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Evolutionary Anthropology : Publications since January 2018

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%% Alberts, Susan C.   
@article{fds341322,
   Author = {Noonan, MJ and Tucker, MA and Fleming, CH and Akre, TS and Alberts, SC and Ali, AH and Altmann, J and Antunes, PC and Belant, JL and Beyer, D and Blaum, N and Böhning-Gaese, K and Cullen, L and de Paula, RC and Dekker, J and Drescher-Lehman, J and Farwig, N and Fichtel, C and Fischer, C and Ford, AT and Goheen, JR and Janssen, R and Jeltsch, F and Kauffman, M and Kappeler, PM and Koch, F and LaPoint, S and Markham, AC and Medici, EP and Morato, RG and Nathan, R and Oliveira-Santos, LGR and Olson, KA and Patterson, BD and Paviolo, A and Ramalho, EE and Rösner,
             S and Schabo, DG and Selva, N and Sergiel, A and Xavier da Silva and M and Spiegel, O and Thompson, P and Ullmann, W and Zięba, F and Zwijacz-Kozica, T and Fagan, WF and Mueller, T and Calabrese,
             JM},
   Title = {A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home
             range estimation},
   Journal = {Ecological Monographs},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecm.1344},
   Abstract = {© 2019 by the Ecological Society of America Home range
             estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While
             advances in animal tracking technology have increased our
             capacity to collect data to support home range analysis,
             these same advances have also resulted in increasingly
             autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which
             home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated
             tracking data remains open. This question is particularly
             relevant given that most estimators assume independently
             sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of
             the effects of autocorrelation on home range estimation. We
             base our study on an extensive data set of GPS locations
             from 369 individuals representing 27 species distributed
             across five continents. We first assemble a broad array of
             home range estimators, including Kernel Density Estimation
             (KDE) with four bandwidth optimizers (Gaussian reference
             function, autocorrelated-Gaussian reference function [AKDE],
             Silverman's rule of thumb, and least squares
             cross-validation), Minimum Convex Polygon, and Local Convex
             Hull methods. Notably, all of these estimators except AKDE
             assume independent and identically distributed (IID) data.
             We then employ half-sample cross-validation to objectively
             quantify estimator performance, and the recently introduced
             effective sample size for home range area estimation
             ((Formula presented.)) to quantify the information content
             of each data set. We found that AKDE 95% area estimates were
             larger than conventional IID-based estimates by a mean
             factor of 2. The median number of cross-validated locations
             included in the hold-out sets by AKDE 95% (or 50%) estimates
             was 95.3% (or 50.1%), confirming the larger AKDE ranges were
             appropriately selective at the specified quantile.
             Conversely, conventional estimates exhibited negative bias
             that increased with decreasing (Formula presented.). To
             contextualize our empirical results, we performed a detailed
             simulation study to tease apart how sampling frequency,
             sampling duration, and the focal animal's movement conspire
             to affect range estimates. Paralleling our empirical
             results, the simulation study demonstrated that AKDE was
             generally more accurate than conventional methods,
             particularly for small (Formula presented.). While 72% of
             the 369 empirical data sets had >1,000 total observations,
             only 4% had an (Formula presented.) >1,000, where 30% had an
             (Formula presented.) <30. In this frequently encountered
             scenario of small (Formula presented.), AKDE was the only
             estimator capable of producing an accurate home range
             estimate on autocorrelated data.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ecm.1344},
   Key = {fds341322}
}

@article{fds342537,
   Author = {Zipple, MN and Roberts, EK and Alberts, SC and Beehner,
             JC},
   Title = {Male-mediated prenatal loss: Functions and
             mechanisms.},
   Journal = {Evolutionary Anthropology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {114-125},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.21776},
   Abstract = {Sexually selected infanticide has been the subject of
             intense empirical and theoretical study for decades; a
             related phenomenon, male-mediated prenatal loss, has
             received much less attention in evolutionary studies.
             Male-mediated prenatal loss occurs when inseminated or
             pregnant females terminate reproductive effort following
             exposure to a nonsire male, either through implantation
             failure or pregnancy termination. Male-mediated prenatal
             loss encompasses two sub-phenomena: sexually selected
             feticide and the Bruce effect. In this review, we provide a
             framework that explains the relationship between feticide
             and the Bruce effect and describes what is known about the
             proximate and ultimate mechanisms involved in each. Using a
             simple model, we demonstrate that male-mediated prenatal
             loss can provide greater reproductive benefits to males than
             infanticide. We therefore suggest that, compared to
             infanticide, male-mediated prenatal loss may be more
             prevalent in mammalian species and may have played a greater
             role in their social evolution than has previously been
             documented.},
   Doi = {10.1002/evan.21776},
   Key = {fds342537}
}

@article{fds343201,
   Author = {Akinyi, MY and Jansen, D and Habig, B and Gesquiere, LR and Alberts, SC and Archie, EA},
   Title = {Costs and drivers of helminth parasite infection in wild
             female baboons.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Animal Ecology},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12994},
   Abstract = {Helminth parasites can have wide-ranging, detrimental
             effects on host reproduction and survival. These effects are
             best documented in humans and domestic animals, while only a
             few studies in wild mammals have identified both the forces
             that drive helminth infection risk and their costs to
             individual fitness. Working in a well-studied population of
             wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus) in the Amboseli ecosystem
             in Kenya, we pursued two goals, to (a) examine the costs of
             helminth infections in terms of female fertility and
             glucocorticoid hormone levels and (b) test how processes
             operating at multiple scales-from individual hosts to social
             groups and the population at large-work together to predict
             variation in female infection risk. To accomplish these
             goals, we measured helminth parasite burdens in 745 faecal
             samples collected over 5 years from 122 female baboons. We
             combine these data with detailed observations of host
             environments, social behaviours, hormone levels and
             interbirth intervals (IBIs). We found that helminths are
             costly to female fertility: females infected with more
             diverse parasite communities (i.e., higher parasite
             richness) exhibited longer IBIs than females infected by
             fewer parasite taxa. We also found that females exhibiting
             high Trichuris trichiura egg counts also had high
             glucocorticoid levels. Female infection risk was best
             predicted by factors at the host, social group and
             population level: females facing the highest risk were old,
             socially isolated, living in dry conditions and infected
             with other helminths. Our results provide an unusually
             holistic understanding of the factors that contribute to
             inter-individual differences in parasite infection, and they
             contribute to just a handful of studies linking helminths to
             host fitness in wild mammals.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2656.12994},
   Key = {fds343201}
}

@article{fds342749,
   Author = {Grieneisen, LE and Charpentier, MJE and Alberts, SC and Blekhman, R and Bradburd, G and Tung, J and Archie, EA},
   Title = {Genes, geology and germs: gut microbiota across a primate
             hybrid zone are explained by site soil properties, not host
             species.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {286},
   Number = {1901},
   Pages = {20190431},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0431},
   Abstract = {Gut microbiota in geographically isolated host populations
             are often distinct. These differences have been attributed
             to between-population differences in host behaviours,
             environments, genetics and geographical distance. However,
             which factors are most important remains unknown. Here, we
             fill this gap for baboons by leveraging information on 13
             environmental variables from 14 baboon populations spanning
             a natural hybrid zone. Sampling across a hybrid zone allowed
             us to additionally test whether phylosymbiosis
             (codiversification between hosts and their microbiota) is
             detectable in admixed, closely related primates. We found
             little evidence of genetic effects: none of host genetic
             ancestry, host genetic relatedness nor genetic distance
             between host populations were strong predictors of baboon
             gut microbiota. Instead, gut microbiota were best explained
             by the baboons' environments, especially the soil's geologic
             history and exchangeable sodium. Indeed, soil effects were
             15 times stronger than those of host-population FST, perhaps
             because soil predicts which foods are present, or because
             baboons are terrestrial and consume soil microbes
             incidentally with their food. Our results support an
             emerging picture in which environmental variation is the
             dominant predictor of host-associated microbiomes. We are
             the first to show that such effects overshadow host species
             identity among members of the same primate
             genus.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2019.0431},
   Key = {fds342749}
}

@article{fds340889,
   Author = {Wango, TL and Musiega, D and Mundia, CN and Altmann, J and Alberts, SC and Tung, J},
   Title = {Climate and Land Cover Analysis Suggest No Strong Ecological
             Barriers to Gene Flow in a Natural Baboon Hybrid
             Zone},
   Journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {53-70},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-017-9989-2},
   Abstract = {© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Admixture
             between diverging taxa has made, and continues to make, an
             important contribution to primate diversity and evolution.
             However, although naturally occurring hybrids have now been
             documented in all major primate lineages, we still know
             relatively little about the factors that shape when and
             where admixture occurs. Baboons (genus Papio), in which
             multiple natural hybrid zones are well described, provide a
             valuable system to investigate these factors. Here, we
             combined Geographic Information Systems and weather station
             data with information on genetically characterized
             populations in southern Kenya to investigate if ecological
             variables present a potential barrier to gene flow between
             anubis baboons and yellow baboons in the region.
             Specifically, we asked if altitude, seasonal temperature, or
             seasonal precipitation differ for weather stations in
             anubis, yellow, or hybrid ranges in southern Kenya, and if
             land cover or altitude covary with population ancestry near
             the hybrid zone. Our analyses suggest that the range of
             yellow baboons in Kenya is climatically distinct from the
             range of anubis baboons, with hybrids in intermediate
             regions. However, we identified no clear pattern of climate
             or land cover differentiation near the hybrid zone itself.
             Thus, when yellow baboons and anubis baboons come into
             contact, our data suggest that the resulting population
             composition is not consistently predicted by the ecological
             variables we considered. Our results support the designation
             of baboons as highly flexible “generalists,” and suggest
             that more fine-grained analyses (e.g., relative success in
             ecologically stressful years) may be necessary to detect
             clear signals of ecological barriers to gene
             flow.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10764-017-9989-2},
   Key = {fds340889}
}

@article{fds340427,
   Author = {Colchero, F and Jones, OR and Conde, DA and Hodgson, D and Zajitschek,
             F and Schmidt, BR and Malo, AF and Alberts, SC and Becker, PH and Bouwhuis,
             S and Bronikowski, AM and De Vleeschouwer and KM and Delahay, RJ and Dummermuth, S and Fernández-Duque, E and Frisenvaenge, J and Hesselsøe, M and Larson, S and Lemaître, J-F and McDonald, J and Miller, DAW and O'Donnell, C and Packer, C and Raboy, BE and Reading,
             CJ and Wapstra, E and Weimerskirch, H and While, GM and Baudisch, A and Flatt, T and Coulson, T and Gaillard, J-M},
   Title = {The diversity of population responses to environmental
             change.},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {342-353},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13195},
   Abstract = {The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us
             to predict population dynamics with ever-greater accuracy.
             Although predictions rest on the well-advanced theory of
             age-structured populations, two key issues remain poorly
             explored. Specifically, how the age-dependency in
             demographic rates and the year-to-year interactions between
             survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth
             rates. We use inference, simulations and mathematical
             derivations to explore how environmental perturbations
             determine population growth rates for populations with
             different age-specific demographic rates and when ages are
             reduced to stages. We find that stage- vs. age-based models
             can produce markedly divergent stochastic population growth
             rates. The differences are most pronounced when there are
             survival-fecundity-trade-offs, which reduce the variance in
             the population growth rate. Finally, the expected value and
             variance of the stochastic growth rates of populations with
             different age-specific demographic rates can diverge to the
             extent that, while some populations may thrive, others will
             inevitably go extinct.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ele.13195},
   Key = {fds340427}
}

@article{fds335219,
   Author = {Alberts, SC},
   Title = {Social influences on survival and reproduction: Insights
             from a long-term study of wild baboons.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Animal Ecology},
   Volume = {88},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {47-66},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12887},
   Abstract = {For social species, the environment has two components:
             physical and social. The social environment modifies the
             individual's interaction with the physical environment, and
             the physical environment may in turn impact individuals'
             social relationships. This interplay can generate
             considerable variation among individuals in survival and
             reproduction. Here, I synthesize more than four decades of
             research on the baboons of the Amboseli basin in southern
             Kenya to illustrate how social and physical environments
             interact to affect reproduction and survival. For immature
             baboons, social behaviour can both mitigate and exacerbate
             the challenge of survival. Only c. 50% of live-born females
             and c. 44% of live-born males reach the median age of first
             reproduction. Variation in pre-adult survival, growth and
             development is associated with multiple aspects of the
             social environment. For instance, conspecifics provide
             direct care and are a major source of social knowledge about
             food and the environment, but conspecifics can also
             represent a direct threat to survival through infanticide.
             In adulthood, both competition (within and between social
             groups) and cooperative affiliation (i.e. collective action
             and/or the exchange of social resources such as grooming)
             are prominent features of baboon social life and have
             important consequences for reproduction and survival. For
             instance, adult females with higher social dominance ranks
             have accelerated reproduction, and adult females that engage
             in more frequent affiliative social interactions have higher
             survival throughout adulthood. The early life environment
             also has important consequences for adult reproduction and
             survival, as in a number of other bird and mammal species.
             In seasonal breeders, early life effects often apply to
             entire cohorts; in contrast, in nonseasonal and highly
             social species such as baboons, early life effects are more
             individual-specific, stemming from considerable variation
             not only in the early physical environment (even if they are
             born in the same year) but also in the particulars of their
             social environment.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2656.12887},
   Key = {fds335219}
}

@article{fds340052,
   Author = {Lea, AJ and Akinyi, MY and Nyakundi, R and Mareri, P and Nyundo, F and Kariuki, T and Alberts, SC and Archie, EA and Tung,
             J},
   Title = {Dominance rank-associated gene expression is widespread,
             sex-specific, and a precursor to high social status in wild
             male baboons.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {52},
   Pages = {E12163-E12171},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1811967115},
   Abstract = {In humans and other hierarchical species, social status is
             tightly linked to variation in health and fitness-related
             traits. Experimental manipulations of social status in
             female rhesus macaques suggest that this relationship is
             partially explained by status effects on immune gene
             regulation. However, social hierarchies are established and
             maintained in different ways across species: While some are
             based on kin-directed nepotism, others emerge from direct
             physical competition. We investigated how this variation
             influences the relationship between social status and immune
             gene regulation in wild baboons, where hierarchies in males
             are based on fighting ability but female hierarchies are
             nepotistic. We measured rank-related variation in gene
             expression levels in adult baboons of both sexes at baseline
             and in response to ex vivo stimulation with the bacterial
             endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We identified >2,000
             rank-associated genes in males, an order of magnitude more
             than in females. In males, high status predicted increased
             expression of genes involved in innate immunity and
             preferential activation of the NF-κB-mediated
             proinflammatory pathway, a pattern previously associated
             with low status in female rhesus macaques. Using Mendelian
             randomization, we reconcile these observations by
             demonstrating that high status-associated gene expression
             patterns are precursors, not consequences, of high social
             status in males, in support of the idea that physiological
             condition determines who attains high rank. Together, our
             work provides a test of the relationship between social
             status and immune gene regulation in wild primates. It also
             emphasizes the importance of social context in shaping the
             relationship between social status and immune
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1811967115},
   Key = {fds340052}
}

