distances of 1-10 meters
             with an interrogation area of 1 mm x 1 mm to 200 mm x 200
             mm. This excitation wavelength provides resonant enhancement
             of many common explosives, no background fluorescence, and
             an enhanced cross-section due to the inverse wavelength
             scaling of Raman scattering. A coded-aperture spectrograph
             combined with compressive imaging algorithms will allow for
             wide-area interrogation with fast acquisition rates.
             Coded-aperture spectral imaging exploits the compressibility
             of hyperspectral data-cubes to greatly reduce the amount of
             acquired data needed to interrogate an area. The resultant
             systems are able to cover wider areas much faster than
             traditional push-broom and tunable filter systems. The full
             system design will be presented along with initial data from
             the instrument. Estimates for area scanning rates and
             chemical sensitivity will be presented. The system
             components include a solid-state deep-UV laser operating at
             228 nm, a spectrograph consisting of well-corrected
             refractive imaging optics and a reflective grating, an
             intensified solar-blind CCD camera, and a high-efficiency
             collection optic. © 2012 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.919292},
   Key = {fds280380}
}

@article{fds280249,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and McLaughlin, PO and Feller, SD and Kim, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {A common scalable microcamera design for 2, 10, and 40
             gigapixel class multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Optics, Fio 2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Gigapixel camera economics favors reutilization of design
             components including optics, optomechanics, and electronics.
             We show microcamera designs for multiscale architectures
             that only change optical surface profiles that span orders
             of magnitude of gigapixels. © OSA 2012.},
   Key = {fds280249}
}

@article{fds280257,
   Author = {Prasad, S and Zhang, Q and Plemmons, R and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Statistical performance bounds for coded-aperture
             compressive spectral-polarimetric imaging},
   Journal = {Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, Cosi
             2012},
   Pages = {CTu3B.1},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We apply statistical information and Bayesian estimation
             theories to calculate certain fundamental bounds on the
             reconstruction of segment boundaries, material type, and
             surface texture of sparse objects from their coded-aperture
             compressive spectral-polarimetric image data. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280257}
}

@article{fds280261,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Focus in multiscale imaging systems},
   Journal = {Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, Cosi
             2012},
   Pages = {CM2B.1},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We consider first order lens design for microcamera-based
             focus in multiscale cameras, we compare focal and spectral
             tomography and we compare dynamic focal scanning with
             alternative EDoF and focal stacking strategies. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280261}
}

@article{fds280263,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Jansen, P and Hughes, J and Kittle, DS and Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME},
   Title = {Challenges in gigapixel multiscale image
             formation},
   Journal = {Computational Optical Sensing and Imaging, Cosi
             2012},
   Pages = {JW3A.4},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We present new results from the image formation team on the
             AWARE Wide-Field project. We will report on new strategies
             prompted by new challenges encountered in experiments with
             two prototype AWARE Wide-Field systems. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280263}
}

@article{fds280400,
   Author = {Yue, T and Hao, Q and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Distributed binary geometric sensor arrays for
             low-data-throughput human gait biometrics},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal
             Processing Workshop},
   Pages = {457-460},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {2151-870X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SAM.2012.6250537},
   Abstract = {We present a novel sensing paradigm of measuring human gait.
             The goal of the research is to achieve low-cost gait
             biometrics systems with minimum data throughput for various
             sensing modalities. The binary measurements of the system
             are achieved by using both (1) periodic and (2)
             pseudo-random sampling structures. As a result, either
             static or dynamic gait features can be estimated from a
             one-bit data stream. The simulation results demonstrate the
             gait information acquisition capability of the proposed
             binary sensing technology. © 2012 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/SAM.2012.6250537},
   Key = {fds280400}
}

@article{fds280385,
   Author = {Golish, DR and Vera, EM and Kelly, KJ and Gong, Q and Jansen, PA and Hughes, JM and Kittle, DS and Brady, DJ and Gehm,
             ME},
   Title = {Development of a scalable image formation pipeline for
             multiscale gigapixel photography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {22048-22062},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.20.022048},
   Abstract = {We report on the image formation pipeline developed to
             efficiently form gigapixel-scale imagery generated by the
             AWARE-2 multiscale camera. The AWARE-2 camera consists of 98
             "microcameras" imaging through a shared spherical objective,
             covering a 120° x 50° field of view with approximately 40
             microradian instantaneous field of view (the angular extent
             of a pixel). The pipeline is scalable, capable of producing
             imagery ranging in scope from "live" one megapixel views to
             full resolution gigapixel images. Architectural choices that
             enable trivially parallelizable algorithms for rapid image
             formation and on-the-fly microcamera alignment compensation
             are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.20.022048},
   Key = {fds280385}
}

@article{fds280290,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and Kim, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Engineering a gigapixel monocentric multiscale
             camera},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {083202-1},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000309913000023&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.OE.51.8.083202},
   Key = {fds280290}
}

@article{fds280386,
   Author = {MacCabe, K and Krishnamurthy, K and Chawla, A and Marks, D and Samei, E and Brady, D},
   Title = {Pencil beam coded aperture x-ray scatter
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {16310-16320},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.016310},
   Abstract = {We use coded aperture x-ray scatter imaging to interrogate
             scattering targets with a pencil beam. Observations from a
             single x-ray exposure of a flat-panel scintillation detector
             are used to simultaneously determine the along-beam
             positions and momentum transfer profiles of two crystalline
             powders (NaCl and Al). The system operates with a 3 cm range
             resolution and a momentum transfer resolution of 0.1 nm 1.
             These results demonstrate that a single snapshot can be used
             to estimate scattering properties along an x-ray beam, and
             serve as a foundation for volumetric imaging of scattering
             objects. © 2012 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.20.016310},
   Key = {fds280386}
}

@article{fds280288,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Gibbons, R},
   Title = {Computational imaging},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {071401-071401},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000308361200004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.OE.51.7.071401},
   Key = {fds280288}
}

@article{fds280291,
   Author = {Kim, MH and Rushmeier, H and Dorsey, J and Harvey, TA and Prum, RO and Kittle, DS and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {3D imaging spectroscopy for measuring hyperspectral patterns
             on solid objects},
   Journal = {Acm Transactions on Graphics},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0730-0301},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000308250300014&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Sophisticated methods for true spectral rendering have been
             developed in computer graphics to produce highly accurate
             images. In addition to traditional applications in
             visualizing appearance, such methods have potential
             applications in many areas of scientific study. In
             particular, we are motivated by the application of studying
             avian vision and appearance. An obstacle to using graphics
             in this application is the lack of reliable input data. We
             introduce an end-toend measurement system for capturing
             spectral data on 3D objects. We present the modification of
             a recently developed hyperspectral imager to make it
             suitable for acquiring such data in a wide spectral range at
             high spectral and spatial resolution. We capture four
             megapixel images, with data at each pixel from the
             near-ultraviolet (359 nm) to near-infrared (1,003 nm) at 12
             nm spectral resolution. We fully characterize the imaging
             system, and document its accuracy. This imager is integrated
             into a 3D scanning system to enable the measurement of the
             diffuse spectral reflectance and fluorescence of specimens.
             We demonstrate the use of this measurement system in the
             study of the interplay between the visual capabilities and
             appearance of birds. We show further the use of the system
             in gaining insight into artifacts from geology and cultural
             heritage. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08-ART38.},
   Doi = {10.1145/2185520.2185534},
   Key = {fds280291}
}

@article{fds280383,
   Author = {Zheng, N and Schmidler, SC and Marks, D and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Computer experiment and global optimization of layered
             monocentric lens systems},
   Journal = {Optik},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1249-1259},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0030-4026},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2011.07.058},
   Abstract = {In this paper we derive a general analytical solution for a
             monocentric lens system and present a global optimization
             method combining sequential design for global optimization
             and an expected improvement algorithm for global
             optimization for the design and analysis of a layered
             monocentric lens system, which provides an "intelligent" way
             to search the optimization space based on accumulated
             experience. We then apply these methods to an example of
             monocentric lens design, and explore the improvement in
             system performance obtained through increasing the system
             volume. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijleo.2011.07.058},
   Key = {fds280383}
}

@article{fds280384,
   Author = {Kittle, DS and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Design and fabrication of an ultraviolet-visible coded
             aperture snapshot spectral imager},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {071403-071403},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.OE.51.7.071403},
   Abstract = {We describe the design and performance of a coded aperture
             spectral imager with a wide spectral range of 320 to 700nm
             over 87 channels and 1988-by-1988 pixels of spatial
             resolution. A custom-designed relay lens was designed and
             built for the system, including a dispersive prism element
             in the collimated space of the relay lens. The optical
             design process, prescription, and performance are reported
             for the entire system, including calibration and alignment.
             Simulations of high-resolution spectral images are conducted
             to verify the reconstruction algorithm and relative
             resolution of the instrument compared to ground truth data.
             Measured data were taken with the instrument using both a
             random coded aperture and standard slit for spatial
             resolution comparisons. Finally, reconstructed spectral
             images from the instrument are presented of a
             sunlight-illuminated flower from 360 to 700nm. © 2012
             Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation
             Engineers.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.OE.51.7.071403},
   Key = {fds280384}
}

@article{fds280387,
   Author = {Tremblay, EJ and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Ford,
             JE},
   Title = {Design and scaling of monocentric multiscale
             imagers.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {4691-4702},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.51.004691},
   Abstract = {Monocentric multi-scale (MMS) lenses are a new approach to
             high-resolution wide-angle imaging, where a monocentric
             objective lens is shared by an array of identical
             rotationally symmetric secondary imagers that each acquire
             one overlapping segment of a mosaic. This allows gigapixel
             images to be computationally integrated from conventional
             image sensors and relatively simple optics. Here we describe
             the MMS design space, introducing constraints on image
             continuity and uniformity, and show how paraxial system
             analysis can provide both volume scaling and a systematic
             design methodology for MMS imagers. We provide the detailed
             design of a 120° field of viewimager (currently under
             construction) resolving 2 gigapixels at 41.5 μrad
             instantaneous field of view, and demonstrate reasonable
             agreement with the first-order scaling calculation.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.51.004691},
   Key = {fds280387}
}

@article{fds280382,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME and Stack, RA and Marks, DL and Kittle, DS and Golish, DR and Vera, EM and Feller, SD},
   Title = {Multiscale gigapixel photography.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {486},
   Number = {7403},
   Pages = {386-389},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722199},
   Abstract = {Pixel count is the ratio of the solid angle within a
             camera's field of view to the solid angle covered by a
             single detector element. Because the size of the smallest
             resolvable pixel is proportional to aperture diameter and
             the maximum field of view is scale independent, the
             diffraction-limited pixel count is proportional to aperture
             area. At present, digital cameras operate near the
             fundamental limit of 1-10 megapixels for millimetre-scale
             apertures, but few approach the corresponding limits of
             1-100 gigapixels for centimetre-scale apertures. Barriers to
             high-pixel-count imaging include scale-dependent geometric
             aberrations, the cost and complexity of gigapixel sensor
             arrays, and the computational and communications challenge
             of gigapixel image management. Here we describe the AWARE-2
             camera, which uses a 16-mm entrance aperture to capture
             snapshot, one-gigapixel images at three frames per minute.
             AWARE-2 uses a parallel array of microcameras to reduce the
             problems of gigapixel imaging to those of megapixel imaging,
             which are more tractable. In cameras of conventional design,
             lens speed and field of view decrease as lens scale
             increases, but with the experimental system described here
             we confirm previous theoretical results suggesting that lens
             speed and field of view can be scale independent in
             microcamera-based imagers resolving up to 50 gigapixels.
             Ubiquitous gigapixel cameras may transform the central
             challenge of photography from the question of where to point
             the camera to that of how to mine the data.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nature11150},
   Key = {fds280382}
}

@article{fds330167,
   Author = {Kapadia, A and Samei, E and Harrawood, B and Sahbaee, P and Chawla, A and Tan, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {SU-E-I-77: X-Ray Coherent Scatter Diffraction Pattern
             Modeling in GEANT4.},
   Journal = {Med Phys},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6Part5},
   Pages = {3642-3643},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4734794},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE: To model X-ray coherent scatter diffraction
             patterns in GEANT4 for simulating experiments involving
             material detection through diffraction pattern measurement.
             Although coherent scatter cross-sections are modeled
             accurately in GEANT4, diffraction patterns for crystalline
             materials are not yet included. Here we describe our
             modeling of crystalline diffraction patterns in GEANT4 for
             specific materials and the validation of the results against
             experimentally measured data. METHODS: Coherent scatter in
             GEANT4 is currently based on Hubbell's non-relativistic form
             factor tabulations from EPDL97. We modified the form-factors
             by introducing an interference function that accounts for
             the angular dependence between the Rayleigh-scattered
             photons and the photon wavelength. The modified form factors
             were used to replace the inherent form-factors in GEANT4.
             The simulation was tested using monochromatic and
             polychromatic x-ray beams (separately) incident on objects
             containing one or more elements with modified form-factors.
             The simulation results were compared against the
             experimentally measured diffraction images of corresponding
             objects using an in-house x-ray diffraction imager for
             validation. The comparison was made using the following
             metrics: number of diffraction rings, radial distance,
             absolute intensity, and relative intensity. RESULTS: Sharp
             diffraction pattern rings were observed in the monochromatic
             simulations at locations consistent with the angular
             dependence of the photon wavelength. In the polychromatic
             simulations, the diffraction patterns exhibited a radial
             blur consistent with the energy spread of the polychromatic
             spectrum. The simulated and experimentally measured patterns
             showed identical numbers of rings with close agreement in
             radial distance, absolute and relative intensities (barring
             statistical fluctuations). No significant change was
             observed in the execution time of the simulations.
             CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the ability to model
             coherent scatter diffraction in GEANT4 in an accurate and
             efficient manner without compromising the accuracy or
             runtime of the simulation. This work was supported by the
             Department of Homeland Security under grant DHS (BAA 10-01
             F075), and by the Department of Defense under award
             W81XWH-09-1-0066.},
   Doi = {10.1118/1.4734794},
   Key = {fds330167}
}

@article{fds280381,
   Author = {Heimbeck, MS and Marks, DL and Brady, D and Everitt,
             HO},
   Title = {Terahertz interferometric synthetic aperture tomography for
             confocal imaging systems.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1316-1318},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.37.001316},
   Abstract = {Terahertz (THz) interferometric synthetic aperture
             tomography (TISAT) for confocal imaging within extended
             objects is demonstrated by combining attributes of synthetic
             aperture radar and optical coherence tomography. Algorithms
             recently devised for interferometric synthetic aperture
             microscopy are adapted to account for the diffraction-and
             defocusing-induced spatially varying THz beam width
             characteristic of narrow depth of focus, high-resolution
             confocal imaging. A frequency-swept two-dimensional TISAT
             confocal imaging instrument rapidly achieves in-focus,
             diffraction-limited resolution over a depth 12 times larger
             than the instrument's depth of focus in a manner that may be
             easily extended to three dimensions and greater
             depths.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.37.001316},
   Key = {fds280381}
}

@article{fds280285,
   Author = {Reynolds, MM and Brady, D},
   Title = {Bringing you more than the weekend: Union membership and
             self-rated health in the United States},
   Journal = {Social Forces; a Scientific Medium of Social Study and
             Interpretation},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1023-1049},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.soc.duke.edu/~brady/web/sf12.pdf},
   Abstract = {Previous research suggests that higher incomes, safe
             workplaces, job security and healthcare access all
             contribute to favorable health. Reflecting the interest of
             economic and political sociologists in power relations and
             institutions, union membership has been linked with many
             such influences on health. Nevertheless, the potential
             relationship between union membership and health has
             received little attention. Using logistic regression and
             propensity score matching, this study examines the
             association between union membership and self-rated health
             generally and among select subgroups of the workforce with
             the General Social Survey from 1973 to 2006. Initial
             bivariate analyses suggest that union membership is actually
             associated with worse health. This association disappears
             when controlling for demographics, then reverses and becomes
             significant when controlling for labor market
             characteristics. In well-specified models, union membership
             has a significant positive effect on favorable self-rated
             health. The effect roughly offsets the effects of five years
             of aging or being divorced (as opposed to married). In
             addition, propensity score matching analyses demonstrate
             that union membership has a beneficial, significant average
             treatment effect for the treated. We show that much of union
             membership's effect in the overall sample is due to the
             mechanism of higher incomes, but that among men, the less
             educated, and those with lower incomes, the union-health
             advantage is not explained fully by income. The effect of
             union membership also appears to be stable over time. We
             conclude by encouraging further research on how power
             relations and institutions shape health. © The Author.
             Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the
             University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1093/sf/sor023},
   Key = {fds280285}
}

@article{fds280233,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Jansen, P and Hughes, J and Kittle, DS and Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME},
   Title = {Challenges in gigapixel multiscale image
             formation},
   Journal = {Imaging Systems and Applications, Isa 2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We present new results from the image formation team on the
             AWARE Wide-Field project. We will report on new strategies
             prompted by new challenges encountered in experiments with
             two prototype AWARE Wide-Field systems. © 2012
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280233}
}

@article{fds280379,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture spectroscopy with denoising through
             sparsity.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {2297-2309},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22330469},
   Abstract = {We compare noise and classification metrics for three
             aperture codes in dispersive spectroscopy. In contrast with
             previous theory, we show that multiplex codes may be
             advantageous even in systems dominated by Poisson noise.
             Furthermore, ill-conditioned codes with a regularized
             estimation strategy are shown to perform competitively with
             well-conditioned codes.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.20.002297},
   Key = {fds280379}
}

@article{fds280255,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Jansen, P and Hughes, J and Kittle, DS and Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME},
   Title = {Challenges in gigapixel multiscale image
             formation},
   Journal = {Imaging Systems and Applications, Isa 2012},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds280255}
}

@article{fds280365,
   Author = {Zhang, Q and Plemmons, R and Kittle, D and Brady, D and Prasad,
             S},
   Title = {Reconstructing and segmenting hyperspectral images from
             compressed measurements},
   Journal = {Workshop on Hyperspectral Image and Signal Processing,
             Evolution in Remote Sensing},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2158-6276},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WHISPERS.2011.6080939},
   Abstract = {A joint reconstruction and segmentation model for
             hyperspectral data obtained from a compressive measurement
             system is proposed, and some preliminary tests are
             described. Although hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technology
             has incredible potential, its utility is currently limited
             because of the quantity and complexity of the data it
             gathers. Yet, often the scene to be reconstructed from the
             HSI data contains far less information, typically consisting
             of spectrally and spatially homogeneous segments that can be
             represented sparsely in an appropriate basis. Such vast
             informational redundancy thus implicitly contained in the
             HSI data warrants a compressed sensing (CS) strategy that
             acquires appropriately coded spectral-spatial data from
             which one can reconstruct the original image more
             efficiently, while still enabling target identification
             procedures. A coded-aperture snapshot spectral imager
             (CASSI) is considered here, and a joint reconstruction and
             segmentation model for data obtained from CASSI compressive
             measurements is proposed and preliminary numerical
             experiments are presented. © 2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/WHISPERS.2011.6080939},
   Key = {fds280365}
}

@article{fds280234,
   Author = {Kittle, D and Zhang, Q and Plemmons, R and Brady, D and Prasad,
             S},
   Title = {Joint segmentation and reconstruction of coded aperture
             hyperspectral data},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This work presents experimental verification of a joint
             segmentation reconstruc- tion algorithm on real data from a
             snapshot hyperspectral imager. Accurate spectra can be
             computed for any pixel location in the data cube. © 2011
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280234}
}

@article{fds280235,
   Author = {Xu, Q and Shi, K and Li, H and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Brady, D and Psaltis, D and Liu, Z},
   Title = {In-line holographic CARS microscopy},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We investigated inline holographic CARS microscopy, in which
             the reference generated from a nonlinear medium
             co-propagates with the CARS signal produced from a specimen.
             We show that this technique has 3D chemical selective
             imaging capability. © 2010 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280235}
}

@article{fds280238,
   Author = {Mrozack, A and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture spectroscopy with regularization via convex
             optimization},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Three coded aperture spectrometers are compared for
             performance. The classic understanding of performance under
             Poisson noise is shown to be incomplete through simulation.
             The slit spectrometer code is not the optimal code for
             compressible signals. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280238}
}

@article{fds280242,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Tremblay, EJ and Ford,
             JE},
   Title = {Optimizing microcamera aperture in gigapixel monocentric
             multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Multiscale designs divide the imaging task between a simple
             objective and many complex microcameras. We study imaging
             quality as the microcamera aperture size varies from 0.375
             to 36 mm with 2 and 50 gigapixel objectives. © 2011 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280242}
}

@article{fds280243,
   Author = {Kittle, D and Marks, DL and Kim, MH and Rushmeier, H and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Design and fabrication of a UV-visible coded aperture
             spectral imager (CASI)},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {CASI is a snapshot capable UV-visible spectral imager for
             measuring bird plumage. Near apochromatic UV-visible optics
             were designed and built with an MTF for a 4Mpx detector.
             Wide-spectral bandwidth data from CASI is then presented. ©
             2011 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280243}
}

@article{fds280244,
   Author = {Lim, S and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {High pixel count holography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Relatively low cost focal arrays and the availability of
             high performance digital processing enable computational
             holographic imaging on unprecedented scale. This talk
             describes recent progress in registration and optimization
             algorithm. © 2011 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280244}
}

@article{fds280245,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Dennis healy, ISP, MONTAGE and MOSAIC},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Through a series of DARPA programs, Dennis Healy's unique
             grasp of the mathematical and physical structure of data and
             his equally unique tolerance for implausible ideas
             revolutionized the theory of image acquisition. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280245}
}

@article{fds280246,
   Author = {MacCabe, KP and Kittle, DS and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Image coding for compressive focal tomography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We consider image coding to alias high spatial frequencies
             in a focused image into low-frequency components which
             survive low-pass defocusing. Coding before defocusing is
             shown to structure measurements appropriately for
             decompressive inference. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280246}
}

@article{fds280247,
   Author = {Lim, S and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Sparse aperture holographic synthesis with multiple speckle
             realizations},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Sparse aperture holographic synthesis enables large scale
             high resolution imaging with sources in variable states of
             coherence. Using incoherent sources increases bandpass
             coverage and reduces speckle effects. © 2011 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280247}
}

@article{fds280248,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280248}
}

@article{fds280252,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Brady, DJ and Gehm,
             ME},
   Title = {Image formation in multiscale optical systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We present image formation (IF) strategies developed for
             multiscale imaging systems. In this context, IF takes
             advantage of significant prior knowledge of array geometry
             and relies on parallelizable algorithms to handle the high
             data bandwidth. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280252}
}

@article{fds280253,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Son, HS and Tremblay, EJ and Ford, JE and McLaughlin, PO and Gehm, ME and Stack, RA and Feller, SD and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Optical testing of the AWARE wide field 2-gigapixel
             multiscale camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Testing a 2-Gigapixel 8 arcsec IFOV, 120° FOV camera
             requires integration of precision mechanical automation,
             optical instrumentation, image diagnostics, electronics and
             networking hardware. We detail the ongoing AWARE Wide Field
             Camera efforts. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280253}
}

@article{fds280366,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Sampling geometries and resolution limits for compressive
             MMW and terahertz imaging},
   Journal = {Irmmw Thz 2011 36th International Conference on Infrared,
             Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/irmmw-THz.2011.6105204},
   Abstract = {Compressive measurement enables image formation from sparse
             and irregular arrays. In MMW and terahertz imaging,
             compressive measurement may lead to a preference for fewer
             but more complex transceivers over dense arrays of simple
             transceivers (e.g. conventional focal planes). © 2011
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/irmmw-THz.2011.6105204},
   Key = {fds280366}
}

@article{fds280377,
   Author = {Lim, S and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Sampling and processing for compressive holography
             [Invited].},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {34},
   Pages = {H75-H86},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22193030},
   Abstract = {Compressive holography applies sparsity priors to data
             acquired by digital holography to infer a small number of
             object features or basis vectors from a slightly larger
             number of discrete measurements. Compressive holography may
             be applied to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) images from
             two-dimensional (2D) measurements or to reconstruct 2D
             images from sparse apertures. This paper is a tutorial
             covering practical compressive holography procedures,
             including field propagation, reference filtering, and
             inverse problems in compressive holography. We present as
             examples 3D tomography from a 2D hologram, 2D image
             reconstruction from a sparse aperture, and diffuse object
             estimation from diverse speckle realizations.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.50.000h75},
   Key = {fds280377}
}

@article{fds280378,
   Author = {Li, S and Moskal, J and Kokar, MM and Brady, D},
   Title = {An implementation of collaborative adaptation of cognitive
             radio parameters using an ontology and policy based
             approach},
   Journal = {Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing},
   Volume = {69},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {283-296},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0925-1030},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10470-011-9681-y},
   Abstract = {The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the
             feasibility of the ontology and policy based approach to
             realize collaborative, automatic adaptation of cognitive
             radio parameters in the transmitter and receiver. The
             ontology and policy based approach features the following
             three aspects. First, all the internal and external
             information of the radio is represented in the Web Ontology
             Language (OWL). The transmitter and receiver share the same
             core ontology and thus can communicate with each other using
             this common language. Second, the policy rules are written
             in a declarative form and interpreted by a reasoner. Third,
             in order to exchange the OWL represented information between
             the radios, we adopt a more flexible signaling plan, which
             is different than the conventional protocol-predefined
             signaling plan, i.e. the control messages are added to an
             extendable payload, rather than embedded in the predefined
             protocol-dependent header or trailer. The paper discusses
             the implementation and shows some examples of radio
             behaviors resulting from the execution of the policies. ©
             2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10470-011-9681-y},
   Key = {fds280378}
}

@article{fds280375,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Tremblay, EJ and Ford, JE and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Microcamera aperture scale in monocentric gigapixel
             cameras.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {30},
   Pages = {5824-5833},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22015411},
   Abstract = {Multiscale cameras achieve wide-angle, high-resolution
             imaging by combining coarse image formation by a simplified
             wide-field objective with localized aberration correction in
             an array of narrow field microcameras. Microcamera aperture
             size is a critical parameter in multiscale design; a larger
             aperture has greater capacity to correct aberration but
             requires a more complex microcamera optic. A smaller
             aperture requires integration of more microcameras to cover
             the field. This paper analyzes multiscale system performance
             as a function of microcamera aperture for 2 and 40 gigapixel
             monocentric objective lenses. We find that microcamera
             aperture diameters of 3 to 12 mm paired with complementary
             metal oxide semiconductor sensors in the 1 to 15 megapixel
             range are most attractive for gigapixel-scale
             cameras.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.50.005824},
   Key = {fds280375}
}

@article{fds280362,
   Author = {Zhang, Q and Plemmons, RJ and Kittle, D and Brady, D and Prasad,
             S},
   Title = {Joint segmentation and reconstruction of hyperspectral
             images from a single snapshot},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8048},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.881777},
   Abstract = {This work describes numerical methods for the joint
             reconstruction and segmentation of spectral images taken by
             compressive sensing coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers
             (CASSI). In a snapshot, a CASSI captures a two-dimensional
             (2D) array of measurements that is an encoded representation
             of both spectral information and 2D spatial information of a
             scene, resulting in significant savings in acquisition time
             and data storage. The double disperser coded aperture
             snapshot imager (DD-CASSI) is able to capture a
             hyperspectral image from which a highly underdetermined
             inverse problem is solved for the original hyperspectral
             cube with regularization terms such as total variation
             minimization. The reconstruction process decodes the 2D
             measurements to render a three-dimensional spatio-spectral
             estimate of the scene, and is therefore an indispensable
             component of the spectral imager. In this study, we seek a
             particular form of the compressed sensing solution that
             assumes spectrally homogeneous segments in the two spatial
             dimensions, and greatly reduces the number of unknowns. The
             proposed method generalizes popular active contour
             segmentation algorithms such as the Chan-Vese model and also
             enables one to jointly estimate both the segmentation
             membership functions and the spectral signatures of each
             segment. The results are illustrated on a simulated Hubble
             Space Satellite hyperspectral dataset, a real urban
             hyperspectral dataset, and a real DD-CASSI image in
             microscopy. © 2011 Copyright Society of Photo-Optical
             Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.881777},
   Key = {fds280362}
}

@article{fds280363,
   Author = {Xu, Q and Shi, K and Li, H and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Brady, D and Psaltis, D and Liu, Z},
   Title = {In-line holographic CARS microscopy},
   Journal = {2011 Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics: Laser Science
             to Photonic Applications, Cleo 2011},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   Abstract = {We investigated inline holographic CARS microscopy, in which
             the reference generated from a nonlinear medium
             co-propagates with the CARS signal produced from a specimen.
             We show that this technique has 3D chemical selective
             imaging capability. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280363}
}

@article{fds280364,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Lim, S},
   Title = {Gigapixel holography},
   Journal = {2011 Ico International Conference on Information Photonics,
             Ip 2011},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICO-IP.2011.5953763},
   Abstract = {Relatively low cost focal plane arrays and the availability
             of high performance digital memory and processing enable
             computational holographic imaging on unprecedented scale.
             Recent progress in registration and optimization enables
             coherent imaging over relatively large sensor arrays based
             on scanning. This talk describes work on large pixel count
             holographic imaging in our group and discusses multi-sensor
             array image fusion in computational holographic imagers. ©
             2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICO-IP.2011.5953763},
   Key = {fds280364}
}

@article{fds280374,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Hahn, J and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Design of a spherical focal surface using close-packed relay
             optics.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {16132-16138},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934976},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a design strategy for close-packing
             circular finite-conjugate optics to create a spherical focal
             surface. Efficient packing of circles on a sphere is
             commonly referred to as the Tammes problem and various
             methods for packing optimization have been investigated,
             such as iterative point-repulsion simulations. The method
             for generating the circle distributions proposed here is
             based on a distorted icosahedral geodesic. This has the
             advantages of high degrees of symmetry, minimized variations
             in circle separations, and computationally inexpensive
             generation of configurations with N circles, where N is the
             number of vertices on the geodesic. These properties are
             especially beneficial for making a continuous focal surface
             and results show that circle packing densities near
             steady-state maximum values found with other methods can be
             achieved.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.19.016132},
   Key = {fds280374}
}

@article{fds280372,
   Author = {Zhang, Q and Plemmons, R and Kittle, D and Brady, D and Prasad,
             S},
   Title = {Joint segmentation and reconstruction of hyperspectral data
             with compressed measurements.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {4417-4435},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.50.004417},
   Abstract = {This work describes numerical methods for the joint
             reconstruction and segmentation of spectral images taken by
             compressive sensing coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers
             (CASSI). In a snapshot, a CASSI captures a two-dimensional
             (2D) array of measurements that is an encoded representation
             of both spectral information and 2D spatial information of a
             scene, resulting in significant savings in acquisition time
             and data storage. The reconstruction process decodes the 2D
             measurements to render a three-dimensional spatio-spectral
             estimate of the scene and is therefore an indispensable
             component of the spectral imager. In this study, we seek a
             particular form of the compressed sensing solution that
             assumes spectrally homogeneous segments in the two spatial
             dimensions, and greatly reduces the number of unknowns,
             often turning the underdetermined reconstruction problem
             into one that is overdetermined. Numerical tests are
             reported on both simulated and real data representing
             compressed measurements.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.50.004417},
   Key = {fds280372}
}

@article{fds280373,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Marks, DL},
   Title = {Coding for compressive focal tomography.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {4436-4449},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833119},
   Abstract = {We consider the capabilities and limits of strategies for
             single-aperture three-dimensional and extended depth of
             field optical imaging. We show that reduced spatial
             resolution is implicit in forward models for light field
             sampling and that reduced modulation transfer efficiency is
             intrinsic to pupil coding. We propose a novel strategy based
             on image space modulation and show that this strategy can be
             sensitive to high-resolution spatial features across an
             extended focal volume.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.50.004436},
   Key = {fds280373}
}

@article{fds280376,
   Author = {Hahn, J and Marks, DL and Choi, K and Lim, S and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Thin holographic camera with integrated reference
             distribution.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {4848-4854},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21857709},
   Abstract = {Off-axis digital holography typically uses a beam splitter
             to combine reference and object waves at an angle matched to
             the sampling period of the sensor array. The beam splitter
             determines the thickness of the recording system. This paper
             describes and demonstrates a total internal reflection
             hologram that replaces the beam splitter and enables
             hologram recording over a large aperture with a thin
             camera.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.50.004848},
   Key = {fds280376}
}

@article{fds280360,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Golish, DR and Vera, EM and Hahn, J and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Image formation challenges in the MOSAIC
             platform},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {8056},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.883695},
   Abstract = {The DARPA MOSAIC program applies multiscale optical design
             (shared objective lens and parallel array of microcameras)
             to the acquisition of high pixel count images.
             Interestingly, these images present as many challenges as
             opportunities. The imagery is acquired over many slightly
             overlapping fields with diverse focal, exposure and temporal
             parameters. Estimation of a consensus image, display of
             imagery at human-comprehensible resolutions, automated
             anomaly detection to guide viewer attention, and power
             management in a distributed electronic environment are just
             a few of the novel challenges that arise. This talk
             describes some of these challenges and presents progress to
             date. © 2011 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.883695},
   Key = {fds280360}
}

@article{fds280371,
   Author = {Lim, S and Choi, K and Hahn, J and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Image-based registration for synthetic aperture
             holography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {11716-11731},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21716403},
   Abstract = {High pixel count apertures for digital holography may be
             synthesized by scanning smaller aperture detector arrays.
             Characterization and compensation for registration errors in
             the detector array position and pitch and for phase
             instability between the reference and object field is a
             major challenge in scanned systems. We use a secondary
             sensor to monitor phase and image-based registration
             parameter estimators to demonstrate near diffraction-limited
             resolution from a 63.4 mm aperture synthesized by scanning a
             5.28 mm subaperture over 144 transverse positions. We
             demonstrate 60 μm resolution at 2 m range.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.19.011716},
   Key = {fds280371}
}

@article{fds280361,
   Author = {Kianirad, E and Gamache, RW and Brady, D and Alshawabkeh,
             AN},
   Title = {Equivalent quasi-static estimation of dynamic penetration
             force for near surface soil characterization},
   Journal = {Geotechnical Special Publication},
   Number = {211 GSP},
   Pages = {2325-2334},
   Publisher = {American Society of Civil Engineers},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0895-0563},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/41165(397)238},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the application of maximum
             log-likelihood estimation to estimate the average force
             during a dynamic penetration. It is used to obtain a quasi-
             static equivalent of the dynamic force in Rapid Soil
             Characterization System (RapSochs). The force is measured at
             the tip and friction sleeve by strain gauges during hammer
             blows. The results are necessary for any analyses similar to
             Cone Penetration Test (CPT) data analysis. This method is
             proven to result in an acceptable estimation of the force
             (the soil resistance) in different soil types. It is shown
             that the cone resistance, friction resistance and friction
             ratio similar to CPT can be obtained and these are plotted
             versus depth. It is also shown that the estimated soil
             resistance does not depend on the applied energy and
             variable hammer drop height. © 2011 ASCE.},
   Doi = {10.1061/41165(397)238},
   Key = {fds280361}
}

@article{fds280359,
   Author = {Chen, S and Li, P and Brady, D and Lehman, B},
   Title = {Optimum inverter sizing in consideration of irradiance
             pattern and PV incentives},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Ieee Applied Power Electronics
             Conference and Exposition Apec},
   Pages = {982-988},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/APEC.2011.5744714},
   Abstract = {This paper proposes a general method of sizing the inverter
             for a PV system. The method evaluates effects of PV
             incentive policies, inverter efficiency curves, and inverter
             protection schemes on optimum inverter sizing through
             system-level cost analysis. Specifically, different
             scenarios of PV incentives are discussed and compared to
             show that the optimal inverter size varies notably by
             location and context. © 2011 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/APEC.2011.5744714},
   Key = {fds280359}
}

@article{fds280369,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Reply to "Comments on multiple aperture cameras},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1587-1592},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.50.001587},
   Abstract = {In response to "Comments on 'Design and characterization of
             thin multiple aperture infrared cameras,'" Appl. Opt. 50,
             1584 (2011), I explain how aliasing and regularization
             impact noise scaling in multiple aperture imagers. © 2011
             Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.50.001587},
   Key = {fds280369}
}

@article{fds280370,
   Author = {Hahn, J and Lim, S and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Video-rate compressive holographic microscopic
             tomography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {7289-7298},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21503040},
   Abstract = {Compressive holography enables 3D reconstruction from a
             single 2D holographic snapshot for objects that can be
             sparsely represented in some basis. The snapshot mode
             enables tomographic imaging of microscopic moving objects.
             We demonstrate video-rate tomographic image acquisition of
             two live water cyclopses with 5.2 μm spatial resolution and
             60 μm axial resolution.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.19.007289},
   Key = {fds280370}
}

@article{fds280367,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Close-up imaging using microcamera arrays for focal plane
             synthesis},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {033205-033205},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3554389},
   Abstract = {Conventional close-up imaging uses lens arrays to form a
             continuous image of an extended object on a single focal
             plane sensor or photographic film. By imaging using
             microcamera arrays onto many separate sensors rather than a
             single large sensor, the subfields captured by individual
             sensors may be combined using image processing into a large
             synthetic image plane. This greatly increases the
             flexibility of the close-up imaging design because it is no
             longer required that the close up image be continuous. Using
             microcamera arrays, hundreds or thousands of megapixel
             sensors may be combined to form a synthetic gigapixel-scale
             sensor. This paper is an investigation into the design
             issues of microcamera arrays, and presents a simple design
             of a lens suitable for a megapixel class microcamera. ©
             2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
             (SPIE).},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.3554389},
   Key = {fds280367}
}

@article{fds280368,
   Author = {Tang, Y and Vlahovic, B and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Metallic nano-structures for polarization-independent
             multi-spectral filters.},
   Journal = {Nanoscale Research Letters},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {394},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21711927},
   Abstract = {Cross-shaped-hole arrays (CSHAs) are selected for
             diminishing the polarization-dependent transmission
             differences of incident plane waves. We investigate the
             light transmission spectrum of the CSHAs in a thin gold film
             over a wide range of features. It is observed that two
             well-separated and high transmission efficiency peaks could
             be obtained by designing the parameters in the CSHAs for
             both p-polarized and s-polarized waves; and a nice
             transmission band-pass is also observed by specific
             parameters of a CSHA too. It implicates the possibility to
             obtain a desired polarization-independent transmission
             spectrum from the CSHAs by designing their parameters. These
             findings provide potential applications of the metallic
             nano-structures in optical filters, optical band-pass,
             optical imaging, optical sensing, and biosensors.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1556-276X-6-394},
   Key = {fds280368}
}

@article{fds280230,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Tremblay, EJ and Ford,
             JE},
   Title = {Optimizing microcamera aperture in gigapixel monocentric
             multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Publisher = {Optical Society of America},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {Multiscale designs divide the imaging task between a simple
             objective and many complex microcameras. We study imaging
             quality as the microcamera aperture size varies from 0.375
             to 36 mm with 2 and 50 gigapixel objectives. © 2011 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280230}
}

@article{fds280231,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Brady, DJ and Gehm,
             ME},
   Title = {Image formation in multiscale optical systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Publisher = {Optical Society of America},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {We present image formation (IF) strategies developed for
             multiscale imaging systems. In this context, IF takes
             advantage of significant prior knowledge of array geometry
             and relies on parallelizable algorithms to handle the high
             data bandwidth. © 2011 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280231}
}

@article{fds280232,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Publisher = {Optical Society of America},
   Year = {2011},
   Abstract = {Recent investigations into high pixel count imaging using
             multiscale optics have led to a novel optical design for a
             wide field, gigapixel camera. We review the mechanical
             design and optical performance of this imager. © 2011
             OSA.},
   Key = {fds280232}
}

@article{fds280240,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ and Tremblay, EJ and Ford,
             JE},
   Title = {Optimizing microcamera aperture in gigapixel monocentric
             multiscale cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Key = {fds280240}
}

@article{fds280241,
   Author = {Son, HS and Marks, DL and Tremblay, E and Ford, JE and Hahn, J and Stack,
             RA and Johnson, A and McLaughlin, P and Shaw, JM and Kim, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A multiscale, wide field, gigapixel camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Key = {fds280241}
}

@article{fds280254,
   Author = {Golish, D and Vera, E and Kelly, K and Gong, Q and Brady, DJ and Gehm,
             ME},
   Title = {Image formation in multiscale optical systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Key = {fds280254}
}

@article{fds280398,
   Author = {Westphal, A and Rulkov, NF and Ayers, J and Brady, D and Hunt,
             M},
   Title = {Controlling a lamprey-based robot with an electronic nervous
             system},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Systems},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {471-484},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1738-1584},
   Abstract = {We are developing a biomimetic robot based on the Sea
             Lamprey. The robot consists of a cylindrical electronics bay
             propelled by an undulatory body axis. Shape memory alloy
             (SMA) actuators generate propagating flexion waves in five
             undulatory segments of a polyurethane strip. The behavior of
             the robot is controlled by an electronic nervous system
             (ENS) composed of networks of discrete-time map-based
             neurons and synapses that execute on a digital signal
             processing chip. Motor neuron action potentials gate power
             transistors that apply current to the SMA actuators. The ENS
             consists of a set of segmental central pattern generators
             (CPGs), modulated by layered command and coordinating neuron
             networks, that integrate input from exteroceptive sensors
             including a compass, accelerometers, inclinometers and a
             short baseline sonar array (SBA). The CPGs instantiate the
             3-element hemi-segmental network model established from
             physiological studies. Anterior and posterior propagating
             pathways between CPGs mediate intersegmental coordination to
             generate flexion waves for forward and backward swimming.
             The command network mediates layered exteroceptive reflexes
             for homing, primary orientation, and impediment
             compensation. The SBA allows homing on a sonar beacon by
             indicating deviations in azimuth and inclination.
             Inclinometers actuate a bending segment between the hull and
             undulator to allow climb and dive. Accelerometers can
             distinguish collisions from impediment to allow compensatory
             reflexes. Modulatory commands mediate speed control and
             turning. A SBA communications interface is being developed
             to allow supervised reactive autonomy.},
   Key = {fds280398}
}

@article{fds280399,
   Author = {Westphal, A and Rulkov, NF and Ayers, J and Brady, D and Hunt,
             M},
   Title = {Controlling a lamprey-based robot with an electronic nervous
             system},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Systems},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-52},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1738-1584},
   Abstract = {We are developing a biomimetic robot based on the Sea
             Lamprey. The robot consists of a cylindrical electronics bay
             propelled by an undulatory body axis. Shape memory alloy
             (SMA) actuators generate propagating flexion waves in five
             undulatory segments of a polyurethane strip. The behavior of
             the robot is controlled by an electronic nervous system
             (ENS) composed of networks of discrete-time map-based
             neurons and synapses that execute on a digital signal
             processing chip. Motor neuron action potentials gate power
             transistors that apply current to the SMA actuators. The ENS
             consists of a set of segmental central pattern generators
             (CPGs), modulated by layered command and coordinating neuron
             networks, that integrate input from exteroceptive sensors
             including a compass, accelerometers, inclinometers and a
             short baseline sonar array (SBA). The CPGs instantiate the
             3-element hemi-segmental network model established from
             physiological studies. Anterior and posterior propagating
             pathways between CPGs mediate intersegmental coordination to
             generate flexion waves for forward and backward swimming.
             The command network mediates layered exteroceptive reflexes
             for homing, primary orientation, and impediment
             compensation. The SBA allows homing on a sonar beacon by
             indicating deviations in azimuth and inclination.
             Inclinometers actuate a bending segment between the hull and
             undulator to allow climb and dive. Accelerometers can
             distinguish collisions from impediment to allow compensatory
             reflexes. Modulatory commands mediate speed control and
             turning. A SBA communications interface is being developed
             to allow supervised reactive autonomy.},
   Key = {fds280399}
}

@article{fds280346,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Mrozack, A and Choi, K},
   Title = {Sparse aperture coding for compressive sampling},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7818},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.862159},
   Abstract = {For many years, the basic goal of sparse aperture design has
             been to maximize the support of the modulation transfer
             function (MTF). Golay apertures and related nonredundant
             arrays are typically used to achieve this objective.
             Unfortunately, maximizing the support of the MTF has the
             necessary effect of decreasing the magnitude of the MTF at
             mid-band spatial frequencies. Fienup has shown that the
             decreased magnitude of the MTF for nonredundant arrays
             contributes as much as reduced throughput to the loss of SNR
             in sparse apertures relative to full aperture systems. This
             paper considers the use of periodic sparse arrays to improve
             the mid-band MTF at the cost of reduced spatial frequency
             coverage. We further consider methods to recover lost
             spatial frequencies using multispectral and multiframe
             sampling and decompressive inference. © 2010
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.862159},
   Key = {fds280346}
}

@article{fds280176,
   Author = {Fernandez-Cull, C and Brady, D and Wikner, DA and Mait,
             JN},
   Title = {Sparse fourier sampling in millimeter-wave compressive
             holography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We analyze the impact of sparse sampling on millimeter-wave
             (MMW) two-dimensional (2D) holographic measurements for
             three-dimensional (3D) object reconstruction. Simulations
             address 3D object estimation efficacy. We present 3D object
             reconstructions from experimental data. © 2009 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280176}
}

@article{fds280178,
   Author = {Brady, D and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Hahn, J and Lim,
             S},
   Title = {Compressive holography of di®use scatterers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We image the incoherent 3D scattering density of objects
             from the covariance of 2D scattered speckle -eld
             measurements using forward model regularization and
             constrained optimization. 3D resolution consistent with
             spatial bandlimits is demonstrated. © 2009 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Key = {fds280178}
}

@article{fds280223,
   Author = {Guo, J and Leong, HS and Lindquist, RG and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Integrated nano-hole array surface plasmon resonance
             biochemical sensor},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We have demonstrated a super-periodic metallic nano-hole
             array surface plasmon device for integrated biochemical
             sensing. The super-periodic nano-hole array device combines
             functions of sensing and surface plasmon resonance spectral
             analysis on a single device. © 2010 OSA/FiO/LS
             2010.},
   Key = {fds280223}
}

@article{fds280224,
   Author = {Hahn, J and Lim, S and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Compressive holographic microscopy},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a snapshot 3D holographic microscopy using
             decompressive inference to infer a tomographic image from a
             Gabor hologram and to remove autocorrelation and twin-image
             terms. © 2009 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280224}
}

@article{fds280229,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Gigagon: A monocentric lens design imaging 40
             gigapixels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {The Gigagon is a f/2.5 five element monocentric lens
             resolving under 2 arcsec over a 120 degree field of view
             intended to image onto megapixel sensors tiled over the
             focal surface. © 2010 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280229}
}

@article{fds280348,
   Author = {Zambrano-Nuñez, M and Marengo, EA and Brady, D},
   Title = {Cramer-rao study of scattering systems in one-dimensional
             space},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Iasted International Conference on
             Antennas, Radar and Wave Propagation, Arp
             2010},
   Pages = {58-64},
   Publisher = {ACTA Press},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2316/P.2010.705-001},
   Abstract = {A Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) study is developed to characterize
             the information content about scattering parameters that is
             contained in reflective (R), transmissive (T), and combined
             R plus T wave scattering data. The analysis is developed for
             scalar wave scattering systems in onedimensional space,
             paying particular attention to elastic scatterers, which
             simplifies the signal model (relative to more general
             scattering systems), thereby allowing closedform expressions
             for the CRB for special cases. The derived CRB results
             quantify the effect of multiple scattering, be it in
             enhancing or in diminishing imaging capabilities, relative
             to the Born approximation model which is customarily used as
             the standard reference for resolution limits. The paper also
             discusses the role of the measurement configuration for
             scatterer information extraction (e.g., reflective data
             applicable to monostatic radar, versus transmissive data
             applicable to bistatic radar).},
   Doi = {10.2316/P.2010.705-001},
   Key = {fds280348}
}

@article{fds280357,
   Author = {Kittle, D and Choi, K and Wagadarikar, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multiframe image estimation for coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imagers.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {36},
   Pages = {6824-6833},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21173812},
   Abstract = {A coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) estimates
             the three-dimensional spatiospectral data cube from a
             snapshot two-dimensional coded projection, assuming that the
             scene is spatially and spectrally sparse. For less
             spectrally sparse scenes, we show that the use of multiple
             nondegenerate snapshots can make data cube recovery less
             ill-posed, yielding improved spatial and spectral
             reconstruction fidelity. Additionally, data acquisition can
             be easily scaled to meet the time/resolution requirements of
             the scene with little modification or extension of the
             original CASSI hardware. A multiframe reconstruction of a
             640 × 480 × 53 voxel datacube with 450-650 nm white-light
             illumination of a scene reveals substantial improvement in
             the reconstruction fidelity, with limited increase in
             acquisition and reconstruction time.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.49.006824},
   Key = {fds280357}
}

@article{fds280358,
   Author = {Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Hahn, J and Lim, S and Marks, DL and Schulz,
             TJ and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive holography of diffuse objects.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {34},
   Pages = {H1-10},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21124522},
   Abstract = {We propose an estimation-theoretic approach to the inference
             of an incoherent 3D scattering density from 2D scattered
             speckle field measurements. The object density is derived
             from the covariance of the speckle field. The inference is
             performed by a constrained optimization technique inspired
             by compressive sensing theory. Experimental results
             demonstrate and verify the performance of our
             estimates.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.49.0000h1},
   Key = {fds280358}
}

@article{fds280347,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Hahn, J and Horisaki, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Computational photography and compressive
             holography},
   Journal = {2010 Ieee International Conference on Computational
             Photography, Iccp 2010},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICCPHOT.2010.5585090},
   Abstract = {As lasers, photosensors, and computational imaging
             techniques improve, holography becomes an increasingly
             attractive approach for imaging applications largely re-
             served for photography. For the same illumination energy, we
             show that holography and photography have nearly identical
             noise performance. Because the coherent field is two
             dimensional outside of a source, there is ambiguity in
             inferring the three-dimensional structure of a source from
             the coherent field. Compressive holography overcomes this
             limitation by imposing sparsity constraints on the three-
             dimensional scatterer, which greatly reduces the number of
             possibilities allowing reliable inference of structure. We
             demonstrate the use of compressive holography to infer the
             three-dimensional structure of a scene comprising two toys
             © 2010 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICCPHOT.2010.5585090},
   Key = {fds280347}
}

@article{fds280344,
   Author = {Chen, S and Li, P and Brady, D and Lehman, B},
   Title = {The impact of irradiance time behaviors on inverter sizing
             and design},
   Journal = {2010 Ieee 12th Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power
             Electronics, Compel 2010},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/COMPEL.2010.5562387},
   Abstract = {This paper investigates the time behavior of over-irradiance
             events in which the photovoltaic (PV) array outputs more
             power than the rated power of the inverter. A new dynamic
             interpretation of such events is proposed and is compared to
             the conventional static viewpoint. Facts revealed under such
             dynamic view may lead to new guidelines for system
             integrators and inverter designers in both sizing and
             designing inverters. A way to extend overload operation time
             of inverters is also proposed.},
   Doi = {10.1109/COMPEL.2010.5562387},
   Key = {fds280344}
}

@article{fds280356,
   Author = {Tang, Y and Vlahovic, B and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Light propagating in metal sub-wavelength-hole
             arrays},
   Journal = {Nano},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {295-300},
   Publisher = {World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1793-2920},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S1793292010002207},
   Abstract = {We investigate the light propagating through a
             sub-wavelength-hole array in a thin gold film. The
             extraordinary light transmission (ELT) of the metallic array
             is observed. This ELT is due to the localized plasmon
             polaritons, whose production are dependent on the
             polarization of the light, the periodicity of the array, the
             features of the hole, and the thickness of the gold film.
             These parameters of the metallic structures are investigated
             through the finite difference time domain method. It is
             possible to obtain a desired transmission spectrum from the
             sub-wavelength-hole array by designing these parameters. ©
             2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.},
   Doi = {10.1142/S1793292010002207},
   Key = {fds280356}
}

@article{fds280353,
   Author = {Zheng, N and Hagen, N and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Analytic-domain lens design with proximate ray
             tracing.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1791-1802},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20686583},
   Abstract = {We have developed an alternative approach to optical design
             which operates in the analytical domain so that an optical
             designer works directly with rays as analytical functions of
             system parameters rather than as discretely sampled
             polylines. This is made possible by a generalization of the
             proximate ray tracing technique which obtains the analytical
             dependence of the rays at the image surface (and ray path
             lengths at the exit pupil) on each system parameter. The
             resulting method provides an alternative direction from
             which to approach system optimization and supplies
             information which is not typically available to the system
             designer. In addition, we have further expanded the
             procedure to allow asymmetric systems and arbitrary order of
             approximation, and have illustrated the performance of the
             method through three lens design examples.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.27.001791},
   Key = {fds280353}
}

@article{fds280355,
   Author = {Horisaki, R and Choi, K and Hahn, J and Tanida, J and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Generalized sampling using a compound-eye imaging system for
             multi-dimensional object acquisition.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {19367-19378},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4241 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we propose generalized sampling approaches
             for measuring a multi-dimensional object using a compact
             compound-eye imaging system called thin observation module
             by bound optics (TOMBO). This paper shows the proposed
             system model, physical examples, and simulations to verify
             TOMBO imaging using generalized sampling. In the system, an
             object is modulated and multiplied by a weight distribution
             with physical coding, and the coded optical signal is
             integrated on to a detector array. A numerical estimation
             algorithm employing a sparsity constraint is used for object
             reconstruction.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.18.019367},
   Key = {fds280355}
}

@article{fds280354,
   Author = {Cull, CF and Wikner, DA and Mait, JN and Mattheiss, M and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Millimeter-wave compressive holography.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {E67-E82},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20648123},
   Abstract = {We describe an active millimeter-wave holographic imaging
             system that uses compressive measurements for
             three-dimensional (3D) tomographic object estimation. Our
             system records a two-dimensional (2D) digitized Gabor
             hologram by translating a single pixel incoherent receiver.
             Two approaches for compressive measurement are undertaken:
             nonlinear inversion of a 2D Gabor hologram for 3D object
             estimation and nonlinear inversion of a randomly subsampled
             Gabor hologram for 3D object estimation. The object
             estimation algorithm minimizes a convex quadratic problem
             using total variation (TV) regularization for 3D object
             estimation. We compare object reconstructions using linear
             backpropagation and TV minimization, and we present
             simulated and experimental reconstructions from both
             compressive measurement strategies. In contrast with
             backpropagation, which estimates the 3D electromagnetic
             field, TV minimization estimates the 3D object that produces
             the field. Despite undersampling, range resolution is
             consistent with the extent of the 3D object band
             volume.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.49.000e67},
   Key = {fds280354}
}

@article{fds280345,
   Author = {Fernandez-Cull, C and Wikner, DA and Mattheiss, M and Mait, JN and Brady, D},
   Title = {Sparse sampling and enhanced axial resolution in
             millimeter-wave holographic imaging},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7670},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.850404},
   Abstract = {This paper describes an active millimeter-wave (MMW)
             holographic imaging system used for the study of compressive
             measurement for concealed weapons detection. We record a
             digitized on-axis, Gabor hologram using a single pixel
             incoherent receiver that is translated at the detector plane
             to form an image composite. Capturing measurements in the
             MMW regime can be costly since receiver circuits are
             expensive and scanning systems can be plagued by their long
             data acquisition times. Thus, we leverage recent advances in
             compressive sensing with a traditional holographic method in
             order to estimate a 3D (x,y,z) object distribution from a 2D
             recorded image composite. To do this, we minimize a convex
             quadratic function using total variation (TV)
             regularization. Gabor holograms are recorded of
             semi-transparent objects, in the MMW, mimicking weapons and
             other objects. We present preliminary results of 3D
             reconstructions of objects at various depths estimated from
             a 2D recorded hologram. We compare backpropagation results
             with our decompressive inference algorithm. A possible
             application includes remote concealed weapons detection at
             security checkpoints. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The
             International Society for Optical Engineering.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.850404},
   Key = {fds280345}
}

@article{fds280350,
   Author = {Xu, Q and Shi, K and Li, H and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Brady, D and Psaltis, D and Liu, Z},
   Title = {Inline holographic coherent anti-Stokes Raman
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {8213-8219},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/4248 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a simple approach for inline holographic
             coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, in
             which a layer of uniform nonlinear medium is placed in front
             of a specimen to be imaged. The reference wave created by
             four-wave mixing in the nonlinear medium can interfere with
             the CARS signal generated in the specimen to result in an
             inline hologram. We experimentally and theoretically
             investigate the inline CARS holography and show that it has
             chemical selectivity and can allow for three-dimensional
             imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.18.008213},
   Key = {fds280350}
}

@article{fds280351,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive video sensors using multichannel
             imagers.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B9-17},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20357845},
   Abstract = {We explore the possibilities of obtaining compression in
             video through modified sampling strategies using
             multichannel imaging systems. The redundancies in video
             streams are exploited through compressive sampling schemes
             to achieve low power and low complexity video sensors. The
             sampling strategies as well as the associated reconstruction
             algorithms are discussed. These compressive sampling schemes
             could be implemented in the focal plane readout hardware
             resulting in drastic reduction in data bandwidth and
             computational complexity.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.49.0000b9},
   Key = {fds280351}
}

@article{fds280352,
   Author = {Cull, CF and Choi, K and Brady, DJ and Oliver, T},
   Title = {Identification of fluorescent beads using a coded aperture
             snapshot spectral imager.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B59-B70},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20357842},
   Abstract = {We apply a coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI)
             to fluorescence microscopy. CASSI records a two-dimensional
             (2D) spectrally filtered projection of a three-dimensional
             (3D) spectral data cube. We minimize a convex quadratic
             function with total variation (TV) constraints for data cube
             estimation from the 2D snapshot. We adapt the TV
             minimization algorithm for direct fluorescent bead
             identification from CASSI measurements by combining a priori
             knowledge of the spectra associated with each bead type. Our
             proposed method creates a 2D bead identity image. Simulated
             fluorescence CASSI measurements are used to evaluate the
             behavior of the algorithm. We also record real CASSI
             measurements of a ten bead type fluorescence scene and
             create a 2D bead identity map. A baseline image from
             filtered-array imaging system verifies CASSI's 2D bead
             identity map.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.49.000b59},
   Key = {fds280352}
}

@article{fds280349,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, AA and Marks, DL and Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Imaging through turbulence using compressive coherence
             sensing.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {838-840},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20237616},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have shown that the isoplanatic distortion
             due to turbulence and the image of a remote object may be
             jointly estimated from the 4D mutual intensity across an
             aperture. This Letter shows that decompressive inference on
             a 2D slice of the 4D mutual intensity, as measured by a
             rotational shear interferometer, is sufficient for
             estimation of sparse objects imaged through turbulence. The
             2D slice is processed using an iterative algorithm that
             alternates between estimating the sparse objects and
             estimating the turbulence-induced phase screen. This
             approach may enable new systems that infer object properties
             through turbulence without exhaustive sampling of coherence
             functions.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.35.000838},
   Key = {fds280349}
}

@article{fds280177,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Brady, DJ and Guenther, B and Cull, E and Qi, Y and Chapman, K},
   Title = {Point of dispense drug verification using coded aperture
             raman spectroscopy and image analysis},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Coded aperture Raman spectroscopy enables standoff through
             container classification of wide classes of dispensed
             pharmaceuticals. Sensitivity relative to conventional Raman
             systems is increased by nearly an order of magnitude,
             enabling efficient integration in pharmacy workflow. © 2010
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280177}
}

@article{fds280124,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Brady, DJ and Guenther, B and Cull, E and Qi, Y and Chapman, K},
   Title = {Point of dispense drug verification using coded aperture
             raman spectroscopy and image analysis},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {Coded aperture Raman spectroscopy enables standoff through
             container classification of wide classes of dispensed
             pharmaceuticals. Sensitivity relative to conventional Raman
             systems is increased by nearly an order of magnitude,
             enabling efficient integration in pharmacy workflow. © 2010
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280124}
}

@article{fds280159,
   Author = {Fernandez-Cull, C and Brady, D and Wikner, DA and Mait,
             JN},
   Title = {Millimeter-wave imaging using k-space compression},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {We apply compression in the spatial frequency domain to
             generate millimeter wave images. Simulations indicate the
             efficacy of the approach. We are in the process of testing
             the system experimentally. © 2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280159}
}

@article{fds280160,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, A and Marks, D and Choi, K and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Compressive coherence sensing},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {The 4D cross spectral density function is recovered using 2D
             rotational shear interferometer measurements and a matrix
             completion algorithm for low rank matrices. Imaging of point
             sources through turbulence is demonstrated. © 2009 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280160}
}

@article{fds280200,
   Author = {Hagen, N and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Aberration correction in multiscale lenses},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Multiscale lens design splits the field into subregions and
             attempts to correct the local wavefront error in each
             subfield rather than the global error. We review the
             aberration theory underlying the approach. © 2009 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280200}
}

@article{fds280201,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multiscale optical systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Cameras capturing gigapixel or even terapixel images are
             enabled by lens systems combining single aperture objectives
             with arrays of smaller scale processing optics. © 2009
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280201}
}

@article{fds280217,
   Author = {Lim, S and Horisaki, R and Choi, K and Marks, DL and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Experimental demonstrations of compressive
             holography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate 3D object reconstruction from a single 2D
             data plane using compressive holography in Gabor and
             Leith-Upatneiks geometries. © 2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280217}
}

@article{fds280218,
   Author = {Choi, K and Horisaki, R and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coding and signal inference in compressive
             holography},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Compressive sensing enables highly accurate signal
             reconstruction from fewer measurements than the number of
             samples in a signal to be estimated. This paper describes a
             theoretical framework for 3D tomographic reconstruction from
             2D holographic measurements. © 2009 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280218}
}

@article{fds280338,
   Author = {Marengo, EA and Zambrano-Nuñez, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Cramer-Rao study of one-dimensional scattering systems: Part
             I: Formulation},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 6th Iasted International Conference on
             Antennas, Radar, and Wave Propagation, Arp
             2009},
   Pages = {1-8},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {A Cramer-Rao bound (CRB) study is developed in
             one-dimensional (1D) space which sheds fundamental insight
             onto the information about multiply scattering point-like
             scatterers that is contained in scattering field data
             corresponding to transmissive, reflective, and combined
             trans-missive plus reflective sensing geometries, and
             single-and multi-frequency measurements.},
   Key = {fds280338}
}

@article{fds280339,
   Author = {Marengo, EA and Zambrano-Nuñez, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Cramer-Rao study of one-dimensional scattering systems: Part
             II: Computer simulations},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the 6th Iasted International Conference on
             Antennas, Radar, and Wave Propagation, Arp
             2009},
   Pages = {9-13},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {This paper is the second of a two-part paper aimed at
             studying fundamental limits in estimation in 1D scattering
             systems via the Cramer-Rao bound. In this paper we provide
             and discuss computer simulation results illustrating the
             theory in the first paper.},
   Key = {fds280339}
}

@article{fds280340,
   Author = {Choi, K and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture computed tomography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7468},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.825277},
   Abstract = {Diverse physical measurements can be modeled by X-ray
             transforms. While X-ray tomography is the canonical example,
             reference structure tomography (RST) and coded aperture
             snapshot spectral imaging (CASSI) are examples of physically
             unrelated but mathematically equivalent sensor systems.
             Historically, most x-ray transform based systems sample
             continuous distributions and apply analytical inversion
             processes. On the other hand, RST and CASSI generate
             discrete multiplexed measurements implemented with coded
             apertures. This multiplexing of coded measurements allows
             for compression of measurements from a compressed sensing
             perspective. Compressed sensing (CS) is a revelation that if
             the object has a sparse representation in some basis, then a
             certain number, but typically much less than what is
             prescribed by Shannon's sampling rate, of random projections
             captures enough information for a highly accurate
             reconstruction of the object. This paper investigates the
             role of coded apertures in x-ray transform measurement
             systems (XTMs) in terms of data efficiency and
             reconstruction fidelity from a CS perspective. To conduct
             this, we construct a unified analysis using RST and CASSI
             measurement models. Also, we propose a novel compressive
             x-ray tomography measurement scheme which also exploits
             coding and multiplexing, and hence shares the analysis of
             the other two XTMs. Using this analysis, we perform a
             qualitative study on how coded apertures can be exploited to
             implement physical random projections by "regularizing" the
             measurement systems. Numerical studies and simulation
             results demonstrate several examples of the impact of
             coding. © 2009 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.825277},
   Key = {fds280340}
}

@article{fds330742,
   Author = {Feigin, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Joint transmitter/receiver I/Q imbalance compensation for
             direct conversion OFDM in packet-switched multipath
             environments},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Signal Processing},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {4588-4593},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2009.2024999},
   Abstract = {This correspondence presents an algorithm for compensation
             of I/Q imbalance for a direct-conversion packet-switched
             orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM)
             communications system, which accounts for transmitter I/Q
             imbalance, receiver I/Q imbalance, phase/ frequency error,
             and dispersive multipath fading. The proposed estimation
             algorithm is then presented, which operates within the
             framework of existing multiuser OFDM radio standards
             (802.11a). It is shown that this algorithm accurately
             estimates and corrects transceiver I/Q imbalance on a
             packet-by-packet basis, all within the receiver's digital
             baseband. © 2009 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TSP.2009.2024999},
   Key = {fds330742}
}

@article{fds330741,
   Author = {Valchev, DG and Brady, D},
   Title = {Three-dimensional multipath shape factors for spatial
             modeling of wireless channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Wireless Communications},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {5542-5551},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TWC.2009.080988},
   Abstract = {This paper develops a generalized theory of multipath shape
             factors used to study the small-scale fading statistics in
             three-dimensional non-omnidirectional multipath channels.
             Previous results for horizontal propagation channels are
             special cases of the present framework when the multipath
             angular power density (APD) and the travel direction of the
             mobile unit are confined to a plane. The three-dimensional
             multipath shape factors are derived in terms of the first
             three degrees of unnormalized spherical harmonics of the
             APD. Based on the so derived shape factors, analytical
             expressions for the level crossing rate, average fade
             duration and approximate envelope correlation are derived
             for a Rayleigh fading three-dimensional channel. © 2009
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TWC.2009.080988},
   Key = {fds330741}
}

@booklet{Mahalanobis09,
   Author = {Mahalanobis, A and Neifeld, M and Bhagavatula, VK and Haberfelde, T and Brady, D},
   Title = {Off-axis sparse aperture imaging using phase optimization
             techniques for application in wide-area imaging
             systems.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {28},
   Pages = {5212-5224},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.48.005212},
   Abstract = {Sparse apertures find imaging applications in diverse fields
             such as astronomy and medicine. We are motivated by the
             design of a wide-area imaging system where sparse apertures
             can be used to construct novel and efficient optical
             designs. Specifically, we investigate the use of sparse
             apertures for off-axis imaging at infrared wavelengths while
             combating the effects of chromaticity to preserve
             resolution. In principle, several such sparse apertures can
             be interleaved within a common aperture to simultaneously
             image in multiple directions. This can ultimately lead to
             the design of wide-area imaging systems that require
             considerably less optical and electronic hardware. The
             resolution achievable using a sparse aperture is the same as
             that of a fully open aperture. In the case of off-axis
             imaging, however, the point spread function (PSF) introduces
             a blur due to chromaticity that degrades the resolution of
             the system. Of course, the blur can be eliminated by imaging
             at a single wavelength. However the signal-to-noise ratio
             (SNR) is poor, which ultimately degrades image quality. To
             improve SNR, it is necessary to widen the band of
             wavelengths, which of course degrades resolution due to
             chromaticity. Hence there is a fundamental trade between the
             SNR and the resolution as a function of bandwidth. We show
             that by using a combination of microprisms and phase
             optimized micropistons it is possible to reduce the
             chromatic blur over a band of wavelengths and improve the
             PSF considerably to restore the resolution of the image. The
             concepts are validated by means of simulations and verified
             with experimental data to demonstrate the advantages of
             phase optimized micropistons in off-axis sparse aperture
             imaging systems.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.48.005212},
   Key = {Mahalanobis09}
}

@article{fds280337,
   Author = {Hagen, N and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture DUV spectrometer for standoff Raman
             spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7319},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.818830},
   Abstract = {We have designed and constructed a coded aperture
             spectrometer for use in the deep UV range. The Czerny-
             Turner design provides sufficient spectral resolution to
             observe Raman scattering features, while the use of a coded
             aperture provides a greatly improved light collection
             efficiency for scattering sources. The resulting instrument
             is capable of analyzing Raman spectra from samples at a 1
             meter viewing distance. We provide an overview of the
             system, its optical design, and some preliminary
             measurements. © 2009 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.818830},
   Key = {fds280337}
}

@article{fds280123,
   Author = {Brady, D},
   Title = {Rich Democracies, Poor People: How Politics Explain
             Poverty},
   Journal = {Rich Democracies, Poor People: How Politics Explain
             Poverty},
   Pages = {1-264},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385878.001.0001},
   Abstract = {© 2009 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights
             reserved. This book advances a political argument for
             poverty. This argument is developed from explaining
             cross-national and historical variation in poverty across
             affluent democracies since the late 1960s. Specifically,
             institutionalized power relations theory is proposed as an
             explanation to counter the individualism that prevails in
             contemporary poverty scholarship. The book also develops
             arguments for how poverty should be conceptualized and
             measured, and offers a comprehensive study of poverty in
             affluent democracies. A variety of analyses are conduced to
             explain variation in poverty and to represent
             institutionalized power relations, liberal economic, and
             structural theories of poverty. Ultimately, the welfare
             state and Leftist politics emerge as the most influential
             forces on poverty. The book contends that poverty
             scholarship should focus less on the individual
             characteristics of the poor and more on the politics of
             poverty and equality. Rather than viewing poverty as the
             unfortunate by-product of labor markets or demography,
             poverty should be understood as a result of the power
             relations of collective political actors and the extent to
             which egalitarianism is institutionalized in the welfare
             state.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195385878.001.0001},
   Key = {fds280123}
}

@article{fds330743,
   Author = {Valchev, DG and Brady, D},
   Title = {Multipath directivity and spatial selectivity in
             three-dimensional wireless channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Antennas and Propagation},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2147-2154},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2009.2021873},
   Abstract = {A generalized definition is presented of multipath angular
             spread, used to study the spatial correlation of the signal
             envelope in a three-dimensional wireless channel, both in
             the cases of a three-dimensional and a horizontal travel
             direction. Previous results from two-dimensional modeling
             are shown to be a special case of this general analysis when
             the multipath power and the travel direction are confined to
             a single plane in space. The results show that the main lobe
             of the spatial correlation of the signal envelope at a given
             distance has an approximately Gaussian dependence on the
             three-dimensional multipath directivity metric proposed in
             this paper, for both cases for the travel direction. © 2009
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TAP.2009.2021873},
   Key = {fds330743}
}

@article{fds280343,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Choi, K and Marks, DL and Horisaki, R and Lim,
             S},
   Title = {Compressive holography.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {13040-13049},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19654708},
   Abstract = {Compressive sampling enables signal reconstruction using
             less than one measurement per reconstructed signal value.
             Compressive measurement is particularly useful in generating
             multidimensional images from lower dimensional data. We
             demonstrate single frame 3D tomography from 2D holographic
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.17.013040},
   Key = {fds280343}
}