@article{fds339382,
   Author = {Reese, AT and Pereira, FC and Schintlmeister, A and Berry, D and Wagner,
             M and Hale, LP and Wu, A and Jiang, S and Durand, HK and Zhou, X and Premont,
             RT and Diehl, AM and O'Connell, TM and Alberts, SC and Kartzinel, TR and Pringle, RM and Dunn, RR and Wright, JP and David,
             LA},
   Title = {Microbial nitrogen limitation in the mammalian large
             intestine.},
   Journal = {Nature Microbiology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1441-1450},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0267-7},
   Abstract = {Resource limitation is a fundamental factor governing the
             composition and function of ecological communities. However,
             the role of resource supply in structuring the intestinal
             microbiome has not been established and represents a
             challenge for mammals that rely on microbial symbionts for
             digestion: too little supply might starve the microbiome
             while too much might starve the host. We present evidence
             that microbiota occupy a habitat that is limited in total
             nitrogen supply within the large intestines of 30 mammal
             species. Lowering dietary protein levels in mice reduced
             their faecal concentrations of bacteria. A gradient of
             stoichiometry along the length of the gut was consistent
             with the hypothesis that intestinal nitrogen limitation
             results from host absorption of dietary nutrients. Nitrogen
             availability is also likely to be shaped by host-microbe
             interactions: levels of host-secreted nitrogen were altered
             in germ-free mice and when bacterial loads were reduced via
             experimental antibiotic treatment. Single-cell spectrometry
             revealed that members of the phylum Bacteroidetes consumed
             nitrogen in the large intestine more readily than other
             commensal taxa did. Our findings support a model where
             nitrogen limitation arises from preferential host use of
             dietary nutrients. We speculate that this resource
             limitation could enable hosts to regulate microbial
             communities in the large intestine. Commensal microbiota may
             have adapted to nitrogen-limited settings, suggesting one
             reason why excess dietary protein has been associated with
             degraded gut-microbial ecosystems.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41564-018-0267-7},
   Key = {fds339382}
}

@article{fds335220,
   Author = {Lea, A and Akinyi, M and Nyakundi, R and Mareri, P and Nyundo, F and Kariuki, T and Alberts, S and Archie, E and Tung,
             J},
   Title = {Dominance rank-associated immune gene expression is
             widespread, sex-specific, and a precursor to high social
             status in wild male baboons},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/366021},
   Abstract = {In humans and other hierarchical species, social status is
             tightly linked to variation in health and fitness-related
             traits. Experimental manipulations of social status in
             female rhesus macaques suggest that this relationship is
             partially explained by status effects on immune gene
             regulation. However, social hierarchies are established and
             maintained in different ways across species: while some are
             based on kin-directed nepotism, others emerge from direct
             physical competition. We investigated how this variation
             influences the relationship between social status and immune
             gene regulation in wild baboons, where hierarchies in males
             are based on fighting ability but female hierarchies are
             nepotistic. We measured rank-related variation in gene
             expression levels in adult baboons of both sexes at baseline
             and in response to ex vivo stimulation with the bacterial
             endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We identified >2000
             rank-associated genes in males, an order of magnitude more
             than in females. In males, high status predicted increased
             expression of genes involved in innate immunity and
             preferential activation of the NFkB-mediated
             pro-inflammatory pathway, a pattern previously associated
             with low status in female rhesus macaques. Using Mendelian
             randomization, we reconcile these observations by
             demonstrating that high status-associated gene expression
             patterns are precursors, not consequences, of high social
             status in males, in support of the idea that physiological
             condition determines who attains high rank. Together, our
             work provides the first test of the relationship between
             social status and immune gene regulation in wild primates.
             It also emphasizes the importance of social context in
             shaping the relationship between social status and immune
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1101/366021},
   Key = {fds335220}
}

@article{fds332674,
   Author = {Gesquiere, LR and Altmann, J and Archie, EA and Alberts,
             SC},
   Title = {Interbirth intervals in wild baboons: Environmental
             predictors and hormonal correlates.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {107-126},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23407},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of
             female reproductive success; understanding how they are
             regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors
             can provide insight into sources of variance in female
             fitness. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using 36 years of
             reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons,
             we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs
             and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA),
             sexual cycling, and pregnancy. We also examined how body fat
             and fecal hormone concentrations varied during female IBIs.
             RESULTS:We found that IBIs tended to be shorter
             (reproduction was accelerated) when female traits and
             environmental variables promoted energy acquisition, but
             with different specific effects for different component
             phases of the IBI. We also found that females lost a
             substantial amount of body fat during PPA, indicating that
             PPA imposes accumulating energetic costs as it progresses.
             Prior to cycle resumption females began to regain body fat;
             body fat was stable across the cycling phase and increased
             throughout most of pregnancy. However, body fat scores per
             se were not associated with the duration of any of the
             component phases. Finally, we found that fecal
             glucocorticoid concentrations decreased as PPA progressed,
             suggesting a decline in energetic stress over this phase.
             Fecal progestogen and estrogen concentrations changed over
             time during sexual cycling; the direction of these changes
             depended on the phase of the sexual cycle (luteal versus
             early or late follicular phases). DISCUSSION:Our study lends
             insight into the energetic constraints on female primate
             reproduction, revealing how female environments, changes in
             body fat, and steroid hormone concentrations relate to IBI
             duration and to reproductive readiness.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23407},
   Key = {fds332674}
}

@article{fds332675,
   Author = {Gesquiere, LR and Pugh, M and Alberts, SC and Markham,
             AC},
   Title = {Estimation of energetic condition in wild baboons using
             fecal thyroid hormone determination.},
   Journal = {General and Comparative Endocrinology},
   Volume = {260},
   Pages = {9-17},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.02.004},
   Abstract = {Understanding how environmental and social factors affect
             reproduction through variation in energetic condition
             remains understudied in wild animals, in large part because
             accurately and repeatedly measuring energetic condition in
             the wild is a challenge. Thyroid hormones (THs), such as
             triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), have a key role in
             mitigating metabolic responses to energy intake and
             expenditure, and therefore are considered important
             biomarkers of an animal's energetic condition. Recent method
             development has shown that T3 and T4 metabolites can be
             measured in feces, but studies measuring THs in wild
             populations remain rare. Here we measured fecal T3
             metabolites (mT3) in baboons, and tested whether the
             conditions of collection and storage used for steroid
             hormones could also be used for mT3; we focused on mT3 as it
             is the biologically active form of TH and because fecal T4
             metabolites (mT4) were below detection levels in our
             samples. We also tested if mT3 could be determined in
             freeze-dried samples stored for long periods of time, and if
             these concentrations reflected expected biological
             variations across seasons and reproductive states. Our
             results show that mT3 can be measured with accuracy and
             precision in baboon feces. The conditions of collection and
             storage we use for steroid hormones are appropriate for mT3
             determination. In addition, mT3 concentrations can be
             determined in samples stored at -20 °C for up to
             9 years, and are not predicted by the amount of time in
             storage. As expected, wild female baboons have lower mT3
             concentrations during the dry season. Interestingly, mT3
             concentrations are lower in pregnant and lactating females,
             possibly reflecting an energy sparing mechanism. Retroactive
             determination of mT3 concentration in stored, freeze-dried
             feces opens the door to novel studies on the role of
             energetic condition on fitness in wild animals.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.02.004},
   Key = {fds332675}
}

@article{fds332676,
   Author = {Tucker, MA and Böhning-Gaese, K and Fagan, WF and Fryxell, JM and Van
             Moorter, B and Alberts, SC and Ali, AH and Allen, AM and Attias, N and Avgar, T and Bartlam-Brooks, H and Bayarbaatar, B and Belant, JL and Bertassoni, A and Beyer, D and Bidner, L and van Beest, FM and Blake, S and Blaum, N and Bracis, C and Brown, D and de Bruyn, PJN and Cagnacci, F and Calabrese, JM and Camilo-Alves, C and Chamaillé-Jammes, S and Chiaradia, A and Davidson, SC and Dennis, T and DeStefano, S and Diefenbach, D and Douglas-Hamilton, I and Fennessy, J and Fichtel, C and Fiedler, W and Fischer, C and Fischhoff, I and Fleming, CH and Ford, AT and Fritz, SA and Gehr, B and Goheen, JR and Gurarie, E and Hebblewhite, M and Heurich, M and Hewison, AJM and Hof, C and Hurme, E and Isbell, LA and Janssen, R and Jeltsch, F and Kaczensky, P and Kane, A and Kappeler, PM and Kauffman, M and Kays, R and Kimuyu, D and Koch, F and Kranstauber, B and LaPoint, S and Leimgruber, P and Linnell, JDC and López-López, P and Markham, AC and Mattisson, J and Medici, EP and Mellone, U and Merrill,
             E and de Miranda Mourão and G and Morato, RG and Morellet, N and Morrison,
             TA and Díaz-Muñoz, SL and Mysterud, A and Nandintsetseg, D and Nathan,
             R and Niamir, A and Odden, J and O'Hara, RB and Oliveira-Santos, LGR and Olson, KA and Patterson, BD and Cunha de Paula and R and Pedrotti, L and Reineking, B and Rimmler, M and Rogers, TL and Rolandsen, CM and Rosenberry, CS and Rubenstein, DI and Safi, K and Saïd, S and Sapir, N and Sawyer, H and Schmidt, NM and Selva, N and Sergiel, A and Shiilegdamba,
             E and Silva, JP and Singh, N and Solberg, EJ and Spiegel, O and Strand, O and Sundaresan, S and Ullmann, W and Voigt, U and Wall, J and Wattles, D and Wikelski, M and Wilmers, CC and Wilson, JW and Wittemyer, G and Zięba,
             F and Zwijacz-Kozica, T and Mueller, T},
   Title = {Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial
             mammalian movements.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {359},
   Number = {6374},
   Pages = {466-469},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aam9712},
   Abstract = {Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and
             species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic
             footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across
             species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803
             individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of
             mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint
             were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their
             movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute
             this reduction to behavioral changes of individual animals
             and to the exclusion of species with long-range movements
             from areas with higher human impact. Global loss of vagility
             alters a key ecological trait of animals that affects not
             only population persistence but also ecosystem processes
             such as predator-prey interactions, nutrient cycling, and
             disease transmission.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.aam9712},
   Key = {fds332676}
}


%% Boyer, Douglas M.   
@article{fds341871,
   Author = {Harrington, AR and Kuzawa, CW and Boyer, DM},
   Title = {Carotid foramen size in the human skull tracks developmental
             changes in cerebral blood flow and brain
             metabolism.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {161-169},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23809},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:In humans, neuronal processes related to brain
             development elevate the metabolic rate of brain tissue
             relative to the body during early childhood. This phenomenon
             has been hypothesized to contribute to slow somatic growth
             in preadolescent Homo sapiens. The uncoupling of the brain's
             metabolic rate from brain size during development
             complicates the study of the evolutionary emergence of these
             traits in the fossil record. Here, we extend a method
             previously developed to predict interspecific differences in
             cerebral blood flow (a correlate of cerebral glucose use) to
             predict ontogenetic changes in human brain metabolism.
             MATERIALS AND METHODS:Radii of the carotid foramen from an
             ontogenetic series of modern human crania were used to
             predict blood flow rates through the internal carotid
             arteries (ICA), which were compared to empirically measured
             ICA flow and brain metabolism values. RESULTS:Predictions of
             both absolute ICA blood flow rates and perfusion (ICA blood
             flow rates relative to brain size) generally match measured
             values in infancy and childhood. Maximum predicted ICA blood
             flow rates and perfusion were found to occur between ages 5
             and 8, which roughly correspond to the age of maximum
             measured ICA blood flow rate and absolute and brain
             mass-specific rate of whole brain glucose uptake.
             DISCUSSION:These findings suggest that, during human growth
             and development, the size of the carotid foramen corresponds
             well to blood flow requirements through the ICA, and the
             method tested here may provide new opportunities for
             studying developmental changes in brain metabolism using
             osteological samples, including fossil hominins.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23809},
   Key = {fds341871}
}

@article{fds341590,
   Author = {Shan, S and Kovalsky, SZ and Winchester, JM and Boyer, DM and Daubechies, I},
   Title = {ariaDNE: A robustly implemented algorithm for Dirichlet
             energy of the normal},
   Journal = {Methods in Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {541-552},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13148},
   Abstract = {© 2019 The Authors. Methods in Ecology and Evolution ©
             2019 British Ecological Society Shape characterizers are
             metrics that quantify aspects of the overall geometry of a
             three-dimensional (3D) digital surface. When computed for
             biological objects, the values of a shape characterizer are
             largely independent of homology interpretations and often
             contain a strong ecological and functional signal. Thus,
             shape characterizers are useful for understanding
             evolutionary processes. Dirichlet normal energy (DNE) is a
             widely used shape characterizer in morphological studies.
             Recent studies found that DNE is sensitive to various
             procedures for preparing 3D mesh from raw scan data, raising
             concerns regarding comparability and objectivity when
             utilizing DNE in morphological research. We provide a
             robustly implemented algorithm for computing the Dirichlet
             energy of the normal (ariaDNE) on 3D meshes. We show through
             simulation that the effects of preparation-related mesh
             surface attributes, such as triangle count, mesh
             representation, noise, smoothing and boundary triangles, are
             much more limited on ariaDNE than DNE. Furthermore, ariaDNE
             retains the potential of DNE for biological studies,
             illustrated by its effectiveness in differentiating species
             by dietary preferences. Use of ariaDNE can dramatically
             enhance the assessment of the ecological aspects of
             morphological variation by its stability under different 3D
             model acquisition methods and preparation procedure. Towards
             this goal, we provide scripts for computing ariaDNE and
             ariaDNE values for specimens used in previously published
             DNE analyses.},
   Doi = {10.1111/2041-210X.13148},
   Key = {fds341590}
}

@article{fds339738,
   Author = {Boyer, DM and Harrington, AR},
   Title = {New estimates of blood flow rates in the vertebral artery of
             euarchontans and their implications for encephalic blood
             flow scaling: A response to Seymour and Snelling
             (2018).},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {128},
   Pages = {93-98},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.10.002},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.10.002},
   Key = {fds339738}
}

@article{fds339909,
   Author = {Morse, PE and Chester, SGB and Boyer, DM and Smith, T and Smith, R and Gigase, P and Bloch, JI},
   Title = {New fossils, systematics, and biogeography of the oldest
             known crown primate Teilhardina from the earliest Eocene of
             Asia, Europe, and North America.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {128},
   Pages = {103-131},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.005},
   Abstract = {Omomyiform primates are among the most basal fossil
             haplorhines, with the oldest classified in the genus
             Teilhardina and known contemporaneously from Asia, Europe,
             and North America during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal
             Maximum (PETM) ∼56 mya. Characterization of morphology in
             this genus has been limited by small sample sizes and
             fragmentary fossils. A new dental sample (n = 163) of the
             North American species Teilhardina brandti from PETM strata
             of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, documents previously unknown
             morphology and variation, prompting the need for a
             systematic revision of the genus. The P4 of T. brandti
             expresses a range of variation that encompasses that of the
             recently named, slightly younger North American species
             'Teilhardina gingerichi,' which is here synonymized with
             T. brandti. A new partial dentary preserving the alveoli
             for P1-2 demonstrates that T. brandti variably expresses an
             unreduced, centrally-located P1, and in this regard is
             similar to that of T. asiatica from China. This
             observation, coupled with further documentation of
             variability in P1 alveolar size, position, and presence in
             the European type species T. belgica, indicates that the
             original diagnosis of T. asiatica is insufficient at
             distinguishing this species from either T. belgica or
             T. brandti. Likewise, the basal omomyiform 'Archicebus
             achilles' requires revision to be distinguished from
             Teilhardina. Results from a phylogenetic analysis of 1890
             characters scored for omomyiforms, adapiforms, and other
             euarchontan mammals produces a novel clade including
             T. magnoliana, T. brandti, T. asiatica, and T. belgica
             to the exclusion of two species previously referred to
             Teilhardina, which are here classified in a new genus
             (Bownomomys americanus and Bownomomys crassidens). While
             hypotheses of relationships and inferred biogeographic
             patterns among species of Teilhardina could change with the
             discovery of more complete fossils, the results of these
             analyses indicate a similar probability that the genus
             originated in either Asia or North America.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.005},
   Key = {fds339909}
}