@article{fds280336,
   Author = {Fernandez, CA and Wagadarikar, A and Brady, DJ and McCain, SC and Oliver, T},
   Title = {Fluorescence microscopy with a coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imager},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {7184},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.807863},
   Abstract = {This paper describes the application of a dual-dispersive
             (DD) coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) to
             fluorescence microscopy. CASSI records an interleaved
             spatially varying, spectrally filtered map of an object onto
             a two-dimensional (2D) focal plane. Using a compressive
             sensing framework, the spectrally encoded 2D scene is
             reconstructed into a three-dimensional (3D) data cube. CASSI
             also records a 3D dataset at video rate - making it suitable
             for dynamic cellular imaging. A convex optimization
             technique combining least squares QR factorization with a
             total variance constraint is used to reconstruct the image.
             The system records 32 spectral channels that span the
             spectral range between 450nm and 750nm with 10nm spectral
             resolution for any pixel in a 2D image. This paper
             illustrates the application of CASSI imaging to fluorescence
             microscopy applications. We report on the reconstruction of
             fluorescent microspheres used in fluorescence microscopy as
             calibration standards. Images are compared with a
             multi-spectral confocal system. ©2009 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.807863},
   Key = {fds280336}
}

@article{fds280342,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Hagen, N},
   Title = {Multiscale lens design.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {10659-10674},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19550462},
   Abstract = {While lenses of aperture less than 1000lambda frequently
             form images with pixel counts approaching the
             space-bandwidth limit, only heroic designs approach the
             theoretical information capacity at larger scales. We
             propose to use the field processing capabilities of
             small-scale secondary lens arrays to correct aberrations due
             to larger scale objective lenses, with an ultimate goal of
             achieving diffraction-limited imaging for apertures greater
             than 10,000lambda .We present an example optical design
             using an 8 mm entrance pupil capable of resolving 20
             megapixels.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.17.010659},
   Key = {fds280342}
}

@article{fds280334,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Resolution and interpolation of multichannel long wave
             infrared camera data},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7246},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.807969},
   Abstract = {We evaluate the performance of a multiple aperture camera
             with a target projector testbed and compare it to a single
             lens LWIR camera with a similar field of view and pixel
             count. We measure a noise equivalent temperature difierence
             of 131 mK for the multiple aperture camera and 121 mK for
             the conventional camera which uses similar uncooled 25 μm
             pixel technology. Spatial frequency response is analyzed
             using a collection of 4-bar targets with different periods.
             After characterization, we remove aliasing from the multiple
             aperture data to resolve targets as high as 0.192 cy/mrad.
             © 2009 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.807969},
   Key = {fds280334}
}

@article{fds280341,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, AA and Pitsianis, NP and Sun, X and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Video rate spectral imaging using a coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imager.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {6368-6388},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19365462},
   Abstract = {We have previously reported on coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imagers (CASSI) that can capture a full frame
             spectral image in a snapshot. Here we describe the use of
             CASSI for spectral imaging of a dynamic scene at video rate.
             We describe significant advances in the design of the
             optical system, system calibration procedures and
             reconstruction method. The new optical system uses a double
             Amici prism to achieve an in-line, direct view
             configuration, resulting in a substantial improvement in
             image quality. We describe NeAREst, an algorithm for
             estimating the instantaneous three-dimensional
             spatio-spectral data cube from CASSI's two-dimensional array
             of encoded and compressed measurements. We utilize CASSI's
             snapshot ability to demonstrate a spectral image video of
             multi-colored candles with live flames captured at 30 frames
             per second.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.17.006368},
   Key = {fds280341}
}

@booklet{Portnoy09,
   Author = {Portnoy, A and Pitsianis, N and Sun, X and Brady, D and Gibbons, R and Silver, A and Te Kolste and R and Chen, C and Dillon, T and Prather,
             D},
   Title = {Design and characterization of thin multiple aperture
             infrared cameras.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2115-2126},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19363550},
   Abstract = {We describe a multiple-aperture long-wave infrared camera
             built on an uncooled microbolometer array with the objective
             of decreasing camera thickness. The 5 mm thick optical
             system is an f/1.2 design with a 6.15 mm effective focal
             length. An integrated image is formed from the subapertures
             using correlation-based registration and a least gradient
             reconstruction algorithm. We measure a 131 mK NETD. The
             system's spatial frequency is analyzed with 4 bar targets.
             With proper calibration, our multichannel interpolation
             results recover contrast for targets at frequencies beyond
             the aliasing limit of the individual subimages.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.48.002115},
   Key = {Portnoy09}
}

@article{fds280335,
   Author = {Zheng, N and Hagen, N and John, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {A static multiplex Fabry-Perot spectrometer},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7249},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.805663},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a static multiplex spectrometer based on a
             Fabry-Perot interferometric filter for measuring the mean
             spectral content of diffuse sources. By replacing the slit
             of a low-dispersion grating spectrometer with a Fabry-Perot
             interferometric filter, we improve the resolving power of
             the instrument while simultaneously overcoming the free
             spectral range limitation of the Fabry Perot. The resulting
             instrument is smaller than conventional spectrometers having
             the same resolving power. We present experimental results
             from the spectrometer using neon lamp, He-Ne laser, and
             diode laser sources over a wavelength range from 620 nm to
             660 nm. © 2009 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.805663},
   Key = {fds280335}
}

@booklet{Uttam09,
   Author = {Uttam, S and Goodman, NA and Neifeld, MA and Kim, C and John, R and Kim, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Optically multiplexed imaging with superposition space
             tracking},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1691-1713},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.17.001691},
   Abstract = {We describe a novel method to track targets in a large field
             of view. This method simultaneously images multiple, encoded
             sub-fields of view onto a common focal plane. Sub-field
             encoding enables target tracking by creating a unique
             connection between target characteristics in superposition
             space and the target's true position in real space. This is
             accomplished without reconstructing a conventional image of
             the large field of view. Potential encoding schemes include
             spatial shift, rotation, and magnification. We discuss each
             of these encoding schemes, but the main emphasis of the
             paper and all examples are based on one-dimensional spatial
             shift encoding. System performance is evaluated in terms of
             two criteria: average decoding time and probability of
             decoding error. We study these performance criteria as a
             function of resolution in the encoding scheme and
             signal-to-noise ratio. Finally, we include simulation and
             experimental results demonstrating our novel tracking
             method. © 2009 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.17.001691},
   Key = {Uttam09}
}

@article{fds280323,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, AA and Pitsianis, NP and Sun, X and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Spectral image estimation for coded aperture snapshot
             spectral imagers},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7076},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.795545},
   Abstract = {This paper describes numerical estimation techniques for
             coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers (CASSI). In a
             snapshot, a CASSI captures a two-dimensional (2D) array of
             measurements that is an encoded representation of both
             spectral information and 2D spatial information of a scene.
             The spatial information is modulated by a coded aperture and
             the spectral information is modulated by a dispersive
             element. The estimation process decodes the 2D measurements
             to render a three-dimensional spatio-spectral estimate of
             the scene, and is therefore an indispensable component of
             the spectral imager. Numerical estimation results are
             presented.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.795545},
   Key = {fds280323}
}

@article{fds280324,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Pitsianis, NP and Brady, D},
   Title = {Spatio-temporal sampling for video},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7076},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.795753},
   Abstract = {With this work we propose spatio-temporal sampling
             strategies for video using a lenslet array computational
             imaging system and explore the opportunities and challenges
             in the design of compressive video sensors and corresponding
             processing algorithms. The redundancies in video streams are
             exploited by (a) sampling the sub-apertures of a
             multichannel (TOMBO) camera, and (b) by the computational
             reconstruction to achieve low power and low complexity video
             sensors. A spatial and a spatio-temporal sampling strategy
             are considered, taking into account the feasibility for
             implementation in the focal-plane readout hardware. The
             algorithms used to reconstruct the video frames from
             measurements are also presented.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.795753},
   Key = {fds280324}
}

@article{fds280270,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Lim, S and Guenther, BD and Brady, DJ and McCain,
             ST},
   Title = {High-throughput, multiplex aperture-coded raman spectrometer
             for biomedical diagnostics},
   Journal = {Biomedical Optics, Biomed 2008},
   Pages = {BTuF15},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {Over the past couple of years, we have developed an aperture
             coded Raman spectrometer whose performance is optimized for
             extended, incoherent sources. We describe results conveying
             the potential for in vivo biomedical diagnostics. ©2007
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280270}
}

@article{fds280333,
   Author = {Marcia, RF and Kim, C and Eldeniz, C and Kim, J and Brady, DJ and Willett,
             RM},
   Title = {Superimposed video disambiguation for increased field of
             view.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {16352-16363},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18852741},
   Abstract = {Many infrared optical systems in wide-ranging applications
             such as surveillance and security frequently require large
             fields of view (FOVs). Often this necessitates a focal plane
             array (FPA) with a large number of pixels, which, in
             general, is very expensive. In a previous paper, we proposed
             a method for increasing the FOV without increasing the pixel
             resolution of the FPA by superimposing multiple sub-images
             within a static scene and disambiguating the observed data
             to reconstruct the original scene. This technique, in
             effect, allows each sub-image of the scene to share a single
             FPA, thereby increasing the FOV without compromising
             resolution. In this paper, we demonstrate the increase of
             FOVs in a realistic setting by physically generating a
             superimposed video from a single scene using an optical
             system employing a beamsplitter and a movable mirror.
             Without prior knowledge of the contents of the scene, we are
             able to disambiguate the two sub-images, successfully
             capturing both large-scale features and fine details in each
             sub-image. We improve upon our previous reconstruction
             approach by allowing each sub-image to have slowly changing
             components, carefully exploiting correlations between
             sequential video frames to achieve small mean errors and to
             reduce run times. We show the effectiveness of this improved
             approach by reconstructing the constituent images of a
             surveillance camera video.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.16.016352},
   Key = {fds280333}
}

@article{fds280260,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy},
   Pages = {1-510},
   Publisher = {JOHN WILEY & SONS INC},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470443736},
   Abstract = {An essential reference for optical sensor system design This
             is the first text to present an integrated view of the
             optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to
             understand computational optical system design. It presents
             the foundations of computational optical sensor design with
             a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It
             systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic
             imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems,
             including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques
             essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and
             statistical models of optical fields The basic function of
             modern optical detectors and focal plane arrays Practical
             strategies for coherence measurement in imaging system
             design The sampling theory of digital imaging and
             spectroscopy for both conventional and emerging compressive
             and generalized measurement strategies Measurement code
             design Linear and nonlinear signal estimation The book
             concludes with a review of numerous design strategies in
             spectroscopy and imaging and clearly outlines the benefits
             and limits of each approach, including coded aperture and
             imaging spectroscopy, resonant and filter-based systems, and
             integrated design strategies to improve image resolution,
             depth of field, and field of view. Optical Imaging and
             Spectroscopy is an indispensable textbook for advanced
             undergraduate and graduate courses in optical sensor design.
             In addition to its direct applicability to optical system
             design, unique perspectives on computational sensor design
             presented in the text will be of interest for sensor
             designers in radio and millimeter wave, X-ray, and acoustic
             systems. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/9780470443736},
   Key = {fds280260}
}

@article{fds280331,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Willett, RM and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multi-excitation Raman spectroscopy technique for
             fluorescence rejection.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {10975-10991},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18648412},
   Abstract = {Multi-excitation Raman spectroscopy filters out Raman
             signals from a fluorescent background by sequentially using
             multiple excitation frequencies. The filtering method
             exploits the shift of the Raman spectra with excitation
             frequency and the static response of the fluorescent
             background. This technique builds upon previous work which
             used two slightly shifted excitations, Shifted Excitation
             Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS), in order to filter
             the Raman signal. An Expectation-Maximization algorithm is
             used to estimate the Raman and fluorescence signals from
             multiple spectra acquired with slightly shifted excitation
             frequencies. In both simulation and experiment, the efficacy
             of the algorithm increases with the number of excitation
             frequencies even when holding the total excitation energy
             constant, such that the signal to noise ratio is inversely
             proportional to the number of excitation frequencies. In
             situations where the intense fluorescence causes significant
             shot noise compared to the weak Raman signals, the
             multi-excitation approach is more effective than
             non-iterative techniques such as polynomial background
             subtraction.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.16.010975},
   Key = {fds280331}
}

@article{fds280332,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Kim, MS and Fernandez, C and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {High-throughput, multiplexed pushbroom hyperspectral
             microscopy.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {11032-11043},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.16.011032},
   Abstract = {We describe a high-throughput hyperspectral microscope. The
             system replaces the slit of conventional pushbroom spectral
             imagers with a static coded aperture mask. We present the
             theoretical underpinnings of the aperture coded spectral
             engine and describe two proof-of-concept experimental
             implementations. Compared to a conventional pushbroom
             system, the aperture coded systems have 32 times greater
             throughput. Both systems have about a 1 nm spectral
             resolution over the spectral range of 550-665 nm. For the
             first design, the spatial resolution for the system is 5.4
             microm while the spatial resolution for the second system
             ranges from 7.7 microm to 1.54 microm. We describe
             experimental results from proof-of-concept applications of
             the imager to hyperspectral microscopy.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.16.011032},
   Key = {fds280332}
}

@article{fds280328,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Pitsianis, NP and Sun, X and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multichannel sampling schemes for optical imaging
             systems.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B76-B85},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382553},
   Abstract = {We introduce a framework of focal-plane coding schemes for
             multichannel sampling in optical systems. A particular
             objective is to develop an ultrathin imager without
             compromising image resolution. We present a complete f/2.1
             optical system with a thickness of 2.2 mm. The resolution is
             maintained in the thin optical system by an integrated
             design of the encoding scheme, the process of making the
             coding elements, and the decoding algorithms.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.47.000b76},
   Key = {fds280328}
}

@article{fds280329,
   Author = {Tumbar, R and Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Robust, common path, phase shifting interferometer and
             optical profilometer.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B32-B43},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.47.000b32},
   Abstract = {We describe an improved implementation of our previously
             reported common-path, phase shifting, and shearing
             interferometer. Using a time-multiplexed phase shifting
             scheme, we demonstrate higher sampling resolution, better
             light sensitivity, and use of arbitrary phase shifting
             algorithms. We describe microscopic imaging of the surface
             profile of a copper-plated silicon wafer and demonstrate
             that the system is vibration insensitive with approximately
             lambda/100 repeatability. In a more general discussion of
             our method, we describe the different functional elements
             and suggest alternative designs and improvements. Possible
             uses include full-field coherent imaging and high dynamic
             range wavefront sensing, which we briefly
             discuss.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.47.000b32},
   Key = {fds280329}
}

@article{fds280330,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Dogariu, A and Fiddy, MA and Mahalanobis,
             A},
   Title = {Computational optical sensing and imaging: introduction to
             the feature issue.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {COSI1-COSI2},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382555},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.47.0cosi1},
   Key = {fds280330}
}

@booklet{Shankar08,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Willett, R and Pitsianis, N and Schulz, T and Gibbons, R and Te Kolste and R and Carriere, J and Chen, C and Prather, D and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Thin infrared imaging systems through multichannel
             sampling.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B1-10},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382544},
   Abstract = {The size of infrared camera systems can be reduced by
             collecting low-resolution images in parallel with multiple
             narrow-aperture lenses rather than collecting a single
             high-resolution image with one wide-aperture lens. We
             describe an infrared imaging system that uses a
             three-by-three lenslet array with an optical system length
             of 2.3 mm and achieves Rayleigh criteria resolution
             comparable with a conventional single-lens system with an
             optical system length of 26 mm. The high-resolution final
             image generated by this system is reconstructed from the
             low-resolution images gathered by each lenslet. This is
             accomplished using superresolution reconstruction algorithms
             based on linear and nonlinear interpolation algorithms. Two
             implementations of the ultrathin camera are demonstrated and
             their performances are compared with that of a conventional
             infrared camera.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.47.0000b1},
   Key = {Shankar08}
}

@booklet{Wagadarikar08,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, A and John, R and Willett, R and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Single disperser design for coded aperture snapshot spectral
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {B44-B51},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18382550},
   Abstract = {We present a single disperser spectral imager that exploits
             recent theoretical work in the area of compressed sensing to
             achieve snapshot spectral imaging. An experimental prototype
             is used to capture the spatiospectral information of a scene
             that consists of two balls illuminated by different light
             sources. An iterative algorithm is used to reconstruct the
             data cube. The average spectral resolution is 3.6 nm per
             spectral channel. The accuracy of the instrument is
             demonstrated by comparison of the spectra acquired with the
             proposed system with the spectra acquired by a nonimaging
             reference spectrometer.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.47.000b44},
   Key = {Wagadarikar08}
}

@article{fds280199,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Quantitative performance metrics with long wave infrared
             multiple aperture cameras},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We characterize a long wave infrared multiple aperture
             imaging system by experimentally measuring its Noise
             Equivalent Temperature Difference and modulation transfer
             function. These results are compared with a conventional
             system. © 2008 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280199}
}

@article{fds280321,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Hsieh, C and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Very-high-resolution tandem Fabry-Perot etalon cylindrical
             beam volume hologram spectrometer for diffuse source
             spectroscopy.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {31-33},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.33.000031},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a compact and slitless spectrometer with high
             resolution formed by cascading a Fabry-Perot etalon (FPE)
             and a cylindrical beam volume hologram (CBVH). The most
             significant advantage of this combined spectrometer is that
             we can independently encode spectral information of a
             diffuse beam in a 2D plane. Also, we show that in this
             slitless configuration we can simultaneously benefit from
             the advantages of both elements: the high resolution of the
             FPE and the large spectral range of the CBVH. Here, we
             report on the experimental demonstration of a spectrometer
             with better than 0.2 nm resolution.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.33.000031},
   Key = {fds280321}
}

@article{fds280326,
   Author = {Healy, D and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compression at the physical interface: The A-to-I and
             MONTAGE programs},
   Journal = {Ieee Signal Processing Magazine},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {67-71},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-5888},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2007.914996},
   Abstract = {Progresses in physical compressive sampling under the
             Defense Advanced Research Agency's Analog-to-Information
             (A-to-I) and Multiple Optical Non-Redundant Aperture
             Generalized Sensors (MONTAGE) programs are more about
             finding aggressive forms of generalized sampling under which
             measurements consist of transformation, projections or
             encodings of the signal onto discrete digital data. The two
             projects differ in that the former seeks to revolutionize
             very high temporal bandwidth analog to digital signal
             conversion whereas the latter aims to revolutionize very
             high spatial bandwidth analog to digital signal conversion.
             Nevertheless, MONTAGE focuses on data conversion approaches
             while both have realized new opportunities and established
             various important bounds on the sampling required as a
             function of prior and ancillary information.},
   Doi = {10.1109/MSP.2007.914996},
   Key = {fds280326}
}

@article{fds280327,
   Author = {Athale, R and Healy, DM and Brady, DJ and Neifeld,
             MA},
   Title = {Reinventing the camera},
   Journal = {Optics and Photonics News},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {32-37},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1047-6938},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPN.19.3.000032},
   Abstract = {The workshop for the Microsystems Technology Office at the
             Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 'Camera
             Ab Initio', in April, 2003 challenged the attendees to
             rethink the architecture of a camera, or an imaging sensor.
             The workshop resulted in the MONTAGE (Multiple Nonredundant
             Optical Aperture generalized Imager) project, through which
             DARPA has successfully demonstrated that thin imaging
             systems based on multichannel and folded path optics could
             produce high-quality images. The project was based on two
             principles, imaging systems are inherently low-pass filters
             with spatial bandwidth proportional to the extent of the
             aperture, and optical power collection efficiency is
             proportional to aperture area. Ideal design strategies will
             integrate MONTAGE optics with co-designed focal planes and
             read-out circuits. MONTAGE has focused nearly exclusively on
             joint optimization of optical systems and computational
             post-processing.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OPN.19.3.000032},
   Key = {fds280327}
}

@article{fds280325,
   Author = {Marcia, RF and Kim, C and Kim, J and Brady, DJ and Willett,
             RM},
   Title = {Fast disambiguation of superimposed images for increased
             field of view},
   Journal = {Proceedings International Conference on Image Processing,
             Icip},
   Pages = {2620-2623},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1522-4880},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIP.2008.4712331},
   Abstract = {Many infrared optical systems in wide-ranging applications
             such as surveillance and security frequently require large
             fields of view. Often this necessitates a focal plane array
             (FPA) with a large number of pixels, which, in general, is
             very expensive. In this paper, we propose a method for
             increasing the field of view without increasing the pixel
             resolution of the FPA by superimposing the multiple
             subimages within a scene and disambiguating the observed
             data to reconstruct the original scene. This technique, in
             effect, allows each subimage of the scene to share a single
             FPA, thereby increasing the field of view without
             compromising resolution. To disambiguate the subimages, we
             develop wavelet regularized reconstruction methods which
             encourage sparsity in the solution. We present results from
             numerical experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of
             this approach. © 2008 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/ICIP.2008.4712331},
   Key = {fds280325}
}

@article{fds319897,
   Author = {Uttam, S and Goodman, NA and Neifeld, MA and Changsoon, K and Jungsang,
             K and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Optically multiplexed imaging with superposition space
             tracking},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {7096},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.795150},
   Abstract = {We describe a novel method to track targets in a large field
             of view. This method simultaneously images multiple, encoded
             sub-fields of view onto a common focal plane. Sub-field
             encoding enables target tracking by creating a unique
             connection between target characteristics in superposition
             space and the target's true position in real space. This is
             accomplished without reconstructing a conventional image of
             the large field of view. Potential encoding schemes include
             spatial shift, rotation, and magnification. We briefly
             discuss each of these encoding schemes, but the main
             emphasis of the paper and all examples are based on
             one-dimensional spatial shift encoding. Simulation results
             are included to show the efficacy of the proposed sub-field
             encoding scheme.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.795150},
   Key = {fds319897}
}

@article{fds280315,
   Author = {Mahalanobis, A and Reyner, C and Patel, H and Haberfelde, T and Brady,
             D and Neifeld, M and Kumar, BVKV and Rogers, S},
   Title = {IR performance study of an adaptive coded aperture
             "diffractive imaging" system employing MEMS "eyelid shutter"
             technologies},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6714},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.745956},
   Abstract = {Adaptive coded aperture sensing is an emerging technology
             enabling real time, wide-area IR/visible sensing and
             imaging. Exploiting unique imaging architectures, adaptive
             coded aperture sensors achieve wide field of view,
             near-instantaneous optical path repositioning, and high
             resolution while reducing weight, power consumption and cost
             of air- and space born sensors. Such sensors may be used for
             military, civilian, or commercial applications in all
             optical bands but there is special interest in diffraction
             imaging sensors for IR applications. Extension of coded
             apertures from Visible to the MWIR introduces the effects of
             diffraction and other distortions not observed in shorter
             wavelength systems. A new approach is being developed under
             the DARPA/SPO funded LACOSTE (Large Area Coverage Optical
             search-while Track and Engage) program, that addresses the
             effects of diffraction while gaining the benefits of coded
             apertures, thus providing flexibility to vary resolution,
             possess sufficient light gathering power, and achieve a wide
             field of view (WFOV). The photonic MEMS-Eyelid
             "sub-aperture" array technology is currently being
             instantiated in this DARPA program to be the heart of
             conducting the flow (heartbeat) of the incoming signal.
             However, packaging and scalability are critical factors for
             the MEMS "sub-aperture"" technology which will determine
             system efficacy as well as military and commercial
             usefulness. As larger arrays with 1,000,000+ sub-apertures
             are produced for this LACOSTE effort, the available Degrees
             of Freedom (DOF) will enable better spatial resolution,
             control and refinement on the coding for the system. Studies
             (SNR simulations) will be performed (based on the Adaptive
             Coded Aperture algorithm implementation) to determine the
             efficacy of this diffractive MEMS approach and to determine
             the available system budget based on simulated bi-static
             shutter-element DOF degradation (1 %, 5%, 10%, 20%, etc.)
             trials until the degradation level where it is perceived to
             necessitate component replacement. System performance
             impacts, from DOF degradation, will manifest in a spatially
             random method.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.745956},
   Key = {fds280315}
}

@article{fds280316,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {An ultra-high resolution spectrometer with successive
             combination of a Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam
             volume hologram},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics, 2007, Cleo
             2007},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEO.2007.4453083},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam volume
             hologram. The combination of these two elements results in a
             twodimensional spatial-spectral mapping in the output plane.
             Using this spectrometer, ultra-high resolution (better than
             0.2 nm) over a large bandwidth (larger than 300 nm) has been
             experimentally demonstrated for diffuse light sources. ©
             2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CLEO.2007.4453083},
   Key = {fds280316}
}

@article{fds280320,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and John, R and Brady, DJ and Willett, RM and Schulz,
             TJ},
   Title = {Single-shot compressive spectral imaging with a
             dual-disperser architecture.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {14013-14027},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.15.014013},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a single-shot spectral imaging approach
             based on the concept of compressive sensing. The primary
             features of the system design are two dispersive elements,
             arranged in opposition and surrounding a binary-valued
             aperture code. In contrast to thin-film approaches to
             spectral filtering, this structure results in
             easily-controllable, spatially-varying, spectral filter
             functions with narrow features. Measurement of the input
             scene through these filters is equivalent to projective
             measurement in the spectral domain, and hence can be treated
             with the compressive sensing frameworks recently developed
             by a number of groups. We present a reconstruction framework
             and demonstrate its application to experimental
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.15.014013},
   Key = {fds280320}
}

@article{fds280389,
   Author = {Zheng, Y and Brady, DJ and Agarwal, PK},
   Title = {Localization using boundary sensors: An analysis based on
             graph theory},
   Journal = {Acm Transactions on Sensor Networks},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {21-es},
   Publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1550-4859},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1281492.1281496},
   Abstract = {We consider sensors, such as fibers, lasers, and
             pyroelectric motion detectors, that fire when objects cross
             a boundary. A moving object can be localized by analyzing
             sequences of boundary crossings. We consider the number of
             distinct sequences and object positions that can be achieved
             using boundary sensors in one- and two-dimensional spaces.
             For 1D systems we use representations of sensor sequences on
             graphs to derive limits on the number of object locations
             that can be monitored by a given sensor population and
             sequence length. For 2D systems we show that in certain
             circumstances the ratio of the number of unique sensor
             sequences to the number of unique object paths is
             exponential in the sequence length and we argue that the
             probability of unique identification is high for
             sufficiently large sequences. We also prove the triangle
             grid can track an object with error limited to a small
             neighborhood. © 2007 ACM.},
   Doi = {10.1145/1281492.1281496},
   Key = {fds280389}
}

@article{fds280310,
   Author = {Willett, RM and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multiscale reconstruction for computational spectral
             imaging},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6498},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.715711},
   Abstract = {In this work we develop a spectral imaging system and
             associated reconstruction methods that have been designed to
             exploit the theory of compressive sensing. Recent work in
             this emerging field indicates that when the signal of
             interest is very sparse (i.e. zero-valued at most locations)
             or highly compressible in some basis, relatively few
             incoherent observations are necessary to reconstruct the
             most significant non-zero signal components. Conventionally,
             spectral imaging systems measure complete data cubes and are
             subject to performance limiting tradeoffs between spectral
             and spatial resolution. We achieve single-shot full 3D data
             cube estimates by using compressed sensing reconstruction
             methods to process observations collected using an
             innovative, real-time, dual-disperser spectral imager. The
             physical system contains a transmissive coding element
             located between a pair of matched dispersers, so that each
             pixel measurement is the coded projection of the spectrum in
             the corresponding spatial location in the spectral data
             cube. Using a novel multiscale representation of the
             spectral image data cube, we are able to accurately
             reconstruct 256 × 256 × 15 spectral image cubes using just
             256 × 256 measurements. © 2007 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.715711},
   Key = {fds280310}
}

@article{fds280319,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, AA and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Performance comparison of aperture codes for multimodal,
             multiplex spectroscopy.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {4932-4942},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676097},
   Abstract = {We experimentally evaluate diverse static independent column
             codes in a coded aperture spectrometer. The performance of
             each code is evaluated based on the signal-to-noise ratio
             (SNR), defined as the peak value in the spectrum to the
             standard deviation of the background noise, as a function of
             subpixel vertical misalignments. Among the code families
             tested, an S-matrix-based code produces spectral
             reconstructions with the highest SNR. The SNR is least
             sensitive to vertical subpixel misalignments on the detector
             with a Hadamard-matrix-based code. Finally, the increased
             sensitivity of a spectrometer using a coded aperture instead
             of a slit is demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.46.004932},
   Key = {fds280319}
}

@article{fds280317,
   Author = {Feller, SD and Chen, H and Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME and Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A},
   Title = {Multiple order coded aperture spectrometer.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {5625-5630},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.15.005625},
   Abstract = {We introduce a multiple order coded aperture (MOCA)
             spectrometer. The MOCA is a system that uses a multiplex
             hologram and a coded aperture to increase the spectral range
             and throughput of the system over conventional spectrometers
             while maintaining spectral resolution. This results in an
             order of magnitude reduction in system volume with no loss
             in resolution.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.15.005625},
   Key = {fds280317}
}

@article{fds280318,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Guenther, BD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Sullivan,
             ME},
   Title = {Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive
             spectrometer.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {5742-5753},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.15.005742},
   Abstract = {We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave
             infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer
             array at the detector plane. The two-dimensional aperture
             code is based on a row-doubled Hadamard mask with
             transmissive and opaque openings. The independent column
             code nature of the matrix makes for a mathematically
             well-defined pattern that spatially and spectrally maps the
             source information to the detector plane. Post-processing
             techniques on the data provide spectral estimates of the
             source. Comparative experimental results between a slit and
             coded aperture for emission spectroscopy from a CO(2) laser
             are demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.15.005742},
   Key = {fds280318}
}

@article{071310512221,
   Author = {Fang, J-S and Hao, Q and Brady, DJ and Guenther, BD and Hsu,
             KY},
   Title = {A pyroelectric infrared biometric system for real-time
             walker recognition by use of a maximum likelihood principal
             components estimation (MLPCE) method.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3271-3284},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.003271},
   Keywords = {Biometrics;Maximum likelihood estimation;Object
             recognition;Principal component analysis;Real time
             control;},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a novel biometric system for real-time
             walker recognition using a pyroelectric infrared sensor, a
             Fresnel lens array and signal processing based on the linear
             regression of sensor signal spectra. In the model training
             stage, the maximum likelihood principal components
             estimation (MLPCE) method is utilized to obtain the
             regression vector for each registered human subject.
             Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are also
             investigated to select a suitable threshold for maximizing
             subject recognition rate. The experimental results
             demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed pyroelectric
             sensor system in recognizing registered subjects and
             rejecting unknown subjects.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.15.003271},
   Key = {071310512221}
}

@article{fds280156,
   Author = {Mahalanobis, A and Neifeld, M and Kumar, BVKV and Brady, D and Haberfelde, T and Muise, R},
   Title = {Multiplexed point spread functions for image formation with
             application to large area sensing and surveillance},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Key = {fds280156}
}

@article{fds280157,
   Author = {Portnoy, A and Shankar, M and Pitsianis, N and Brady, D and Gibbons, R and Silver, A and Keller, D and Chen, C and Prather, D},
   Title = {Depth of field with multi-aperture LWIR imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We use a multiaperture approach to design a thin LWIR
             camera. Having a shorter focal length, the microlens array
             provides an extended depth of field over the conventional
             system. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280157}
}

@article{fds280158,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Pitsianis, N and Sun, X and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Compressive measurements for video},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Redundancies present in video streams could be used to
             implement compressive sampling to achieve low power video
             sensors. We explore the possibilities of using this in the
             design of compressive video sensors and corresponding
             algorithms. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280158}
}

@article{fds280162,
   Author = {Kim, MS and Gehm, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Hyperspectral imager based on coded-aperture
             spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {A hyperspectral imager based on coded-aperture spectroscopy
             has excellently generated 3-D data cube that provides 2-D
             images of a sample with high selectivity of wavelength as
             well as spectrum with meaningful spectral features. © 2007
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280162}
}

@article{fds280193,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Eftekhar, AA and Adibi, A and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {An ultra-high resolution tandem fabry-perot etalon
             cylindrical beam volume hologram spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam volume
             hologram. The combination of these two elements results in a
             twodimensional spatial-spectral mapping in the output plane.
             Using this spectrometer, ultra-high resolution (better than
             0.2 nm) over a large bandwidth has been experimentally
             demonstrated for diffuse light sources. © 2007 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280193}
}

@article{fds280194,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {An ultra-high resolution volume holographic
             spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam volume
             hologram. The combination of these two elements results in a
             twodimensional spatial-spectral mapping in the output plane.
             Using this spectrometer, ultra-high resolution (better than
             0.2 nm) over a large bandwidth has been experimentally
             demonstrated for diffuse light sources. © 2007 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280194}
}

@article{fds280195,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multidimensional spatial and coherence imaging using single
             shot spectral imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {A spectral imaging system may efficiently sense 10-100
             spectral channels but the full data cube is often redundant.
             We propose to exploit this redundancy to computationally
             expand depth of field or obtain multidimensional spatial
             images. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280195}
}

@article{fds280196,
   Author = {Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Sun, X},
   Title = {The MONTAGE least gradient image reconstruction},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We introduce an image reconstruction algorithm for the
             Compressive Optical MONTAGE Photography Initiative, for
             recovering the resolution of an image from a set of aliased
             subimages acquired by a lenslet array optical system. ©
             2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280196}
}

@article{fds280197,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Willett, RM and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded-excitation Raman spectroscopy for Raman signal
             estimation in highly fluorescent media},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Raman signal estimation in highly fluorescent media is
             investigated using multiple excitation lasers and an
             iterative EM spectral reconstruction algorithm. Results from
             an 8-laser system show estimation performance increases with
             the number of excitation lasers. © 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280197}
}

@article{fds280198,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {An ultra-high resolution spectrometer with successive
             combination of a Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam
             volume hologram},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a cylindrical beam volume
             hologram. The combination of these two elements results in a
             twodimensional spatial-spectral mapping in the output plane.
             Using this spectrometer, ultra-high resolution (better than
             0.2 nm) over a large bandwidth (larger than 300 nm) has been
             experimentally demonstrated for diffuse light sources. ©
             2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280198}
}

@article{fds280215,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and John, R and Gehm, M and Schulz, T and Willett,
             R},
   Title = {Optical designs for compressive single shot spectral
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Static mask coded aperture spectral imaging enables compact,
             programmable coding for single shot measurements. We review
             recent demonstrations of spectral imaging systems in the
             DISP lab and describes trade-offs in dispersion and coding
             system design. © 2007 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280215}
}

@article{fds280216,
   Author = {John, R and Brady, DJ and Willett, R and Gehm, M and Schulz,
             T},
   Title = {A snap-shot dual-disperser imager for compressive
             hyperspectral imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a single-shot, dual-disperser spectral
             imaging system using coded apertures to perform compressive
             imaging. We also describe associated multiscale
             reconstruction algorithms to retrieve hyperspectral data
             from single-shot image. We show simulated and experimental
             results. © 2007 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280216}
}

@article{071010465726,
   Author = {Cull, EC and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Hsieh, CR and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A},
   Title = {Dispersion multiplexing with broadband filtering for
             miniature spectrometers.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {365-374},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17228382},
   Keywords = {Broadband networks;Diffraction gratings;Dispersion
             (waves);Holography;Multiplexing;Optical filters;},
   Abstract = {We replace the traditional grating used in a dispersive
             spectrometer with a multiplex holographic grating to
             increase the spectral range sensed by the instrument. The
             multiplexed grating allows us to measure three different,
             overlapping spectral bands on a color digital focal plane.
             The detector's broadband color filters, along with a
             computational inversion algorithm, let us disambiguate
             measurements made from the three bands. The overlapping
             spectral bands allow us to measure a greater spectral
             bandwidth than a traditional spectrometer with the same
             sized detector. Additionally, our spectrometer uses a static
             coded aperture mask in the place of a slit. The aperture
             mask allows increased light throughput, offsetting the
             photon loss at the broadband filters. We present our
             proof-of-concept dispersion multiplexing spectrometer design
             with experimental measurements to verify its
             operation.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.46.000365},
   Key = {071010465726}
}