@article{fds336361,
   Author = {Boyer, DM and Maiolino, SA and Holroyd, PA and Morse, PE and Bloch,
             JI},
   Title = {Oldest evidence for grooming claws in euprimates.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {122},
   Pages = {1-22},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.03.010},
   Abstract = {Euprimates are unusual among mammals in having fingers and
             toes with flat nails. While it seems clear that the
             ancestral stock from which euprimates evolved had
             claw-bearing digits, the available fossil record has not yet
             contributed a detailed understanding of the transition from
             claws to nails. This study helps clarify the evolutionary
             history of the second pedal digit with fossils representing
             the distal phalanx of digit two (dpII), and has broader
             implications for other digits. Among extant primates, the
             keratinized structure on the pedal dpII widely varies in
             form. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers have narrow,
             distally tapering, dorsally inclined nails (termed a
             'grooming claws' for their use in autogrooming), while
             extant anthropoids have more typical nails that are wider
             and lack distal tapering or dorsal inclination. At least two
             fossil primate species thought to be stem members of the
             Strepsirrhini appear to have had grooming claws, yet
             reconstructions of the ancestral euprimate condition based
             on direct evidence from the fossil record are ambiguous due
             to inadequate fossil evidence for the earliest haplorhines.
             Seven recently discovered, isolated distal phalanges from
             four early Eocene localities in Wyoming (USA) closely
             resemble those of the pedal dpII in extant prosimians. On
             the basis of faunal associations, size, and morphology,
             these specimens are recognized as the grooming phalanges of
             five genera of haplorhine primates, including one of the
             oldest known euprimates (∼56 Ma), Teilhardina brandti.
             Both the phylogenetic distribution and antiquity of primate
             grooming phalanges now strongly suggest that ancestral
             euprimates had grooming claws, that these structures were
             modified from a primitive claw rather than a flat nail, and
             that the evolutionary loss of 'grooming claws' represents an
             apomorphy for crown anthropoids.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.03.010},
   Key = {fds336361}
}

@article{fds337583,
   Author = {Gunnell, GF and Boyer, DM and Friscia, AR and Heritage, S and Manthi,
             FK and Miller, ER and Sallam, HM and Simmons, NB and Stevens, NJ and Seiffert, ER},
   Title = {Fossil lemurs from Egypt and Kenya suggest an African origin
             for Madagascar's aye-aye.},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {3193},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05648-w},
   Abstract = {In 1967 G.G. Simpson described three partial mandibles from
             early Miocene deposits in Kenya that he interpreted as
             belonging to a new strepsirrhine primate, Propotto. This
             interpretation was quickly challenged, with the assertion
             that Propotto was not a primate, but rather a pteropodid
             fruit bat. The latter interpretation has not been questioned
             for almost half a century. Here we re-evaluate the
             affinities of Propotto, drawing upon diverse lines of
             evidence to establish that this strange mammal is a
             strepsirrhine primate as originally suggested by Simpson.
             Moreover, our phylogenetic analyses support the recognition
             of Propotto, together with late Eocene Plesiopithecus from
             Egypt, as African stem chiromyiform lemurs that are
             exclusively related to the extant aye-aye (Daubentonia) from
             Madagascar. Our results challenge the long-held view that
             all lemurs are descended from a single ancient colonization
             of Madagascar, and present an intriguing alternative
             scenario in which two lemur lineages dispersed from Africa
             to Madagascar independently, possibly during the later
             Cenozoic.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-05648-w},
   Key = {fds337583}
}

@article{fds332938,
   Author = {Gao, T and Yapuncich, GS and Daubechies, I and Mukherjee, S and Boyer,
             DM},
   Title = {Development and Assessment of Fully Automated and Globally
             Transitive Geometric Morphometric Methods, With Application
             to a Biological Comparative Dataset With High Interspecific
             Variation.},
   Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)},
   Volume = {301},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {636-658},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23700},
   Abstract = {Automated geometric morphometric methods are promising tools
             for shape analysis in comparative biology, improving
             researchers' abilities to quantify variation extensively (by
             permitting more specimens to be analyzed) and intensively
             (by characterizing shapes with greater fidelity). Although
             use of these methods has increased, published automated
             methods have some notable limitations: pairwise
             correspondences are frequently inaccurate and pairwise
             mappings are not globally consistent (i.e., they lack
             transitivity across the full sample). Here, we reassess the
             accuracy of published automated methods-cPDist (Boyer et al.
             Proc Nat Acad Sci 108 () 18221-18226) and auto3Dgm (Boyer et
             al.: Anat Rec 298 () 249-276)-and evaluate several
             modifications to these methods. We show that a substantial
             percentage of alignments and pairwise maps between specimens
             of dissimilar geometries were inaccurate in the study of
             Boyer et al. (Proc Nat Acad Sci 108 () 18221-18226), despite
             a taxonomically partitioned variance structure of continuous
             Procrustes distances. We show these inaccuracies are
             remedied using a globally informed methodology within a
             collection of shapes, rather than relying on pairwise
             comparisons (c.f. Boyer et al.: Anat Rec 298 () 249-276).
             Unfortunately, while global information generally enhances
             maps between dissimilar objects, it can degrade the quality
             of correspondences between similar objects due to the
             accumulation of numerical error. We explore a number of
             approaches to mitigate this degradation, quantify their
             performance, and compare the generated pairwise maps (and
             the shape space characterized by these maps) to a "ground
             truth" obtained from landmarks manually collected by
             geometric morphometricians. Novel methods both improve the
             quality of the pairwise correspondences relative to cPDist
             and achieve a taxonomic distinctiveness comparable to
             auto3Dgm. Anat Rec, 301:636-658, 2018. © 2017 Wiley
             Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.23700},
   Key = {fds332938}
}

@article{fds336362,
   Author = {Lyu, I and Perdomo, J and Yapuncich, GS and Paniagua, B and Boyer, DM and Styner, MA},
   Title = {Group-wise Shape Correspondence of Variable and Complex
             Objects.},
   Journal = {Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials:
             Behavior and Mechanics},
   Volume = {10574},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   ISBN = {9781510616370},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2293273},
   Abstract = {We present a group-wise shape correspondence method for
             analyzing variable and complex objects in a population
             study. The proposed method begins with the standard
             spherical harmonics (SPHARM) point distribution models (PDM)
             with their spherical mappings. In case of complex and
             variable objects, the equal area spherical mapping based
             SPHARM correspondence is imperfect. For such objects, we
             present here a novel group-wise correspondence. As an
             example dataset, we use 12 second mandibular molars
             representing 6 living or fossil euarchontan species. To
             improve initial correspondence of the SPHARM-PDM
             representation, we first apply a rigid transformation on
             each subject using five well-known landmarks (molar cusps).
             We further enhance the correspondence by optimizing
             landmarks (local) and multidimensional geometric property
             (global) over each subject with spherical harmonic
             representation. The resulting average shape model better
             captures sharp landmark representation in quantitative
             evaluation as well as a nice separation of different species
             compared with that of the SPHARM-PDM method.},
   Doi = {10.1117/12.2293273},
   Key = {fds336362}
}

@article{fds329751,
   Author = {Seiffert, ER and Boyer, DM and Fleagle, JG and Gunnell, GF and Heesy,
             CP and Perry, JMG and Sallam, HM},
   Title = {New adapiform primate fossils from the late Eocene of
             Egypt},
   Journal = {Historical Biology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {204-226},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2017.1306522},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis
             Group. Caenopithecine adapiform primates are currently
             represented by two genera from the late Eocene of Egypt
             (Afradapis and Aframonius) and one from the middle Eocene of
             Switzerland (Caenopithecus). All are somewhat
             anthropoid-like in several aspects of their dental and
             gnathic morphology, and are inferred to have been highly
             folivorous. Here we describe a new caenopithecine genus and
             species, Masradapis tahai, from the ~37 million-year-old
             Locality BQ-2 in Egypt, that is represented by mandibular
             and maxillary fragments and isolated teeth. Masradapis is
             approximately the same size as Aframonius but differs in
             having a more dramatic distal increase in molar size, more
             complex upper molar shearing crests, and an exceptionally
             deep mandibular corpus. We also describe additional
             mandibles and part of the orbit and rostrum of Aframonius
             which suggest that it was probably diurnal. Phylogenetic
             analyses place Masradapis either as the sister taxon of
             Aframonius (parsimony), or as the sister taxon of Afradapis
             and Caenopithecus (Bayesian methods). Bayesian tip-dating
             analysis, when combined with Bayesian biogeographic
             analysis, suggests that a common ancestor of known
             caenopithecines dispersed to Afro-Arabia from Europe between
             49.4 and 47.4 Ma, and that a trans-Tethyan back-dispersal
             explains Caenopithecus’ later presence in Europe. For
             Masradapis: https://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:41BC8459-7CCE-487F-BC59-1C34257D5C4E
             For Masradapis tahai: https://www.zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C0A620AD-6FCA-4649-A980-FCA237AFE39D.},
   Doi = {10.1080/08912963.2017.1306522},
   Key = {fds329751}
}

@article{fds333204,
   Author = {Boyer, DM and Harrington, AR},
   Title = {Scaling of bony canals for encephalic vessels in
             euarchontans: Implications for the role of the vertebral
             artery and brain metabolism.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {114},
   Pages = {85-101},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.003},
   Abstract = {Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose
             for metabolic activities is a critical function for all
             animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A
             relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is
             maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates,
             dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of
             solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery
             is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has
             questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This
             presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine
             primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced
             promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no
             apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for
             the vertebral artery. Here, we present results of
             phylogenetic comparative analyses of data on the
             cross-sectional area of bony canals that transmit the
             vertebral artery (transverse foramina). These results show
             that, across primates (and within major primate subgroups),
             variation in the transverse foramina helps significantly to
             explain variation in forebrain mass even when variation in
             promontorial canal cross-sectional areas are also
             considered. Furthermore, non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms have
             larger transverse foramina for their endocranial volume than
             other euarchontans, suggesting that the vertebral arteries
             compensate for reduced promontorial artery size. We also
             find that, among internal carotid-reliant euarchontans,
             species that are more encephalized tend to have a
             promontorial canal that is larger relative to the transverse
             foramina. Tentatively, we consider the correlation between
             arterial canal diameters (as a proxy for blood flow) and
             brain metabolic demands. The results of this analysis imply
             that human investment in brain metabolism (∼27% of basal
             metabolic rate) may not be exceptional among
             euarchontans.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.003},
   Key = {fds333204}
}


%% Churchill, Steven E.   
@article{fds343591,
   Author = {Brophy, JK and Irish, J and Churchill, SE and de Ruiter, DJ and Hawks,
             J and Berger, LR},
   Title = {A comparison of hominin teeth from Lincoln Cave,
             Sterkfontein L/63, and the Dinaledi Chamber, South
             Africa},
   Journal = {South African Journal of Science},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {5-6},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2019/5739},
   Abstract = {© 2019. The Author(s). Published under a Creative Commons
             Attribution Licence. Prior to the recovery of Homo naledi
             from the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star Cave system,
             the Middle Pleistocene fossil record in Africa was
             particularly sparse. With the large sample size now
             available from Dinaledi, the opportunity exists to reassess
             taxonomically ambiguous teeth unearthed at the nearby site
             of Sterkfontein. Teeth recovered from Lincoln Cave South and
             area L/63 at Sterkfontein have been considered ‘most
             probably Homo ergaster’ and ‘perhaps Archaic Homo
             sapiens’, respectively. Given the similarities shared
             between Lincoln Cave, area L/63, and the Dinaledi Chamber
             with regard to climatic/geologic depositional context and
             age, two teeth from the former sites, StW 592 and StW 585
             respectively, were compared with corresponding tooth types
             of H. naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber. The results of our
             study indicate that the Lincoln Cave and area L/63 teeth are
             morphologically inconsistent with the variation recognised
             in the H. naledi teeth. Significance: • The similar age
             and climatic/geologic depositional and post-depositional
             circumstances at Lincoln Cave South, area L/63 at
             Sterkfontein and the Dinaledi Chamber, Rising Star raise the
             possibility that these fossils might represent the same
             species. • The teeth StW 592 and StW 585 are not
             consistent with the variation evident in the known H.
             naledisample. • The results of the study do not add to the
             question of the existence of at least two species of the
             genus Homo living in close proximity to each other in South
             Africa at approximately the same time.},
   Doi = {10.17159/sajs.2019/5739},
   Key = {fds343591}
}

@article{fds342190,
   Author = {Miller, IF and Churchill, SE and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Speeding in the slow lane: Phylogenetic comparative analyses
             reveal that not all human life history traits are
             exceptional.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {130},
   Pages = {36-44},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.12.007},
   Abstract = {Humans are thought to exhibit an unusual suite of life
             history traits relative to other primates, with a longer
             lifespan, later age at first reproduction, and shorter
             interbirth interval. These assumptions are key components of
             popular hypotheses about human life history evolution, but
             they have yet to be investigated phylogenetically. We
             applied two phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate
             whether these human life history traits differ from
             expectations based on other primates: one fits and selects
             between Brownian and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of trait
             evolution; the other tests for phylogenetic outliers by
             predicting phenotypic characteristics based on trait
             covariation and phylogeny for a species of interest. We
             found that humans have exceptionally short interbirth
             intervals, long lifespans, and high birth masses. We failed
             to find evidence that humans have a delayed age at first
             reproduction relative to body mass or other covariates.
             Overall, our results support several previous assertions
             about the uniqueness of human life history characteristics
             and the importance of cooperative breeding and socioecology
             in human life history evolution. However, we suggest that
             several hypotheses about human life history need to be
             revised in light of our finding that humans do not have a
             delayed age at first reproduction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.12.007},
   Key = {fds342190}
}

@article{fds340467,
   Author = {Holt, B and Negrino, F and Riel-Salvatore, J and Formicola, V and Arellano, A and Arobba, D and Boschian, G and Churchill, SE and Cristiani, E and Di Canzio and E and Vicino, G},
   Title = {The Middle-Upper Paleolithic transition in Northwest Italy:
             new evidence from Riparo Bombrini (Balzi Rossi, Liguria,
             Italy)},
   Journal = {Quaternary International},
   Volume = {508},
   Pages = {142-152},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2018.11.032},
   Abstract = {© 2018 We report here preliminary results from four seasons
             of excavation at the rockshelter of Riparo Bombrini
             (2002–2005). Three markedly separate horizons were
             uncovered: the deepest, comprising Levels M1-7, yielded
             abundant Mousterian lithics and faunal remains. A second
             macro-unit, corresponding to Levels MS1-2, is only a few
             decimeters thick and is characterized by the presence of
             large limestone blocks from partial collapse of the
             shelter's vault. The scarcity of material and presence of
             carnivore coprolites suggest sporadic human occupation. The
             third macro-unit, constituted by Levels A1-3 and following
             immediately above Levels MS1-2, contains a rich
             Proto-Aurignacian industry, including Dufour bladelets, bone
             tools, abundant ochre, numerous decorative objects (mainly
             perforated shells) and widespread use of exotic raw
             material. New AMS dates and stratigraphic and
             sedimentological evidence indicate that the appearance of
             the Proto-Aurignacian at Bombrini dates to around 41 ky cal
             BP, in a phase of climatic degradation, paralleling the
             conditions observed for the transition at other northern
             Italian sites. While preliminary faunal analysis suggests
             little change in site use over time, the composition of the
             lithic assemblages point to a marked technological
             discontinuity between the two time periods. Riparo
             Bombrini's stratigraphic sequence affords important details
             about the environmental and cultural dynamics that marked
             the expansion of modern humans into Europe and the
             disappearance of Neandertals in that region during OIS 3.
             The association of a rich Proto-Aurignacian complex with an
             anatomically modern deciduous human tooth enhances further
             its importance for understanding early Upper Paleolithic in
             Italy.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.quaint.2018.11.032},
   Key = {fds340467}
}

@article{fds332749,
   Author = {Yapuncich, GS and Churchill, SE and Cameron, N and Walker,
             CS},
   Title = {Morphometric panel regression equations for predicting body
             mass in immature humans.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {179-195},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23422},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Predicting body mass is a frequent objective of
             several anthropological subdisciplines, but there are few
             published methods for predicting body mass in immature
             humans. Because most reference samples are composed of
             adults, predicting body mass outside the range of adults
             requires extrapolation, which may reduce the accuracy of
             predictions. Prediction equations developed from a sample of
             immature humans would reduce extrapolation for application
             to small-bodied target individuals, and should have utility
             in multiple predictive contexts. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Here,
             we present two novel body mass prediction equations derived
             from 3468 observations of stature and bi-iliac breadth from
             a large sample of immature humans (n = 173) collected in
             the Harpenden Growth Study. Prediction equations were
             generated using raw and natural log-transformed data and
             modeled using panel regression, which accounts for serial
             autocorrelation of longitudinal observations. Predictive
             accuracy was gauged with a global sample of human juveniles
             (n = 530 age- and sex-specific annual means) and
             compared to the performance of the adult morphometric
             prediction equation previously identified as most accurate
             for human juveniles. RESULTS:While the raw data panel
             equation is only slightly more accurate than the adult
             equation, the logged data panel equation generates very
             accurate body mass predictions across both sexes and all age
             classes of the test sample (mean absolute percentage
             prediction error = 2.47). DISCUSSION:The logged data
             panel equation should prove useful in archaeological,
             forensic, and paleontological contexts when predictor
             variables can be measured with confidence and are outside
             the range of modern adult humans.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23422},
   Key = {fds332749}
}

@article{fds335458,
   Author = {Williams, SA and Prang, TC and Grabowski, MW and Meyer, MR and Schmid,
             P and Churchill, SE and Berger, LR},
   Title = {Relative size and scaling of the lumbo-sacral joint in
             fossil hominins: Implications for function and
             phylogeny},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {301-301},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335458}
}

@article{fds335459,
   Author = {Friedl, L and Claxton, AG and Walker, CS and Churchill, SE and Holliday,
             TW and Hawks, J and Berger, LR and Desilva, JM and Marchi,
             D},
   Title = {Femoral neck and shaft structure in Homo
             naledi},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {90-90},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335459}
}

@article{fds335460,
   Author = {Feuerriegel, EM and Voisin, J-L and Churchill, SE and Hawks, J and Berger, LR},
   Title = {The upper limb of Homo naledi: New material from the Lesedi
             Chamber, Rising Star System, South Africa},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {84-84},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335460}
}

@article{fds335461,
   Author = {De Ruiter and DJ and Brophy, JK and Van der Merwe and R and Smilg, JS and Churchill, SE and Berger, LR},
   Title = {New craniodental remains of the type specimen of
             Australopithecus sediba},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {65-66},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335461}
}

@article{fds335462,
   Author = {Walker, CS and Yapuncich, GS and Bowie, A and Belais, R and Churchill,
             SE},
   Title = {Accuracy of human-based morphometric equations for
             predicting bonobo body mass},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {292-292},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335462}
}

@article{fds335463,
   Author = {Cook, RW and Yapuncich, GS and Thompson, IJ and Walker, CS and Churchill, SE},
   Title = {A comparison of lateral iliac flare measurement methods and
             their correlation with lesser gluteal moment
             arms},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {53-53},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335463}
}

@article{fds335464,
   Author = {Green, DJ and Churchill, SE and Macias, ME and Gunz, P and Carlson, KJ and Schmid, P and Berger, LR},
   Title = {Three-dimensional morphology and comparative anatomy of the
             Australopithecus sediba scapula},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {105-105},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335464}
}

@article{fds326826,
   Author = {Walker, CS and Yapuncich, GS and Sridhar, S and Cameron, N and Churchill, SE},
   Title = {Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with
             a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to
             small-bodied hominins.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {115},
   Pages = {65-77},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.009},
   Abstract = {Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important
             variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression
             equations derived from recent human samples allow for the
             reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more
             human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint
             dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics
             across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some
             earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric
             prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth
             avoid this problem, but their applicability to early
             hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions
             from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we
             use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a
             global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12
             years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means
             from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of
             several published morphometric prediction equations when
             applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of
             modern human juveniles likely differ from those of
             small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil
             hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult
             human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful
             model for assessing the robustness of morphometric
             prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults
             systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age
             groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older
             groups, which fall in the body size range of adult
             Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body
             proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to
             stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes
             in these body proportions likely influence the shift in
             prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However,
             because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when
             applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these
             equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied
             hominins, despite the potential for some error induced by
             differing body proportions and/or extrapolation beyond the
             original reference sample range.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.009},
   Key = {fds326826}
}

@article{fds340057,
   Author = {Di Vincenzo and F and Churchill, SE and Buzi, C and Profico, A and Tafuri,
             MA and Micheli, M and Caramelli, D and Manzi, G},
   Title = {Distinct among Neanderthals: The scapula of the skeleton
             from Altamura, Italy},
   Journal = {Quaternary Science Reviews},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.11.023},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The exceptionally well-preserved
             Neanderthal skeleton discovered in October 1993 within the
             Lamalunga cave near Altamura (Puglia, Italy) has been
             recently dated to a late Middle Pleistocene chronology,
             bracketed between 128.2 and 187.0 ka. Although the skeleton
             is still sealed in situ, in 2009 and 2015 a large part of
             its fragmentary right scapula was removed from the cave in
             three pieces, following a protocol aimed at preventing any
             biological contamination prior to aDNA extraction and
             analysis. The three fragments taken together preserve the
             glenoid fossa, the roots of both the coracoid and acromial
             processes, the superior two-thirds of the axillary border,
             portions of the spine, and part of the supraspinous fossa.
             This scapula is described here in detail for the first time.
             Morphological analyses show that it falls within the range
             of Neanderthal variability and also approaches the
             Mid-Pleistocene sample from Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos.
             However, the scapula from Altamura exhibits a
             bisulcate/ventral pattern of the axillary border: a feature
             that is uncommon for a Neanderthal and, more in general,
             among the European archaic humans of the Middle and Late
             Pleistocene. The scapula from Altamura expands our knowledge
             of the postcranial variability along the Neanderthal
             lineage.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.11.023},
   Key = {fds340057}
}


%% Drea, Christine M.   
@misc{fds338472,
   Author = {Greene, LK and McKenney, EA and O'Connell, TM and Drea,
             CM},
   Title = {The critical role of dietary foliage in maintaining the gut
             microbiome and metabolome of folivorous sifakas.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {14482},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32759-7},
   Abstract = {The gut microbiome (GMB) of folivores metabolizes dietary
             fiber into nutrients, including short-chain fatty acids
             (SCFAs); however, experiments probing the consequences of
             foliage quality on host GMBs are lacking. We therefore
             examined GMB structure and function via amplicon sequencing
             and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy in 31 captive
             sifakas (Propithecus coquereli) during dietary manipulations
             associated with husbandry. Supplementing standard diets with
             diverse foliage blends, versus with a single plant species,
             promoted more diverse GMBs, enriched for taxa implicated in
             plant-fiber metabolism, but depleted in taxa implicated in
             starch metabolism and bile tolerance. The consumption of
             diverse blends was associated with greater concentrations of
             colonic SCFAs. Abundant foliage, via forest access, promoted
             compositionally distinct and more stable GMBs, but reduced
             concentrations of SCFAs, possibly reflecting selection of
             high-quality leaves. In 11 subjects denied forest access, we
             examined the temporal pace of microbial shifts when
             supplemental foliage was abruptly switched between diverse
             blends and single species. The sifaka GMB responded within
             days, with community diversity and composition closely
             tracking foliage diversity. By providing experimental
             evidence that the folivore GMB is sensitive to minor changes
             in dietary foliage, we reveal the fragility of specialist
             GMBs, with implications for managing the wellbeing of
             endangered wildlife.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-32759-7},
   Key = {fds338472}
}

@misc{fds335470,
   Author = {Dimac-Stohl, KA and Davies, CS and Grebe, NM and Stonehill, AC and Greene, LK and Mitchell, J and Clutton-Brock, T and Drea,
             CM},
   Title = {Incidence and biomarkers of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion,
             and neonatal loss during an environmental stressor:
             Implications for female reproductive suppression in the
             cooperatively breeding meerkat.},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {193},
   Number = {Pt A},
   Pages = {90-100},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.11.011},
   Abstract = {Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which
             subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant
             female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders,
             subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to
             reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their
             attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or
             infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and
             neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively
             impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the
             reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of
             serum progesterone (P4), serum estradiol (E2), and fecal
             glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and
             subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari
             Desert of South Africa. Our study spanned years of drought,
             which reduced insect abundance and represented a substantial
             environmental stressor. Meerkat pregnancies were identified
             at mid-term and culminated either in spontaneous abortions
             or full-term deliveries, after which pups were either lost
             prior to emergence from the natal den (usually within 2days
             of birth) or emerged at 2-3weeks. Neonatal loss exceeded
             fetal loss for all females, and contributed to narrowing the
             status-related disparity in female reproductive output seen
             during less arid periods. Although E2 concentrations were
             significantly lower in subordinate than dominant females,
             they were sufficient to support gestation. Absolute E2
             concentrations may owe to androgenic precursors that also
             attain highest concentrations in dominant dams and may
             mediate aggression underlying female reproductive skew.
             Pregnancies terminating in fetal loss were marked by
             significantly lower P4 concentrations in mid-gestation and
             modestly lower E2 concentrations overall. Consistently high
             fGCm concentrations further increased across trimesters,
             particularly (but not consistently) in subordinates and in
             aborted pregnancies. Environmental stressors may modulate
             reproductive outcomes in meerkats through their influence on
             sex steroids and their effects on intragroup competition.
             The social and eco-physiological factors affecting
             intraspecific variation in reproductive output, even in
             obligate cooperative breeders, may be most apparent during
             extreme conditions, reflecting the benefits of long-term
             studies for assessing the impact of climate
             change.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.11.011},
   Key = {fds335470}
}

@misc{fds338037,
   Author = {Smyth, KN and Caruso, NM and Davies, CS and Clutton-Brock, TH and Drea,
             CM},
   Title = {Social and endocrine correlates of immune function in
             meerkats: implications for the immunocompetence handicap
             hypothesis.},
   Journal = {Royal Society Open Science},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {180435},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180435},
   Abstract = {Social status can mediate effects on the immune system, with
             profound consequences for individual health; nevertheless,
             most investigators of status-related disparities in
             free-ranging animals have used faecal parasite burdens to
             proxy immune function in the males of male-dominant species.
             We instead use direct measures of innate immune function
             (complement and natural antibodies) to examine
             status-related immunocompetence in both sexes of a
             female-dominant species. The meerkat is a unique model for
             such a study because it is a cooperatively breeding species
             in which status-related differences are extreme, evident in
             reproductive skew, morphology, behaviour, communication and
             physiology, including that dominant females naturally
             express the greatest total androgen (androstenedione plus
             testosterone) concentrations. We found that, relative to
             subordinates, dominant animals had reduced serum
             bacteria-killing abilities; also, relative to subordinate
             females, dominant females had reduced haemolytic complement
             activities. Irrespective of an individual's sex or social
             status, androstenedione concentrations (but not body
             condition, age or reproductive activity) negatively
             predicted concurrent immunocompetence. Thus, dominant
             meerkats of both sexes are immunocompromised. Moreover, in
             female meerkats, androstenedione perhaps acting directly or
             via local conversion, may exert a double-edged effect of
             promoting dominance and reproductive success at the cost of
             increased parasitism and reduced immune function. Given the
             prominent signalling of dominance in female meerkats, these
             findings may relate to the immunocompetence handicap
             hypothesis (ICHH); however, our data would suggest that the
             endocrine mechanism underlying the ICHH need not be mediated
             solely by testosterone and might explain trade-offs in
             females, as well as in males.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rsos.180435},
   Key = {fds338037}
}

@misc{fds335471,
   Author = {Harris, RL and Boulet, M and Grogan, KE and Drea,
             CM},
   Title = {Costs of injury for scent signalling in a strepsirrhine
             primate.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9882},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-27322-3},
   Abstract = {Honesty is crucial in animal communication when signallers
             are conveying information about their condition. Condition
             dependence implies a cost to signal production; yet,
             evidence of such cost is scarce. We examined the effects of
             naturally occurring injury on the quality and salience of
             olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Over
             a decade, we collected genital secretions from 23 (13 male,
             10 female) adults across 34 unique injuries, owing primarily
             to intra-group fights. Using gas chromatography-mass
             spectrometry, we tested for differences in the chemical
             composition of secretions across pre-injury, injury and
             recovery, in animals that did and did not receive
             antibiotics. Lemur genital secretions were significantly
             dampened and altered during injury, with patterns of change
             varying by sex, season and antibiotics. Using behavioural
             bioassays (excluding odorants from antibiotic-treated
             animals), we showed that male 'recipients' discriminated
             injury status based on scent alone, directing more
             competitive counter marking towards odorants from injured
             vs. uninjured male 'signallers.' That injured animals could
             not maintain their normal signatures provides rare evidence
             of the energetic cost to signal production. That
             conspecifics detected olfactory-encoded 'weakness' suggests
             added behavioural costs: By influencing the likelihood of
             intra- or inter-sexual conflict, condition-dependent signals
             could have important implications for socio-reproductive
             behaviour.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-27322-3},
   Key = {fds335471}
}