@article{fds330746,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Brady, D and Schindler, J and Perlovsky, L and Rangaswamy, M},
   Title = {On the design of SAR apertures using the Cramér-Rao
             bound},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
             Systems},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {344-355},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TAES.2007.357138},
   Abstract = {The Cramér-Rao inequality is applied to the likelihood
             function of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterer
             parameter vector to relate the choice of flight path to
             estimation performance. Estimation error bounds for the
             scatterer parameter vector (including height) are developed
             for multi-dimensional synthetic apertures, and quantify the
             performance enhancement over a limited sector of the image
             plane relative to standard-aperture single-pass SAR
             missions. An efficient means for the design and analysis of
             SAR waveforms and flight paths is proposed using simulated
             scattering models that are limited in size. Comparison of
             the error bounds to those for standard-aperture SAR show
             that estimates of scatterer range and cross-range positions
             are accurate for multi-dimensional aperture SAR, even with
             the additional estimator for height. Furthermore,
             multi-dimensional SAR is shown to address the layover
             problem. © 2007 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TAES.2007.357138},
   Key = {fds330746}
}

@article{fds280314,
   Author = {Goodwin, S and Carlson, J and Rogers, S and Kim, J and Kim, C and Brady, D and Stoner, BR},
   Title = {Dynamic aperture optical arrays based on polymeric MEMS
             actuators for large scale coding elements with application
             in visible to MWIR},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6714},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.736074},
   Abstract = {Extension of coded apertures to the MWIR introduces the
             effects of diffraction and other distortions not observed in
             shorter wavelength systems. A new approach is being
             developed under the DARPA/SPO funded LACOSTE (Large Area
             Coverage Optical search-while Track and Engage) program,
             that addresses the effects of diffraction while gaining the
             benefits of coded apertures, thus providing flexibility to
             vary resolution, possess sufficient light gathering power,
             and achieve a wide field of view (WFOV). The photonic MEMS
             "eyelid" array technology is currently being instantiated in
             this DARPA Surveillance program study as the "heart",
             mediating the flow of the incoming signal. However, speed,
             lifetime, packaging and scalability are critical factors for
             the MEMS "eyelid" technology which will determine system
             efficacy as well as military and commercial usefulness. The
             electronic eyelid array is the fundamental addressable unit
             for adaptive code generation and will allow the system to
             multiplex in time for increased resolution. The binary code
             which determines whether a 500μm eyelid is open or closed
             is referred to as the "eyelid code." Groups of eyelids can
             work together as a "super aperture" by virtue of a
             "macro-code." A macro code becomes relevant to describe how
             dispersed eyelids across the 0.19m × 0.19m aperture will
             function together. Dynamic aperture arrays were fabricated
             on both quartz and sapphire substrates for operation in the
             visible to MWIR. Both 8×8 and 40×40 element arrays were
             designed, fabricated, and tested with macro-codes consisting
             of 4, 8, and 16 unique combinations. The die were packaged
             and tested in ambient for robust eyelid operations. The
             point spread function was also measured in an optical setup
             with the eyelid arrays located in the aperture
             plane.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.736074},
   Key = {fds280314}
}

@article{fds280268,
   Author = {Schultz, J and Mrksich, M and Bhatia, SN and Brady, DJ and Ricco, AJ and Walt, DR and Wilkins, CL},
   Title = {Biosensing: International research and development},
   Journal = {Biosensing},
   Pages = {1-387},
   Publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4058-X},
   Abstract = {The goal of this book is to disseminate information on the
             worldwide status and trends in biosensing R&D to government
             decisionmakers and the research community. The contributors
             critically analyze and compare biosensing research in the
             United States with that being pursued in Japan, Europe and
             other major industrialized countries. Biosensing includes
             systems that incorporate a variety of means, including
             electrical, electronic, and photonic devices; biological
             materials (e.g., tissue, enzymes, nucleic acids, etc.); and
             chemical analysis to produce detectable signals for the
             monitoring or identification of biological phenomena. In a
             broader sense, the study of biosensing includes any approach
             to detection of biological elements and the associated
             software or computer identification technologies (e.g.,
             imaging) that identify biological characteristics.
             Biosensing is finding a growing number of applications in a
             wide variety of areas, including biomedicine, food
             production and processing, and detection of bacteria,
             viruses, and biological toxins for biowarfare defense.
             Subtopics likely to be covered in this study include the
             following: Nucleic acid sensors and DNA chips and arrays,
             organism-and cell-based biosensors, bioelectronics and
             biometrics, biointerfaces and biomaterials; biocompatibility
             and biofouling, integrated, multi-modality sensors and
             sensor networks, system issues, including signal
             transduction, data interpretation, and validation, novel
             sensing algorithms, e.g., non-enzyme-based sensors for
             glucose, mechanical sensors for prosthetics, related issues
             in bio-MEMS and NEMS (microelectromechanical and
             nanoelectromechanical systems), possibly including
             actuators, applications in biomedicine, the environment,
             food industry, security and defense. Particular emphasis
             will be on technologies that may lead to portable or
             fieldable devices/instruments. Important consideration will
             be given to an integrated approach to detection, storage,
             analysis, validation, interpretation and presentation of
             results from the biosensing system. Focus will be on
             research from the following disciplines: BioMems & nano,
             optical spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, chemometrics,
             pattern recognition, telemetry, signal processing, and
             toxicology. Finally, beyond the above technical issues, the
             study will also address the following non-technical issues:
             Mechanisms for enhancing international and interdisciplinary
             cooperation in the field, opportunities for shortening the
             lead time for deployment of new biosensing technologies
             emerging from the laboratory, long range research,
             educational, and infrastructure issues that need addressed
             to promote better progress in the field, current government
             R&D funding levels overseas compared to the United States,
             to the extent data are available. © 2006 Springer. All
             Rights Reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1007/1-4020-4058-X},
   Key = {fds280268}
}

@article{fds280269,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Information systems for biosensing},
   Pages = {107-119},
   Publisher = {Springer Netherlands},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-4058-X_7},
   Doi = {10.1007/1-4020-4058-X_7},
   Key = {fds280269}
}

@article{fds280309,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Schindler, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Evaluation and tuning of a SAR detector using sparse-array
             spotlight mode simulations},
   Journal = {2006 Ieee Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing
             Workshop Proceedings, Sam 2006},
   Pages = {315-319},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SAM.2006.1677211},
   Abstract = {We describe a method of tuning a simple detection process of
             stationary targets in SAR images. The tuning metric accounts
             for the squared-error performance of prescient estimators of
             target location and reflectivity. The efficiencies of these
             prescient estimators are compared to their Cramér Rao
             bounds (CRBs). The off-line tuning is performed by
             collecting statistics of scatterer estimation in SAR images
             created using sparse-array spotlight mode simulations. ©
             2006 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/SAM.2006.1677211},
   Key = {fds280309}
}

@article{070210353287,
   Author = {Guo, J and Adato, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Single-shot subpixel response measurement with an aperture
             array pixel mask.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {3441-3443},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.31.003441},
   Keywords = {Image processing;CMOS integrated circuits;Image
             sensors;Optical resolving power;},
   Abstract = {We first point out that the subpixel response function is
             another kernel function in digital imaging. Then we show
             that the subpixel response function of CMOS imaging sensor
             pixels can be measured with an aperture array pixel mask in
             a single-shot image capture. Our technique permits
             high-resolution subpixel response function measurement of
             imaging pixels for superresolution imaging
             applications.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.31.003441},
   Key = {070210353287}
}

@article{065210331906,
   Author = {Hao, Q and Brady, DJ and Guenther, BD and Burchett, JB and Shankar, M and Feller, S},
   Title = {Human tracking with wireless distributed pyroelectric
             sensors},
   Journal = {Ieee Sensors Journal},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1683-1695},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1530-437X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2006.884562},
   Keywords = {Pyroelectricity;Signal processing;Algorithms;Software
             prototyping;Arrays;Computation theory;Numerical
             methods;},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a wireless pyroelectric sensor system,
             composed of sensing modules (slaves), a synchronization and
             error rejection module (master), and a data fusion module
             (host), to perform human tracking. The computation workload
             distribution among slave, master, and host is investigated.
             The performances and costs of different signal-processing
             and target-tracking algorithms are discussed. A prototype
             system is described containing pyroelectric sensor modules
             that are able to detect the angular displacement of a moving
             thermal target. Fresnel lens arrays are used to modulate the
             sensor field of view. The sensor system has been used to
             track a single human target. © 2006 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JSEN.2006.884562},
   Key = {065210331906}
}

@article{064710259832,
   Author = {Dillon, T and Marchena, E and Chen, C and Brady, D and Prather,
             D},
   Title = {Microlens fabrication using HEBS glass for compact
             high-resolution IR imaging system},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6327},
   Pages = {632770 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.681222},
   Keywords = {Fabrication;Glass;Infrared imaging;Optical resolving
             power;Optimization;Image reconstruction;Imaging
             systems;},
   Abstract = {Under the DARPA COMP-I (Compressive Optical MONTAGE
             Photography Initiative) program, the goal of this project is
             to significantly reduce the volume and form factor of
             infrared imaging systems without loss of resolution. The
             approach taken is to use an array of small lenses with
             extremely short focal lengths rather than the conventional
             approach of a single aperture lens system with large
             diameter and focal length. The array of lenses creates
             multiple copies of the scene on a single focal plane
             detector array, which are then used to reconstruct an image
             with resolution comparable to or higher than that of the
             conventional imaging system. This is achieved by a
             computational method known as super-resolution
             reconstruction. Work at the University of Delaware towards
             this end includes participation in the design and
             optimization of the optical system along with fabrication of
             some of the optical elements. Grayscale lithography using a
             high-energy beam sensitive (HEBS) glass photomask and
             proportional dry etch pattern transfer are the key
             techniques enabling the fabrication process. In this paper
             we will discuss the design of the imaging system while
             focusing on the fabrication aspects of the
             project.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.681222},
   Key = {064710259832}
}

@article{064610232537,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Leith-Upatnieks holography in computational
             sensors},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6311},
   Pages = {63111 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.686729},
   Keywords = {Optical sensors;Signal filtering and prediction;Spectrometers;Holography;},
   Abstract = {Holographic optical elements are a critically enabling
             component of modern spectroscopy and spectral imaging
             systems. While the most common holographic elements are
             essentially those discovered in 1962 by Leith and Upatnieks,
             several decades passed prior to the effective integration of
             holography and sensing. Over 5 decades Emmett Leith was a
             prime mover in both the birth and the maturation of
             computational holographic sensors. Recent demonstrations of
             the unique utility of holographic filtering suggest that
             continued improvements in materials and recording processes
             for Leith's original concept will yield tremendous results.
             This paper describes the multiple order coded aperture
             (MOCA) spectrometer as an example of the potential for
             advanced holography in computational sensors.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.686729},
   Key = {064610232537}
}

@article{064510219629,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Willett, R and Pitsianis, NP and Te Kolste and R and Chen,
             C and Gibbons, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Ultra-thin Multiple-channel LWIR Imaging
             Systems},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6294},
   Pages = {629411 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.681386},
   Keywords = {Cameras;Optical resolving power;Image reconstruction;Lenses;Diffraction;Image
             quality;Wavelet transforms;},
   Abstract = {Infrared camera systems may be made dramatically smaller by
             simultaneously collecting several low-resolution images with
             multiple narrow aperture lenses rather than collecting a
             single high-resolution image with one wide aperture lens.
             Conventional imaging systems consist of one or more optical
             elements that image a scene on the focal plane. The
             resolution depends on the wavelength of operation and the
             f-number of the lens system, assuming a diffraction limited
             operation. An image of comparable resolution may be obtained
             by using a multi-channel camera that collects multiple
             low-resolution measurements of the scene and then
             reconstructing a high-resolution image. The proposed
             infrared sensing system uses a three-by-three lenslet array
             with an effective focal length of 1.9mm and overall system
             length of 2.3mm, and we achieve image resolution comparable
             to a conventional single lens system having a focal length
             of 5.7mm and overall system length of 26mm. The
             high-resolution final image generated by this system is
             reconstructed from the noisy low-resolution images
             corresponding to each lenslet; this is accomplished using a
             computational process known as superresolution
             reconstruction. The novelty of our approach to the
             superresolution problem is the use of wavelets and related
             multiresolution method within a Expectation-Maximization
             framework to improve the accuracy and visual quality of the
             reconstructed image. The wavelet-based regularization
             reduces the appearance of artifacts while preserving key
             features such as edges and singularities. The processing
             method is very fast, making the integrated sensing and
             processing viable for both time-sensitive applications and
             massive collections of sensor outputs.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.681386},
   Key = {064510219629}
}

@article{070910440931,
   Author = {Agarwal, PK and Brady, D and Matoušek, J},
   Title = {Segmenting object space by geometric reference
             structures},
   Journal = {Acm Transactions on Sensor Networks},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {455-465},
   Publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1550-4859},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1218556.1218557},
   Keywords = {Computational geometry;Mathematical models;Pattern
             recognition;Sensors;Telecommunication networks;},
   Abstract = {A model for segmentation of an object space by an array of
             binary, radiation-field sensors and geometric reference
             structures is described. Given a family of binary,
             radiation-field sensors and a geometric reference structure,
             we refer to the set of sensor states induced by a source at
             point p as the signature of p. We study the segmentation of
             an object space into signature cells and prove near optimal
             bounds on the number of distinct signatures induced by a
             point source, as a function of sensor and reference
             structure complexity. We also show that almost any family of
             signatures can be implemented under this model. © 2006
             ACM.},
   Doi = {10.1145/1218556.1218557},
   Key = {070910440931}
}

@article{070310366393,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Burchett, JB and Hao, Q and Guenther, BD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Human-tracking systems using pyroelectric infrared
             detectors},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {106401-106401},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2360948},
   Keywords = {Infrared detectors;Pyroelectricity;Tracking (position);Light
             modulation;Visibility;Optical design;},
   Abstract = {We design and develop a low-cost pyroelectric detector-based
             IR motion-tracking system. We study the characteristics of
             the detector and the Fresnel lenses that are used to
             modulate the visibility of the detectors. We build sensor
             clusters in different configurations and demonstrate their
             use for human motion tracking. © 2006 Society of
             Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.2360948},
   Key = {070310366393}
}

@article{063810119326,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME and Pitsianis, N and Sun, X},
   Title = {Compressive sampling strategies for integrated
             microspectrometers},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6232},
   Pages = {62320},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Kissimmee, FL, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.666124},
   Keywords = {Spectroscopic analysis;Sensitivity analysis;Digital
             storage;Algorithms;Signal processing;Mathematical
             models;Problem solving;Constraint theory;},
   Abstract = {We consider compressive sensing in the context of optical
             spectroscopy. With compressive sensing, the ratio between
             the number of measurements and the number of estimated
             values is less than one, without compromising the fidelity
             in estimation. A compressive sensing system is composed of a
             measurement subsystem that maps a signal to digital data and
             an inference algorithm that maps the data to a signal
             estimate. The inference algorithm exploits both the
             information captured in the measurement and certain a priori
             information about the signals of interest, while the
             measurement subsystem provides complementary,
             signal-specific information at the lowest sampling rate
             possible. Codesign of the measurement strategies, the model
             of a priori information, and the inference algorithm is the
             central problem of system design. This paper describes
             measurement constraints specific to optical spectrometers,
             inference models based on physical or statistical
             characteristics of the signals, as well as linear and
             nonlinear reconstruction algorithms. We compare the fidelity
             of sampling and inference strategies over a family of
             spectral signals.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.666124},
   Key = {063810119326}
}

@article{063810119325,
   Author = {Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Portnoy, A and Sun, X and Suleski, T and Fiddy, MA and Feldman, MR and Tekolste, RD},
   Title = {Compressive imaging sensors},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6232},
   Pages = {62320 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Kissimmee, FL, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.666451},
   Keywords = {Photography;Multiplexing;Sampling;Benchmarking;Image
             coding;Decoding;},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a compressive sensing strategy
             developed under the Compressive Optical MONTAGE Photography
             Initiative. Multiplex and multi-channel measurements are
             generally necessary for compressive sensing. In a
             compressive imaging system described here, static focal
             plane coding is used with multiple image apertures for
             non-degenerate multiplexing and multiple channel sampling.
             According to classical analysis, one might expect the number
             of pixels in a reconstructed image to equal the total number
             of pixels across the sampling channels, but we demonstrate
             that the system can achieve up to 50% compression with
             conventional benchmarking images. In general, the
             compression rate depends on the compression potential of an
             image with respect to the coding and decoding schemes
             employed in the system.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.666451},
   Key = {063810119325}
}

@article{071210493897,
   Author = {Hamza, AB and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Reconstruction of reflectance spectra using robust
             nonnegative matrix factorization},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Signal Processing},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {3637-3642},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-587X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSP.2006.879282},
   Keywords = {Algorithms;Cost functions;Optimization;Principal component
             analysis;Spectroscopic analysis;Statistics;},
   Abstract = {In this correspondence, we present a robust statistics-based
             nonnegative matrix factorization (RNMF) approach to recover
             the measurements in reflectance spectroscopy. The proposed
             algorithm is based on the minimization of a robust cost
             function and yields two equations updated alternatively.
             Unlike other linear representations, such as principal
             component analysis, the RNMF technique is resistant to
             outliers and generates nonnegative-basis functions, which
             balance the logical attractiveness of measurement functions
             against their physical feasibility. Experimental results on
             a spectral library of reflectance spectra are presented to
             illustrate the much improved performance of the RNMF
             approach. © 2006 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TSP.2006.879282},
   Key = {071210493897}
}

@article{063410079174,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Gehm, ME},
   Title = {Compressive imaging spectrometers using coded
             apertures},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6246},
   Pages = {62460 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Kissimmee, FL, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.667605},
   Keywords = {Imaging systems;Spectrum analysis;Computation theory;Image
             sensors;Spectroscopic analysis;},
   Abstract = {A spectral imager provides a 3-D data cube in which the
             spatial information (2-D) of the image is comple-mented by
             spectral information (1-D) about each spatial location.
             Typically, these systems are operated in a fully-determined
             (or overdetermined) manner so that the measurements can be
             computationally inverted into a reliable estimate of the
             source. We propose a notional system design that is highly
             underdetermined, yet still computationally invertable. This
             approach relies on recently-developed concepts in
             compressive sensing. Because the number of required
             measurements is greatly reduced from traditional designs,
             the result is a faster and more economical sensor
             system.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.667605},
   Key = {063410079174}
}

@article{9324013,
   Author = {Fang, J-S and Hao, Q and Brady, DJ and Guenther, BD and Hsu,
             KY},
   Title = {Real-time human identification using a pyroelectric infrared
             detector array and hidden Markov models.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {6643-6658},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.14.006643},
   Keywords = {biometrics (access control);expectation-maximisation
             algorithm;feature extraction;hidden Markov models;image
             motion analysis;infrared detectors;lenses;optical
             arrays;pyroelectric detectors;},
   Abstract = {This paper proposes a real-time human identification system
             using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detector array and
             hidden Markov models (HMMs). A PIR detector array with
             masked Fresnel lens arrays is used to generate digital
             sequential data that can represent a human motion feature.
             HMMs are trained to statistically model the motion features
             of individuals through an expectation-maximization (EM)
             learning process. Human subjects are recognized by
             evaluating a set of new feature data against the trained
             HMMs using the maximum-likelihood (ML) criterion. We have
             developed a prototype system to verify the proposed method.
             Sensor modules with different numbers of detectors and
             different sampling masks were tested to maximize the
             identification capability of the sensor system.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.14.006643},
   Key = {9324013}
}

@article{06269967812,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multimodal multiplex Raman spectroscopy optimized for in
             vivo chemometrics},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {6093},
   Pages = {60930 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.646755},
   Keywords = {Raman spectroscopy;Signal processing;Electric
             excitation;Regression analysis;},
   Abstract = {We have designed and constructed a multimodal multiplex
             Raman spectrometer which uses multi-wavelength excitation to
             better detect signals in the presence of fluorescence by
             taking advantage of the shift-variance of the Raman signal
             with respect to excitation frequency. Coupled with
             partial-least-squares (PLS) regression, the technique
             applied to ethanol estimation in a tissue phantom achieves
             root-mean-squared-cross-validation errors (RMSCVE) of 9.2
             mmol/L with a model formed with 2 principal components,
             compared to a single wavelength data set with equivalent
             energy where 7 principal components were used to achieve an
             RMSCVE of 39.1 mmol/L.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.646755},
   Key = {06269967812}
}

@article{06289986776,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Coded aperture Raman spectroscopy for quantitative
             measurements of ethanol in a tissue phantom.},
   Journal = {Applied Spectroscopy},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {663-671},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-7028},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16808868},
   Keywords = {Raman spectroscopy;Tissue;Optimization;Spectrometers;Regression
             analysis;Multiplexing;},
   Abstract = {Coded aperture spectroscopy allows for sources of large
             étendue to be efficiently coupled into dispersive
             spectrometers by replacing the traditional input slit with a
             patterned mask. We describe a coded aperture spectrometer
             optimized for Raman spectroscopy of diffuse sources, (e.g.,
             tissue). We provide design details of the Raman system,
             along with quantitative estimation results for ethanol at
             non-toxic levels in a lipid tissue phantom. With 60 mW of
             excitation power at 808 nm, leave-one-out and blind
             cross-validation of partial least squares (PLS) regression
             models achieve r(2) > 0.98. Leave-one-out cross-validation
             demonstrates prediction errors of <15% at the common legal
             limit for intoxication (17.4 mmol/L = 0.08% by vol) and the
             best blind cross-validation achieves <12% error at this
             concentration.},
   Doi = {10.1366/000370206777670693},
   Key = {06289986776}
}

@article{06199863575,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {High-throughput hyperspectral microscopy},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6090},
   Pages = {609007 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.644828},
   Keywords = {Microscopic examination;Product design;Computerized
             tomography;Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy;},
   Abstract = {A hyperspectral imager provides a 3-D data cube in which the
             spatial information (2-D) of the image is complemented by
             spectral information (1-D) about each spatial location. A
             static, high-throughput spectrometer design previously
             developed by our group can be used as the spectral engine in
             a high-throughput hyperspectral imager that avoids the
             Fourier undersampling issues present in previous dispersive
             designs. We present the theory for both pushbroom and
             tomographic operation and describe experimental results from
             our proof-of-concept implementation of a hyperspectral
             microscope.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.644828},
   Key = {06199863575}
}

@article{06199862382,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Sullivan, ME and Wang, Y and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Diffuse spectroscopy for inhomogeneous metal nanoparticle
             assays},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6080},
   Pages = {60800 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.645319},
   Keywords = {Nanostructured materials;Spectroscopic analysis;Computation
             theory;Biosensors;Controlled drug delivery;},
   Abstract = {We describe a compact computational spectroscopy platform
             optimized for molecular recognition using metal nanoparticle
             assays. The objective is motivated by the urgent need for
             low-cost, portable and high-throughput sensors for
             point-of-care (POC) clinical diagnostics. Nanoparticle based
             sensing has been successfully demonstrated for diagnosis and
             monitoring of infectious diseases, drug discovery,
             proteomics, and biological agent detection. Molecular
             binding on the nanoparticle surface is transuded into an
             optical signal by modification of the nanoparticle
             extinction spectrum (via a shift in Localized Surface
             Plasmon Resonance) or by modification of the molecular
             scattering spectrum (via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering).
             Translating a nanoparticle -based molecular recognition
             system into a functional miniature hand-held biosensor
             requires spectrometer designs optimized to large area
             nanoparticle assays and integrated spectral filtering to
             improve the signal specificity. Large population sampling
             with small population sensitivity is essential to highly
             sensitive nanoparticle assay analysis. We describe a
             multimodal multiplex spectroscopy (MMS) platform that
             samples the spectral response of up to 106 populations of
             10-100 nanoparticles in parallel. The advantages of MMS
             approach include: extremely high signal throughput due to
             its large aperture and high resolution with small form
             factor. We will demonstrate a nanoparticle biosensor
             platform based on MMS. Ultimately, a fully integrated
             functional miniature nanoparticle based biosensor for real
             time disease diagnosis in whole blood assays can be
             realized.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.645319},
   Key = {06199862382}
}

@article{06259945935,
   Author = {Neifeld, MA and Mahalanobis, A and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Task-specific sensing--introduction.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2857-2858},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.002857},
   Keywords = {Computer hardware;Optical sensors;Signal
             processing;Optimization;Algorithms;Data acquisition;Spectroscopic
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {Task-specific sensing (TSS), a concept concerned with the
             joint optimization of optical and/or hardware and
             computational degrees of freedom toward the optimal solution
             of a task, is discussed. TSS mitigates the limitations of
             traditional optical sensing and sensor information
             processing. Traditional approaches to sensing and sensor
             signal processing employ separate design and/or optimization
             strategies. This approach ignores the opportunity for tasks
             and algorithms to influence the type, the complexity, or the
             quantity of data gathered by sensors. TSS is a powerful
             framework for the design and analysis of optical systems for
             spectroscopy and 3D imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.45.002857},
   Key = {06259945935}
}

@article{06259945945,
   Author = {Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Analysis of slitless holographic spectrometers implemented
             by spherical beam volume holograms.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2955-2964},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.002955},
   Keywords = {Spectrometers;Slitting;Fourier transforms;Lenses;Charge
             coupled devices;Optical collimators;Feature
             extraction;},
   Abstract = {The analysis of a slitless volume holographic spectrometer
             is presented in detail. The spectrometer is based on a
             spherical beam volume hologram followed by a
             Fourier-transforming lens and a CCD. It is shown that the
             spectrometer is not sensitive to the incident angle of the
             input beam for the practical range of applications. A
             holographic spectrometer based on the conventional
             implementation is also analyzed, and the results are used to
             compare the performance of the proposed method with the
             conventional one. The experimental results are consistent
             with the theoretical study. It is also shown that the
             slitless volume holographic spectrometer lumps three
             elements (the entrance slit, the collimator, and the
             diffractive element) of the conventional spectrometer into
             one spherical beam volume hologram. Based on the unique
             features of the slitless volume holographic spectrometer, we
             believe it is a good candidate for portable spectroscopy for
             environmental and biological applications.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.45.002955},
   Key = {06259945945}
}

@article{06259945952,
   Author = {Burchett, J and Shankar, M and Hamza, AB and Guenther, BD and Pitsianis,
             N and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Lightweight biometric detection system for human
             classification using pyroelectric infrared
             detectors.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3031-3037},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16639451},
   Keywords = {Image sensors;Human engineering;Pyroelectricity;Plastic
             lenses;Arrays;Algorithms;Principal component
             analysis;Regression analysis;},
   Abstract = {We use pyroelectric detectors that are differential in
             nature to detect motion in humans by their heat emissions.
             Coded Fresnel lens arrays create boundaries that help to
             localize humans in space as well as to classify the nature
             of their motion. We design and implement a low-cost
             biometric tracking system by using off-the-shelf components.
             We demonstrate two classification methods by using data
             gathered from sensor clusters of dual-element pyroelectric
             detectors with coded Fresnel lens arrays. We propose two
             algorithms for person identification, a more generalized
             spectral clustering method and a more rigorous example that
             uses principal component regression to perform a blind
             classification.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.45.003031},
   Key = {06259945952}
}

@article{06259945944,
   Author = {Lepage, K and Thomson, DJ and Kraut, S and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multitaper scan-free spectrum estimation using a rotational
             shear interferometer.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2940-2954},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.45.002940},
   Keywords = {Spectrum analysis;Algorithms;Gaussian noise
             (electronic);Signal to noise ratio;Feature
             extraction;Computer simulation;},
   Abstract = {Multitaper methods for a scan-free spectrum estimation that
             uses a rotational shear interferometer are investigated.
             Before source spectra can be estimated the sources must be
             detected. A source detection algorithm based upon the
             multitaper F-test is proposed. The algorithm is simulated,
             with additive, white Gaussian detector noise. A source with
             a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 0.71 is detected 2.9
             degrees from a source with a SNR of 70.1, with a
             significance level of 10(-4), approximately 4 orders of
             magnitude more significant than the source detection
             obtained with a standard detection algorithm. Interpolation
             and the use of prewhitening filters are investigated in the
             context of rotational shear interferometer (RSI) source
             spectra estimation. Finally, a multitaper spectrum estimator
             is proposed, simulated, and compared with untapered
             estimates. The multitaper estimate is found via simulation
             to distinguish a spectral feature with a SNR of 1.6 near a
             large spectral feature. The SNR of 1.6 spectral feature is
             not distinguished by the untapered spectrum estimate. The
             findings are consistent with the strong capability of the
             multitaper estimate to reduce out-of-band spectral
             leakage.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.45.002940},
   Key = {06259945944}
}

@article{06259945946,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and McCain, ST and Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Potuluri, P and Sullivan, ME},
   Title = {Static two-dimensional aperture coding for multimodal,
             multiplex spectroscopy.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2965-2974},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16639444},
   Keywords = {Encoding (symbols);Spectrum analysis;Optimization;Optical
             resolving power;Spectrometers;},
   Abstract = {We propose a new class of aperture-coded spectrometer that
             is optimized for the spectral characterization of diffuse
             sources. The instrument achieves high throughput and high
             spectral resolution by replacing the slit of conventional
             dispersive spectrometers with a more complicated spatial
             filter. We develop a general mathematical framework for
             deriving the required aperture codes and discuss several
             appealing code families. Experimental results validate the
             performance of the instrument.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.45.002965},
   Key = {06259945946}
}

@article{06169823020,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Guo, J and Fiddy, MA and Feldman, MR and Te Kolste and RD},
   Title = {Thin digital imaging systems using focal plane
             coding},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {6065},
   Pages = {60650 -},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, United States},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.643203},
   Keywords = {Image coding;Information analysis;Frequency
             response;},
   Abstract = {With this work we show the use of focal plane coding to
             produce nondegenerate data between subapertures of an
             imaging system. Subaperture data is integrated to form a
             single high resolution image. Multiple apertures generate
             multiple copies of a scene on the detector plane. Placed in
             the image plane, the focal plane mask applies a unique code
             to each of these sub-images. Within each sub-image, each
             pixel is masked so that light from only certain optical
             pixels reaches the detector. Thus, each sub-image measures a
             different linear combination of optical pixels. Image
             reconstruction is achieved by inversion of the
             transformation performed by the imaging system. Registered
             detector pixels in each sub-image represent the magnitude of
             the projection of the same optical information onto
             different sampling vectors. Without a coding element, the
             imaging system would be limited by the spatial frequency
             response of the electronic detector pixel. The small mask
             features allow the imager to broaden this response and
             reconstruct higher spatial frequencies than a conventional
             coarsely sampling focal plane. © 2006 SPIE-IS&T.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.643203},
   Key = {06169823020}
}

@article{06139789578,
   Author = {Zheng, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Nonadaptive group testing based fiber sensor deployment for
             multiperson tracking},
   Journal = {Ieee Sensors Journal},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {490-494},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1530-437X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2006.870159},
   Keywords = {Tracking (position);Optical fibers;Light
             transmission;},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate a novel use of nonadaptive group testing in
             the design and implementation of a fiber sensor floor web
             for the localization and tracking of multiple individuals.
             We validate our design with a floor web woven with optical
             fiber threads that form a grid of cells, with a different
             subset of fibers on each cell. Sensors detect the presence
             of a person by the change in light transmission due to
             microbending when a fiber is stepped upon. Nonadaptive group
             testing permits the determination of a minimum number of
             sensors and the proper allocation of monitored cells to each
             sensor. The simultaneous presence of individuals on any
             combination of up to a small number of cells generates a
             unique sensor response. Our proof of concept implementation
             of an 8 × 8 grid requires the use of only 16 sensors and
             off-the-shelf inexpensive components to decipher the
             position of up to two individuals. This experiment proves
             the feasibility of our design and its extensibility to
             higher number of cells and simultaneous targets. © 2006
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/JSEN.2006.870159},
   Key = {06139789578}
}

@article{fds280155,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Willett, R and Pitsianis, N and Brady, D and Schulz, T and Gibbons, B and Te Kolste and B and Carriere, J and Chen,
             C},
   Title = {Ultra-thin multi-aperture LWIR imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We design and implement an ultra-thin LWIR camera by
             replacing the conventional lens system with a micro-lens
             array. The resulting low resolution images can be used to
             reconstruct a high resolution image by post processing. ©
             2006 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280155}
}

@article{fds280183,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Compressive sampling in spectral imaging
             systems},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Optical prefilters shape the analog-digital interface in
             imaging systems to implement generalized spatio-spectral
             sampling. The Duke Imaging and Spectroscopy Program explores
             generalized sampling systems, this talk focuses specifically
             on spectral encoding for compressive spatial imaging. ©
             2005 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280183}
}

@article{fds280184,
   Author = {Guo, J and Wang, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Super-resolution mapping of flow velocity distribution in
             nanofluidic channels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We will show a super-resolution mapping technique for
             measuring the flow velocity distribution in nanofluidic
             channels. The mapping resolution can be much smaller than
             the diffraction limit of the optical imaging system. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280184}
}

@article{fds280185,
   Author = {Guo, J and Wang, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Super-resolution mapping of flow velocity distribution in
             nanofluidic channels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We will show a super-resolution mapping technique for
             measuring the flow velocity distribution in nanofluidic
             channels. The mapping resolution can be much smaller than
             the diffraction limit of the optical imaging system. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280185}
}

@article{fds280186,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Willett, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Coded-excitation Raman spectroscopy for ethanol chemometrics
             of tissue},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Raman spectroscopy of bulk tissue is challenging due to
             sample auto-fluorescence and weak Raman cross-sections of
             most molecules. We investigate the use of coded-excitation
             Raman spectroscopy coupled with an iterative algorithm for
             Raman signal estimation. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280186}
}

@article{fds280187,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A compact Fabry-Perot grating cascaded spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a grating. The grating expands
             the limited spectral range of the Fabry-Perot and the
             combination of both elements results in a powerful
             spectrometer with good two-dimensional spatial-spectral
             diversity in the output plane. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280187}
}

@article{fds280188,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A compact fabry-perot grating cascaded spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a grating. The grating expands
             the limited spectral range of the Fabry-Perot and the
             combination of both elements results in a powerful
             spectrometer with good two-dimensional spatial-spectral
             diversity in the output plane. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280188}
}

@article{fds280189,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A compact fabry-perot grating cascaded spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a grating. The grating expands
             the limited spectral range of the Fabry-Perot and the
             combination of both elements results in a powerful
             spectrometer with good two-dimensional spatial-spectral
             diversity in the output plane. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280189}
}

@article{fds280190,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A compact fabry-perot grating cascaded spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a grating. The grating expands
             the limited spectral range of the Fabry-Perot and the
             combination of both elements results in a powerful
             spectrometer with good two-dimensional spatial-spectral
             diversity in the output plane. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280190}
}

@article{fds280191,
   Author = {Guo, J and Wang, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Super-resolution mapping of flow velocity distribution in
             nanofluidic channels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We will show a super-resolution mapping technique for
             measuring the flow velocity distribution in nanofluidic
             channels. The mapping resolution can be much smaller than
             the diffraction limit of the optical imaging system. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280191}
}

@article{fds280192,
   Author = {Guo, J and Wang, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Super-resolution mapping of flow velocity distribution in
             nanofluidic channels},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We will show a super-resolution mapping technique for
             measuring the flow velocity distribution in nanofluidic
             channels. The mapping resolution can be much smaller than
             the diffraction limit of the optical imaging system. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280192}
}

@article{fds280207,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Portnoy, AD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Dual-disperser design for single-shot computational spectral
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a dual-disperser approach to computational
             spectral imaging. This approach enables flexible code design
             and avoids problems present in single-disperser systems. We
             will report on a prototype single-shot spectral imager based
             on these ideas. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280207}
}

@article{fds280208,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Guenther, BD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Sullivan,
             ME},
   Title = {Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive
             spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave
             infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer
             array as the detector plane. We present experimental results
             of absorption spectroscopy for a variety of sources. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280208}
}

@article{fds280209,
   Author = {Wagadarikar, AA and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Evaluation of aperture codes for high throughput
             spectroscopy},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {A coded aperture spectrometer maintains the spectral
             resolution of a traditional slit spectrometer while
             dramatically increasing the throughput. Here we evaluate the
             performance of different aperture codes for spectroscopy of
             weak, incoherent sources. © 2006 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280209}
}

@article{fds280210,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Guenther, BD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Sullivan,
             ME},
   Title = {Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive
             spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave
             infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer
             array as the detector plane. We present experimental results
             of absorption spectroscopy for a variety of sources. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280210}
}

@article{fds280211,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Pushbroom hyperspectral imaging with a coded
             aperture},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a hyperspectral camera which operates by
             translating a scene across the entrance of a coded aperture
             spectrometer. This applies a sequence of unique codes to the
             image, allowing full reconstruction of the datacube. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280211}
}

@article{fds280212,
   Author = {Feller, SD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A},
   Title = {Multiple order coded aperture (MOCA) spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We introduce a Multiple Order Coded Aperture (MOCA)
             spectrometer that uses a crossdispersive hologram and a
             coded aperture to achieve improved spectral range over
             traditional dispersive spectrometers at comparable
             resolution. © 2006 OSA.},
   Key = {fds280212}
}

@article{fds280213,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Guenther, BD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Sullivan,
             ME},
   Title = {Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive
             spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave
             infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer
             array as the detector plane. We present experimental results
             of absorption spectroscopy for a variety of sources. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280213}
}

@article{fds280214,
   Author = {Fernandez, C and Guenther, BD and Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ and Sullivan,
             ME},
   Title = {Longwave infrared (LWIR) coded aperture dispersive
             spectrometer},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a static aperture-coded, dispersive longwave
             infrared (LWIR) spectrometer that uses a microbolometer
             array as the detector plane. We present experimental results
             of absorption spectroscopy for a variety of sources. © 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280214}
}

@article{fds280311,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Raman spectroscopy: Large-aperture raman spectroscopy for
             quantitative chemometrics},
   Journal = {Optics and Photonics News},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {42},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1047-6938},
   Abstract = {The creation of an inexpensive, mechanically robust,
             large-aperture Raman spectrometry for quantitative
             chemometrics is presented. The traditional slit aperture is
             replaced with a large-aperture pattern of significant
             complexity, which converts the instrument into a
             computational sensor. A specific patter is chosen to have
             mathematical properties that optimized the performance of
             this processing step. The pattern is designed so that each
             column of the pattern acts as a virtual slit, measuring the
             spectrum at high resolution and combining its result with
             all the other columns to increase the number of collected
             photons. A data model is constructed, which use a standard
             partial least-squares algorithm by using measurements made
             on liquid tissue phantoms spiked with varying concentrations
             of ethanol. The successful quantitative measurements in a
             scattering medium represents a significant step on the path
             toward the eventual clinical application of Raman
             spectroscopy.},
   Key = {fds280311}
}

@article{9364190,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A Tandem Fabry-Perot volume hologram spectrometer with high
             resolution},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Pages = {290-291},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Address = {Montreal, Que., Canada},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1092-8081},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.2006.279062},
   Keywords = {Fabry-Perot interferometers;holography;optical design
             techniques;spectrometers;},
   Abstract = {We have designed a compact spectrometer by cascading a
             simple Fabry-Perot etalon and a volume hologram. The volume
             hologram expands the limited spectral range of the
             Fabry-Perot and the combination of both elements results in
             a powerful spectrometer with good two-dimensional
             spatial-spectral diversity in the output plane. © 2006
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/LEOS.2006.279062},
   Key = {9364190}
}

@article{06059670349,
   Author = {Fang, J-S and Hao, Q and Brady, DJ and Shankar, M and Guenther, BD and Pitsianis, NP and Hsu, KY},
   Title = {Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric
             infrared sensor and fresnel lens arrays.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {609-624},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/opex.14.000609},
   Keywords = {Lenses;Cost effectiveness;Alarm systems;Parameter
             estimation;Spectrum analysis;Principal component
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {This paper presents a design and development of a low power
             consumption, and low cost, human identification system using
             a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor whose visibility is
             modulated by a Fresnel lens array. The optimal element
             number of the lens array for the identification system was
             investigated and the experimental results suggest that the
             lens array with more elements can yield a better performance
             in terms of identification and false alarm rates. The other
             parameters of the system configuration such as the height of
             sensor location and sensor-to-object distance were also
             studied to improve spectral distinctions among sensory data
             of human objects. The identification process consists of two
             parts: training and testing. For the data training, we
             employed a principal components regression (PCR) method to
             cluster data with respect to different registered objects at
             different speed levels. The feature data of different
             objects walking along the same path in training yet at
             random speeds are then tested against the pre-trained
             clusters to decide whether the target is registered, and
             which member of the registered group it is.},
   Doi = {10.1364/opex.14.000609},
   Key = {06059670349}
}

@article{070210353272,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Micro-optics and megapixels},
   Journal = {Optics and Photonics News},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {24-29},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1047-6938},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPN.17.11.000024},
   Keywords = {Measurement theory;Spectrometers;Image sensors;Goggles;Algorithms;Diffraction;},
   Abstract = {New sampling and measurement methods are proposed for
             spectrometers and imagers that are shrinking the size and
             boosting the performance of optical devices for several
             applications. Costs are reduced because less plastic, glass,
             and metal is used in each instrument and because smaller
             components are easier to incorporate in automated
             manufacturing processes. Emerging demands for compact
             instruments include low-profile infrared goggles, low-power
             ground sensor arrays, integrated sensors, and biomedical
             devices. It is believed that compressive sampling implements
             image and spectral compression in the measurement layer and
             assumes advanced signal inference algorithms in
             post-detection processing. Operators need to have high
             quality micro-optics operating near the diffraction limit
             and high fidelity nonlinear image estimation algorithms to
             make multichannel sampling work.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OPN.17.11.000024},
   Key = {070210353272}
}

@article{063110038801,
   Author = {Fang, Jian-Shuen and Hao, Qi and Brady, David J. and Guenther, Bob D. and Hsu, Ken Y.},
   Title = {Real-time human identification using a pyroelectric infrared
             detector array and hidden Markov models},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {6643 - 6658},
   Year = {2006},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.006643},
   Keywords = {Piezoelectric devices;Pattern recognition;Infrared
             detectors;Markov processes;Statistical methods;Motion
             estimation;},
   Abstract = {This paper proposes a real-time human identification system
             using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detector array and
             hidden Markov models (HMMs). A PIR detector array with
             masked Fresnel lens arrays is used to generate digital
             sequential data that can represent a human motion feature.
             HMMs are trained to statistically model the motion features
             of individuals through an expectation-maximization (EM)
             learning process. Human subjects are recognized by
             evaluating a set of new feature data against the trained
             HMMs using the maximum-likelihood (ML) criterion. We have
             developed a prototype system to verify the proposed method.
             Sensor modules with different numbers of detectors and
             different sampling masks were tested to maximize the
             identification capability of the sensor system. &copy; 2006
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {063110038801}
}

@article{05519599055,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Sullivan, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multimodal, multiplex, Raman spectroscopy of alcohol in
             diffuse, fluorescent media},
   Journal = {Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging Proceedings of
             Spie},
   Volume = {5864},
   Pages = {1-9},
   Address = {Munich, Germany},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1605-7422},
   Keywords = {Alcohols;Diffusers (fluid);Fluorescence;Medical
             imaging;Biological materials;Tissue;},
   Abstract = {Optical diagnostics in biological materials are hindered by
             fluorescence and scattering. We have developed a multimodal,
             multiplex, coded-aperture Raman spectrometer to detect
             alcohol in a lipid tissue phantom solution. © 2005 SPIE and
             OSA.},
   Key = {05519599055}
}

@article{fds280306,
   Author = {Guo, J and Portnoy, A and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Diffraction-limited impulse response image reconstruction
             with a single imaging pixel},
   Journal = {2005 Osa Topical Meeting on Information Photonics, Ip
             2005},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we will discuss two techniques to reconstruct
             diffraction-limited impulse response images by sub-pixel
             shifting the photodetector array and measuring the signal
             from a specific large area photodetector pixel. © 2005
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280306}
}

@article{070510403827,
   Author = {Linnehan, R and Brady, D and Schindler, J and Perlovsky, L and Rangaswamy, M},
   Title = {Multi-dimensional aperture design and analysis for SAR using
             the Cramér-rao theorem},
   Journal = {Ieee Camsap 2005 First International Workshop on
             Computational Advances in Multi Sensor Adaptive
             Processing},
   Volume = {2005},
   Pages = {4-7},
   Publisher = {IEEE},
   Address = {Puerto Vallarta, Mexico},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CAMAP.2005.1574169},
   Keywords = {Computer simulation;Error analysis;Optimization;Synthetic
             aperture radar;},
   Abstract = {We are applying the Cramér-Rao theorem to synthetic
             aperture radar (SAR) processing in order to establish flight
             paths that permit height estimation and minimize errors in
             reflectivity measurements. The Cramér-Rao bound (CRB)
             establishes a lower bound on the error variance of unbiased
             estimates. Error bounds are developed for multi-dimensional
             synthetic apertures that improve the overall performance and
             efficiency of monostatic, single-pass SAR missions. A
             computationally efficient means for the design and analysis
             of SAR waveforms is proposed using simulated scattering
             models that are limited in size. A comparison made with the
             error bounds for standard SAR show that estimates of
             scatterer range and cross-range positions are sufficiently
             accurate for multi-dimensional aperture SAR, even with the
             additional estimator for height. © 2005
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/CAMAP.2005.1574169},
   Key = {070510403827}
}

@article{06029636001,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Feldman, M and Pitsianis, N and Guo, JP and Portnoy, A and Fiddy, M},
   Title = {Compressive optical montage photography},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5907},
   Pages = {1-7},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.613213},
   Keywords = {Imaging systems;Optical resolving power;Holography;Image
             processing;Algorithms;Optical sensors;Optimization;Birefringence;},
   Abstract = {The Compressive Optical MONTAGE Photography Initiative
             (COMP-I) is an initiative under DARPA's MONTAGE program. The
             goals of COMP-I are to produce 1 mm thick visible imaging
             systems and 5 mm thick IR systems without compromising
             pixel-limited resolution. Innovations of COMP-I include
             focal-plane coding, block-wise focal plane codes,
             birefringent, holographic and 3D optical elements for focal
             plane remapping and embedded algorithms for image formation.
             In addition to meeting MONTAGE specifications for sensor
             thickness, focal plane coding enables a reduction in the
             transverse aperture size, physical layer compression of
             multispectral and hyperspectral data cubes, joint optical
             and electronic optimization for 3D sensing, tracking,
             feature-specific imaging and conformal array
             deployment.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.613213},
   Key = {06029636001}
}

@article{06109742883,
   Author = {Cull, EC and Gehm, ME and Guenther, BD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Standoff raman spectroscopy system for remote chemical
             detection},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5994},
   Pages = {59940},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Boston, MA, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.626170},
   Keywords = {Remote sensing;Data reduction;Throughput;},
   Abstract = {We have developed a class of aperture coding schemes for
             Remote Raman Spectrometers (RRS) that remove the traditional
             trade-off between throughput and spectral resolution. As a
             result, the size of the remote interrogation region can be
             driven by operational, rather than optical considerations.
             In this paper we present the design of our coded-aperture
             standoff spectroscopy system as well as experimental data
             collected while making remote measurements.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.626170},
   Key = {06109742883}
}

@article{05469475385,
   Author = {Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Sun, X},
   Title = {Sensor-layer image compression based on the quantized cosine
             transform},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5817},
   Pages = {250-257},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000231343200025&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Keywords = {Image sensors;Vector quantization;Cosine transforms;Imaging
             systems;Image quality;},
   Abstract = {We introduce a novel approach for compressive coding at the
             sensor layer for an integrated imaging system. Compression
             at the physical layer reduces the measurements-to-pixels
             ratio and the data volume for storage and transmission,
             without confounding image estimation or analysis. We
             introduce a particular compressive coding scheme based on
             the quantized Cosine transform (QCT) and the corresponding
             image reconstruction scheme. The QCT is restricted on the
             ternary set {-1, 0, 1} for economic implementation with a
             focal plane optical pixel mask. Combined with the
             reconstruction scheme, the QCT-based coding is shown
             favorable over existing coding schemes from the coded
             aperture literature, in terms of both reconstruction quality
             and photon efficiency.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.605659},
   Key = {05469475385}
}

@article{05439428807,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Burchett, J and Feller, SD and Jones, B and Swagart, R and Guenther, BD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Biometric tracking with coded pyroelectric sensor
             clusters},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5796},
   Pages = {174-185},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.606557},
   Keywords = {Codes (symbols);Thermal effects;Pyroelectricity;Lenses;Arrays;},
   Abstract = {Human bodies are very good heat sources with peak emission
             wavelength of about 9μm. We use pyroelectric detectors that
             are differential in nature to detect human motion by their
             heat emissions. Coded Fresnel lens arrays create boundaries
             in space which helps to localize the human motion as well as
             classification. We design and implement a low-cost biometric
             tracking system using off-the-shelf components. We
             demonstrate tracking and classification using sensor
             clusters of dual-element pyroelectric detectors with coded
             Fresnel lens arrays.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.606557},
   Key = {05439428807}
}

@article{05429421140,
   Author = {Cull, EC and Gehm, ME and McCain, ST and Guenther, BD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multimodal optical spectrometers for remote chemical
             detection},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5778},
   Number = {PART I},
   Pages = {376-382},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.606574},
   Keywords = {Optical systems;Remote sensing;Raman scattering;Throughput;Spectrum
             analyzers;},
   Abstract = {We have developed a class of aperture coding schemes for
             Remote Raman Spectrometers (RRS) that remove the traditional
             trade-off between throughput and spectral resolution. As a
             result, the size of the remote interrogation region can be
             driven by operational, rather than optical considerations.
             We present theoretical arguments on the performance of these
             codes and present data from where we have utilized these
             codes in other spectroscopy efforts.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.606574},
   Key = {05429421140}
}

@article{fds280308,
   Author = {Kraus, CL and Salazar, NC and Mitchell, JR and Florin, WD and Guenther,
             B and Brady, D and Swartzwelder, SH and White, AM},
   Title = {Inconsistencies between actual and estimated blood alcohol
             concentrations in a field study of college students: do
             students really know how much they drink?},
   Journal = {Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1672-1676},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0145-6008},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16205367},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Alcohol use by college students is commonly
             measured through the use of surveys. The validity of such
             data hinge on the assumption that students are aware of how
             much alcohol they actually consume. Recent studies call this
             assumption into question. Students tend to overestimate the
             appropriate sizes of standard drinks, suggesting that they
             might underestimate how much alcohol they consume. If this
             is true, then students' actual blood alcohol concentrations
             (BACs) should be higher than BACs estimated based on
             self-report data. The present study examined this issue
             METHODS: Breathalyzer readings and self-reported drinking
             data were collected from 152 college students during the
             fall of 2004. Estimated BACs were calculated by means of a
             standard formula, and the relation between actual and
             estimated BACs was examined. Factors contributing to
             discrepancies between the two values were identified
             RESULTS: Estimated BAC levels were significantly higher, not
             lower, than breath BAC measures. The accuracy of estimated
             BACs decreased as the number of drinks and amount of time
             spent drinking increased. Being male and drinking only beer
             predicted greater accuracy of estimated BACs CONCLUSIONS:
             Although laboratory data suggest that students underestimate
             how much they drink, the hypothesis was not supported by
             data collected in the field. It appears that students might
             actually overestimate rather than underestimate their levels
             of consumption when surveyed in the midst of a night of
             drinking. The findings corroborate observations made by
             other researchers and suggest that the findings of
             laboratory studies on college drinking do not necessarily
             extend to real-world settings.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.alc.0000179205.24180.4a},
   Key = {fds280308}
}

@article{05329282812,
   Author = {Zheng, Y and Brady, DJ and Sullivan, ME and Guenther,
             BD},
   Title = {Fiber-optic localization by geometric space coding with a
             two-dimensional gray code.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {4306-4314},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045218},
   Keywords = {Fiber optics;Image coding;Computational geometry;Binary
             codes;Cost effectiveness;Data communication
             equipment;},
   Abstract = {With the objective of monitoring motion within a room, we
             segment the two-dimensional (2D) floor space into discrete
             cells and encode each cell with a binary code word generated
             by a fiber. We design a set of k-neighbor-local codes to
             localize an extended object and, particularly when k = 2,
             employ a 2D gray code to localize a human by tracking his or
             her footsteps. Methods for implementing the codes in a fiber
             web are discussed, and we demonstrate the experimental
             result with the fiber mat. The observed system performance
             confirms the theoretical analysis. The space coding
             technique is a promising low-cost candidate not only for
             human tracking but also for other applications such as human
             gait analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.44.004306},
   Key = {05329282812}
}

@article{fds280149,
   Author = {Feller, SD and Burchett, JB and Hao, Q and Fang, JS and Shankar, M and Guenther, BD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Human characterization and tracking using pyroelectric
             sensors},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {2162-2701},
   Abstract = {A network of common pyroelectric motion sensors that can
             track and identify human targets has been developed using
             low-cost, commercially available components. Significantly
             cheaper than deploying infrared imag- ing systems and
             considerably more advanced than typical motion sensing
             systems, this system consists of a small number of sensor
             nodes distributed across a medium sized room. Each node
             contain up to eight pyroelectric detectors and provides
             limited computation and communication capabil- ities. These
             detectors use structured lenslets to extract frequency com-
             ponents of targets for classification and the location and
             orientation of the sensors is used to track targets as they
             move through the space. This system has demonstrated
             multiple target tracking and the ability to dif- ferentiate
             between multiple people. © 2005 OSA/OSHS
             2005.},
   Key = {fds280149}
}

@article{fds280165,
   Author = {Guo, J and Portnoy, A and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Diffraction-limited impulse response image reconstruction
             with a single imaging pixel},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we will discuss two techniques to reconstruct
             diffraction-limited impulse response images by sub-pixel
             shifting the photodetector array and measuring the signal
             from a specific large area photodetector pixel. © 2005
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280165}
}

@article{fds280166,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Fiddy, MA and Shahid, U and Suleski,
             TJ},
   Title = {Compressive optical MONTAGE photography initiative: Noise
             and error analysis},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Image resolution is usually considered to be proportional to
             the focal plane sampling rate. However, as a result of
             Papoulis's generalized sampling theory [1], it is possible
             to reconstruct bandlimited images from sub-Nyquist sampled
             data provided multiple channels of such data are measured,
             with each set suitably transformed to permit the computation
             of the original image. The COMP-I program uses focal plane
             coding to set sub-band sampling characteristics. Analysis
             and simulation of this approach to errors and noise is
             presented. © 2005 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280166}
}

@article{fds280167,
   Author = {Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Sun, X},
   Title = {The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image
             compression},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We introduce a compressive encoding at the sensor layer
             based on the quantized cosine transform. Compression at the
             physical layer of integrated imaging systems reduces the
             measurements-to-pixels ratio, the data volume and
             accelerates image estimation. © 2005 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280167}
}

@article{fds280168,
   Author = {Pitsianis, NP and Brady, DJ and Sun, X},
   Title = {The quantized cosine transform for sensor-layer image
             compression},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We introduce a compressive encoding at the sensor layer
             based on the quantized cosine transform. Compression at the
             physical layer of integrated imaging systems reduces the
             measurements-to-pixels ratio, the data volume and
             accelerates image estimation. © 2005 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280168}
}

@article{fds280169,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Jones, DB and Swagart, RG and Burchett, JB and Guenther,
             BD and Feller, SD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Large area pyroelectric motion tracking system},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Simple pyroelectric detectors and structured apertures are
             used to monitor motion in an area and report location and
             velocity of objects moving through the monitored area. ©
             2005 OSA/COSI 2005.},
   Key = {fds280169}
}

@article{fds280170,
   Author = {Mait, JN and Prather, DW and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Diffractive generation of non-redundant images for a
             multi-aperture, thin, high-resolution camera},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a diffractive element capable of generating
             shift-encoded images for a thin, multiplexed optical imaging
             system. We present simulations that validate the use of the
             element for high resolution imaging and preliminary
             experimental results of diffractive image replication. ©
             2005 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280170}
}

@article{fds280171,
   Author = {Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Karbaschi, A and Adibi, A and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Compact spectral diversity filters for diffuse source
             spectroscopy using spherical beam volume
             holograms},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a new class of compact spectral diversity
             filters implemented using spherical beam volume holograms.
             Spectral diversity is improved by rotation multiplexing
             technique. Diffuse source spectroscopy enabled by using
             Fourier transform architecture is demonstrated. © 2005
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280171}
}

@article{fds280172,
   Author = {Guo, J and Portnoy, A and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Diffraction-limited impulse response image reconstruction
             with a single imaging pixel},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we will discuss two techniques to reconstruct
             diffraction-limited impulse response images by sub-pixel
             shifting the photodetector array and measuring the signal
             from a specific large area photodetector pixel. © 2005
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280172}
}

@article{fds280173,
   Author = {Peters, AE and Gehm, ME and Guenther, BD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multiplex design for high-performance microspectrometers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {The volume of spectrometers can be drastically reduced
             through the use of multiplex measurement. Reductions of 3-5
             orders of magnitude are possible. This has the potential to
             drastically effect manufacturing and deployment costs.
             ©2005 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280173}
}

@article{fds280174,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and McCain, ST and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Multimodal, multiplex Raman spectrometer for weak,
             incoherent sources},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Raman spectroscopy in bio-materials is complicated by
             fluorescence and scattering. We have developed a multimodal,
             multiplex spectrometer that overcomes these difficulties. We
             are currently constructing a second generation prototype for
             in-vivo Raman spectroscopy of tissue. © 2005 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280174}
}

@article{fds280179,
   Author = {Portnoy, AD and Guo, J and Pitsianis, NP and Guenther, B and Brady, DJ and Te Kolste and RD and Feldman, MR and Fiddy, MA and Suleski,
             TJ},
   Title = {Multi-aperture visible high resolution thin
             imager},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed and built a multi-aperture thin imager
             using a lenslet array and a CCD imager. The thickness of the
             imager is significantly reduced. We will present
             experimental results that demonstrate high resolution
             imaging. © 2005 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280179}
}

@article{fds280180,
   Author = {Gibbons, RC and Gilstrap, JA and Mait, JN and Prather, DW and Guo, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Design of a thin multi-aperture infrared
             imager},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed a thin, multiplexed infrared imaging system
             that uses a diffractive element for generating shift-encoded
             images in each aperture. We present preliminary experimental
             results that demonstrate imager performance. © 2005 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280180}
}

@article{fds280181,
   Author = {Fiddy, MA and Suleski, TJ and Brady, DJ and Pitsianis,
             NP},
   Title = {Compressive sampling for feature specific compact
             imagers},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We investigate the use of estimation methods with
             multi-aperture imaging hardware that are noise robust and
             able to provide high resolution images from limited
             measurements. © 2005 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280181}
}

@article{fds280182,
   Author = {Shankar, M and Burchett, JB and Feller, SD and Guenther, BD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Human motion tracking system using coded Fresnel lens
             arrays},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We have designed and developed a low-cost human motion
             tracking system using pyroelectric detectors and coded
             Fresnel lens arrays. We have deployed sensor clusters
             implementing an 8x8 Hadamard code variant and will
             demonstrate motion tracking. © 2005 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {fds280182}
}

@article{fds280206,
   Author = {Gehm, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Tomographic hyperspectral imaging without a
             missing-cone},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {We describe a hyperspectral imager combining coded aperture
             spectroscopy and tomographic spatial reconstruction. The
             throughput of the system is improved compared to scanning
             techniques while avoiding the missing-cone problem common to
             many spectral tomographic approaches. © 2005 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds280206}
}

@article{05068829094,
   Author = {Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Karbaschi, A and Adibi, A and Sullivan, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Role of recording geometry in the performance of spectral
             diversity filters with spherical beam volume
             holograms.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {186-188},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.30.000186},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Optical recording;Spectrometers;Holography;Optical
             materials;Light transmission;Bandwidth;Calibration;},
   Abstract = {We present experimental demonstrations of spectral diversity
             filters with spherical beam volume holograms for multimodal
             multiplex spectroscopy. Major properties of filters under
             diffuse-light illumination are discussed. The comparisons of
             spectral diversity between the transmission geometry
             holograms and the reflection geometry holograms are also
             studied. The results show that there is a trade-off between
             the degree of the spatial coherence of the source and the
             spectral diversity of the filter. We also conclude that the
             reflection geometry holograms have better spectral diversity
             and less sensitivity to the spatial coherence of the
             source.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.30.000186},
   Key = {05068829094}
}

@article{fds340700,
   Author = {McCain, ST and Gehm, ME and Wang, Y and Pitsianis, NP and Sullivan, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multimodal, multiplex, Raman spectroscopy of alcohol in
             diffuse, fluorescent media},
   Journal = {Optics Infobase Conference Papers},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {Optical diagnostics in biological materials are hindered by
             fluorescence and scattering. We have developed a multimodal,
             multiplex, coded-aperture Raman spectrometer to detect
             alcohol in a lipid tissue phantom solution. ©2005 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Key = {fds340700}
}

@article{04528737781,
   Author = {Burchett, JB and Shankar, M and Feller, SD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Efficient human pose tracking using multiplex
             sensing},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {5403},
   Number = {PART 2},
   Pages = {418-426},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.546788},
   Keywords = {Position measurement;Human engineering;Decision
             making;Mapping;Multiplexing;Infrared detectors;},
   Abstract = {We design and calibrate an efficient human detection system,
             capable of detecting and tracking a single person while
             minimizing the number of required sensors. Our infrared
             detectors have a 2 meter range and a 250ms rise/fall time.
             We sample their signal using an MSP430F149 microprocessor,
             correlate the results to reference patterns, and collect the
             binary decisions of each sensor on a workstation wirelessly.
             We modulate the optical field of the detectors by
             introducing selectively opaque reference structures into
             their optical path. Segmenting the physical space into
             signature cells enables direct measurement of source
             configuration. Brute force determination of the mapping is
             prohibitively expensive; we propose a method to estimate
             this mapping and predict signatures for every source
             position by observing signatures along prescribed tracks
             through the physical space.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.546788},
   Key = {04528737781}
}

@article{05108871831,
   Author = {Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Karbaschi, A and Adibi, A and Sullivan, ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Implementation of spectral diversity filters using spherical
             beam volume holograms},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {192-193},
   Address = {Rio Grande, Puerto Rico},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Signal filtering and prediction;Sensors;Multiplexing;Fourier
             transforms;Light transmission;Reflection;Optical
             collimators;Coherent light;},
   Abstract = {We present experimental demonstrations of spectral diversity
             filters using spherical beam volume holograms. Major
             properties of filters under collimated and diffuse light
             will be presented. We also show rotation multiplexing can
             improve the spectral diversity. © 2004 IEEE/LEOS.},
   Key = {05108871831}
}

@article{05038792937,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Gehm, M and Sullivan, M and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Measurement-efficient optical wavemeters.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {25},
   Pages = {6219-6229},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19488267},
   Keywords = {Optical systems;Spectrometers;Photodetectors;Monochromators;Semiconducting
             gallium arsenide;Infrared radiation;Interferometers;Dense
             wavelength division multiplexing;Communication
             systems;Fourier transforms;},
   Abstract = {We describe a method for efficiently determining the
             wavelength of a monochromatic source and provide an
             experimental proof-of-concept. The photomeasurement
             efficiency for a wavemeter can be written as eta(N,q) = (1 +
             logqN)/m, where N is the number of spectral channels, q is
             the number of distinguishable output levels per
             photodetector, and m is the actual number of
             photomeasurements made. An implementation is developed that
             achieves a theoretical efficiency of eta(N,q) = 1. The
             proof-of-concept experiment achieves efficiencies eta =
             O(1), where the deviation from theory is attributable to
             well-known optical effects and should be correctable in
             future versions.},
   Doi = {10.1364/opex.12.006219},
   Key = {05038792937}
}

@article{05058813020,
   Author = {Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Karbaschi, A and Adibi, A and Sullivan,
             ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Spherical beam volume holograms for spectroscopic
             applications: modeling and implementation.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {36},
   Pages = {6557-6567},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1559-128X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.006557},
   Keywords = {Charge coupled devices;Reduction;Spectrometers;Spectroscopic
             analysis;Signal detection;Theorem proving;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {The spherical beam volume hologram, recorded by a plane wave
             and a spherical beam, is investigated for spectroscopic
             applications in detail. It is shown that both the diffracted
             and the transmitted beam can be used for spectroscopy when
             the hologram is read with a collimated beam. A new method is
             introduced and used for analysis of the spherical beam
             volume hologram that can be extended for analysis of
             arbitrary holograms. Experimental results are consistent
             with the theoretical study. It is shown that the spherical
             beam volume hologram can be used in a compact spectroscopic
             configuration when the transmitted beam is monitored. Also,
             on the basis of the properties of the spherical beam
             hologram, the response of a hologram recorded by a plane
             wave and an arbitrary pattern is predicted. The information
             can be used to optimize holographic spectrometer
             design.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.43.006557},
   Key = {05058813020}
}

@article{7000797,
   Author = {Balberg, M and Barbastathis, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Imaging through turbulence with the volume-holographic
             confocal microscope},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4087},
   Pages = {1089-1090},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Quebec City, Que., Canada},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.406352},
   Keywords = {holography;light diffraction;optical microscopy;turbulence;},
   Abstract = {The confocal microscope with volume-holographic collector
             utilizes Bragg selectivity in order to achieve depth
             sectioning. The volume hologram is recorded by the
             interference of two beams, one of which originates as a
             point source at a reference depth. When a reconstructing
             (probe) source is at the reference depth, it is
             Bragg-matched and causes a strong diffracted signal; sources
             at different depths are rejected because of Bragg mismatch.
             Therefore, the use of a pinhole in front of the detector (as
             in traditional confocal microscopes) is not required. The
             arguments for use of a volume hologram instead of a pinhole
             to achieve depth sectioning are: (1) the depth resolution of
             the microscope is independent of its photon-collection
             performance; (2) the hologram phase conjugates aberrations
             and other systematic phase distortions, and hence acts as an
             ideal matched filter to the reference source (unlike the ad
             hoc filtering function performed by the pinhole). We focus
             on the depth-resolving properties of volume diffraction when
             a turbulent (scattering) medium, emulating a biological
             tissue, is present in the path of the light entering the
             microscope. In particular, we compare the depth resolution
             of a microscope recorded with and without precompensation
             for the presence of the scatterer. Precompensation extends
             the matched filtering principle by use of a priori
             information (the thickness of the turbulent medium) during
             the recording phase of the hologram. Our experimental
             results demonstrate that precompensation increases the
             scatterer thickness over which confocal imaging is
             possible},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.406352},
   Key = {7000797}
}

@article{8280815,
   Author = {Sendaula, MH and Biswas, SK and Teter, JP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {A control system for a hybrid linear actuator for a flush
             deck hatch},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the American Control Conference},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {2051-2056},
   Address = {Boston, MA, USA},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0743-1619},
   Keywords = {control system synthesis;electric actuators;feedback;linear
             motors;magnetostrictive devices;ships;},
   Abstract = {This paper presents the control system design in the
             development of a hybrid linear actuator for opening the
             flush deck hatch CV/CVN ship class. We present a simple
             feedback control system for the hatch opening, which is
             described by a nonlinear model. The hybrid linear actuator
             consists of magnetostrictive thrusters and high force
             electric linear motors segments ganged together to drive a
             load shaft through of sets of self-locking, magnetically
             activated clutches. The control system is based on
             trajectory following method with a simple
             feedback-linearizing loop. Simulation results show excellent
             performance of the closed loop system.},
   Key = {8280815}
}

@article{04318295138,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Pitsianis, NP and Sun, X},
   Title = {Reference structure tomography.},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1140-1147},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1084-7529},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15260245},
   Keywords = {Tomography;Mathematical models;Light modulation;Image
             coding;Image analysis;Image sensors;Modal analysis;Image
             segmentation;Image reconstruction;Image quality;Geometry;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {Reference structure tomography (RST) uses multidimensional
             modulations to encode mappings between radiating objects and
             measurements. RST may be used to image source-density
             distributions, estimate source parameters, or classify
             sources. The RST paradigm permits scan-free multidimensional
             imaging, data-efficient and computation-efficient source
             analysis, and direct abstraction of physical features. We
             introduce the basic concepts of RST and illustrate the use
             of RST for multidimensional imaging based on a geometric
             radiation model.},
   Doi = {10.1364/josaa.21.001140},
   Key = {04318295138}
}

@article{04428408769,
   Author = {Karbaschi, A and Hsieh, C and Momtahan, O and Adibi, A and Sullivan, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Qualitative demonstration of spectral diversity filtering
             using spherical beam volume holograms.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3018-3024},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.12.003018},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Diffraction gratings;Laser beams;Thin
             films;Optical collimators;Light sources;Spectrometers;Spectroscopic
             analysis;Vectors;},
   Abstract = {We investigate the feasibility of designing spectral
             diversity filters using spherical beam volume holograms. Our
             experimental results qualitatively show the separation of
             the information of different incident wavelength channels
             using spherical beam volume holograms. The major trade-off
             in using these holograms is between the degree of spatial
             spectral diversity and the number of allowed spatial modes
             (or the divergence angle) of the incident
             beam.},
   Doi = {10.1364/opex.12.003018},
   Key = {04428408769}
}

@article{06139790960,
   Author = {Momtahan, O and Hsieh, CR and Karbaschi, A and Adibi, A and Sullivan,
             ME and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Spherical beam holograms for spectroscopic applications:
             Modeling and implementation},
   Journal = {Osa Trends in Optics and Photonics Series},
   Volume = {96 A},
   Pages = {431-432},
   Address = {Washington, DC, United States},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-5695},
   Keywords = {Spectroscopic analysis;Diffraction;},
   Abstract = {A new approach for analyzing spherical beam holograms is
             presented and tested. This method describes the diffraction
             effect in spherical beam holograms and its application in
             spectroscopy. The theoretical results are verified by
             experiments. © 2003 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {06139790960}
}

@article{8386023,
   Author = {Potuluri, P. and Gehm, M.E. and Sullivan, M.E. and Brady,
             D.J.},
   Title = {Measurement-efficient optical wavemeters},
   Journal = {Opt. Express (USA)},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {25},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {laser variables measurement;photodetectors;photometers;photometry;wavemeters;},
   Abstract = {We describe a method for efficiently determining the
             wavelength of a monochromatic source and provide an
             experimental proof-of-concept. The photomeasurement
             efficiency for a wavemeter can be written as &eta;(N,q) = (1
             + log<sub>q</sub>N)/m, where N is the number of spectral
             channels, q is the number of distinguishable output levels
             per photodetector, and m is the actual number of
             photomeasurements made. An implementation is developed that
             achieves a theoretical efficiency of &eta;(N,q) = 1. The
             proof-of-concept experiment achieves efficiencies &eta; =
             O(1), where the deviation from theory is attributable to
             well-known optical effects and should be correctable in
             future versions},
   Key = {8386023}
}