%% Glander, Kenneth E.   
@article{fds340587,
   Author = {Fernandez-Duque, M and Chapman, CA and Glander, KE and Fernandez-Duque, E},
   Title = {Darting Primates: Steps Toward Procedural and Reporting
             Standards},
   Journal = {International Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1009-1016},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-017-9963-z},
   Abstract = {© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Darting,
             a common method of capturing wild primates, poses risks to
             the individuals that must be appropriately minimized. A
             recent article in the International Journal of Primatology
             by Cunningham et al. (International Journal of Primatology,
             36(5), 894–915, 2015) presented a literature review of the
             reporting of darting procedures in primatology and
             anonymously surveyed primatologists on darting methods and
             their effects, to report general trends in the field. We
             quantitatively reexamined 29 articles described by the
             authors as having information on fatalities and/or injuries.
             We think that the various body masses of primates
             (1 kg–150 kg), along with their locations and habitat
             types, and the degree of experience of the darting team,
             should be considered when estimating mortality and injury
             rates, and thus preclude the computation of an average
             mortality value across taxa. Nevertheless, we computed an
             average (mean) for comparison with the previous analyses.
             Our mean estimated mortality rate was 2.5% and the mean
             estimated injury risk was 1.5% (N = 21 articles). Thus,
             our estimated mortality rate is smaller than the combined
             mortality and injury rate of 5% reported by Cunningham et
             al. (International Journal of Primatology, 36(5), 894–915,
             2015) and smaller than the mortality rates of medium-sized
             terrestrial mammals they used for comparison. Our study
             strongly suggests the critical need for more data to be
             analyzed in a standardized fashion.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10764-017-9963-z},
   Key = {fds340587}
}

@article{fds335472,
   Author = {Clayton, JB and Al-Ghalith, GA and Long, HT and Tuan, BV and Cabana, F and Huang, H and Vangay, P and Ward, T and Minh, VV and Tam, NA and Dat, NT and Travis, DA and Murtaugh, MP and Covert, H and Glander, KE and Nadler, T and Toddes, B and Sha, JCM and Singer, R and Knights, D and Johnson,
             TJ},
   Title = {Associations Between Nutrition, Gut Microbiome, and Health
             in A Novel Nonhuman Primate Model.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11159},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29277-x},
   Abstract = {Red-shanked doucs (Pygathrix nemaeus) are endangered,
             foregut-fermenting colobine primates which are difficult to
             maintain in captivity. There are critical gaps in our
             understanding of their natural lifestyle, including dietary
             habits such as consumption of leaves, unripe fruit, flowers,
             seeds, and other plant parts. There is also a lack of
             understanding of enteric adaptations, including their unique
             microflora. To address these knowledge gaps, we used the
             douc as a model to study relationships between
             gastrointestinal microbial community structure and
             lifestyle. We analyzed published fecal samples as well as
             detailed dietary history from doucs with four distinct
             lifestyles (wild, semi-wild, semi-captive, and captive) and
             determined gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome composition
             using 16S rRNA sequencing. A clear gradient of microbiome
             composition was revealed along an axis of natural lifestyle
             disruption, including significant associations with diet,
             biodiversity, and microbial function. We also identified
             potential microbial biomarkers of douc dysbiosis, including
             Bacteroides and Prevotella, which may be related to health.
             Our results suggest a gradient-like shift in captivity
             causes an attendant shift to severe gut dysbiosis, thereby
             resulting in gastrointestinal issues.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-29277-x},
   Key = {fds335472}
}

@article{fds335473,
   Author = {Clayton, JB and Gomez, A and Amato, K and Knights, D and Travis, DA and Blekhman, R and Knight, R and Leigh, S and Stumpf, R and Wolf, T and Glander, KE and Cabana, F and Johnson, TJ},
   Title = {The gut microbiome of nonhuman primates: Lessons in ecology
             and evolution.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {e22867},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22867},
   Abstract = {The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to
             trillions of bacteria that play a substantial role in host
             metabolism and immunity. While progress has been made in
             understanding the role that microbial communities play in
             human health and disease, much less attention has been given
             to host-associated microbiomes in nonhuman primates (NHPs).
             Here we review past and current research exploring the gut
             microbiome of NHPs. First, we summarize methods for
             characterization of the NHP gut microbiome. Then we discuss
             variation in gut microbiome composition and function across
             different NHP taxa. Finally, we highlight how studying the
             gut microbiome offers new insights into primate nutrition,
             physiology, and immune system function, as well as enhances
             our understanding of primate ecology and evolution.
             Microbiome approaches are useful tools for studying relevant
             issues in primate ecology. Further study of the gut
             microbiome of NHPs will offer new insight into primate
             ecology and evolution as well as human health.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajp.22867},
   Key = {fds335473}
}

@article{fds335474,
   Author = {Irwin, MT and Samonds, KE and Raharison, J-L and Glander, KE and Godfrey, LR},
   Title = {Reduced nutritional intakes in Diademed Sifakas (Propithecus
             diadema) occupying degraded habitat are reflected in
             morphometrics and growth - and help identify habitat
             thresholds},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {130-130},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335474}
}

@article{fds335475,
   Author = {Pampush, JD and Morse, PE and Chester, SGB and Spradley, JP and Williams, BA and Glander, KE and Teaford, MF and Kay,
             RF},
   Title = {Dental Topography and Food Processing in Wild-Caught Costa
             Rican Alouatta},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {198-198},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335475}
}


%% Goldberg, Amy   
@article{fds342235,
   Author = {Bobrek, K and Beleza, S and Goldberg, A},
   Title = {Sex-biased admixture and geographic mating structure shape
             genomic variation in Cape Verde},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {23-23},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342235}
}


%% Greene, Lydia   
@article{fds337553,
   Author = {Dimac-Stohl, KA and Davies, CS and Grebe, NM and Stonehill, AC and Greene, LK and Mitchell, J and Clutton-Brock, T and Drea,
             CM},
   Title = {Incidence and biomarkers of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion,
             and neonatal loss during an environmental stressor:
             Implications for female reproductive suppression in the
             cooperatively breeding meerkat.},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {193},
   Number = {Pt A},
   Pages = {90-100},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.11.011},
   Abstract = {Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which
             subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant
             female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders,
             subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to
             reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their
             attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or
             infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and
             neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively
             impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the
             reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of
             serum progesterone (P4), serum estradiol (E2), and fecal
             glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and
             subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari
             Desert of South Africa. Our study spanned years of drought,
             which reduced insect abundance and represented a substantial
             environmental stressor. Meerkat pregnancies were identified
             at mid-term and culminated either in spontaneous abortions
             or full-term deliveries, after which pups were either lost
             prior to emergence from the natal den (usually within 2days
             of birth) or emerged at 2-3weeks. Neonatal loss exceeded
             fetal loss for all females, and contributed to narrowing the
             status-related disparity in female reproductive output seen
             during less arid periods. Although E2 concentrations were
             significantly lower in subordinate than dominant females,
             they were sufficient to support gestation. Absolute E2
             concentrations may owe to androgenic precursors that also
             attain highest concentrations in dominant dams and may
             mediate aggression underlying female reproductive skew.
             Pregnancies terminating in fetal loss were marked by
             significantly lower P4 concentrations in mid-gestation and
             modestly lower E2 concentrations overall. Consistently high
             fGCm concentrations further increased across trimesters,
             particularly (but not consistently) in subordinates and in
             aborted pregnancies. Environmental stressors may modulate
             reproductive outcomes in meerkats through their influence on
             sex steroids and their effects on intragroup competition.
             The social and eco-physiological factors affecting
             intraspecific variation in reproductive output, even in
             obligate cooperative breeders, may be most apparent during
             extreme conditions, reflecting the benefits of long-term
             studies for assessing the impact of climate
             change.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.11.011},
   Key = {fds337553}
}

@article{fds340969,
   Author = {Greene, LK and McKenney, EA},
   Title = {The inside tract: The appendicular, cecal, and colonic
             microbiome of captive aye-ayes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {960-967},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23481},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23481},
   Key = {fds340969}
}


%% Hare, Brian   
@article{fds340823,
   Author = {Horschler, DJ and Hare, B and Call, J and Kaminski, J and Miklósi, Á and MacLean, EL},
   Title = {Absolute brain size predicts dog breed differences in
             executive function.},
   Journal = {Animal Cognition},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {187-198},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-018-01234-1},
   Abstract = {Large-scale phylogenetic studies of animal cognition have
             revealed robust links between absolute brain volume and
             species differences in executive function. However, past
             comparative samples have been composed largely of primates,
             which are characterized by evolutionarily derived neural
             scaling rules. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether
             positive associations between brain volume and executive
             function reflect a broad-scale evolutionary phenomenon, or
             alternatively, a unique consequence of primate brain
             evolution. Domestic dogs provide a powerful opportunity for
             investigating this question due to their close genetic
             relatedness, but vast intraspecific variation. Using citizen
             science data on more than 7000 purebred dogs from 74 breeds,
             and controlling for genetic relatedness between breeds, we
             identify strong relationships between estimated absolute
             brain weight and breed differences in cognition.
             Specifically, larger-brained breeds performed significantly
             better on measures of short-term memory and self-control.
             However, the relationships between estimated brain weight
             and other cognitive measures varied widely, supporting
             domain-specific accounts of cognitive evolution. Our results
             suggest that evolutionary increases in brain size are
             positively associated with taxonomic differences in
             executive function, even in the absence of primate-like
             neuroanatomy. These findings also suggest that variation
             between dog breeds may present a powerful model for
             investigating correlated changes in neuroanatomy and
             cognition among closely related taxa.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10071-018-01234-1},
   Key = {fds340823}
}

@article{fds338473,
   Author = {Krupenye, C and Tan, J and Hare, B},
   Title = {Bonobos voluntarily hand food to others but not toys or
             tools.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1886},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1536},
   Abstract = {A key feature of human prosociality is direct transfers, the
             most active form of sharing in which donors voluntarily hand
             over resources in their possession Direct transfers buffer
             hunter-gatherers against foraging shortfalls. The emergence
             and elaboration of this behaviour thus likely played a key
             role in human evolution by promoting cooperative
             interdependence and ensuring that humans' growing energetic
             needs (e.g. for increasing brain size) were more reliably
             met. According to the strong prosociality hypothesis, among
             great apes only humans exhibit sufficiently strong prosocial
             motivations to directly transfer food. The versatile
             prosociality hypothesis suggests instead that while other
             apes may make transfers in constrained settings, only humans
             share flexibly across food and non-food contexts. In
             controlled experiments, chimpanzees typically transfer
             objects but not food, supporting both hypotheses. In this
             paper, we show in two experiments that bonobos directly
             transfer food but not non-food items. These findings show
             that, in some contexts, bonobos exhibit a human-like
             motivation for direct food transfer. However, humans share
             across a far wider range of contexts, lending support to the
             versatile prosociality hypothesis. Our species' unusual
             prosocial flexibility is likely built on a prosocial
             foundation we share through common descent with the other
             apes.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.1536},
   Key = {fds338473}
}

@article{fds335476,
   Author = {Lucca, K and MacLean, EL and Hare, B},
   Title = {The development and flexibility of gaze alternations in
             bonobos and chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e12598},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12598},
   Abstract = {Infants' early gaze alternations are one of their first
             steps towards a sophisticated understanding of the social
             world. This ability, to gaze alternate between an object of
             interest and another individual also attending to that
             object, has been considered foundational to the development
             of many complex social-cognitive abilities, such as theory
             of mind and language. However, to understand the evolution
             of these abilities, it is important to identify whether and
             how gaze alternations are used and develop in our closest
             living relatives, bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees
             (Pan troglodytes). Here, we evaluated the development of
             gaze alternations in a large, developmental sample of
             bonobos (N = 17) and chimpanzees (N = 35). To assess the
             flexibility of ape gaze alternations, we tested whether they
             produced gaze alternations when requesting food from a human
             who was either visually attentive or visually inattentive.
             Similarly to human infants, both bonobos and chimpanzees
             produced gaze alternations, and did so more frequently when
             a human communicative partner was visually attentive.
             However, unlike humans, who gaze alternate frequently from
             early in development, chimpanzees did not begin to gaze
             alternate frequently until adulthood. Bonobos produced very
             few gaze alternations, regardless of age. Thus, it may be
             the early emergence of gaze alternations, as opposed gaze
             alternations themselves, that is derived in the human
             lineage. The distinctively early emergence of gaze
             alternations in humans may be a critical underpinning for
             the development of complex human social-cognitive
             abilities.},
   Doi = {10.1111/desc.12598},
   Key = {fds335476}
}

@article{fds331591,
   Author = {Hare, B},
   Title = {Domestication experiments reveal developmental link between
             friendliness and cognition},
   Journal = {Journal of Bioeconomics},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {159-163},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10818-017-9264-9},
   Abstract = {© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of
             Springer Nature. The goal of economics is to understand
             human preferences. Most research focuses on adult humans and
             does not take an evolutionary approach. In biology
             experimental evolution has been able to shift the
             preferences of animals. As an example, artificial selection
             for friendly behavior toward humans results in a syndrome of
             changes that strongly resembles differences between wild and
             domestic animals. These domestication experiments have
             revealed precise genetic and neurobiological systems that
             are altered by the selection and linked through expanded
             windows of development. Similar evolutionary experiments
             selecting for a range of social, risk or discounting
             preferences could push economics toward consilience with
             biology. Prospects for a unified theory of economic behavior
             would be drastically improved.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10818-017-9264-9},
   Key = {fds331591}
}

@article{fds331590,
   Author = {Krupenye, C and Hare, B},
   Title = {Bonobos Prefer Individuals that Hinder Others over Those
             that Help.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {280-286.e5},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.061},
   Abstract = {Humans closely monitor others' cooperative relationships [1,
             2]. Children and adults willingly incur costs to reward
             helpers and punish non-helpers-even as bystanders [3-5].
             Already by 3 months, infants favor individuals that they
             observe helping others [6-8]. This early-emerging prosocial
             preference may be a derived motivation that accounts
             for many human forms of cooperation that occur beyond
             dyadic interactions and are not exhibited by other animals
             [9, 10]. As the most socially tolerant nonhuman ape [11-17]
             (but see [18]), bonobos (Pan paniscus) provide a powerful
             phylogenetic test of whether this trait is derived in
             humans. Bonobos are more tolerant than chimpanzees, can
             flexibly obtain food through cooperation, and voluntarily
             share food in captivity and the wild, even with strangers
             [11-17] (but see [18]). Their neural architecture exhibits a
             suite of characteristics associated with greater sensitivity
             to others [19, 20], and their sociality is hypothesized to
             have evolved due to selection against male aggression
             [21-23]. Here we show in four experiments that bonobos
             discriminated agents based on third-party interactions.
             However, they did not exhibit the human preference for
             helpers. Instead, they reliably favored a hinderer that
             obstructed another agent's goal (experiments 1-3). In a
             final study (experiment 4), bonobos also chose a dominant
             individual over a subordinate. Bonobos' interest in
             hinderers may reflect attraction to dominant individuals
             [24]. A preference for helpers over hinderers may therefore
             be derived in humans, supporting the hypothesis that
             prosocial preferences played a central role in the evolution
             of human development and cooperation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2017.11.061},
   Key = {fds331590}
}

@book{fds335480,
   Author = {Hare, B and Yamamoto, S},
   Title = {Bonobos: Unique in mind, brain, and behavior},
   Pages = {1-290},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.001.0001},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. During the past decade
             there has been an explosion of scientific interest in the
             bonobo (Pan paniscus). This research has revealed exactly
             how unique bonobos are in their minds, brains and behavior.
             This book makes clear the central role that bonobos play as
             we test hypotheses relating to the processes by which
             evolution shapes ape cognition (including our own species).
             The book’s introduction describes the recent interest into
             bonobo cognition while briefly reviewing the history of
             research with bonobos. To place this new work in its
             evolutionary contexts, researchers from the two most active
             bonobo field sites start the book by reporting on recent
             discoveries regarding the social behavior of bonobos. The
             following three sections explore social cognition and
             behavior of bonobos from viewpoints of development,
             communication, and cooperation. Then the fifth section
             considers the cognitive abilities deployed by bonobos as
             they forage for and process food. The sixth section focuses
             on large scale comparison of bonobos to both chimpanzees and
             humans in their cognitive abilities and brain anatomy.
             Finally, the last two sections include chapters exploring
             the past and future of the bonobos, providing novel
             perspectives on how to promote the survival of this highly
             endangered species. These chapters are contributed by
             experts representing diverse disciplines and take together
             study bonobos living in a range of settings. They present
             overwhelming evidence for bonobo uniqueness and the new
             understanding this creates will contribute to a bright
             future for bonobos living in captivity and the
             wild.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.001.0001},
   Key = {fds335480}
}

@article{fds339286,
   Author = {MacLean, EL and Hare, B},
   Title = {Enhanced Selection of Assistance and Explosive Detection
             Dogs Using Cognitive Measures.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {236},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00236},
   Abstract = {Working dogs play a variety of important roles, ranging from
             assisting individuals with disabilities, to explosive and
             medical detection work. Despite widespread demand, only a
             subset of dogs bred and trained for these roles ultimately
             succeed, creating a need for objective measures that can
             predict working dog aptitude. Most previous research has
             focused on temperamental characteristics of successful dogs.
             However, working dogs also face diverse cognitive challenges
             both in training, and throughout their working lives. We
             conducted a series of studies investigating the
             relationships between individual differences in dog
             cognition, and success as an assistance or detection dog.
             Assistance dogs (N = 164) and detection dogs (N = 222) were
             tested in the Dog Cognition Test Battery, a 25-item
             instrument probing diverse aspects of dog cognition. Through
             exploratory analyses we identified a subset of tasks
             associated with success in each training program, and
             developed shorter test batteries including only these
             measures. We then used predictive modeling in a prospective
             study with an independent sample of assistance dogs (N =
             180), and conducted a replication study with an independent
             sample of detection dogs (N = 90). In assistance dogs,
             models using data on individual differences in cognition
             predicted higher probabilities of success for dogs that
             ultimately succeeded in the program, than for those who did
             not. For the subset of dogs with predicted probabilities of
             success in the 4th quartile (highest predicted probability
             of success), model predictions were 86% accurate, on
             average. In both the exploratory and prospective studies,
             successful dogs were more likely to engage in eye contact
             with a human experimenter when faced with an unsolvable
             task, or when a joint social activity was disrupted. In
             detection dogs, we replicated our exploratory findings that
             the most successful dogs scored higher on measures of
             sensitivity to human communicative intentions, and two
             measures of short term memory. These findings suggest that
             that (1) individual differences in cognition contribute to
             variance in working dog success, and (2) that objective
             measures of dog cognition can be used to improve the
             processes through which working dogs are evaluated and
             selected.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fvets.2018.00236},
   Key = {fds339286}
}

@misc{fds335477,
   Author = {Hare, B and Yamamoto, S},
   Title = {Minding the bonobo mind},
   Pages = {1-14},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0001},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. In this chapter we
             introduce the central role the bonobo plays in testing
             evolutionary hypotheses regarding ape minds (including our
             own). The importance of bonobos has become apparent only
             recently with sustained fieldwork at multiple sites in the
             Congo Basin as well as the first direct quantitative
             comparisons between bonobos, chimpanzees and humans. This
             recent work has revealed a number of traits in which bonobos
             and chimpanzees are more similar to humans than they are to
             each other. This means that bonobos are crucial to
             determining the evolutionary processes by which cognitive
             traits evolved in our own lineage. Based on the evidence
             within, it becomes clear that one can no longer know
             chimpanzees or humans without also knowing bonobos. We argue
             this makes investing in bonobo research and improved
             protection for bonobos in captivity and the wild an even
             higher priority.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0001},
   Key = {fds335477}
}

@misc{fds335478,
   Author = {Krupenye, C and MacLean, EL and Hare, B},
   Title = {Does the bonobo have a (chimpanzee-like) theory of
             mind?},
   Pages = {81-94},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0006},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. Theory of mind-the ability
             to reason about the thoughts and emotions of others-is
             central to what makes us human. Chimpanzees too appear to
             understand some psychological states. While less is known
             about bonobos, several lines of evidence suggest that the
             social-cognitive abilities of the two sister taxa may differ
             in key respects. This chapter outlines a framework to guide
             future research on bonobo social cognition based on the
             predictions of two potentially complementary hypotheses. The
             self-domestication hypothesis suggests that selection
             against aggression and for prosociality in bonobos may have
             impacted the ontogeny of their social-cognitive skills
             relative to chimpanzees. The empathizing-systemizing
             hypothesis links degree of prenatal brain masculinization, a
             potential result of self-domestication, to adult cognition.
             Specifically, relative feminization may yield more flexible
             theory of mind skills in bonobos than chimpanzees. Finally,
             directions for future study, including development of new
             paradigms that maximize ecological validity for bonobos, are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0006},
   Key = {fds335478}
}

@misc{fds335479,
   Author = {Tan, J and Hare, B},
   Title = {Prosociality among non-kin in bonobos and chimpanzees
             compared},
   Pages = {140-154},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0010},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. Models of the origin of
             human prosociality towards non-kin have been primarily
             developed from chimpanzee studies. Substantially less effort
             has been made to consider the prosociality of bonobos. Like
             chimpanzees, bonobos cooperate with non-kin extensively but,
             unlike chimpanzees, immigrating members are central to
             bonobo cooperation. In experiments bonobos are tolerant
             during encounters with strangers and during co-feeding. They
             help strangers without immediate tangible reward, and
             forfeit monopolizable food to facilitate a physical
             interaction with them. Such prosociality seems proactive as
             it is not elicited by solicitation. Bonobos also seem to
             prefer sharing food over non-food objects, while chimpanzees
             reliably transfer non-food objects rather than food. These
             findings highlight the possibility that human sharing with
             strangers might have also evolved as a mutualistic endeavour
             to initiate a long-term partnership. Future models of human
             prosociality will need to incorporate findings from both Pan
             species.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0010},
   Key = {fds335479}
}

@misc{fds335481,
   Author = {Faust, LJ and André, C and Belais, R and Minesi, F and Pereboom, Z and Rodriguez, K and Hare, B},
   Title = {Bonobo population dynamics: Past patterns and future
             predictions for the Lola ya Bonobo population using
             demographic modelling},
   Pages = {266-274},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0018},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. Wildlife sanctuaries
             rescue, rehabilitate, reintroduce and provide life-long care
             for orphaned and injured animals. Understanding a
             sanctuary’s population dynamics—patterns in arrival,
             mortality and projected changes in population size—allows
             careful planning for future needs. Building on previous work
             on the population dynamics of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
             in sanctuaries of the Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA;
             Faust et al. 2011), this chapter extends analyses to the
             only PASA bonobo sanctuary. Its authors analysed historic
             demographic patterns and projected future population
             dynamics using an individual-based demographic model. The
             population has been growing at 6.7 per cent per year, driven
             by arrivals of new individuals (mean = 5.5 arrivals per
             year). Several model scenarios projecting varying arrival
             rates, releases and breeding scenarios clarify potential
             future growth trajectories for the sanctuary. This research
             illustrates how data on historic dynamics can be modelled to
             inform future sanctuary capacity and management
             needs.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0018},
   Key = {fds335481}
}

@misc{fds335482,
   Author = {Walker, K and Hare, B},
   Title = {Bonobo baby dominance: Did female defense of offspring lead
             to reduced male aggression?},
   Pages = {49-64},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0004},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. The dominance style of
             bonobos presents an evolutionary puzzle. Bonobos are not
             male dominant but female bonobos do not show traits typical
             of female-dominant species. This chapter proposes the
             offspring dominance hypothesis (ODH) as a potential
             solution. ODH suggests the social system of bonobos evolved
             as a defence against infanticide and is not due to pressure
             to monopolize resources. Females that prevented aggression
             towards offspring and preferred mating with less aggressive
             males were most successful. Supporting ODH, during
             observations at Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary it was found that:
             1) adult male bonobos are rarely aggressive towards
             offspring with mothers, 2) some mother-reared juvenile
             bonobos attain rank higher than adult males and 3)
             mother-reared offspring often socially interact with adult
             males without their mothers nearby. These preliminary
             findings provide initial support that the bonobo social
             system evolved due to fitness advantages of effectively
             protecting offspring against consequences of male
             aggression.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0004},
   Key = {fds335482}
}

@misc{fds335483,
   Author = {Hare, B and Woods, V},
   Title = {Cognitive comparisons of genus Pan support bonobo
             self-domestication},
   Pages = {214-232},
   Booktitle = {Bonobos: Unique in Mind, Brain, and Behavior},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780198728511},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0015},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2017. The self-domestication
             hypothesis (SDH) suggests bonobo psychology evolved due to
             selection against aggression and in favour of prosociality.
             This hypothesis was formulated based on similarities between
             bonobos and domesticated animals. This chapter reviews the
             first generation of quantitative research that supports the
             predictions of the SDH. Similar to domestic animals, bonobos
             are prosocial towards strangers, are more flexible with
             cooperative problems, are more responsive to social cues and
             show expanded windows of development compared to their
             closest relatives, chimpanzees. A preliminary comparison of
             bonobo and chimpanzee infants suggests that when hearing a
             stranger, bonobos have a xenophilic response while
             chimpanzees have a xenophobic response. The chapter explores
             why the research with bonobos has implications for theories
             of both human and animal cognitive evolution, and why
             bonobos will be central in studying evolutionary processes
             that lead to cognitive change.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oso/9780198728511.003.0015},
   Key = {fds335483}
}


%% Harrington, Arianna   
@article{fds335484,
   Author = {Boyer, DM and Harrington, AR},
   Title = {Scaling of bony canals for encephalic vessels in
             euarchontans: Implications for the role of the vertebral
             artery and brain metabolism.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {114},
   Pages = {85-101},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.003},
   Abstract = {Supplying the central nervous system with oxygen and glucose
             for metabolic activities is a critical function for all
             animals at physiologic, anatomical, and behavioral levels. A
             relatively proximate challenge to nourishing the brain is
             maintaining adequate blood flow. Euarchontans (primates,
             dermopterans and treeshrews) display a diversity of
             solutions to this challenge. Although the vertebral artery
             is a major encephalic vessel, previous research has
             questioned its importance for irrigating the cerebrum. This
             presents a puzzling scenario for certain strepsirrhine
             primates (non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms) that have reduced
             promontorial branches of the internal carotid artery and no
             apparent alternative encephalic vascular route except for
             the vertebral artery. Here, we present results of
             phylogenetic comparative analyses of data on the
             cross-sectional area of bony canals that transmit the
             vertebral artery (transverse foramina). These results show
             that, across primates (and within major primate subgroups),
             variation in the transverse foramina helps significantly to
             explain variation in forebrain mass even when variation in
             promontorial canal cross-sectional areas are also
             considered. Furthermore, non-cheirogaleid lemuriforms have
             larger transverse foramina for their endocranial volume than
             other euarchontans, suggesting that the vertebral arteries
             compensate for reduced promontorial artery size. We also
             find that, among internal carotid-reliant euarchontans,
             species that are more encephalized tend to have a
             promontorial canal that is larger relative to the transverse
             foramina. Tentatively, we consider the correlation between
             arterial canal diameters (as a proxy for blood flow) and
             brain metabolic demands. The results of this analysis imply
             that human investment in brain metabolism (∼27% of basal
             metabolic rate) may not be exceptional among
             euarchontans.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.09.003},
   Key = {fds335484}
}


%% Herrera, James   
@article{fds339739,
   Author = {Herrera, JP and Borgerson, C and Tongasoa, L and Andriamahazoarivosoa,
             P and Rasolofoniaina, BJR and Rakotondrafarasata, ER and Randrianasolo, JLRR and Johnson, SE and Wright, PC and Golden,
             CD},
   Title = {Estimating the population size of lemurs based on their
             mutualistic food trees},
   Journal = {Journal of Biogeography},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2546-2563},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13409},
   Abstract = {© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: Species’ distributions
             and abundances are primarily determined by the suitability
             of environmental conditions, including climate and
             interactions with sympatric species, but also increasingly
             by human activities. Modelling tools can help in assessing
             the extinction risk of affected species. By combining
             species distribution modelling of abiotic and biotic niches
             with population size modelling, we estimated the abundance
             of 19 lemur taxa in three regions, especially focusing on 10
             species that are considered Endangered or Critically
             Endangered. Location: Madagascar. Taxa: Lemurs (Primates)
             and angiosperm trees. Methods: We used climate data, field
             samples, and published occurrence data on trees to construct
             species distribution models (SDM) for lemur food tree
             species. We then inferred the SDMs for lemurs based on the
             probability of occurrence of their food trees as well as
             climate. Finally, we used tree SDMs, topography, distance to
             the forest edge, and field estimates of lemur population
             density to predict lemur abundance in general linear models.
             Results: The SDMs of lemur food trees were stronger
             predictors of the occurrence of lemurs than climate. The
             predicted probability of presence of food trees, slope,
             elevation, and distance from the forest edge were
             significant correlates of lemur density. We found that
             sixteen species had minimum estimated abundances greater
             than 10,000 individuals over >1,000km2. Three lemur species
             are especially threatened, with less than 2,500 individuals
             predicted for Cheirogaleus sibreei, and heavy hunting
             pressure for the relatively small populations of Indri indri
             and Hapalemur occidentalis. Main conclusions: Biotic
             interactors were important variables in SDMs for lemurs,
             allowing refined estimates of ranges and abundances. This
             paper provides an analytical workflow that can be applied to
             other taxonomic groups to substantiate estimates of
             species’ vulnerability to extinction.},
   Doi = {10.1111/jbi.13409},
   Key = {fds339739}
}


%% Holmes, Megan A.   
@article{fds342287,
   Author = {Doyle, DJ and Holmes, M and Schmitt, D and Zeininger, A and Wall,
             CE},
   Title = {Gorilla hindlimb muscle fiber phenotypes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {62-62},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342287}
}

@article{fds342288,
   Author = {Taylor, AB and West, M and Holmes, M},
   Title = {Fiber-type phenotype of the anterior superficial masseter in
             African apes: A preliminary test of the frequent recruitment
             hypothesis},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {244-245},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342288}
}