@article{8263061,
   Author = {Astratov, V.N. and Ashili, S.P. and Franchak, J.P. and Saltzman, A.J. and Sullivan, M.E. and Brady, D.J. and Filin,
             S.V. and Puzynin, A.I. and Samoilov, V.N. and Moroz,
             A.},
   Title = {Polycrystalline low index contrast opals: Towards novel
             multimodal spectroscopy of diffusive sources of
             light},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)},
   Volume = {vol.2},
   Pages = {2 pp. vol.2 -},
   Address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {light scattering;light sources;optical materials;visible
             spectroscopy;},
   Abstract = {It is shown that polycrystalline low index contrast opals
             with submillimeter domains provide spatio-spectral diversity
             of scattering images that can be used for measuring the
             wavelengths of diffusive sources of light with nanometer
             accuracy},
   Key = {8263061}
}

@article{8254881,
   Author = {Badieirostami, M. and Reid, C.M. and Momtahan, O. and Momeni, B. and Alibi, A. and Zhaochun Xu and Zhanglei Wang and Sullivan, M.E. and Brady, D.J. and Foulger,
             S.H.},
   Title = {Design and analysis of photonic crystal spectral diversity
             filters for biosensing},
   Journal = {Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO)},
   Volume = {vol.2},
   Pages = {2 pp. vol.2 -},
   Address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {biological techniques;optical design techniques;optical
             filters;optical sensors;photonic crystals;Raman
             spectra;},
   Abstract = {We present a systematic method for designing spectral
             diversity filters using 2D and 3D photonic crystals. These
             filters convert an incoherent input beam with uniform
             spectral content over the input dimension into a desired
             nonuniform spatial-spectral pattern. Such spectral diversity
             filters can be used for designing compact spectrometers that
             can be used for the detection of Raman signatures in
             biosensors},
   Key = {8254881}
}

@article{8154724,
   Author = {Karbaschi, A. and Hsieh, C. and Momtahan, O. and Adibi, A. and Sullivan, M.E. and Brady, D.J.},
   Title = {Qualitative demonstration of spectral diversity filtering
             using spherical beam volume holograms},
   Journal = {Opt. Express (USA)},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {13},
   Year = {2004},
   Keywords = {holographic gratings;optical filters;spectrometers;},
   Abstract = {We investigate the feasibility of designing spectral
             diversity filters using spherical beam volume holograms. Our
             experimental results qualitatively show the separation of
             the information of different incident wavelength channels
             using spherical beam volume holograms. The major trade-off
             in using these holograms is between the degree of spatial
             spectral diversity and the number of allowed spatial modes
             (or the divergence angle) of the incident
             beam},
   Key = {8154724}
}

@article{fds280396,
   Author = {Basty, S and Neifeld, MA and Brady, D and Kraut, S},
   Title = {Nonlinear estimation for interferometric
             imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Communications},
   Volume = {228},
   Number = {4-6},
   Pages = {249-261},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.optcom.2003.10.004},
   Abstract = {We conduct a comparative study between two types of imaging
             systems for distant point sources. One is a conventional
             focal plane system and the other, a multiplex system based
             on a rotational shearing interferometer (RSI). The RSI
             produces linear fringes in response to each object point
             source, which offers functional advantages over the
             conventional system. A nonlinear algorithm is developed for
             estimating fringe parameters in an RSI that performs better
             than traditional Fourier methods; while an existing
             nonlinear algorithm is modified for use with the
             conventional imager. Intensity and position estimation
             performance of the two imaging systems is characterized
             using both traditional as well as nonlinear estimation in
             the presence of noise. In additive white gaussian noise
             dominated imaging, we find that the RSI is always inferior
             to the conventional imager by a factor that is approximately
             the square root of the number of detectors. However, the two
             imaging systems are comparable in the shot-noise limit.
             Simulated performances for a single monochromatic source are
             reported for the shot-noise limited case. The
             super-resolution ability of the nonlinear algorithms is
             studied with two monochromatic sources at various
             separations. The nonlinear estimator is also applied to
             polychromatic point sources and the simultaneous estimation
             of spatial and spectral data for the RSI is demonstrated. ©
             2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.optcom.2003.10.004},
   Key = {fds280396}
}

@article{04278253664,
   Author = {Sinha, A and Brady, D},
   Title = {Size and shape recognition using measurement statistics and
             random 3D reference structures.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {2606-2618},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.11.002606},
   Keywords = {Pattern recognition;Lenses;Radon;Charge coupled
             devices;Mapping;Probability density function;Statistical
             methods;Fourier transforms;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {Three dimensional (3D) reference structures segment source
             spaces based on whether particular source locations are
             visible or invisible to the sensor. A lensless 3D reference
             structure based imaging system measures projections of this
             source space on a sensor array. We derive and experimentally
             verify a model to predict the statistics of the measured
             projections for a simple 2D object. We show that the
             statistics of the measurement can yield an accurate estimate
             of the size of the object without ever forming a physical
             image. Further, we conjecture that the measured statistics
             can be used to determine the shape of 3D objects and present
             preliminary experimental measurements for 3D shape
             recognition.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.11.002606},
   Key = {04278253664}
}

@article{7909776,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Xu, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Imaging with random 3D reference structures.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {2134-2141},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.11.002134},
   Keywords = {image reconstruction;image segmentation;image
             sensors;optical computing;optical images;optical
             sensors;},
   Abstract = {We describe a sensor system based on 3D 'reference
             structures' which implements a mapping from a 3D source
             volume on to a 2D sensor plane. The reference structure used
             here is a random three dimensional distribution of
             polystyrene beads. We show how this bead structure spatially
             segments the source volume and present some simple
             experimental results of 2D and 3D imaging.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.11.002134},
   Key = {7909776}
}

@article{04278253696,
   Author = {Gopinathan, U and Brady, D and Pitsianis, N},
   Title = {Coded apertures for efficient pyroelectric motion
             tracking.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {2142-2152},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.11.002142},
   Keywords = {Optical sensors;Infrared radiation;Infrared
             detectors;Imaging systems;Frequency response;Vectors;Mapping;Error
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {Coded apertures may be designed to modulate the visibility
             between source and measurement spaces such that the position
             of a source among N resolution cells may be discriminated
             using logarithm of N measurements. We use coded apertures as
             reference structures in a pyroelectric motion tracking
             system. This sensor system is capable of detecting source
             motion in one of the 15 cells uniformly distributed over a
             1.6m x 1.6m domain using 4 pyroelectric detectors.},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.11.002142},
   Key = {04278253696}
}

@article{7909775,
   Author = {Xu, Z and Wang, Z and Sullivan, M and Brady, D and Foulger, S and Adibi,
             A},
   Title = {Multimodal multiplex spectroscopy using photonic
             crystals.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {2126-2133},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.11.002126},
   Keywords = {focal planes;image resolution;light coherence;light
             transmission;micro-optics;photonic crystals;spectral
             analysis;visible spectrometers;visible spectroscopy;},
   Abstract = {Spatio-spectral transmission patterns induced on low
             coherence fields by disordered photonic crystals can be used
             to construct optical spectrometers. Experimental results
             suggest that 1-10 nm resolution multimodal spectrometers for
             diffuse source analysis may be constructed using a photonic
             crystal mounted on a focal plane array. The relative
             independence of spatial and spectral modal response in
             photonic crystals enables high efficiency spectral analysis
             of diffuse sources..},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.11.002126},
   Key = {7909775}
}

@article{04278253471,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Gopinathan, U and Adleman, J and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Lensless sensor system using a reference
             structure.},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {965-974},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/oe.11.000965},
   Keywords = {Geometrical optics;Optical design;Imaging systems;Optical
             resolving power;X rays;Photodiodes;Correlation
             methods;Matrix algebra;Mathematical transformations;},
   Abstract = {We describe a reference structure based sensor system for
             tracking the motion of an object. The reference structure is
             designed to implement a Hadamard transformation over a range
             of angular perspectives. We implemented a reference
             structure with an angular resolution of 5(o) and a field of
             view of 40(o).},
   Doi = {10.1364/oe.11.000965},
   Key = {04278253471}
}

@article{04498702415,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {3D Optical Elements for Computational Sensors},
   Journal = {Osa Trends in Optics and Photonics Series},
   Volume = {88},
   Pages = {1949-1951},
   Address = {Baltimore, MD, United States},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-5695},
   Keywords = {Photons;Crystals;Optical filters;Optical systems;Data
             reduction;Computational complexity;},
   Abstract = {3D Optical Elements for Computational Sensors. We discuss
             geometric segmentation of optical fields by volume optical
             elements and 3D photonic circuits and describe example
             systems. 3D elements include volume holograms, geometric
             filters and microcavity arrays. Photonic crystals and
             heterogeneous integration may further extend volume
             capabilities.},
   Key = {04498702415}
}

@article{7988579,
   Author = {Sinha, A. and Brady, D.J.},
   Title = {Size and shape recognition using measurement statistics and
             random 3D reference structures},
   Journal = {Opt. Express (USA)},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {20},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {CCD image sensors;feature extraction;image
             recognition;},
   Abstract = {Three dimensional (3D) reference structures segment source
             spaces based on whether particular source locations are
             visible or invisible to the sensor. A lensless 3D reference
             structure based imaging system measures projections of this
             source space on a sensor array. We derive and experimentally
             verify a model to predict the statistics of the measured
             projections for a simple 2D object. We show that the
             statistics of the measurement can yield an accurate estimate
             of the size of the object without ever forming a physical
             image. Further, we conjecture that the measured statistics
             can be used to determine the shape of 3D objects and present
             preliminary experimental measurements for 3D shape
             recognition},
   Key = {7988579}
}

@article{04278253694,
   Author = {Xu, Zhaochun and Wang, Zhanglei and Sullivan, Michael E. and Brady, David J. and Foulger, Stephen H. and Adibi,
             Ali},
   Title = {Multimodal multiplex spectroscopy using photonic
             crystals},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {2126 - 2133},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {Crystals;Multiplexing;Diffusion;Color;Vectors;Least squares
             approximations;Modal analysis;Spectroscopic
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {Spatio-spectral transmission patterns induced on low
             coherence fields by disordered photonic crystals can be used
             to construct optical spectrometers. Experimental results
             suggest that 1-10 nm resolution multimodal spectrometers for
             diffuse source analysis may be constructed using a photonic
             crystal mounted on a focal plane array. The relative
             independence of spatial and spectral modal response in
             photonic crystals enables high efficiency spectral analysis
             of diffuse sources. &copy; 2003 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {04278253694}
}

@article{8126136,
   Author = {Potuluri, P. and Brady, D.J.},
   Title = {3D spatial segmentation using reference structures},
   Journal = {Optics in Computing (Trends in Optics and Photonics Series
             Vol.90)},
   Pages = {161 - 3},
   Address = {USA},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {image segmentation;optical sensors;optical
             tomography;},
   Abstract = {We describe a sensor system based on 3D 'reference
             structures' which implements a mapping from a 3D source
             volume on to a 2D sensor plane. We consider examples of a
             few reference structures and how they spatially segment a 3D
             source volume and present some results},
   Key = {8126136}
}

@article{04278253695,
   Author = {Potuluri, Prasant and Xu, Mingbo and Brady, David
             J.},
   Title = {Imaging with random 3D reference structures},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {2134 - 2141},
   Year = {2003},
   Keywords = {Polystyrenes;Imaging systems;Optical systems;Mapping;Correlation
             methods;Optical microscopy;},
   Abstract = {We describe a sensor system based on 3D 'reference
             structures' which implements a mapping from a 3D source
             volume on to a 2D sensor plane. The reference structure used
             here is a random three dimensional distribution of
             polystyrene beads. We show how this bead structure spatially
             segments the source volume and present some simple
             experimental results of 2D and 3D imaging. &copy; 2003
             Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {04278253695}
}

@article{fds280395,
   Author = {Feller, SD and Zheng, Y and Cull, E and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor
             arrays for law enforcement applications},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4708},
   Pages = {212-221},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.479310},
   Abstract = {We present a plan for the integration of geometric
             constraints in the source, sensor and analysis levels of
             sensor networks. The goal of geometric analysis is to reduce
             the dimensionality and complexity of distributed sensor data
             analysis so as to achieve real-time recognition and response
             to significant events. Application scenarios include
             biometric tracking of individuals, counting and analysis of
             individuals in groups of humans and distributed sentient
             environments. We are particularly interested in using this
             approach to provide networks of low cost point detectors,
             such as infrared motion detectors, with complex imaging
             capabilities. By extending the capabilities of simple
             sensors, we expect to reduce the cost of perimeter and site
             security applications.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.479310},
   Key = {fds280395}
}

@article{03077362854,
   Author = {Kraut, S and Gallicchio, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {High-resolution direction finding and scan-free spectrum
             estimation with rotational-shear interferometric sensor
             arrays},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4789},
   Pages = {267-274},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Seattle, WA, United States},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.459013},
   Keywords = {Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy;Charge coupled
             devices;Image quality;Optical resolving power;Prisms;Light
             interference;Coherent light;Approximation theory;Computer
             simulation;},
   Abstract = {In this paper we investigate the application of a
             rotational-shear interferometer, toward the problem of
             simultaneously estimating the directions of well-localized
             sources, and their spectral profiles. Rotational shear makes
             possible the acquisition of a spectrum estimate, without the
             mechanical scan required in using a Michelson interferometer
             in Fourier-transform spectroscopy. The spectrum and angle
             estimates are obtained computationally. The interferometric
             data enables the application of super-resolution
             direction-finding techniques commonly used in radar and
             sonar array processing.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.459013},
   Key = {03077362854}
}

@article{03097371853,
   Author = {Cull, EC and Kowalski, DP and Burchett, JB and Feller, SD and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Three-dimensional imaging with the Argus sensor
             array},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4864},
   Pages = {211-222},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Boston, MA, United States},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.454932},
   Keywords = {Image sensors;Cameras;Parallel processing
             systems;Computerized tomography;Image compression;Feature
             extraction;},
   Abstract = {The Argus project uses an array of computers and cameras as
             a means of investigating telepresence and real-time
             three-dimensional imaging. In this paper we will briefly
             discuss telepresence from an information flow and
             visualization perspective. The paper also includes a
             detailed description of the Argus hardware and a software
             layer developed to manage the imaging and computational
             resources. MPEG-2 and feature extraction will be described
             as parallel compression systems for the Argus camera
             array.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.454932},
   Key = {03097371853}
}

@article{02487249966,
   Author = {Tumbar, R and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Sampling field sensor with anisotropic fan-out},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {31},
   Pages = {6621-6636},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.006621},
   Keywords = {Interferometers;Phase shift;Optical testing;Birefringence;Vibrations
             (mechanical);Real time systems;Anisotropy;},
   Abstract = {We describe a new common-path, phase-shift, and shearing
             interferometric device capable of single-shot detection of
             optical phase profiles. It samples the input field and uses
             birefringent plates to fan out phase-shifted copies of the
             samples in the empty space between them. The phase shifts
             are given by the thickness of the plates and not by the
             relative position of the components, as in classical
             interferometers. This makes the device insensitive to
             vibrations. We recorded repeatability better than λ/100,
             even though strong shocks were applied to the air table in
             proximity to the system. We recorded better than λ/1000
             repeatability under quiet conditions and estimated the
             accuracy to be better than λ/3000 at the shot-noise limit.
             In addition, the device is compact and easy to integrate in
             a variety of setups that require the measurement of optical
             phase profiles. © 2002 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.41.006621},
   Key = {02487249966}
}

@article{02467204401,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Rahman, Z-U},
   Title = {Integrated analysis and design of analog and digital
             processing in imaging systems: introduction to the feature
             issue.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {29},
   Pages = {6049},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12389972},
   Abstract = {This feature presents themes arising from the Integrated
             Computational Imaging Systems topical meeting sponsored by
             the OSA in fall 2001. These themes revolve around joint
             design of digital and analog image processing to improve the
             specificity and efficiency of optical image
             sensors.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.41.006049},
   Key = {02467204401}
}

@article{02467204402,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Digital refraction distortion correction with an astigmatic
             coherence sensor.},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {29},
   Pages = {6050-6054},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.41.006050},
   Keywords = {Optical sensors;Coherent light;Distortion (waves);Energy
             dissipation;Aberrations;},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate the sensing and correction of an isoplanatic
             refractive distortion (not lens aberrations), using the
             complete measurement of the partially coherent field in an
             aperture that the previously described astigmatic coherence
             sensor provides. Isoplanatic distortions, and in general
             distortions that do not cause energy loss, maintain the
             orthogonality of the coherent modes. We use the fact that a
             common distortion will occur to all coherent modes to
             separate the distortion from the source behind it, rather
             than requiring a reference source at a different wavelength.
             Digital deconvolution was performed on the full
             four-dimensional partially coherent field for simultaneously
             computing the distortion and the source intensity
             distribution.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ao.41.006050},
   Key = {02467204402}
}

@article{02507274930,
   Author = {Feller, SD and Cull, E and Kowalski, D and Farlow, K and Burchett, J and Adleman, J and Lin, C and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Tracking and imaging humans on heterogeneous infrared sensor
             array for tactical applications},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4743},
   Pages = {168-175},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.448394},
   Keywords = {Arrays;Tracking (position);Infrared imaging;Cameras;Costs;},
   Abstract = {We recently implemented a heterogeneous network of infrared
             motion detectors and an infrared camera for the detection,
             localization, tracking, and identification of human targets.
             The network integrates dense deployments of low cost motion
             sensors for target tracking with sparse deployments of image
             sensors for target registration. Such networks can be used
             in tactical applications for local and distributed perimeter
             and site security. Rapid deployments for crisis management
             may be of particular interest. This paper focuses
             particularly on the need for applications that deal with
             relatively dense and complex source fields such as crowds
             move through sensor spaces. © Society of Photo-Optical
             Instrumentation Engineers.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.448394},
   Key = {02507274930}
}

@article{02256986844,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multiplex sensors and the constant radiance
             theorem.},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {16-18},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ol.27.000016},
   Keywords = {Signal to noise ratio;Multiplexing;Eigenvalues and
             eigenfunctions;Probability distributions;Fourier
             transforms;Optical systems;Spectroscopic
             analysis;},
   Abstract = {Coherent mode representation of the cross-spectral density
             is used to derive a modal analog of the constant radiance
             theorem with general applicability to linear optical
             systems. The theorem is used to consider the relationship
             between spatial detector geometry and multiplexing
             capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1364/ol.27.000016},
   Key = {02256986844}
}

@article{fds280289,
   Author = {Osborne, MD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {The room is long and narrow},
   Journal = {Research in Science Education},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-169},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0157-244X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000179949400004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1016021910755},
   Key = {fds280289}
}

@article{02417134155,
   Author = {Rittgers, AM and Morrison, RL and Stack, RA and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Tomographic processing on wireless ground sensor
             networks},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4393},
   Pages = {122-128},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, United States},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.441261},
   Keywords = {Wireless telecommunication systems;Imaging
             techniques;Tomography;Interferometry;Space
             surveillance;Military operations;Real time systems;Tracking
             (position);Video cameras;Computer vision;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {New opportunities for battlefield surveillance and modeling
             are unfolding with the advent of smart sensors linked via
             digital wireless networks. One exciting prospect is the use
             of tomographic techniques in order to create real-time
             three-dimensional modeling and analysis of the environment
             that is immediately accessible to battlefield forces. We
             have developed a small-scale ground sensor network for this
             application. We discuss initial deployment of this network
             as a tracking system.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.441261},
   Key = {02417134155}
}

@article{fds330752,
   Author = {Bouchereau, F and Brady, D and Lanzl, C},
   Title = {Multipath delay estimation using a superresolution
             PN-correlation method},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Signal Processing},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {938-949},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/78.917798},
   Abstract = {This paper addresses the problem of high-resolution
             estimation of a multipath channel delay profile. We propose
             several improvements to the so-called superresolution
             pseudo-noise sequence correlation method (SPM) and analyze
             its performance on time-varying channels. SPM is based on
             the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which
             requires decorrelation of the multipath echoes. The proposed
             improvements enable SPM-based delay estimation in the
             presence of narrowband interference, and they reduce the
             necessary transmission window while preserving multipath
             echo decorrelation. These improvements are analyzed and are
             applied to underwater acoustic experimental
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1109/78.917798},
   Key = {fds330752}
}

@article{03317573724,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Stack, R and Johnson, AJ and Brady, DJ and Munson,
             DC},
   Title = {Cone-beam tomography with a digital camera},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1795-1805},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.40.001795},
   Keywords = {Digital devices;Cameras;X rays;Image reconstruction;Opacity;Electromagnetic
             wave diffraction;Lighting;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {We show that x-ray computer tomography algorithms can be
             applied with minimal alteration to the three-dimensional
             reconstruction of visible sources. Diffraction and opacity
             affect visible systems more severely than x-ray systems. For
             camera-based tomography, diffraction can be neglected for
             objects within the depth of field. We show that, for convex
             objects, opacity has the effect of windowing the angular
             observation range and thus blurring the reconstruction. For
             concave objects, opacity leads to nonlinearity in the
             transformation from object to reconstruction and may cause
             multiple objects to map to the same reconstruction. In x-ray
             tomography, the contribution of an object point to a line
             integral is independent of the orientation of the line. In
             optical tomography, however, a Lambertian assumption may be
             more realistic. We derive an expression for the blur
             function ~the patch response! for a Lambertian source. We
             present experimental results showing cone-beam
             reconstruction of an incoherently illuminated opaque object.
             © 2001 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.40.001795},
   Key = {03317573724}
}

@article{fds280394,
   Author = {Osborne, MD and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Constructing a space for developing a rich understanding of
             science through play},
   Journal = {Journal of Curriculum Studies},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {511-524},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0022-0272},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220270120863},
   Doi = {10.1080/00220270120863},
   Key = {fds280394}
}

@article{01526775706,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multiplex optics for visual image processing},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4388},
   Pages = {97-102},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando,FL},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.438246},
   Keywords = {Image sensors;Imaging systems;Signal filtering and
             prediction;Spectrum analysis;},
   Abstract = {Multiplex optical systems are designed to mix information
             channels on sensors. This paper considers the use of
             multiplex sensors to embed scene analysis in the optical
             layer of imaging systems. The goals of embedded analysis are
             to reduce the system data and processing load and to improve
             analytic accuracy by low-level filtering. We show
             specifically that filtering on the cross spectral density
             during detection allows the construction of sensors that
             integrate spatio-spectral patterns from specific volumes and
             that coded illumination patterns can structure the radiated
             cross spectrum to enable digital focusing on particular
             source characteristics.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.438246},
   Key = {01526775706}
}

@article{6980126,
   Author = {Potuluri, P and Fetterman, MR and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {High depth of field microscopic imaging using an
             interferometric camera},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {624-630},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.8.000624},
   Keywords = {cameras;image sensors;light interferometry;optical design
             techniques;optical microscopes;},
   Abstract = {We describe the design or a microscope combining rotational
             shear interferometer (RSI)-based coherence imaging with an
             objective lens to simultaneously obtain high numerical
             aperture and high depth of field imaging. We present
             experimental results showing the operation of this
             instrument. ©2001 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.8.000624},
   Key = {6980126}
}

@article{01336620404,
   Author = {Morrison, R and Brady, DJ and Rittgers, A and Stack,
             R},
   Title = {Wireless integrated sensing, processing and display networks
             for site security},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4232},
   Pages = {352-358},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Boston, MA},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.417550},
   Keywords = {Sensor data fusion;Integrated circuit layout;Mobile
             computing;Information management;Image analysis;Java
             programming language;Flash memory;Interfaces
             (computer);},
   Abstract = {We consider data management on ad hoc networks of sensing
             and processing nodes. We describe the construction of simple
             nodes from off the shelf components (PC 104 single board
             computers with flash memory, video capture cards and 802.llb
             wireless interfaces). We describe a Java interface to
             controlling these nodes and accessing images and image
             processing algorithms. We demonstrate target tracking across
             nodes and the potential for heterogeneous sensor
             types.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.417550},
   Key = {01336620404}
}

@article{7373420,
   Author = {Liang, T.K. and Tsang, H.K. and Roberts, S.W. and Brady,
             D.J. and Harpin, A. and Drake, J. and Asghari,
             M.},
   Title = {Measurement of dispersion in a silicon waveguide at 1.5
             μm},
   Journal = {Technical Digest. CLEO/Pacific Rim 2001. 4th Pacific Rim
             Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Cat.
             No.01TH8557)},
   Volume = {vol.2},
   Pages = {722 - 3},
   Address = {Chiba, Japan},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOPR.2001.971163},
   Keywords = {integrated optics;Mach-Zehnder interferometers;optical
             communication equipment;optical dispersion;optical
             testing;optical waveguides;silicon;wavelength division
             multiplexing;},
   Abstract = {We report for the first time measurements of the dispersion
             coefficient in a silicon waveguide at 1.5 &mu;m wavelength.
             The total dispersion was found to be only -9.1
             fs/[nm.cm]},
   Key = {7373420}
}

@article{04328303913,
   Author = {Potuluri, P. and Fetterman, M.R. and Brady,
             D.J.},
   Title = {High depth of field microscopic imaging using an
             interferometric camera},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {624 - 630},
   Year = {2001},
   Keywords = {Interferometers;Cameras;Imaging systems;Mirrors;Throughput;Tomography;Fourier
             transforms;Integral equations;Approximation
             theory;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {We describe the design or a microscope combining rotational
             shear interferometer (RSI)-based coherence imaging with an
             objective lens to simultaneously obtain high numerical
             aperture and high depth of field imaging. We present
             experimental results showing the operation of this
             instrument. &copy;2001 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Key = {04328303913}
}

@article{01025528026,
   Author = {Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Optical processing for 3D digital imaging},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {114},
   Address = {Rio Grande},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.2000.890700},
   Keywords = {Image quality;Two dimensional;Communication channels
             (information theory);Image reconstruction;Three
             dimensional;},
   Abstract = {Alternative models for source coding are presented and shown
             to impact transformation transfer and conventional image
             quality measures. System performance when conventional image
             formation is unnecessary is demonstrated.},
   Key = {01025528026}
}

@article{03427672396,
   Author = {Marks, DM and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Astigmatic coherence sensor for digital imaging},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {1726-1728},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.25.001726},
   Keywords = {Digital signal processing;Coherent light;Interferometers;Sampling;},
   Abstract = {We present a novel sensor that measures the entire spatial
             coherence function within an aperture by use of a variable
             astigmatic lens. This sensor permits digital capture and
             processing of partially coherent fields. We demonstrate the
             sensor by sampling and computing the coherent modes of a
             three-dimensional incoherent source. © 2000 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.25.001726},
   Key = {03427672396}
}

@article{fds330753,
   Author = {Brady, D and Kocic, M and Miller, AW and Karger, BL},
   Title = {A maximum-likelihood base caller for DNA
             sequencing.},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Bio Medical Engineering},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1271-1280},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/10.867962},
   Abstract = {The procedures used to sequence the human genome involve the
             electrophoretic separation of mixtures of dioxyribonucleic
             acid (DNA) fragments tagged with reporting groups, usually
             fluorescent dyes. Each fluorescent pulse which arrives from
             an optical detector corresponds to a nucleotide (base) in
             the DNA sequence, and the subsequent process of base
             detection is known as base calling. Generating longer and
             more accurate sequences in the base-calling process will
             reduce the high cost of DNA sequencing. This paper presents
             an automated base-calling algorithm, referred to as
             maximum-likelihood base caller (MLB), which is based on
             maximum likelihood equalization for digital communication
             channels. Based on 125 experimental datasets, MLB averaged
             up to 40% fewer errors than the widely used ABI base caller
             from the Applied Biosystems Division of PE Corporation.
             MLB's accuracy rivaled that of another well-known base
             caller, Phred, surpassing it on datasets with high
             background noise.},
   Doi = {10.1109/10.867962},
   Key = {fds330753}
}

@article{00115416956,
   Author = {Y. D. West and T. Schweizer and D. J. Bra},
   Title = {Gallium Lanthanum Sulphide Fibers for Infrared
             Transmission},
   Journal = {Fiber and Integrated Optics},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {229-250},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01468030050058802},
   Keywords = {Semiconducting gallium compounds;Infrared
             transmission;Quenching;Fiber lasers;Optical fiber
             fabrication;},
   Abstract = {Gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass and fiber have
             potential for use in both active and passive infrared
             applications. In this paper the optical, thermal, and other
             key properties, which are essential for understanding the
             applications and crucial in the quest for practical fibres,
             are discussed. Glass preparation by melt-quenching and
             subsequent fibre fabrication is described using both
             rod-in-tube and extruded preforms. Absorptive and scattering
             losses are explored as they could represent a fundamental
             limitation to successful device fabrication. Potential
             passive and active applications are reported and the
             prospects for a future generation of sulphide fiber-based
             devices examined.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01468030050058802},
   Key = {00115416956}
}

@article{03317572765,
   Author = {Brady, D and Neifeld, MA},
   Title = {Information theory in optoelectronic systems: Introduction
             to the feature},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1679-1680},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.001679},
   Keywords = {Information theory;Digital signal processing;Communication
             systems;Systems analysis;Computational complexity;},
   Abstract = {There has been an explosion of recent interest concerning
             information theory in optoelectronic (OE) systems. This
             interest has been motivated in part by (1) the accelerating
             deployment of OE components into digital systems, (2) the
             blurring of the analog-digital interface within many OE
             applications, and (3) the increasing sophistication and
             complexity of computational tools. These trends are being
             driven by revolutionary improvements in both OE devices and
             electronic processors together with increasing demand for
             high-speed and high-capacity solutions. This feature
             addresses the application of information- and
             communication-theoretic concepts, algorithms, and techniques
             to important problems in OE system analysis and design. ©
             2000 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.39.001679},
   Key = {03317572765}
}

@article{03317572783,
   Author = {Guo, J and Brady, D},
   Title = {Fabrication of thin-film micropolarizer arrays for visible
             imaging polarimetry},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1486-1492},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.001486},
   Keywords = {Light polarization;Thin film devices;Optical
             films;Multilayers;Image sensors;Optical resolving
             power;Polarimeters;CMOS integrated circuits;},
   Abstract = {We describe a microfabrication process for fabricating
             micropolarizer devices with polarization thin film. The
             polarization film is less than a 0.5 µm thick and can have
             a polarization extinction ratio of ∼330 in the visible
             wavelength range. A single-state micropolarizer array with
             polarizing pixels as small as 5 µm × 5 µm has been
             fabricated. A multilayer spatially multiplexed three-state
             micropolarizer line array with a 14.4-µm resolution has
             also been fabricated for visible imaging polarimetry
             application. © 2000 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.39.001486},
   Key = {03317572783}
}

@article{00095332982,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Rittgers, A and Gallachio, J and Stack, RA and Morrison,
             RL},
   Title = {Sensing, communications and processing budgets for
             tomographic distributed ground sensor arrays},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {4040},
   Pages = {49-54},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.392564},
   Keywords = {Image sensors;Computerized tomography;Image
             analysis;Infrared imaging;Three dimensional;},
   Abstract = {A sensor array is tomographic if sensor modules share raw
             information to form a joint target model. Target
             identification is then implemented on the global model. This
             paper considers sensor head and sensor array resource
             budgets for tomographic ground sensors. In this application,
             mixed local and global analysis schemes are likely to prove
             optimal. We illustrate potential approaches with images and
             analysis of 3D visual and infrared targets.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.392564},
   Key = {00095332982}
}

@article{00255164833,
   Author = {Balberg, M and Hristova, K and Mau, M and Frigon, D and Zeringue, HC and Brady, DJ and Beebe, DJ and Raskin, L},
   Title = {Multi-color fluorescence detection of ribosomal RNA in
             micro-channels},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3912},
   Pages = {35-40},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.379578},
   Keywords = {Optical sensors;Fluorescence;RNA;Bacteria;Silicones;Elastomers;Dyes;Color;},
   Abstract = {A micro fluidic device capable of detecting the abundance of
             bacteria in an environmental solution is described. The
             micro channels are made of poly(dimethylsioxane) (PDMS)
             elastomer integrated with fused silica capillaries coated
             with Aluminum. The detection of specific bacteria is based
             on molecular probes (beacons) that emit a fluorescent signal
             only when hybridized to the target. This method allows
             hybridization in solution, without immobilization, and
             avoids washing of the unbound probes. By marking 16S rDNA
             oligonucleotide probes (different genetic sequences) with
             different color dyes, and detecting the spectral intensity
             of light in the micro-channel, different microorganisms can
             be detected in one sample. Miniaturization of the analytic
             device allows the use of small quantities of RNA molecules,
             as target molecules, and improves the detection limits.
             Future devices should incorporate a parallel array of
             micro-channels, and enable fast and parallel processing of
             the molecular signals.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.379578},
   Key = {00255164833}
}

@article{6706004,
   Author = {Fetterman, MR and Tan, E and Ying, L and Stack, RA and Marks, DL and Feller, S and Cull, E and Sullivan, JM and Munson, DC and Thoroddsen,
             ST and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Tomographic imaging of foam},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {186-197},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1094-4087},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.7.000186},
   Keywords = {bubbles;cameras;CCD image sensors;foams;image
             processing;optical tomography;ray tracing;},
   Abstract = {The morphology of three-dimensional foams is of interest to
             physicists, engineers, and mathematicians. It is desired to
             image the 3-dimensional structure of the foam. Many
             different techniques have been used to image the foam,
             including magnetic resonance imaging, and short-focal length
             lenses. We use a camera and apply tomographic algorithms to
             accurately image a set of bubbles. We correct for the
             distortion of a curved plexiglas container using
             ray-tracing. © 2000 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OE.7.000186},
   Key = {6706004}
}

@article{04057951520,
   Author = {Tumbar, R and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Wave-front sensing with a sampling field
             sensor},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {72-84},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.39.000072},
   Abstract = {We present a new type of optical wave-front sensor: the
             sampling field sensor SFS!. The SFS attempts to solve the
             problem of real-time optical phase detection. It has a high
             space-bandwidth product and can be made compact and
             vibration insensitive. We describe a particular
             implementation of this sensor and compare it, through
             numerical simulations, with a more mature technique based on
             the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. We also present
             experimental results for SFS phase estimation. Finally, we
             discuss the advantages and drawbacks of this SFS
             implementation and suggest alternative implementations. ©
             2000 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.39.000072},
   Key = {04057951520}
}

@article{00075247489,
   Author = {Balberg, M and Barbastathis, G and Fantini, S and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Confocal imaging through scattering media with a volume
             holographic filter},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3919},
   Pages = {69-74},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.384180},
   Keywords = {Optical microscopy;Holography;Light scattering;Optical
             filters;Turbidity;},
   Abstract = {The use of a volume holographic filter as collector element
             in a confocal system imaging through scattering (turbid)
             material is described. We show that the penetration depth of
             the volume holographic system is de-coupled from the scatter
             noise discrimination properties, and is potentially more
             advantageous than the traditional confocal microscope. Since
             the volume-holographic filter is a matched-filter, the
             penetration depth is dependent on the mismatch of the
             refractive index of the sample being imaged relative to the
             recording conditions. We present a method to overcome this
             limitation based on using a pre-compensating index matching
             film during the recording of the volume hologram. An
             improvement of the penetration depth is shown
             experimentally.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.384180},
   Key = {00075247489}
}

@article{00045147460,
   Author = {Marks, D and Fetterman, M and Stack, R and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Spectral tomography from spatial coherence
             measurements},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3920},
   Pages = {48-55},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.379598},
   Keywords = {Coherent light;Spatial variables measurement;Interferometry;Cameras;Fourier
             transforms;Interferometers;Algorithms;Microscopic
             examination;},
   Abstract = {We describe the use of non-focal interferometric cameras for
             reconstruction of the four-dimensional power spectral
             density of incoherent sources. We develop a 4D version of
             the generalized van Cittert-Zernike theorem to establish the
             Fourier transform relationship between the mutual coherence
             function and the power spectral density. We present
             experimental demonstrations of 4D imaging using a rotational
             shearing interferometer. We discuss limitations of
             interferometric imaging systems and consider how sensor
             systems might evolve to combine the stability of focal
             systems with the algorithmic sophistication and
             multidimensional capacity of interferometry.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.379598},
   Key = {00045147460}
}