@article{fds337103,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Holmes, M and Soderblom, EJ and Taylor,
             AB},
   Title = {Proteomics and immunohistochemistry identify the expression
             of α-cardiac myosin heavy chain in the jaw-closing muscles
             of sooty mangabeys (order Primates).},
   Journal = {Arch Oral Biol},
   Volume = {91},
   Pages = {103-108},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The jaw-closing muscles of humans and nonprimate
             mammals express alpha-cardiac fibers but MyHC α-cardiac has
             not been identified in the jaw adductors of nonhuman
             primates. We determined whether MyHC α-cardiac is expressed
             in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of the
             sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an African Old World
             monkey that specializes on hard seeds. DESIGN: LC-MS/MS
             based proteomics was used to identify the presence of MyHC
             Iα. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the
             composition and distribution of fiber types in the
             superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of eight C.
             atys. Serial sections were stained against MyHC α-cardiac
             (MYH6), as well as MyHC-1 (NOQ7.5.4D), MyHC-2 (MY-32), and
             MyHC-M (2F4). RESULTS: Proteomics analysis identified the
             presence of Myosin-6 (MyHC α-cardiac) in both heart atrium
             and superficial masseter. MyHC α-cardiac was expressed in
             abundance in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles
             of all eight individuals and hybrid fibers were common.
             CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MyHC α-cardiac in the
             jaw adductors of sooty mangabeys is a novel finding for
             nonhuman primates. The abundance of MyHC α-cardiac
             indicates a fatigue-resistant fiber population characterized
             by intermediate speed of contraction between pure MyHC-1 and
             MyHC-2 isoforms. We suggest that α-cardiac fibers may be
             advantageous to sooty mangabeys, whose feeding behavior
             includes frequent crushing of relatively large, hard seeds
             during the power stroke of ingestion. Additional studies
             comparing jaw-adductor fiber phenotype of hard-object
             feeding primates and other mammals are needed to explore
             this relationship further.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019},
   Key = {fds337103}
}

@article{fds332367,
   Author = {Taylor, AB and Terhune, CE and Toler, M and Holmes, M and Ross, CF and Vinyard, CJ},
   Title = {Jaw-Muscle Fiber Architecture and Leverage in the
             Hard-Object Feeding Sooty Mangabey are not Structured to
             Facilitate Relatively Large Bite Forces Compared to Other
             Papionins.},
   Journal = {Anat Rec (Hoboken)},
   Volume = {301},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {325-342},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23718},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have sought to link craniofacial morphology
             with behavioral ecology in primates. Extant hard-object
             feeders have been of particular interest because of their
             potential to inform our understanding about the diets of
             early fossil hominins. Sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) are
             hard-object feeders that frequently generate what have been
             described as audibly powerful bites at wide jaw gapes to
             process materially stiff and hard seeds. We address the
             hypothesis that sooty mangabeys have features of the
             masticatory apparatus that facilitate this feeding behavior
             by comparing fiber architecture and leverage of the masseter
             and temporalis muscles between sooty mangabeys and three
             papionin primates that do not specialize on hard objects.
             Contrary to predictions, sooty mangabeys do not have
             relatively larger muscle physiologic cross-sectional areas
             or weights compared to other papionins, nor do they
             consistently display improved leverage. In this regard,
             sooty mangabeys differ in their morphology from other
             hard-object feeders such as tufted capuchins. However, males
             of all four papionin species converge on a shared pattern of
             relatively longer anterior superficial masseter fibers
             compared with female conspecifics, suggesting that males are
             likely prioritizing muscle stretch to improve gape
             performance as part of a behavioral repertoire that includes
             agonistic social interactions and intense male-male
             competition. These findings strengthen support for the
             hypothesis that gape display behaviors can exert a strong
             selective influence throughout the musculoskeletal
             masticatory apparatus. Results also raise questions about
             the morphological suitability of extant cercopithecines as
             models for interpreting feeding behavior and diet in fossil
             hominins with limited jaw gape capacity. Anat Rec,
             301:325-342, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.23718},
   Key = {fds332367}
}


%% Hora, Martin   
@article{fds342236,
   Author = {Hora, M and Pontzer, H and Sladek, V},
   Title = {Persistence hunting in Levant: Both Neandertals and modern
             humans could run down a horse},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {107-107},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342236}
}

@article{fds342237,
   Author = {Hora, M and Sládek, V},
   Title = {Population specificity of sex estimation from
             vertebrae},
   Journal = {Forensic Science International},
   Volume = {291},
   Pages = {279.e1-279.e12},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.08.015},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.08.015},
   Key = {fds342237}
}


%% Kay, Richard F.   
@misc{fds341490,
   Author = {Pampush, JD and Crowell, J and Karme, A and Macrae, SA and Kay, RF and Ungar, PS},
   Title = {Technical note: Comparing dental topography software using
             platyrrhine molars.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {179-185},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23797},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:There remain many idiosyncrasies among the values
             calculated for varying dental topography metrics arising
             from differences in software preferences among research
             groups. The aim of this work is to compare and provide
             potential conversion formulae for dental topography metrics
             calculated using differing software platforms. METHODS:Three
             software packages: ArcGIS, Surfer Manipulator, and molaR
             were used to calculate orientation patch count rotated
             (OPCR), Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), occlusal relief (OR),
             slope (m), and angularity (a) on platyrrhine second upper
             molars. Values derived from the various software packages
             were compared for distributional consistency and
             correlation. Where appropriate, formulae for conversion
             between like measures calculated on different software
             platforms were developed. RESULTS:When compared with the
             same measurement across software, OPCR, OR, and slope were
             all highly correlated. However, only OR demonstrated
             distributional consistency (i.e., nearly consistent mean,
             median, max, and min). Slope and OPCR were both higher when
             calculated by molaR as compared to Surfer Manipulator and
             ArcGIS calculations, conversion formulae are provided for
             these measures. DNE is only weakly correlated with
             angularity; but is correlated with orientation patch count
             across taxa. DISCUSSION:We explore why there is variation in
             the dental topography values calculated among the various
             software packages. The conversion formulae provided in this
             work will make possible direct comparisons among studies
             conducted across multiple research groups.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23797},
   Key = {fds341490}
}

@misc{fds341591,
   Author = {Spradley, JP and Glazer, BJ and Kay, RF},
   Title = {Mammalian faunas, ecological indices, and machine-learning
             regression for the purpose of paleoenvironment
             reconstruction in the Miocene of South America},
   Journal = {Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology},
   Volume = {518},
   Pages = {155-171},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.01.014},
   Abstract = {© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Reconstructing paleoenvironments has
             long been considered a vital component for understanding
             community structure of extinct organisms, as well as
             patterns that guide evolutionary pathways of species and
             higher-level taxa. Given the relative geographic and
             phylogenetic isolation of the South American continent
             throughout much of the Cenozoic, the South American fossil
             record presents a unique perspective of mammalian community
             evolution in the context of changing climates and
             environments. Here we focus on one line of evidence for
             paleoenvironment reconstruction: ecological diversity, i.e.
             the number and types of ecological niches filled within a
             given fauna. We propose a novel approach by utilizing
             ecological indices as predictors in two regressive modeling
             techniques—Random Forest (RF) and Gaussian Process
             Regression (GPR)—which are applied to 85 extant Central
             and South American localities to produce paleoecological
             prediction models. Faunal richness is quantified via ratios
             of ecologies within the mammalian communities, i.e.
             ecological indices, which serve as predictor variables in
             our models. Six climate/habitat variables were then
             predicted using these ecological indices: mean annual
             temperature (MAT), mean annual precipitation (MAP),
             temperature seasonality, precipitation seasonality, canopy
             height, and net primary productivity (NPP). Predictive
             accuracy of RF and GPR is markedly higher when compared to
             previously published methods. MAT, MAP, and temperature
             seasonality have the lowest predictive error. We use these
             models to reconstruct paleoclimatic variables in two
             well-sampled Miocene faunas from South America:
             fossiliferous layers (FL) 1–7, Santa Cruz Formation (Early
             Miocene), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina; and the Monkey
             Beds unit, Villavieja Formation (Middle Miocene) Huila,
             Colombia. Results suggest general concordance with published
             estimations of precipitation and temperature, and add
             information with regards to the other climate/habitat
             variables included here. Ultimately, we believe that RF and
             GPR in conjunction with ecological indices have the
             potential to contribute to paleoenvironment
             reconstruction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.palaeo.2019.01.014},
   Key = {fds341591}
}

@misc{fds339572,
   Author = {Gonzales, LA and Malinzak, MD and Kay, RF},
   Title = {Intraspecific variation in semicircular canal morphology-A
             missing element in adaptive scenarios?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23692},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Recent evidence suggests that the amount of
             intraspecific variation in semicircular canal morphology
             may, itself, be evidence for varying levels of selection
             related to locomotor demands. To determine the extent of
             this phenomenon across taxa, we expand upon previous work by
             examining intraspecific variation in canal radii and canal
             orthogonality in a broad sample of strepsirrhine and
             platyrrhine primates. Patterns of interspecific variation
             are re-examined in light of intraspecific variation to
             better understand the resolution at which locomotion can be
             reconstructed from single individuals. MATERIALS AND
             METHODS:Data was collected from high-resolution CT scans of
             14 size-matched, related species. Six of these taxa have
             existing data on rotational head speeds. RESULTS:The level
             of intraspecific variation was found to differ in
             strepsirrhine and in platyrrhine species pairs, with larger
             ranges of variation generally observed for the slower moving
             taxon than the faster moving one. Taxa that are classified
             as relatively agile can to some extent be separated from
             those who are slower-moving, but only when comparing
             similarly sized, closely related species with more extreme
             forms of locomotion. DISCUSSION:Our findings agree with
             previous research showing that canal intraspecific variation
             can fluctuate according to species-specific locomotor
             behavior and extends this further by identifying behaviors
             that may be under unusual selective pressure. It also
             demonstrates the complexity of interpreting inner ear
             morphology in the context of broadly applicable locomotor
             "categories" of the kind commonly used in behavioral
             studies. We suspect that simplified models predicting
             vestibular sensitivity may be unable to differentiate
             behaviors when only a single specimen is
             available.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23692},
   Key = {fds339572}
}

@misc{fds338110,
   Author = {Pampush, JD and Spradley, JP and Morse, PE and Griffith, D and Gladman,
             JT and Gonzales, LA and Kay, RF},
   Title = {Adaptive wear-based changes in dental topography associated
             with atelid (Mammalia: Primates) diets},
   Journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {584-606},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly069},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of
             the Linnean Society. Primates are generally characterized by
             low-crowned, brachydont molars relative to many other groups
             of mammals. This conservative architecture may create
             special challenges for maintaining dental functionality in
             the case of a diet requiring proficient shearing ability
             (e.g. folivory). One recent hypothesis, the 'dental
             sculpting hypothesis', suggests that some folivorous
             primates have dentitions that functionally harness macrowear
             in maintaining occlusal sharpness. We examined the
             relationships between four dental topography metrics
             [Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), orientation patch count
             rotated (OPCR), relief index (RFI) and occlusal relief (OR)]
             against macrowear [as measured by the dentine exposure ratio
             (DER)] in lower first molars of Ateles and Alouatta, which
             are two closely related platyrrhines with different diets
             (Alouatta is a folivore and Ateles a frugivore). We find
             support for the dental sculpting hypothesis, in that DNE
             increases with macrowear in the folivorous Alouatta but not
             in the frugivorous Ateles. Multiple contradictions between
             OPCR and the other variables suggest that this metric is a
             poor reflection of the molar form-function relationship in
             these primates. Distributions of relief measures (RFI and
             OR) confound expectations and prior observations, in that
             Ateles shows higher values than Alouatta, because these
             measures are thought to be correlated with dental shearing
             ability. We discuss the role that the relatively thicker
             enamel caps of Ateles might play in the distributions of
             these metrics.},
   Doi = {10.1093/biolinnean/bly069},
   Key = {fds338110}
}

@misc{fds333273,
   Author = {Kay, RF},
   Title = {100 years of primate paleontology.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {652-676},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23429},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23429},
   Key = {fds333273}
}

@article{fds338111,
   Author = {Gonzales, LA and Kay, RF and Salenbien, W and Angel Valdivia and L and Bejar, G and Chornogubsky, L and Martinez, J-N and Rigsby, CA and Baker,
             PA},
   Title = {New Early Miocene primate bearing faunal assemblage from the
             Alto Madre de Dios, Peru},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {101-102},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds338111}
}

@article{fds338112,
   Author = {Pampush, JD and Morse, PE and Chester, SGB and Spradley, JP and Williams, BA and Glander, KE and Teaford, MF and Kay,
             RF},
   Title = {Dental Topography and Food Processing in Wild-Caught Costa
             Rican Alouatta},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {198-198},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds338112}
}

@misc{fds339740,
   Author = {Bhandari, A and Kay, RF and Williams, BA and Tiwari, BN and Bajpai, S and Hieronymus, T},
   Title = {First record of the Miocene hominoid Sivapithecus from
             Kutch, Gujarat state, western India.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e0206314},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206314},
   Abstract = {Hominoid remains from Miocene deposits in India and Pakistan
             have played a pivotal role in understanding the evolution of
             great apes and humans since they were first described in the
             19th Century. We describe here a hominoid maxillary fragment
             preserving the canine and cheek teeth collected in 2011 from
             the Kutch (= Kachchh) basin in the Kutch district, Gujarat
             state, western India. A basal Late Miocene age is proposed
             based on the associated faunal assemblage that includes
             Hipparion and other age-diagnostic mammalian taxa. Miocene
             Hominoidea are known previously from several areas of the
             Siwalik Group in the outer western Himalayas of India,
             Pakistan, and Nepal. This is the first record of a hominoid
             from the Neogene of the Kutch Basin and represents a
             significant southern range extension of Miocene hominoids in
             the Indian peninsula. The specimen is assigned to the Genus
             Sivapithecus, species unspecified.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0206314},
   Key = {fds339740}
}


%% Ledogar, Justin   
@misc{fds343395,
   Author = {Tsang, LR and Wilson, LAB and Ledogar, J and Wroe, S and Attard, M and Sansalone, G},
   Title = {Raptor talon shape and biomechanical performance are
             controlled by relative prey size but not by
             allometry.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {7076},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43654-0},
   Abstract = {Most birds of prey (raptors), rely heavily on their talons
             for capturing prey. However, the relationship between talon
             shape and the ability to take prey is poorly understood. In
             this study we investigate whether raptor talons have evolved
             primarily in response to adaptive pressures exerted by
             different dietary demands, or if talon morphology is largely
             constrained by allometric or phylogenetic factors. We focus
             on the hallux talon and include 21 species in total varying
             greatly in body mass and feeding ecology, ranging from
             active predation on relatively large prey to obligate
             scavenging. To quantify the variation in talon shape and
             biomechanical performance within a phylogenetic framework,
             we combined three dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics,
             finite element modelling and phylogenetic comparative
             methods. Our results indicate that relative prey size plays
             a key role in shaping the raptorial talon. Species that hunt
             larger prey are characterised by both distinct talon shape
             and mechanical performance when compared to species that
             predate smaller prey, even when accounting for phylogeny. In
             contrast to previous results of skull-based analysis,
             allometry had no significant effect. In conclusion, we found
             that raptor talon evolution has been strongly influenced by
             relative prey size, but not allometry and, that talon shape
             and mechanical performance are good indicators of feeding
             ecology.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-43654-0},
   Key = {fds343395}
}