@article{7055381,
   Author = {Morrison, R.L. and Brady, D.J.},
   Title = {Diffractive and micro-optics for multiplex
             imaging},
   Journal = {Trends in Optics and Photonics. Diffractive Optics and
             Micro-Optics. Vol.41. Technical Digest. Postconference
             Edition},
   Pages = {284 - 5},
   Address = {Quebec City, Que., Canada},
   Year = {2000},
   Keywords = {diffractive optical elements;light scattering;micro-optics;optical
             design techniques;optical dispersion;optical
             images;},
   Abstract = {Multiplex systems require complex field encoding but are not
             particularly sensitive to discontinuity or chromatic
             dispersion. Diffractive and micro-optics provide a complex
             design space but have scattering and dispersion problems.
             Diffractive components provide by far the greatest potential
             for complex coding in optical elements but they have not
             been popular components in imaging systems because they
             introduce scattering, chromatic dispersion, and other
             conventionally undesirable effects and, until recent years,
             have been difficult to fabricate with arbitrary designs. One
             of the keys to the emerging digital paradigm is to recognize
             that computational inversion is a natural component of image
             formation. Systems designed for inversion are termed
             "multiplex systems" because the measurement space is not
             intended to have a one-to-one correspondence with the source
             space},
   Key = {7055381}
}

@article{00025026124,
   Author = {Brady, D and Fagan, N and Harwood, DWJ and Hesford, MJ and Hewak, DW and Hudson, TB and Moore, RC and Payne, DN and Schweizer, T and Taylor, ERM and Tucknott, JA and Voyce, CJ and Weatherby, E and West,
             YD},
   Title = {Optical amplifiers and lasers in infrared
             fibers},
   Journal = {Infrared Optical Fibers and Their Applications},
   Volume = {3849},
   Pages = {85-92},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Boston, MA, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.372803},
   Keywords = {Optical fibers;Infrared radiation;Gallium compounds;Fiber
             lasers;Quenching;Fluorine compounds;},
   Abstract = {We are currently investigating two infrared glasses for
             active applications. Gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glass
             is investigated as a potential host material for rare-earth
             doped mid-infrared fibre lasers. We have fabricated gallium
             lanthanum sulphide glass by melt quenching and drawn it into
             fibres using the rod-in-tube technique. Fluoroaluminate
             glasses (ALF) are being prepared in planar form by spin
             coating and clad waveguides have been achieved. The quality
             of waveguides from both these materials is gradually being
             improved as methods to eliminate transition metals and other
             impurities, understand crystallization and reduce the
             imperfections at the core/clad interface are developed.
             Although initially motivated by the demand for a practical
             1310 nm amplifier, interest has now extended further into
             the infrared. We describe recent progress in these glasses,
             their properties and applications.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.372803},
   Key = {00025026124}
}

@article{99035079596,
   Author = {Johnson, AJ and Marks, DL and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ and Munson,
             DC},
   Title = {Three-dimensional surface reconstruction of optical
             Lambertian objects using cone-beam tomography},
   Journal = {Ieee International Conference on Image Processing},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {663-667},
   Address = {Kobe, Jpn},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIP.1999.822978},
   Keywords = {Tomography;Light reflection;Imaging techniques;Image
             quality;Algorithms;},
   Abstract = {We develop an approach to the determination of 3-D structure
             and reflectivity of Lambertian objects using a modification
             of cone-beam tomography. Like other tomographic imaging
             methods, our approach is entirely numerical and does not
             rely on heuristics. Furthermore, it requires only ambient
             illumination.},
   Key = {99035079596}
}

@article{00014967590,
   Author = {Balberg, M and Barbastathis, G and Brady, DJ and Choi, BK and Liu,
             C},
   Title = {Holographic 3D imaging of microstructures},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3801},
   Pages = {202-207},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Denver, CO, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.363933},
   Keywords = {Imaging systems;Three dimensional;Holograms;Scanning
             electron microscopy;Microscopes;Silicon wafers;},
   Abstract = {A volume holographic matched filter is used for
             three-dimensional imaging of silicon microstructures. The
             filter is designed by recording a hologram that is matched
             to the object depth, allowing confocal imaging of the
             structure. Confocal imaging of micro devices provides the
             capability to image the performance of the device, which is
             not possible in scanning-electron-microscopes (SEM). A
             matched holographic filter can also provide more information
             about the device than regular confocal imaging. We present a
             scanned image of a silicon wafer with micro-fabricated
             trenches.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.363933},
   Key = {00014967590}
}

@article{00035085021,
   Author = {Zou, J and Balberg, M and Byrne, C and Liu, C and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Optical properties of surface micromachined mirrors with
             etch holes},
   Journal = {Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {506-513},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/84.809066},
   Keywords = {Micromachining;Silicon;Polycrystalline materials;Light
             reflection;Electromagnetic wave diffraction;Etching;},
   Abstract = {We have investigated the optical properties of
             surface-micromachined polycrystalline silicon reflectors
             within the visible spectral range at five different
             wavelengths. The measurement results of the reflectivity of
             various microreflectors at four different incident angles
             (20°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) are presented. Optical
             properties of microreflectors realized using the multiuser
             MEMS process (MUMPS) have been investigated. Our studies
             have found that etch holes, widely used in the surface
             micromachining process to reduce the time for releasing
             structures by sacrificial undercutting, have a great
             influence on the optical properties of micromachined
             mirrors. Diffraction patterns created by two-dimensional
             etch-hole arrays on micromachined mirrors have been
             investigated. The diffraction by etch holes obeys the
             Fraunhofer diffraction theory when a collimated light source
             (e.g., a laser beam) is incident. We have shown that when
             the dimension of etch holes increases, an increasing portion
             of the incident power will be diffracted and transmitted due
             to etch holes, leading to decreasing reflectivity of surface
             micromachined mirrors.},
   Doi = {10.1109/84.809066},
   Key = {00035085021}
}

@article{00025011777,
   Author = {Barbastathis, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Multidimensional Tomographie Imaging Using Volume
             Holography},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2098-2120},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0018-9219},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/5.805924},
   Keywords = {Holography;Three dimensional computer graphics;},
   Abstract = {We propose the application of volume holography to
             fourdimensional (4-D) spatiospectral imaging. The proposed
             systems use materials and techniques developed for
             holographic data storage and interconnections to capture
             three-dimensional (3-D) spatial and one-dimensional (1-D)
             spectral information about a remote light source or
             scatterer. We analyze case studies of simple architectures
             using spherical-reference volume holograms as imaging
             elements in a fluorescence confocal microscope arrangement
             and demonstrate the equivalence of the holographic
             degeneracies with a slicing operation on the reconstructing
             incoherent source. We develop a general theoretical
             framework for the diffraction of random fields from volume
             holograms and show that the formulation can be used as an
             imaging design tool. Applications and future directions are
             also discussed. © 1999 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/5.805924},
   Key = {00025011777}
}

@article{99094796382,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ and Munson, DC and Brady,
             RB},
   Title = {Visible cone-beam tomography with a lensless interferometric
             camera},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {284},
   Number = {5423},
   Pages = {2164-2166},
   Publisher = {American Association for the Advancement of Science
             (AAAS)},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5423.2164},
   Keywords = {Cameras;Interferometry;Three dimensional computer
             graphics;Coherent light;Image reconstruction;Image
             analysis;Functions;},
   Abstract = {Digital processing of optical coherence functions can
             reconstruct three- dimensional objects illuminated by
             incoherent light. It is shown that Fourier analysis of the
             mutual intensity of the field produces projections that are
             mathematically identical to the projections of x-ray
             cone-beam tomography. A lensless interferometric camera that
             captures planes of mutual intensity data is described and
             used to reconstruct an incoherently illuminated visible
             object in three dimensions.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.284.5423.2164},
   Key = {99094796382}
}

@article{99104849773,
   Author = {Barbastathis, G and Balberg, M and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Confocal microscopy with a volume holographic
             filter},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {811-813},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.24.000811},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Optical filters;Optical instrument
             lenses;Electromagnetic wave diffraction;Optical resolving
             power;Alignment;Aberrations;},
   Abstract = {A confocal scanning microscopy in which a matched volume
             holographic filter replaces the pinhole is described.
             Hologram recording is such that the field generated by an
             in-focus object is maximally diffracted, whereas
             out-of-focus objects are filtered out due to Bragg mismatch.
             This decouples dynamic range and axial resolution. The
             dynamic range is determined by the diffraction efficiency of
             the hologram, and the axial resolution by the numerical
             aperture of the objective lens and the hologram thickness.
             Additional benefits include ease of alignment and improved
             aberration performance.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.24.000811},
   Key = {99104849773}
}

@article{99054674480,
   Author = {Purchase, KG and Brady, DJ and Roh, SD and Lammert, RM and Osowski, ML and Coleman, JJ and Hughes, JS},
   Title = {Distributed Bragg pulse shaper: Demonstration and
             model},
   Journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {621-628},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/50.754792},
   Keywords = {Pulse shaping circuits;Mirrors;Optical waveguides;Data
             communication equipment;Packet networks;Semiconducting
             aluminum compounds;Semiconducting gallium arsenide;Solid
             state lasers;Ultrafast phenomena;Integrated
             optics;Mathematical models;},
   Abstract = {The distributed Bragg pulse-shaper (DBPS) is a series of
             electrically switchable Bragg mirrors on a semiconductor
             waveguide. The DBPS encodes data packets using parallel
             electrical signals to set the states of the Bragg mirrors. A
             broad-band source pulse then probes the device to generate a
             high bandwidth serial wavepacket from the train of partially
             reflecting mirrors. This paper describes a DBPS constructed
             in AlGaAs. Using this device and a mode-locked Ti:sapphire
             laser, we create a 4-bit packet with 0.37 Tb/s burst bit
             rate and we demonstrate for the first time that bits in the
             wavepacket can be switched by electrical modulation of
             individual Bragg segments. We also describe a model
             collaborating the observed data.},
   Doi = {10.1109/50.754792},
   Key = {99054674480}
}

@article{99044647297,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ and Van Der Gracht,
             J},
   Title = {Three-dimensional tomography using a cubic-phase plate
             extended depth-of-field system},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {253-255},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0146-9592},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.24.000253},
   Abstract = {We use cubic-phase plate imaging to demonstrate an
             order-of-magnitude improvement in the transverse resolution
             of three-dimensional objects reconstructed by extended
             depth-of-field tomography. Our algorithm compensates for the
             range shear of the cubic-phase approach and uses camera
             rotation to center the reconstructed volume on a target
             object point. © 1999 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.24.000253},
   Key = {99044647297}
}

@article{fds280301,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Jimenez, JL},
   Title = {Quantum dot spectrometer},
   Journal = {Leos Summer Topical Meeting},
   Pages = {3-4},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {An account is given on the simulations and experiments on an
             electrically-tunable spectrally-sensitive photodetector
             based on inhomogeneous absorption in a self-assembled
             quantum dot array and resonant tunneling through a coupled
             quantum well layer. The preliminary device used in this
             study has been constructed based on several concepts using
             the InAs-GaAs-AlAs material system. The characteristically
             broad inhomogeneous dot luminescence is apparent in the
             device.},
   Key = {fds280301}
}

@article{99104817475,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Marks, DL and Johnson, AJ and Stack, RA and Munson,
             DC},
   Title = {Unattended interferometric sensors},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3713},
   Pages = {112-119},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.357126},
   Keywords = {Interferometry;Infrared imaging;Coherent light;Sensor data
             fusion;Image reconstruction;},
   Abstract = {We describe tomographic integration of visible and IR
             projections to form 3D models of object spaces. 3D modeling
             is a computationally efficient means of multiple sensor data
             reduction and a robust means of scene analysis. We consider
             how imaging system design might be revised to obtain 3D data
             and present experimental data from a compact interferometric
             coherence imaging system. We experimentally and
             theoretically analyze 3D reconstructions of macroscopic
             objects, focusing in particular on the reconstruction of an
             automobile using a conventional camera.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.357126},
   Key = {99104817475}
}

@article{04057907674,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Stack, RA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Three-dimensional coherence imaging in the fresnel
             domain},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1332-1342},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.38.001332},
   Abstract = {We show that three-dimensional incoherent primary sources
             can be reconstructed from finite-aperture Fresnel-zone
             mutual intensity measurements by means of coordinate and
             Fourier transformation. The spatial bandpass and impulse
             response for three-dimensional imaging that result from use
             of this approach are derived. The transverse and
             longitudinal resolutions are evaluated as functions of
             aperture size and source distance. The longitudinal
             resolution of three-dimensional coherence imaging falls
             inversely with the square of the source distance in both the
             Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones. We experimentally measure the
             three-dimensional point-spread function by using a
             rotational shear interferometer. © 1999 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.38.001332},
   Key = {04057907674}
}

@article{99104830932,
   Author = {Barbastathis, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Spatio-spectral tomography of luminescent objects with
             volume holograms},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3749},
   Pages = {398-399},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Francisco, CA, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.354804},
   Keywords = {Tomography;Holograms;Image reconstruction;Optical resolving
             power;Color;},
   Abstract = {Volume holograms as optical imaging elements provide maximum
             flexibility in the design of the optical response. For
             example, when a polychromatic incoherent object illuminates
             a spherical-reference volume hologram, the shift selectivity
             effect extracts only a color-dependent slice of the object,
             which is reconstructed on a planar detector. In this
             presentation we characterize the performance (resolution and
             dynamic range) of a tomographic imaging system based on this
             effect.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.354804},
   Key = {99104830932}
}

@article{99094789724,
   Author = {Barbastathis, G and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Volume holographic imaging of three-dimensional
             objects},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3633},
   Pages = {170-181},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.349324},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Three dimensional;Image reconstruction;Tomography;},
   Abstract = {Spherical-reference volume holograms exhibit spatial
             selectivity to the location and color of the reconstructing
             beam. We show that this property enables tomographic
             operations on extended incoherent polychromatic objects, and
             derive the shapes and spectral contents of the reconstructed
             slices for several holographic arrangements.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.349324},
   Key = {99094789724}
}

@article{6512580,
   Author = {Brady, D.J. and Jimenez, J.L.},
   Title = {The quantum dot spectrometer},
   Journal = {1999 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings:
             Nanostructures and Quantum Dots/WDM Components/VCSELs and
             Microcavaties/RF Photonics for CATV and HFC Systems (Cat.
             No.99TH8455)},
   Pages = {3 - 4},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
   Year = {1999},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOSST.1999.794631},
   Keywords = {aluminium compounds;gallium arsenide;III-V
             semiconductors;indium compounds;infrared
             spectrometers;optical arrays;photodetectors;quantum well
             devices;resonant tunnelling devices;self-assembly;semiconductor
             heterojunctions;semiconductor quantum dots;},
   Abstract = {We describe the simulations and experiments on an
             electrically-tunable spectrally-sensitive photodetector
             based on inhomogeneous absorption in a self-assembled
             quantum dot array and resonant tunneling through a coupled
             quantum well layer. The basic structure of our device, the
             quantum dot spectrometer (QDS) is given. The key components
             are the quantum dot layer, which produces spectrally
             sensitive absorption and the coupling layer, which reads out
             spectral information as a function of the applied voltage,
             V. The coupling layer consists of a pair of coupled quantum
             wells. For certain applied bias voltages across the quantum
             wells, resonant transfer from the quantum dot layer to the
             collector layer occurs. We have constructed a preliminary
             device based on these concepts using the InAs-GaAs-AlAs
             material system},
   Key = {6512580}
}

@article{fds280299,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Brady, D},
   Title = {Asymptotic multiuser efficiencies for decision-directed
             multiuser detectors},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Information Theory},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {502-515},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0018-9448},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/18.661500},
   Abstract = {The asymptotic multiuser efficiencies (AME's) are derived
             for various classes of decision-directed multiuser
             detectors, including multistage detectors, and
             decision-feedback detectors. Novel classes of soft-decision
             multistage detectors are proposed and analyzed in this
             paper. Each class is specified in part by a soft-decision
             nonlinearity, such as a symmetric quantizer or a linear
             clipper. Closed-form expressions for two-user AME's are
             derived for soft-decision two-stage detectors and can be
             used as a design criterion to optimize the soft-decision
             nonlinearities. For a special case of two synchronous users,
             the soft-decision two-stage detector using an optimized
             linear clipper with either conventional or decorrelated
             tentative decisions is shown to achieve optimum AME. Upper
             and lower bounds on the AME are obtained for
             decision-feedback detectors using either conventional or
             decorrelated tentative decisions. It is demonstrated that
             decision-directed multiuser detectors with conventional
             tentative decisions have low near-far resistance compared to
             those with decorrelated tentative decisions. © 1998
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/18.661500},
   Key = {fds280299}
}

@article{99024581923,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Marks, DL and Stack, R},
   Title = {Fresnel zone interferometric imaging},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {205-206},
   Address = {Orlando, FL, USA},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.1998.739532},
   Keywords = {Interferometers;Fast Fourier transforms;Mathematical
             models;Light emitting diodes;Integral equations;},
   Abstract = {Fourier analysis in projective coordinates shows similar
             inversion in the Fresnel zone. Since the longitudinal
             resolution of 3D coherence imaging falls inversely in the
             square of range in both the Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones,
             extension to the Fresnel zone dramatically improves
             longitudinal resolution by removing far-field range
             constraints. The utility of this method is demonstrated
             using rotational shear interferometers (RSI), which measure
             complete planes of coherence measures in a single frame.
             These experiments demonstrate that the incoherent field in
             an aperture may contain substantially more object
             information than conventional imaging systems
             detect.},
   Key = {99024581923}
}

@article{03217478728,
   Author = {Zou, J and Byrne, C and Liu, C and Brady, D},
   Title = {Optical properties of micromachined polysilicon reflective
             surfaces with etching holes},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {3511},
   Pages = {307-314},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {Santa Clara, CA, United States},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.324315},
   Keywords = {Micromachining;Polysilicon;Reflection;Surface
             roughness;Etching;Integrated circuits;Laser
             beams;Diffraction;Optimization;Optical systems;Microoptics;},
   Abstract = {MUMPS (Multi-User MEMS Process) is receiving increasingly
             wide use in micro optics. We have investigated the optical
             properties of the polysilicon reflective surface in a
             typical MUMPS chip within the visible light spectrum. The
             effect of etching holes on the reflected laser beam is
             studied. The reflectivity and diffraction patterns at five
             different wavelengths have been measured. The optical
             properties of the polysilicon reflective surface are greatly
             affected by the surface roughness, the etching holes, as
             well as the material. The etching holes contribute to
             diffraction and reduction of reflectivity. This study
             provides a basis for optimal design of micromachined
             free-space optical systems.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.324315},
   Key = {03217478728}
}

@article{98074282851,
   Author = {Marks, DL and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Three-dimensional source reconstruction with a scanned
             pinhole camera},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {820-822},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.23.000820},
   Abstract = {We present a simple reconstruction algorithm for
             three-dimensional (3D) incoherent source distributions
             imaged by a laterally scanned pinhole camera. We consider
             digital sampling of multiple pinhole images for 3D
             reconstruction and implement an experimental demonstration
             with lateral resolution of 2 × 10 -3 rad and longitudinal
             resolution of approximately 0.14z 2 m, where z is the
             object-to-pinhole distance in meters. © 1998 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.23.000820},
   Key = {98074282851}
}

@article{98024043991,
   Author = {Jimenez, JL and Fonseca, LRC and Brady, DJ and Leburton, JP and Wohlert,
             DE and Cheng, KY},
   Title = {The quantum dot spectrometer},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {3558-3560},
   Publisher = {AIP Publishing},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.120390},
   Keywords = {Photodetectors;Semiconductor quantum dots;Semiconductor
             device structures;Design;Semiconductor materials;Computer
             simulation;Finite difference method;Electron
             scattering;},
   Abstract = {We propose a novel photodetector capable of multi-spectral
             channel operation. The device makes use of the ability of a
             quantum dot plane to capture an optical spectrum, and of a
             resonant-tunneling structure to perform spectrally sensitive
             read-out. We present a design made out in the
             InAs-GaAs-AlxGa1 - xAs system. We also present realistic
             simulations of the optical channel capabilities, as well as
             a discussion of the possible problems of the device. © 1997
             American Institute of Physics.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.120390},
   Key = {98024043991}
}

@article{fds280298,
   Author = {Gray, SD and Preisig, JC and Brady, D},
   Title = {Multiuser detection in a horizontal underwater acoustic
             channel using array observations},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Signal Processing},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {148-160},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1053-587X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/78.552213},
   Abstract = {We present a multisensor, multiuser receiver that is capable
             of operating in an underwater acoustic channel with severe
             niultipath. For each active user, the receiver consists of a
             multi-input, single-output array processing filter followed
             by a single-channel adaptive equalizer. The array processing
             filter is chosen to maximize an averaged performance metric
             which measures reduction in the interference from multiple
             asynchronous cochannel users and the reduction in
             intersymbol interference caused by time spreading of the
             transmitted signal. The singlechannel adaptive equalizer
             that follows the array processing filter eliminates the
             remaining intersymbol interference prior to hard symbol
             decisions. The division of labor between the array
             processing filter and single-channel equalizer reduces
             receiver complexity by allowing the array processing filter
             weights to be based on the fixed deterministic channel
             component and the single-channel equalizer to be based on
             the stochastic channel component. Receiver performance is
             demonstrated using data obtained from two shallow-water
             acoustic channels where two cochannel users are transmitting
             in shallow water at 18 and 30 nautical miles from the
             receiver array. © 1997 IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/78.552213},
   Key = {fds280298}
}

@article{97093841064,
   Author = {Ramachandran, S and Pepper, JC and Brady, DJ and Bishop,
             SG},
   Title = {Micro-optical lenslets by photo-expansion in chalcogenide
             glasses},
   Journal = {Journal of Lightwave Technology},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1371-1377},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0733-8724},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/50.618346},
   Keywords = {Photosensitivity;Optical collimators;Light
             absorption;Optical instrument lenses;Photons;Photochromism;Crystal
             atomic structure;Atomic force microscopy;Dye
             lasers;},
   Abstract = {A detailed study of the wavelength dependence of the
             formation of lenslets by photo-expansion in chalcogenide
             glasses is reported. Photo-expansion in chalcogenide glasses
             offers a one-step fabrication process to record surface
             structures such as gratings and microlenses. The process is
             purely optical and requires no fixing and etching to get the
             desired surface structure. Two competing effects, namely
             large volumes accessed by low energy photons and large
             magnitudes of photostructural changes due to high energy
             photons, provide the possibility of using different
             fabrication techniques to obtain lenslets by the
             photoexpansion process. Strongly absorbed 514.5 nm light is
             used to record micro-optical lenslets in As 2S 3 glass and
             up to 10% relative volume changes are observed. The low
             power density requirements at this wavelength are used to
             demonstrate a parallel lithographic fabrication technique
             for recording lenslets with high repeatability and
             throughput, and with excellent control over curvature and
             dimensions. The magnitude of surface dilation is maximized
             at the photon energy that combines the advantage of short
             wavelength exposures in producing large percentage volume
             changes, with the advantage of low energy photons in
             irradiating large volumes of the glass matrix. A variety of
             wavelengths within the Urbach tail range of the optical
             absorption edge are employed to find the optimal wavelength
             for large absolute volume changes in As 2S 3 glass. Lenslets
             as high as 8 μm are fabricated with focused light exposures
             from a dye laser operating at 584.5 nm. Lenslets are
             structurally characterized with alpha-step scanners and an
             atomic force microscope (AFM) and are optically
             characterized by testing the collimation of 1550-nm light
             emerging from a single-mode fiber with these
             lenslets.},
   Doi = {10.1109/50.618346},
   Key = {97093841064}
}

@article{97073727428,
   Author = {Hill, KB and Basinger, SA and Stack, RA and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Noise and information in interferometric cross
             correlators},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {3948-3958},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0003-6935},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.36.003948},
   Abstract = {We consider optical interferometric cross correlators based
             on broadband light sources. We derive the signal-to-noise
             ratio from basic principles and supply experimental evidence
             that corroborates the theoretical analysis. Noise sources
             are discussed, and the signal-to-noise ratio of our
             experimental system is measured. © 1997 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.36.003948},
   Key = {97073727428}
}

@article{97053641892,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D and Catipovic, J},
   Title = {An adaptive decentralized multiuser receiver for deep-water
             acoustic telemetry},
   Journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of
             America},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2384-2387},
   Publisher = {Acoustical Society of America (ASA)},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.418252},
   Abstract = {An acoustic local area network has been deployed for
             multipoint-to- point telemetry between ocean bottom sensors
             and a surface receiver in deep- water areas. A major
             obstacle for coherent communications in this channel is
             strong multiple-access interference from other acoustic
             modems, which affects a common narrowband request channel of
             the network protocol. The network throughput and packet
             delay depend on the capability of the receiver to resolve
             collisions between request packets. In this paper a
             multiuser receiver for joint channel parameter estimation,
             multiple-access interference suppression and signal
             detection is proposed. The receiver is fully adaptive,
             requiring no side information about the channel conditions
             or the signal parameters of the interfering users in the
             network. Receiver performance is demonstrated through
             experiments in a deep-water acoustic channel.},
   Doi = {10.1121/1.418252},
   Key = {97053641892}
}

@article{97043597442,
   Author = {Basinger, SA and Brady, DJ and Michielssen, E},
   Title = {Superresolution through space-time control of two-level
             quantum systems},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {503-510},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3224},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.14.000503},
   Abstract = {Spatial structure created by pulsed field interactions with
             two-level systems is considered. Superresolved pattern
             formation is possible by the use of extra degrees of freedom
             programmed in the time-domain field. In analogy with slice
             selection in magnetic resonance imaging, the two-level
             system with no decay constants is shown to be completely
             controllable. The effects of noise, dephasing, and
             inhomogeneous broadening are considered. © 1997 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.14.000503},
   Key = {97043597442}
}

@article{5676443,
   Author = {Guo, J and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer
             arrays},
   Journal = {Optical Engineering},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2268-2271},
   Publisher = {SPIE-Intl Soc Optical Eng},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0091-3286},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.601452},
   Keywords = {optical fabrication;optical films;optical filters;optical
             polarisers;optical polymers;optical resolving
             power;},
   Abstract = {Procedures for creating high-resolution polarization filter
             arrays using multilayer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films are
             described. Two state polarization filter arrays with 25 μm
             resolution and three state polarization filter arrays with
             48 μm resolution are demonstrated. © 1997 Society of
             Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.},
   Doi = {10.1117/1.601452},
   Key = {5676443}
}

@article{98014027088,
   Author = {Basinger, SA and Stack, RA and Hill, KB and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Superresolved optical scanning using polychromatic
             light},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3242-3250},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0740-3232},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.14.003242},
   Keywords = {Interferometry;Light;Data acquisition;Data
             reduction;Mathematical models;Feature extraction;Data
             structures;Three dimensional;Computer simulation;Position
             measurement;},
   Abstract = {Subwavelength detection of object displacement with use of a
             polychromatic interferometric imaging system is demonstrated
             experimentally. Object position detection with 50-nm lateral
             resolution is achieved. This result derives from and is
             consistent with increases in information capacity with use
             of phase-sensitive polychromatic systems identified by
             Basinger et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 704 (1995)]. This
             phase-sensitive polychromatic detection relies on an imaging
             interferometric cross-correlating receiver capable of 2-nm
             optical path difference resolution. © 1997 Optical Society
             of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.14.003242},
   Key = {98014027088}
}

@article{04358327724,
   Author = {Schweizer, T and Brady, DJ and Hewak, DW},
   Title = {Fabrication and spectroscopy of erbium doped gallium
             lanthanum sulphide glass fibres for mid-infrared laser
             applications},
   Journal = {Optics Express},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {102-107},
   Year = {1997},
   Keywords = {Erbium;Semiconductor doping;Infrared spectroscopy;Fiber
             lasers;Laser applications;Fluorescence;Luminescence;},
   Abstract = {Gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses are proposed as
             high quality hosts for rare-earth doped, mid-infrared fibre
             lasers, that would offer compact and rugged sources for gas
             sensing, atmospheric transmission, and medical applications.
             The infrared emission spectroscopy of erbium doped glasses
             and fibres shows the potential of this glass host for the
             above applications. Mid-infrared transitions at 2.0, 2.75,
             3.6, and 4.5&mu;m have been detected and characterized.
             &copy; 1997 Optical Society of America.},
   Key = {04358327724}
}

@article{97013496375,
   Author = {Ramachandran, S and Brady, DJ and Bishop, SG},
   Title = {Parallel lithographic fabrication of micro-optical lenslets
             by photoexpansion in chalcogenide glasses},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {284-285},
   Address = {Boston, MA, USA},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.1996.565242},
   Keywords = {Optical glass;Laser recording;Light absorption;Photolithography;Integrated
             circuit manufacture;Laser beam effects;Gas
             lasers;Expansion;},
   Abstract = {The non-locality of the photoexpansion effect as well as
             large volume changes observed in the fabrication of
             micro-lenses on the surface of As 2 S 3 (chalcogenide) glass
             was investigated experimentally. The parallel
             photolithographic process was used in micro-lens and lens
             array fabrication because of its distinct advantages over
             focused light techniques. The process allowed excellent
             control on feature size. The non-local expansion gave smooth
             rounded edges and a sufficiently small exposure resulted in
             a convex structure. Smaller lenslets seemed to preserve
             their convex structure and showed higher aspect
             ratios.},
   Key = {97013496375}
}

@article{fds330756,
   Author = {Carrilho, E and Ruiz-Martinez, MC and Berka, J and Smirnov, I and Goetzinger, W and Miller, AW and Brady, D and Karger,
             BL},
   Title = {Rapid DNA sequencing of more than 1000 bases per run by
             capillary electrophoresis using replaceable linear
             polyacrylamide solutions.},
   Journal = {Analytical Chemistry},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {19},
   Pages = {3305-3313},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac960411r},
   Abstract = {The read length for DNA sequencing using capillary
             electrophoresis and replaceable linear polyacrylamide (LPA)
             solutions has been extended to more than 1000 bases with a
             run time of 80 min. This result was successfully achieved
             through the combined use of cycle sequencing with
             dye-labeled primers, improved matrix and separation
             conditions, and enhanced base-calling software. The
             influences of LPA molecular weight and concentration on
             separation were investigated. Additionally, the separation
             buffer, column temperature, and electric field were adjusted
             to increase the number of resolvable DNA fragments per run
             while maintaining an enhanced separation speed. Using low
             concentrations [2% (w/v)] of high molecular weight LPA
             polymers (> 5.5 x 10(6) Da), elevated column temperature (50
             degrees C) and moderately high field (150 V/cm), rapid
             sequencing analysis for more than 1000 bases on a model
             ssM13mp18 template was obtained with 96.8%
             accuracy.},
   Doi = {10.1021/ac960411r},
   Key = {fds330756}
}

@article{96083296422,
   Author = {Ramachandran, S and Bishop, SG and Guo, JP and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3
             glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening},
   Journal = {Ieee Photonics Technology Letters},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1041-1043},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1041-1135},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/68.508731},
   Keywords = {Optical glass;Arsenic compounds;Photochromism;Mathematical
             models;Optical variables measurement;Atomic force
             microscopy;Semiconductor device manufacture;Semiconductor
             device structures;Laser beams;Interferometers;Helium neon
             lasers;},
   Abstract = {The spatial dynamics of the photo-induced surface relief and
             phase gratings in As2S3 glass are described. Excursion
             amplitudes up to 150 nm and grating efficiencies up to 27%
             are observed. Depth and resolution limits for the effect are
             measured and a model for the resolution limit is
             proposed.},
   Doi = {10.1109/68.508731},
   Key = {96083296422}
}

@article{fds280297,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D and Catipovic, J},
   Title = {Adaptive detection for shallow-water acoustic telemetry with
             cochannel interference},
   Journal = {Ieee Journal of Oceanic Engineering},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {528-536},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0364-9059},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/48.544062},
   Abstract = {Adaptive decision feedback equalization (DFE) has recently
             been used to enable high-rate data transmission through
             shallow-water acoustic channels. This adaptive receiver
             successfully tracks and suppresses intersymbol interference
             due to a dispersive multipath channel. However, acoustic
             modems which are used for network applications must also
             contend with interference due to cochannel signals from
             proximal modems. In this work, we propose and evaluate a
             multiuser receiver with cochannel interference suppression.
             The advantages of this multiuser receiver in the presence of
             strong cochannel interference are shown by a performance
             comparison to a bank of the single-user DFK's described
             above. Conclusions are supported in part by the demodulation
             of experimental data for two simultaneous cochannel signals
             and by a steady-stale performance analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1109/48.544062},
   Key = {fds280297}
}

@article{96073231176,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Basinger, SA and Stack, RA and Hill, KB and Guo,
             J},
   Title = {Characterization of complex space-time optical
             fields},
   Journal = {Proceedings of Spie the International Society for Optical
             Engineering},
   Volume = {2701},
   Pages = {152-158},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Address = {San Jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.239705},
   Keywords = {Ultrafast phenomena;Characterization;Holography;Interferometry;Signal
             to noise ratio;Signal detection;},
   Abstract = {We consider interferometric techniques for capturing
             ultra-fast pulsed images. We analyze the signal-to-noise
             performance and information capacity of pulsed image
             detection systems and we briefly discuss the possibility of
             improving detection systems using spectral holographic image
             capture.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.239705},
   Key = {96073231176}
}

@article{fds323378,
   Author = {Ramachandran, S and Bishop, SG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Dynamic grating formation in As2S3},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Pages = {259-260},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This work focuses on using the photoexpansion effect to
             fabricate surface-grating structures and studying the
             applicability in photonic circuitry. Surface gratings with
             periods ranging from 2.95 μm to 0.377 μm were written
             holographically using 514.5-nm light from an Argon ion
             laser. Gratings with 2.95-μm period were also written for
             different exposure times to study the dose effect on
             surface-relief structures. AFM images of the irradiated
             surfaces were obtained. A He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm
             enabled to measure diffraction efficiencies.},
   Key = {fds323378}
}

@article{5464933,
   Author = {Ramachandran, S and Bishop, SG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Dynamic grating formation in As2S3},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting Leos},
   Pages = {259-260},
   Address = {Anaheim, CA, USA},
   Year = {1996},
   Keywords = {arsenic compounds;atomic force microscopy;chalcogenide
             glasses;holographic gratings;optical fabrication;optical
             glass;optical microscopy;},
   Abstract = {This work focuses on using the photoexpansion effect to
             fabricate surface-grating structures and studying the
             applicability in photonic circuitry. Surface gratings with
             periods ranging from 2.95 μm to 0.377 μm were written
             holographically using 514.5-nm light from an Argon ion
             laser. Gratings with 2.95-μm period were also written for
             different exposure times to study the dose effect on
             surface-relief structures. AFM images of the irradiated
             surfaces were obtained. A He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm
             enabled to measure diffraction efficiencies.},
   Key = {5464933}
}

@article{96012995984,
   Author = {Purchase, KG and Brady, DJ and Smith, GM and Roh, SD and Osowski, ML and Coleman, JJ},
   Title = {Integrated optical pulse shapers for high-bandwidth data
             packet encoding},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {2613},
   Pages = {43-51},
   Address = {Philadelphia, PA, USA},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0277-786X},
   Keywords = {Signal encoding;Pulse modulation;Integrated
             optics;Design;Fabrication;},
   Abstract = {We describe distributed Bragg pulse shapers for the
             ultra-fast communication system wavepacket encoding. We
             discuss Bragg pulse shaper design and fabrication and we
             present experimental results from first and second
             generation devices.},
   Key = {96012995984}
}

@article{fds340979,
   Author = {Ma, L-S and Jungner, P and Ye, J and Hall, JL},
   Title = {Accurate cancellation (to milliHertz levels) of optical
             phase noise due to vibration or insertion phase in
             fiber-transmitted light},
   Journal = {Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.208231},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.208231},
   Key = {fds340979}
}

@article{95042669868,
   Author = {Basinger, SA and Michielssen, E and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Degrees of freedom of polychromatic images},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {704-714},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.12.000704},
   Keywords = {Microscopic examination;Spatial variables
             measurement;Mathematical models;Electromagnetic wave
             scattering;Detectors;},
   Abstract = {Detection and evaluation of time- and space-domain fields
             scattered by one-dimensional objects is considered for
             applications in superresolved microscopy. Modal
             decomposition of scattered fields is used to estimate the
             information passed by band-limited diffraction from an
             object to the far field. The transinformation is shown to
             increase with the number of frequencies in the probe field.
             © 1995 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.12.000704},
   Key = {95042669868}
}

@article{fds330760,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Suboptimal Multiuser Detector for Frequency-Selective
             Rayleigh Fading Synchronous CDMA Channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {234},
   Pages = {154-157},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/26.380025},
   Abstract = {We propose a suboptimal low-complexity multiuser receiver
             for synchronous CDMA frequency-selective Rayleigh fading
             channels. In contrast to the conventional RAKE receiver,
             which suffers from near-far effects due to channel fading,
             the proposed multiuser receiver is shown to alleviate the
             near-far problem while preserving multipath diversity gain.
             This is demonstrated by comparing the symbol error
             probability and asymptotic multiuser efficiency of the
             proposed multiuser detector and RAKE receiver. © 1995
             IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/26.380025},
   Key = {fds330760}
}

@article{fds330761,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Differentially Coherent Multiuser Detection in Asynchronous
             CDMA Flat Rayleigh Fading Channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {234},
   Pages = {1252-1255},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/26.380162},
   Abstract = {We present the performance analysis of decorrelating
             detector for differentially coherent transmission over a
             CDMA frequency-nonselective Rayleigh fading channel. While
             the correlation-type receiver is near-far limited in this
             channel, it is shown that the aforementioned multiuser
             detector eliminates the bit error rate floor and alleviates
             the near-far problem. © 1995 IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/26.380162},
   Key = {fds330761}
}

@article{fds330763,
   Author = {Gray, SD and Kocic, M and Brady, D},
   Title = {Multiuser Detection in Mismatched Multiple-Access
             Channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {3080-3089},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/26.477511},
   Abstract = {In this paper we consider an additive white Gaussian noise
             multiple-access channel and investigate the performance
             degradation of several multiuser detectors due to imperfect
             knowledge of channel parameters, induced by either
             estimation errors or sampling/quantization of the receiver's
             sufficient statistics. The symbol error rates and the
             asymptotic multiuser efficiencies (AME's) of these detectors
             are examined as functions of both true and approximated
             channel parameters for 2 asynchronous users. The results
             quantify the loss of near-far resistance due to parameter
             estimation errors and demonstrate that detectors which are
             optimal for ideal conditions are often more sensitive to
             parameter mismatch. Examples are given which illustrate a
             reverse ordering of the symbol error rates for these
             detectors in the high signal-to-noise regime, and also
             illustrate cases when the conventional matched-filter
             detector exhibits superior performance over multiuser
             detectors. © 1995 IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/26.477511},
   Key = {fds330763}
}

@article{95062736916,
   Author = {Hill Kent and B and Purchase Kenneth and G and Brady David,
             J},
   Title = {Pulsed-image generation and detection},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1201-1203},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1995},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.20.001201},
   Keywords = {Holograms;Lithium compounds;Three dimensional;Image
             compression;Interferometry;Laser pulses;Mathematical
             models;Integral equations;Fast Fourier transforms;},
   Abstract = {A volume holographic pulse shaper that programs the
             three-dimensional space-time structure of optical fields is
             described. This system produces images in which each pixel
             contains an independent and programmable pulse shape. The
             pulsed images were recorded using a z-cut 1 cm &times; 1 cm
             &times; 1 cm 0.1% iron-doped lithium niobate crystal from
             Deltronic. The construction of an interferometric cross
             correlator was key to the detection of the shaped field.
             Programmable pulsed images are of particular interest to
             quantum dynamical control.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.20.001201},
   Key = {95062736916}
}

@article{5207875,
   Author = {Sun, P-C and Fainman, Y and Mazurenko, YT and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Space-time processing with photorefractive volume
             holography},
   Journal = {Proc. Spie Int. Soc. Opt. Eng. (Usa)},
   Volume = {2529},
   Pages = {157-170},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
   Year = {1995},
   Keywords = {data conversion;high-speed optical techniques;holographic
             storage;image matching;image reconstruction;matched
             filters;optical dispersion;optical information
             processing;optical interconnections;photorefractive
             effect;},
   Abstract = {Photorefractive volume holography for processing ultrashort
             optical pulses carrying spatial, temporal and
             spatio-temporal optical information is introduced. These new
             holographic methods can process 4-dimensional information
             that in addition to the 3 spatial coordinates also include
             the temporal evolution of optical signals on nanosecond to
             femtosecond scale. Photorefractive volume holographic
             materials provide the medium necessary for recording and
             reconstruction in real-time. Applications of direct time
             domain and spectral domain holography for image processing,
             temporal matched filtering, optical pulse shaping, 3-D
             optical storage, and optical interconnects are discussed.
             Furthermore, the combined space-time holographic processing
             that allows the conversion between spatial and temporal
             optical information carrying channels is introduced. This
             method is used to demonstrate experimentally
             parallel-to-serial and serial-to-parallel data conversion
             for 1-D images and image-format data transmission. This
             holographic processors provide the advantages of
             self-referenced signal transmission and self-compensation
             for optical dispersion induced by the holographic materials,
             communication channel, as well as other optical components.
             Finally, future research directions for optical information
             processing with complex spatio-temporal signals are
             identified and discussed},
   Key = {5207875}
}

@article{fds280294,
   Author = {Purchase, KG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Dispersion compensation in coherence domain multiplexed
             communications systems},
   Journal = {Ieee Leos Annual Meeting Proceedings},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {196-197},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate dispersion compensation in coherence domain
             multiplexed (CDM) systems by transmitting three 100 fs
             signal pulses and a reference pulse in a packet through an
             optical fiber. In CDM systems, detection of bits is
             independent of dispersion, but the received packets must
             still be recognizable. In this case, the separation between
             packets must be at least as large as the dispersed width of
             the received packets. The linear-dispersion limited
             bandwidth of a CDM system exceeds that of a serial system by
             a factor of √N/2, where N is the number of bits per
             packet.},
   Key = {fds280294}
}

@article{95022598602,
   Author = {Michielssen, E and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Control of spatial excitation patterns in two-level systems
             by use of time-domain fields},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {1931-1933},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.19.001931},
   Keywords = {Nonlinear optics;Time domain analysis;Optical resolving
             power;Image recording;Image coding;Optimization;Algorithms;Molecules;Quantum
             theory;},
   Abstract = {Spatial structures created by pulsed field interactions with
             surface-bound two-level systems are considered.
             Superresolved pattern formation is possible by the use of
             extra degrees of freedom programmed in the time-domain
             field. © 1994 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.19.001931},
   Key = {95022598602}
}

@article{94081353383,
   Author = {Tarkka, RM and Talbot, ME and Brady, DJ and Schuster,
             GB},
   Title = {Holographic storage in a near-ir sensitive photochromic
             dye},
   Journal = {Optics Communications},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {54-58},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0030-4018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-4018(94)90737-4},
   Keywords = {Holography;Dyes;Photochromism;Optical systems;Holograms;Sensitivity
             analysis;Fabrication;Optical testing;Optical
             materials;Ultraviolet radiation;},
   Abstract = {Application of a near infra-red sensitive
             spirothiopyran/merocyanine system to dynamic volume
             holographic data storage is considered. ©
             1994.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0030-4018(94)90737-4},
   Key = {94081353383}
}

@article{95032607029,
   Author = {Basinger, SA and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Finite-difference time-domain modeling of dispersive
             nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavities},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             B},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1504-1511},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.11.001504},
   Keywords = {Finite difference method;Mathematical models;Numerical
             analysis;Dielectric materials;Metals;Light
             absorption;},
   Abstract = {Numerical simulations of ultrafast time-domain optical
             fields in nonlinear Fabry-Perot cavities are described.
             Thin-film cavities formed of dispersive metals and nonlinear
             dielectrics are modeled, and pulse-discriminating absorption
             is examined. © 1994 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.11.001504},
   Key = {95032607029}
}

@article{95032607719,
   Author = {Purchase, KG and Hill, KB and Talbot, ME and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Dispersion compensation in coherence-domain multiplexed
             systems},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {15},
   Pages = {1107-1109},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.19.001107},
   Keywords = {Optical systems;Optical communication;Signal receivers;Light
             sources;Interferometry;},
   Abstract = {An ultrahigh-bandwidth point-to-point communications system
             based on white-light sources, pulse shapers, and
             interferometric receivers is proposed. Dispersion
             compensation by interferometric receivers is described and
             demonstrated. Linear dispersion-limited communications
             bandwidths are shown to scale with the square root of the
             data packet length. © 1994 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.19.001107},
   Key = {95032607719}
}

@article{fds330771,
   Author = {Brady, D and Catipovic, JA},
   Title = {Adaptive Multiuser Detection for Underwater Acoustical
             Channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Journal of Oceanic Engineering},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {158-165},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/48.286637},
   Abstract = {An underwater acoustic local area network (ALAN) provides
             multipoint-to-point telemetry between many high-rate,
             ocean-bottom sensors and a central, surface-deployed
             receiver in the 10–30 kHz vertical acoustical channel.
             Ocean-bottom modems initiate the transmission process by
             requesting data channel time slots via a common narrow band
             request channel. Request packets overlap in time and
             frequency in this channel, and the throughput and average
             transmission delay rely heavily on the successful resolution
             of the request packet collisions. This paper presents the
             design, analysis, and experimental demonstration of a
             request channel receiver capable of resolving collisions
             between several asynchronous and cochannel packets. The
             receiver algorithm differs from standard capture schemes (by
             demodulating the data from both strong and weak
             transmitters), conventional spread-spectrum receivers (by
             overcoming the near–far problem), and existing
             multiple-access demodulation techniques (by adapting to the
             number of interfering signals, and the unknown phase,
             Doppler, amplitude, and timing of each signal in the
             collision). The receiver demodulates the collided packets by
             decision-directed techniques through a novel method of
             estimating the interference for each user which minimizes
             error propagation due to inaccurate tentative decisions. An
             inwater experiment illustrates that this technique is
             extremely desirable for collision resolution in underwater
             acoustic local area networks, and also for underwater
             autonomous vehicles with both sidescan sonar as well as
             acoustic telemetry links. © 1994 IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/48.286637},
   Key = {fds330771}
}

@article{fds330772,
   Author = {Zvonar, Z and Brady, D},
   Title = {Multiuser Detection in Single-Path Fading
             Channels},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {234},
   Pages = {1729-1739},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCOMM.1994.582881},
   Abstract = {In this paper the performance analysis of maximum likelihood
             sequence and decorrelating multiuser detectors is developed
             for the single-path Rayleigh fading channel. The received
             signal in this multipoint-to-point channel is additively
             composed of white Gaussian noise and independently faded
             waveforms from a finite number of asynchronous users. The
             optimum sequence detector consists of a bank of single-user
             matched filters followed by a dynamic programming algorithm,
             has a demodulation complexity per symbol which is
             exponential in the number of users, and requires the
             knowledge of the system as well of the fading parameters.
             The decorrelating detector has a complexity which is
             polynomial in the number of users, and does not require
             knowledge of the signal amplitudes, which are assumed to
             vary slowly relative to the symbol rate. The single-user
             error rates are presented for both detectors and compared to
             conventional detection and isolated transmission, and the
             notion of asymptotic multiuser efficiency is developed for
             this channel. In contrast to conventional detection, which
             suffers from near-far effects due to Rayleigh fading, it is
             shown that the aforementioned multiuser detectors exhibit
             performance which rivals that of isolated transmission for
             sufficiently small thermal noise power. The results of this
             analysis are illustrated with numerical examples and
             indicate that the near-far problem may be alleviated by a
             more sophisticated receiver design. © 1994
             IEEE.},
   Doi = {10.1109/TCOMM.1994.582881},
   Key = {fds330772}
}

@article{95022583857,
   Author = {Guo, JP and Ramachandran, S and Bishop, SG and Brady,
             DJ},
   Title = {Characterization of waveguide and grating formation in
             As2S3},
   Journal = {Ieee Leos Annual Meeting Proceedings},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {139-140},
   Address = {Boston, MA, USA},
   Year = {1994},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.1994.586362},
   Keywords = {Optical waveguides;Diffraction gratings;Glass;Arsenic
             compounds;Characterization;Refractive index;Surfaces;Gas
             lasers;Light modulation;Optical variables
             measurement;Fabrication;Laser beams;},
   Abstract = {Photodarkening in the chalcogenide glass As2S3 makes it
             attractive for applications in integrated optics and data
             storage Various optical devices can be fabricated using the
             laser-induced change of refractive index in this material.
             Waveguides, directional couplers, and holographic gratings
             have been fabricated on thin films and bulk samples of
             As2S3. This paper reports studies of the dynamics of
             waveguide and grating formation on the surface of bulk
             As2S3. Spatial and temporal characteristics of laser-induced
             refractive index changes are described. Several different
             material effects are shown to contribute to the index
             modulation.},
   Key = {95022583857}
}

@article{4729819,
   Author = {Chen, AG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Electrically controlled multiple hologram
             storage},
   Journal = {Opt. Mem. Neural Netw. (Usa)},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {129-133},
   Year = {1994},
   Keywords = {electro-optical devices;holographic storage;liquid crystal
             devices;optical modulation;},
   Abstract = {Gated techniques for selectively addressing limited regions
             in volume storage systems are considered. An experimental
             system which selectively addresses layers in a volume using
             polarization sensitive holograms and liquid crystal
             modulator is described},
   Key = {4729819}
}

@article{94041259125,
   Author = {Brady, D and Hill, K and Basinger, S},
   Title = {Holographic pulse shaping in organic media},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings Lasers and Electro Optics Society
             Annual Meeting},
   Pages = {112-113},
   Address = {San jose, CA, USA},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LEOS.1993.379106},
   Keywords = {Laser mode locking;Optical materials;Nonlinear optics;Laser
             pulses;Interferometers;},
   Abstract = {In our system the index modulation is formed by cis-trans
             isomerization of an azo-dye in an organic matrix. The index
             modulation is recorded by 514 nm light. Data is encoded on
             the reflection grating by spatially modulating one of the
             recording beams. The holographic recording time is about 1
             second and the dark decay time is several minutes. By
             matching the temporal structure of the driving field to the
             natural spatial or quantum resonances of a nonlinear system
             it is possible to strongly enhance nonlinear effects.
             Applications of this approach to optical switching and
             numerical simulations of shaped pulse propagation in
             nonlinear media are presented.},
   Key = {94041259125}
}

@article{93081657234,
   Author = {Chen, AG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Two-wavelength reversible holograms in azo-dye doped nematic
             liquid crystals},
   Journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {2920-2922},
   Publisher = {AIP Publishing},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0003-6951},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.109197},
   Abstract = {We describe reversible holographic effects in azo-dye doped
             liquid crystals. Surface-stabilized holograms are recorded
             at 514 nm using beams polarized parallel to the molecular
             director of the liquid crystals. While these holograms
             persist for several hours in the dark, complete erasure is
             achieved in a few seconds by exposure to 337 nm
             light.},
   Doi = {10.1063/1.109197},
   Key = {93081657234}
}

@article{4527936,
   Author = {Hill, KB and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Pulse shaping in volume reflection holograms},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {1739-1741},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.18.001739},
   Keywords = {high-speed optical techniques;holography;light
             reflection;optical resolving power;},
   Abstract = {Ultrashort pulses are shaped by reflection from dynamic
             volume holograms recorded in azo-dye-doped epoxies. The
             spectral resolution and controllability of the reflection
             geometry are optimal for this application. © 1993 Optical
             Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.18.001739},
   Key = {4527936}
}

@article{fds280293,
   Author = {Brady, D and Psaltis, D},
   Title = {Information capacity of 3-D holographic data
             storage},
   Journal = {Optical and Quantum Electronics},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {S597-S610},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature America, Inc},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0306-8919},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00444333},
   Abstract = {Capacities for angular and wavelength multiplexed
             holographic data storage systems are considered. Limitations
             due to the spatial resolution of the recording and
             reconstructing fields and to the holographic recording
             process are derived. © 1993 Chapman & Hall.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00444333},
   Key = {fds280293}
}

@article{94051282986,
   Author = {Hill, KB and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Impulse responses of strong reflection holograms},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {23},
   Pages = {4305-4316},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.32.004305},
   Keywords = {Scattering;Numerical methods;Optical devices;Reflection;},
   Abstract = {Strong scattering in broad spatial bandwidth reflection
             holograms is analyzed by using numerical techniques.
             Transfer functions and impulse responses for various index
             modulations are found, and techniques for constructing
             holograms for optical pulse shaping, coding, and dispersion
             compensation are discussed. © 1993 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.32.004305},
   Key = {94051282986}
}

@article{94091388706,
   Author = {Howe, AT and Papen, GC and Murphy, GM and Dallesasse, JM and Dejule, RY and Brady, DJ and Holmgren, DJ},
   Title = {Multiple-wavelength operation of a laser-diode array coupled
             to an external cavity},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1441-1443},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.18.001441},
   Keywords = {Semiconductor diodes;Cavity resonators;Laser tuning;Optical
             data storage;Spectroscopy;Frequency division
             multiplexing;},
   Abstract = {We report a novel geometry for coupling a laser-diode array
             to an external cavity that produces a diffractively
             stabilized lasing wavelength separation between elements of
             the array. The geometry allows for control of the
             wavelengths and wavelength spacing and provides single-knob
             tuning of all the wavelengths while maintaining a nearly
             constant wavelength offset. © 1993 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.18.001441},
   Key = {94091388706}
}

@article{4600541,
   Author = {Purchase, KG and Brady, DJ and Wagner, K},
   Title = {Time-of-flight cross correlation on a detector array for
             ultrafast packet detection},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {24},
   Pages = {2129-2131},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.18.002129},
   Keywords = {high-speed optical techniques;optical correlation;optical
             receivers;photodetectors;},
   Abstract = {We describe and demonstrate an interferometric technique for
             measuring the first-order cross correlation of ultrafast
             optical pulses. This technique may permit single-shot pulse
             detection and is applicable to receivers for time-domain
             optical communications. © 1993 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.18.002129},
   Key = {4600541}
}

@article{94071337774,
   Author = {Brady, D and Papen, G and Sipe, JE},
   Title = {Spherical distributed dielectric resonators},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America B: Optical
             Physics},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {646-657},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAB.10.000644},
   Keywords = {Optical resonators;Electromagnetic field effects;Numerical
             analysis;Mathematical models;Modulation;Electromagnetic wave
             propagation;},
   Abstract = {This paper discusses the classical theory of
             electromagnetism for spherical distributed dielectric
             resonators. It is postulated that for complete solid angles,
             these structures inhibit propagation for a finite frequency
             range, whose range is linear in amplitude of radial
             modulation. A numerical analysis of the scattering and
             internal field distribution is described.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAB.10.000644},
   Key = {94071337774}
}

@article{4258374,
   Author = {Chen, AGS and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye-doped liquid
             crystal},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1231-1233},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.17.001231},
   Keywords = {holography;liquid crystal devices;nematic liquid
             crystals;solid-state phase transformations;},
   Abstract = {Holograms are recorded by a 514-nm laser polarized parallel
             to the molecular director in an azo-dye-doped nematic liquid
             crystal. For some surface treatments, the recorded holograms
             persist in the dark. For glass surfaces, exposure to light
             polarized normal to the molecular director erases the
             hologram. The hologram also vanishes when the sample is
             heated across the nematic to isotropic phase transition but
             reappears when the sample is cooled back to the nematic
             phase. The dynamics and strength of this effect depend
             strongly on the surface treatment of the sample cell. ©
             1992 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.17.001231},
   Key = {4258374}
}

@article{fds323380,
   Author = {Brady, D and Chen, AGS and Rodriguez, G},
   Title = {Volume holographic pulse shaping},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {610-612},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.17.000610},
   Abstract = {Volume holograms for subpicosecond pulse shaping are
             described. Experimental results with a camphorquinone-doped
             plastic hologram probed by a colliding-pulse mode-locked
             laser are presented. We observe a 2-THz beat frequency in
             the diffracted pulse. © 1992 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.17.000610},
   Key = {fds323380}
}

@article{4147817,
   Author = {Chen, AG and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Real-time holography in azo-dye-doped liquid
             crystals},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {441-443},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.17.000441},
   Keywords = {holography;nematic liquid crystals;optical materials;organic
             compounds;},
   Abstract = {When exposed to an Ar laser at 514 nm, azo-dye molecules in
             a nematic liquid-crystal host undergo photoisomerization
             from trans-isomers to cis-isomers. The conformation change
             of the azo-dye molecules reorients liquid-crystal molecules.
             Reversible polarization holograms can be recorded
             dynamically by this effect, with a threshold intensity as
             low as 3.0 mW/cm2 and a response time from a few hundred
             microseconds to 100 ms, depending on the spatial frequency
             of the recorded grating. © 1992 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.17.000441},
   Key = {4147817}
}

@article{fds323379,
   Author = {Brady, D and Psaltis, D},
   Title = {Control of volume holograms},
   Journal = {Journal of the Optical Society of America
             A},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1167-1182},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.9.001167},
   Abstract = {The mismatch in the number of degrees of freedom supported
             by volume holograms and the boundary fields that control
             them limits the dynamic range of recorded holograms. For
             holograms controlled by using fractal sampling grids, the
             maximum dynamic range falls inversely with the minimum
             number of exposures needed to record the hologram, the rank
             of the hologram. In adaptive holography, feedback between
             coupled holograms prevents the dynamic range from decreasing
             faster than the fundamental limit. If the control problem is
             overcome, the maximum dynamic range that a hologram can
             support falls inversely with the square root of the rank. In
             principle, holograms in which the dynamic range falls
             inversely with the square root of the rank can be recorded
             by using cross-spectrally coherent polychromatic pulses. ©
             1992 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/JOSAA.9.001167},
   Key = {fds323379}
}

@article{92020412384,
   Author = {Chen, GS and Brady, DJ},
   Title = {Liquid-crystal-doped polymers as volume holographic
             elements},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {1562},
   Pages = {128-135},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {December},
   Keywords = {Crystals, Liquid - Nematic;Holography;Polymers -
             Doping;Interferometry;Molecules;},
   Abstract = {Nematic liquid crystal molecules doped into polymer matrices
             are investigated for holographic information storage.
             Holographic effects due to thermal and optically driven
             anisotropies are observed.},
   Key = {92020412384}
}

@article{3945827,
   Author = {Brady, DJ and Psaltis, D},
   Title = {Holographic interconnections in photorefractive
             waveguides},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {2324-2333},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.30.002324},
   Keywords = {digital arithmetic;holography;integrated optics;optical
             interconnections;optical logic;optical waveguides;photorefractive
             materials;},
   Abstract = {An architecture for implementing large scale holographic
             interconnections in photorefractive waveguides is described.
             Methods for controlling the hologram using unguided light
             are considered and experimentally demonstrated. © 1991
             Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.30.002324},
   Key = {3945827}
}

@article{91040180071,
   Author = {Brady, D and Verdú, S},
   Title = {A Semiclassical Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiple
             Access},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-93},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/26.68279},
   Keywords = {Signal Interference;Probability - Random Processes;Signal
             Receivers;Signal Filtering and Prediction;Mathematical
             Techniques - Error Analysis;},
   Abstract = {in this paper, we consider a noncoherent, optical,
             asynchronous, code division multiple access (CDMA) system.
             We present an analysis of the error rate for a single-user
             matched-filter receiver that applies for arbitrary
             photomultipliers and signature sequence sets, adheres fully
             to the semiclassical model of light, and does not depend on
             approximations for large user groups, strong received
             optical fields, or chip synchronism. We compare the exact
             minimum probability of error and optimal threshold to those
             obtained with popular approximations on user synchronism or
             on the distribution of the multiple access interference
             (MAI). For the special case of unity-gain photodetectors and
             prime sequences, we show that the approximation of chip
             synchronism yields a weak upper bound on the exact error
             rate. We demonstrate that the approximations of perfect
             optical-to-electrical conversion and Gaussian-distributed
             MAI yield a poor approximation to the minimum error rate and
             an underestimate of the optimal threshold. In this paper, we
             also develop arbitrarily tight bounds on the error rate for
             unequal energies per bit. In the case when the signal
             energies coincide, these bounding expressions are
             considerably easier to compute than the exact error rate. ©
             1991 IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/26.68279},
   Key = {91040180071}
}

@article{fds323381,
   Author = {Brady, D and Hsu, K and Psaltis, D},
   Title = {Periodically refreshed multiply exposed photorefractive
             holograms},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {817-819},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.15.000817},
   Abstract = {We describe a method for increasing the diffraction
             efficiency of multiply exposed photorefractive holograms by
             periodic copying. The method is experimentally demonstrated
             with photorefractive and thermoplastic recording media. ©
             1990 Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.15.000817},
   Key = {fds323381}
}

@article{fds330778,
   Author = {Hong, JH and Yeh, P and Psaltis, D and Brady, D},
   Title = {Diffraction efficiency of strong volume holograms},
   Journal = {Optics Letters},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {344-346},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.15.000344},
   Abstract = {We investigate the diffraction efficiency of strong volume
             holograms in which the coupling parameter is several times
             that needed for maximum diffraction efficiency. We discuss
             the implications of our findings on photorefractive
             implementations of various neural network systems. © 1990
             Optical Society of America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/OL.15.000344},
   Key = {fds330778}
}

@article{fds280392,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Brady, D and Gu, XG and Lin, S},
   Title = {Holography in artificial neural networks.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {343},
   Number = {6256},
   Pages = {325-330},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/343325a0},
   Abstract = {The dense interconnections that characterize neural networks
             are most readily implemented using optical signal
             processing. Optoelectronic 'neurons' fabricated from
             semiconducting materials can be connected by holographic
             images recorded in photorefractive crystals. Processes such
             as learning can be demonstrated using holographic optical
             neural networks.},
   Doi = {10.1038/343325a0},
   Key = {fds280392}
}

@article{fds280393,
   Author = {Brady, D},
   Title = {Switching arrays make light work in a simple
             processor},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {344},
   Number = {6266},
   Pages = {486-487},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/344486a0},
   Doi = {10.1038/344486a0},
   Key = {fds280393}
}

@article{fds330779,
   Author = {Yu, J and Johnston, A and Psaltis, D and Brady, D},
   Title = {Limitations of opto-electronic neural networks},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {1053},
   Pages = {40-51},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.951514},
   Abstract = {Neural networks are composed of three components: Neurons,
             weights, and connections. Limitation on implementing these
             components in electronics and optics are discussed. We show
             that using electronically fabricated neurons and a
             combination of optics and electronics for the weights and
             connections efficiently utilizes the advantage of each
             technology. The choice of the technology used to implement
             the weights and connections depends on the type of neural
             network being built. © 1989 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.951514},
   Key = {fds330779}
}

@article{fds323382,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Gu, XG and Brady, D},
   Title = {Fractal sampling grids for holographic interconnections},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {963},
   Pages = {468-474},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.947926},
   Abstract = {The optical implementation of weighted interconnections is
             investigated and basic relationships are derived between the
             number of neurons, the number of connections and the size of
             the optical system that is used to perform the connections.
             Specific methods for selecting the positions of the neurons
             to achieve the maximum density of independent connections
             are presented. © 1989 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.947926},
   Key = {fds323382}
}

@article{90046020621,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Yamamura, AA and Hsu, K and Lin, S and Gu, XG and Brady,
             D},
   Title = {Optoelectronic Implementations of Neural
             Networks},
   Journal = {Ieee Communications Magazine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {37-40},
   Publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
             (IEEE)},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/35.41399},
   Keywords = {Optoelectronic Devices;Holography;Optical Data
             Processing;Data Storage, Optical;},
   Abstract = {The ability of optical systems to provide the massive
             interconnections between processors required in most neural
             network models, which constitutes their chief advantage for
             such applications, is discussed, focusing on holography.
             Because of the essential nonlinearity of the holographic
             connections, nonlinear processing elements are needed to
             perform complex computations. The use of GaAs hybrid
             optoelectronic processing elements is examined. GaAs is an
             excellent material for this purpose, since it can be used to
             fabricate both fast electronic circuits and optical sources
             and detectors. It is shown how a complete hybrid neural
             computer can be implemented using available technology
             developed for conventional computing. An experimentally
             demonstrated network in which optics plays an even larger
             role is described.},
   Doi = {10.1109/35.41399},
   Key = {90046020621}
}

@article{fds330780,
   Author = {Brady, D and Verdú, S},
   Title = {Performance Analysis Of An Asymptotically Quantum-Limited
             Optical Dpsk Receiver},
   Journal = {Ieee Transactions on Communications},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {46-51},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/26.21652},
   Abstract = {In this paper, we analyze an optical, direct-detection DPSK
             receiver whose error probability is quantum-limited as the
             transmitting laser linewidth vanishes. The receiver design
             is based on a binary equiprobable hypothesis test with
             doubly stochastic point process observations, the
             conditional random rates of which depend on the transmitting
             laser phase noise, which is modeled as a Brownian motion.
             The receiver structure consists of a simple, delay-and-sum
             optical preprocessor followed by a photoelectric converter
             and an integrate-and-dump circuit. Upper and lower bounds on
             the receiver bit error rate are derived by developing bounds
             on the conditional rates of the point process, and it is
             shown that the error probability bounds converge to the true
             value as the transmitting laser linewidth decreases. Bounds
             on the power penalty are computed for parameters
             corresponding to existing semiconductor injection lasers,
             and are seen to be less than the limiting power penalty for
             the balanced DPSK receiver. © 1989 IEEE},
   Doi = {10.1109/26.21652},
   Key = {fds330780}
}

@article{fds330782,
   Author = {Brady, D and Gu, XG and Psaltis, D},
   Title = {Photorefractive crystals in optical neural
             computers},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {882},
   Pages = {132-136},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.944112},
   Abstract = {The storage capacity for neural interconnections in
             photorefractive crystals and the use of the dynamic nature
             of the photorefractive effect to train these
             interconnections are discussed. We describe an optical
             neural architecture which uses the characteristics of the
             photorefractive response to implement error driven learning
             and describe a modified perceptron algorithm which we have
             used to train this optical system. © 1988
             SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.944112},
   Key = {fds330782}
}

@article{fds323384,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Brady, D},
   Title = {A photorefractive integrated optical vector matrix
             multiplier},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {825},
   Pages = {106-113},
   Publisher = {SPIE},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.941992},
   Abstract = {A method for implementing general linear transformations on
             one dimensional optical field distributions in integrated
             optics is described. This method uses the Bragg selectivity
             of volume holograms to replace one dimension of the bulk
             optical vector matrix multiplier. A means of writing
             appropriate matrices optically using unguided light is also
             described. Experimental results are presented which
             demonstrate the diffraction of guided light by holograms
             written with unguided beams. © 1988 SPIE.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.941992},
   Key = {fds323384}
}

@article{fds280391,
   Author = {David, B},
   Title = {Dynamic holographic interconnections for optical neural
             computers},
   Journal = {Neural Networks : the Official Journal of the International
             Neural Network Society},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1 SUPPL},
   Pages = {374},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0893-6080},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0893-6080(88)90400-5},
   Abstract = {A neural system comprised of p neurons with c
             interconnections per neuron requires cp degrees of freedom
             in its interconnections. If these interconnections are
             formed by interactions between narrow-band signals emitted
             by the p active elements, only p degrees of freedom are
             available at any given instant for modifying the
             interconnections. Thus a full and independent update of the
             interconnections requires that they be addressed c times.
             Constraints of this sort are natural to volume holography.
             While the number of interconnections which may be stored in
             a volume hologram scales as the volume of the system, N3,
             the number of optical beams which may be used to record
             holograms scales as the area enclosing the system, N2. This
             means that in holographic systems cp ≤ N3 and p ≤ N2.
             High density storage of holographic interconnections is
             therefore by necessity a dynamic process. The authors have
             developed dynamic recording processes which use
             photorefractive holography to record cp independent
             interconnections using p inputs. In implementing an optical
             neural architecture they use their control over the signals
             emitted by the p active elements to force the system to an
             interconnection pattern consistent with the needs of the
             neural system.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0893-6080(88)90400-5},
   Key = {fds280391}
}

@article{fds323383,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Brady, D and Wagner, K},
   Title = {Adaptive optical networks using photorefractive
             crystals},
   Journal = {Applied Optics},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1752-1759},
   Publisher = {The Optical Society},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.27.001752},
   Abstract = {The capabilities of photorefractive crystals as media for
             holographic interconnections in neural networks are
             examined. Limitations on the density of interconnections and
             the number of holographic associations which can be stored
             in photorefractive crystals are derived. Optical
             architectures for implementing various neural schemes are
             described. Experimental results are presented for one of
             these architectures. © 1988 Optical Society of
             America.},
   Doi = {10.1364/AO.27.001752},
   Key = {fds323383}
}

@article{88110162590,
   Author = {Psaltis, D and Wagner, K and Brady, D},
   Title = {LEARNING IN OPTICAL NEURAL COMPUTERS.},
   Pages = {iii/549-iii/555},
   Address = {San Diego, CA, USA},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   Keywords = {HOLOGRAPHY;SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND CYBERNETICS - Learning
             Systems;OPTICAL GRATINGS;},
   Abstract = {The authors consider the optical implementation of learning
             networks using volume holographic interconnections in
             photorefractive crystals. The use of volume holograms
             permits the storage of a very large number of
             interconnections per unit volume, and the use of
             photorefractive crystals permits the dynamic modification of
             these connections, thus allowing the implementation of
             learning algorithms. The authors first briefly review the
             major types of learning algorithms that are being used in
             neural network models. They then estimate the maximum number
             of holographic gratings that can simultaneously exist in a
             photorefractive crystal. Since in an optical implementation
             each grating corresponds to a separate interconnection
             between two neurons, this estimate gives the density of
             connections that are achievable. They consider how the
             modulation depth of each grating (or equivalently the
             strength of each connection) can be controlled through the
             implementation of learning algorithms. Two related issues
             are investigated: the optical architectures that implement
             different learning algorithms and the reconciliation of
             physical mechanisms that are involved in the recording of
             holograms in photorefractive crystals with the dynamics of
             the learning procedures in neural networks.},
   Key = {88110162590}
}

@article{7909777,
   Author = {Gopinathan, U. and Brady, D.J. and Pitsianis,
             N.P.},
   Title = {Coded apertures for efficient pyroelectric motion
             tracking},
   Journal = {Opt. Express (USA)},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {18},
   Year = {8},
   Keywords = {image motion analysis;infrared detectors;infrared
             imaging;optical design techniques;optical elements;optical
             information processing;optical sensors;optical
             tracking;pyroelectric detectors;},
   Abstract = {Coded apertures may be designed to modulate the visibility
             between source and measurement spaces such that the position
             of a source among N resolution cells may be discriminated
             using logarithm of N measurements. We use coded apertures as
             reference structures in a pyroelectric motion tracking
             system. This sensor system is capable of detecting source
             motion in one of the 15 cells uniformly distributed over a
             1.6 m &times; 1.6 m domain using 4 pyroelectric
             detectors},
   Key = {7909777}
}