@misc{fds339685,
   Author = {Bicknell, RDC and Ledogar, JA and Wroe, S and Gutzler, BC and Watson,
             WH and Paterson, JR},
   Title = {Computational biomechanical analyses demonstrate similar
             shell-crushing abilities in modern and ancient
             arthropods.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1889},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1935},
   Abstract = {The biology of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus
             polyphemus, is well documented-including its dietary habits,
             particularly the ability to crush shell with gnathobasic
             walking appendages-but virtually nothing is known about the
             feeding biomechanics of this iconic arthropod. Limulus
             polyphemus is also considered the archetypal functional
             analogue of various extinct groups with serial gnathobasic
             appendages, including eurypterids, trilobites and other
             early arthropods, especially Sidneyia inexpectans from the
             mid-Cambrian (508 Myr) Burgess Shale of Canada.
             Exceptionally preserved specimens of S. inexpectans show
             evidence suggestive of durophagous (shell-crushing)
             tendencies-including thick gnathobasic spine cuticle and
             shelly gut contents-but the masticatory capabilities of this
             fossil species have yet to be compared with modern
             durophagous arthropods. Here, we use advanced computational
             techniques, specifically a unique application of 3D
             finite-element analysis (FEA), to model the feeding
             mechanics of L. polyphemus and S. inexpectans: the first
             such analyses of a modern horseshoe crab and a fossil
             arthropod. Results show that mechanical performance of the
             feeding appendages in both arthropods is remarkably similar,
             suggesting that S. inexpectans had similar shell-crushing
             capabilities to L. polyphemus This biomechanical solution to
             processing shelly food therefore has a history extending
             over 500 Myr, arising soon after the first shell-bearing
             animals. Arrival of durophagous predators during the early
             phase of animal evolution undoubtedly fuelled the Cambrian
             'arms race' that involved a rapid increase in diversity,
             disparity and abundance of biomineralized prey
             species.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.1935},
   Key = {fds339685}
}

@misc{fds337476,
   Author = {Mitchell, DR and Sherratt, E and Ledogar, JA and Wroe,
             S},
   Title = {The biomechanics of foraging determines face length among
             kangaroos and their relatives.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1881},
   Pages = {20180845-20180845},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0845},
   Abstract = {Increasing body size is accompanied by facial elongation
             across a number of mammalian taxa. This trend forms the
             basis of a proposed evolutionary rule, cranial evolutionary
             allometry (CREA). However, facial length has also been
             widely associated with the varying mechanical resistance of
             foods. Here, we combine geometric morphometrics and
             computational biomechanical analyses to determine whether
             evolutionary allometry or feeding ecology have been dominant
             influences on facial elongation across 16 species of
             kangaroos and relatives (Macropodiformes). We found no
             support for an allometric trend. Nor was craniofacial
             morphology strictly defined by dietary categories, but
             rather associated with a combination of the mechanical
             properties of vegetation types and cropping behaviours used
             to access them. Among species examined here, shorter muzzles
             coincided with known diets of tough, resistant plant
             tissues, accessed via active slicing by the anterior
             dentition. This morphology consistently resulted in
             increased mechanical efficiency and decreased bone
             deformation during incisor biting. Longer muzzles, by
             contrast, aligned with softer foods or feeding behaviours
             invoking cervical musculature that circumvent the need for
             hard biting. These findings point to a potential for
             craniofacial morphology to predict feeding ecology in
             macropodiforms, which may be useful for species management
             planning and for inferring palaeoecology.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.0845},
   Key = {fds337476}
}

@misc{fds337477,
   Author = {Neaux, D and Sansalone, G and Ledogar, JA and Heins Ledogar and S and Luk,
             THY and Wroe, S},
   Title = {Basicranium and face: Assessing the impact of morphological
             integration on primate evolution},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {118},
   Pages = {43-55},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.02.007},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The basicranium and facial skeleton are
             two integrated structures displaying great morphological
             diversity across primates. Previous studies focusing on
             limited taxonomic samples have demonstrated that
             morphological integration has a significant impact on the
             evolution of these structures. However, this influence is
             still poorly understood. A more complete understanding of
             craniofacial integration across primates has important
             implications for functional hypotheses of primate evolution.
             In the present study, we analyzed a large sample of primate
             species to assess how integration affects the relationship
             between basicranial and facial evolutionary pathways across
             the order. First, we quantified integration and modularity
             between basicranium and face using phylogenetically-informed
             partial least squares analyses. Then, we defined the
             influence of morphological integration between these
             structures on rates of evolution, using a time-calibrated
             phylogenetic tree, and on disparity through time, comparing
             the morphological disparity across the tree with that
             expected under a pure Brownian process. Finally, we assessed
             the correlation between the basicranium and face, and three
             factors purported to have an important role in shaping these
             structures during evolution: endocranial volume, positional
             behavior (i.e., locomotion and posture), and diet. Our
             findings show that the face and basicranium, despite being
             highly integrated, display significantly different
             evolutionary rates. However, our results demonstrate that
             morphological integration impacted shape disparity through
             time. We also found that endocranial volume and positional
             behavior are important drivers of cranial shape evolution,
             partly affected by morphological integration.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.02.007},
   Key = {fds337477}
}

@misc{fds337478,
   Author = {Wroe, S and Parr, WCH and Ledogar, JA and Bourke, J and Evans, SP and Fiorenza, L and Benazzi, S and Hublin, J-J and Stringer, C and Kullmer,
             O and Curry, M and Rae, TC and Yokley, TR},
   Title = {Computer simulations show that Neanderthal facial morphology
             represents adaptation to cold and high energy demands, but
             not heavy biting.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1876},
   Pages = {20180085-20180085},
   Publisher = {The Royal Society},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0085},
   Abstract = {Three adaptive hypotheses have been forwarded to explain the
             distinctive Neanderthal face: (i) an improved ability to
             accommodate high anterior bite forces, (ii) more effective
             conditioning of cold and/or dry air and, (iii) adaptation to
             facilitate greater ventilatory demands. We test these
             hypotheses using three-dimensional models of Neanderthals,
             modern humans, and a close outgroup (Homo heidelbergensis),
             applying finite-element analysis (FEA) and computational
             fluid dynamics (CFD). This is the most comprehensive
             application of either approach applied to date and the first
             to include both. FEA reveals few differences between H.
             heidelbergensis, modern humans, and Neanderthals in their
             capacities to sustain high anterior tooth loadings. CFD
             shows that the nasal cavities of Neanderthals and especially
             modern humans condition air more efficiently than does that
             of H. heidelbergensis, suggesting that both evolved to
             better withstand cold and/or dry climates than less derived
             Homo We further find that Neanderthals could move
             considerably more air through the nasal pathway than could
             H. heidelbergensis or modern humans, consistent with the
             propositions that, relative to our outgroup Homo,
             Neanderthal facial morphology evolved to reflect improved
             capacities to better condition cold, dry air, and, to move
             greater air volumes in response to higher energetic
             requirements.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.0085},
   Key = {fds337478}
}

@misc{fds337479,
   Author = {Ledogar, JA and Luk, THY and Perry, JMG and Neaux, D and Wroe,
             S},
   Title = {Biting mechanics and niche separation in a specialized clade
             of primate seed predators.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e0190689},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0190689},
   Abstract = {We analyzed feeding biomechanics in pitheciine monkeys
             (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao), a clade that specializes on
             hard-husked unripe fruit (sclerocarpy) and resistant seeds
             (seed predation). We tested the hypothesis that pitheciine
             crania are well-suited to generate and withstand forceful
             canine and molar biting, with the prediction that they
             generate bite forces more efficiently and better resist
             masticatory strains than the closely-related Callicebus,
             which does not specialize on unripe fruits and/or seeds. We
             also tested the hypothesis that Callicebus-Pithecia-Chiropotes-Cacajao
             represent a morphocline of increasing sclerocarpic
             specialization with respect to biting leverage and
             craniofacial strength, consistent with anterior dental
             morphology. We found that pitheciines have higher biting
             leverage than Callicebus and are generally more resistant to
             masticatory strain. However, Cacajao was found to experience
             high strain magnitudes in some facial regions. We therefore
             found limited support for the morphocline hypothesis, at
             least with respect to the mechanical performance metrics
             examined here. Biting leverage in Cacajao was nearly
             identical (or slightly less than) in Chiropotes and strain
             magnitudes during canine biting were more likely to follow a
             Cacajao-Chiropotes-Pithecia trend of increasing strength, in
             contrast to the proposed morphocline. These results could
             indicate that bite force efficiency and derived anterior
             teeth were selected for in pitheciines at the expense of
             increased strain magnitudes. However, our results for
             Cacajao potentially reflect reduced feeding competition
             offered by allopatry with other pitheciines, which allows
             Cacajao species to choose from a wider variety of fruits at
             various stages of ripeness, leading to reduction in the
             selection for robust facial features. We also found that
             feeding biomechanics in sympatric Pithecia and Chiropotes
             are consistent with data on food structural properties and
             observations of dietary niche separation, with the former
             being well-suited for the regular molar crushing of hard
             seeds and the latter better adapted for breaching hard
             fruits.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0190689},
   Key = {fds337479}
}

@misc{fds339823,
   Author = {Mitchell, DR and Sherratt, E and Sansalone, G and Ledogar, JA and Flavel, RJ and Wroe, S},
   Title = {Feeding Biomechanics Influences Craniofacial Morphology at
             the Subspecies Scale among Australian Pademelons
             (Macropodidae: Thylogale)},
   Journal = {Journal of Mammalian Evolution},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature America, Inc},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10914-018-9455-8},
   Abstract = {© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of
             Springer Nature. Interspecific variation in the craniofacial
             morphology of kangaroos and wallabies is associated with
             diet and feeding behaviors. Yet, to how fine a taxonomic
             scale this relationship might exist is unknown. Using a
             combination of established morphometric analyses and novel
             finite element approaches, we test the limits of these
             associations by examining three closely-related pademelon
             taxa: the red-necked pademelon (Thylogale thetis), and two
             subspecies of the red-legged pademelon (Thylogale stigmatica
             stigmatica and Thylogale stigmatica wilcoxi). All three taxa
             have distinct proportions of graze (grasses) and browse
             (leaves, stems, and branches of trees and shrubs) in their
             diets. We identified clear morphological differences in the
             crania between all three taxa and significant influences of
             geography and climate on cranial shape. We found significant
             differences in shape and strain magnitudes along the muzzle
             and cheek bones of each group that are consistent with the
             properties of their respective diets. These results suggest
             that feeding ecology influences craniofacial morphology down
             to the subspecies scale for at least some kangaroos and
             wallabies, which mirrors what is known at the
             macroevolutionary level for these species. This lends
             further weight to the predictive value of cranial morphology
             in determining feeding ecology among the Macropodiformes and
             may be of use in inferring feeding ecology of less
             accessible species for conservation and management.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10914-018-9455-8},
   Key = {fds339823}
}


%% Moorman, Claude T.   
@article{fds332773,
   Author = {Kumar, AH and Kim, J and Sadeghi, N and Leversedge, FJ and Moorman, CT and Grant, SA},
   Title = {The use of ultrasound imaging for brachial plexus injury
             assessment following operative clavicle repair.},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Anesthesia / Journal canadien
             d'anesthésie},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12630-018-1076-4},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12630-018-1076-4},
   Key = {fds332773}
}

@article{fds333546,
   Author = {McNamara, WJ and Matson, AP and Mickelson, DT and Moorman,
             CT},
   Title = {Surgical Management of Proximal Tibiofibular Joint
             Instability Using an Adjustable Loop, Cortical Fixation
             Device},
   Journal = {Arthroscopy Techniques},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2017.09.003},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America A technique
             for proximal tibiofibular joint stabilization using an
             adjustable loop, cortical fixation device is presented. A
             standard diagnostic arthroscopy is performed to exclude
             intra-articular pathology. After arthroscopy, a 5-cm
             posterior-based curvilinear incision is made over the
             fibular head with dissection of the fascia and decompression
             of the common peroneal nerve ensuring adequate exposure of
             the fibular head. A guidewire is placed across 4 cortices
             using fluoroscopic guidance from the fibular head to the
             anteromedial tibia. A cannulated drill bit is guided through
             the 4 cortices. A shuttle wire carrying the adjustable loop,
             cortical fixation device is fed from lateral to medial and
             through the skin until the medial cortical button is
             deployed. The device is tightened until the lateral circular
             cortical button is secured on the fibula. Fluoroscopy is
             performed to confirm the button position. The device is
             secured after tensioning by tying the sutures. To confirm
             joint stabilization, a shuck test can be performed. If a
             second fixation device is necessary, this procedure can be
             repeated distally to the first.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.eats.2017.09.003},
   Key = {fds333546}
}


%% Morse, Paul   
@misc{fds339910,
   Author = {Morse, PE and Chester, SGB and Boyer, DM and Smith, T and Smith, R and Gigase, P and Bloch, JI},
   Title = {New fossils, systematics, and biogeography of the oldest
             known crown primate Teilhardina from the earliest Eocene of
             Asia, Europe, and North America.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {128},
   Pages = {103-131},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.005},
   Abstract = {Omomyiform primates are among the most basal fossil
             haplorhines, with the oldest classified in the genus
             Teilhardina and known contemporaneously from Asia, Europe,
             and North America during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal
             Maximum (PETM) ∼56 mya. Characterization of morphology in
             this genus has been limited by small sample sizes and
             fragmentary fossils. A new dental sample (n = 163) of the
             North American species Teilhardina brandti from PETM strata
             of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, documents previously unknown
             morphology and variation, prompting the need for a
             systematic revision of the genus. The P4 of T. brandti
             expresses a range of variation that encompasses that of the
             recently named, slightly younger North American species
             'Teilhardina gingerichi,' which is here synonymized with
             T. brandti. A new partial dentary preserving the alveoli
             for P1-2 demonstrates that T. brandti variably expresses an
             unreduced, centrally-located P1, and in this regard is
             similar to that of T. asiatica from China. This
             observation, coupled with further documentation of
             variability in P1 alveolar size, position, and presence in
             the European type species T. belgica, indicates that the
             original diagnosis of T. asiatica is insufficient at
             distinguishing this species from either T. belgica or
             T. brandti. Likewise, the basal omomyiform 'Archicebus
             achilles' requires revision to be distinguished from
             Teilhardina. Results from a phylogenetic analysis of 1890
             characters scored for omomyiforms, adapiforms, and other
             euarchontan mammals produces a novel clade including
             T. magnoliana, T. brandti, T. asiatica, and T. belgica
             to the exclusion of two species previously referred to
             Teilhardina, which are here classified in a new genus
             (Bownomomys americanus and Bownomomys crassidens). While
             hypotheses of relationships and inferred biogeographic
             patterns among species of Teilhardina could change with the
             discovery of more complete fossils, the results of these
             analyses indicate a similar probability that the genus
             originated in either Asia or North America.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.005},
   Key = {fds339910}
}

@misc{fds337597,
   Author = {Boyer, DM and Maiolino, SA and Holroyd, PA and Morse, PE and Bloch,
             JI},
   Title = {Oldest evidence for grooming claws in euprimates.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {122},
   Pages = {1-22},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.03.010},
   Abstract = {Euprimates are unusual among mammals in having fingers and
             toes with flat nails. While it seems clear that the
             ancestral stock from which euprimates evolved had
             claw-bearing digits, the available fossil record has not yet
             contributed a detailed understanding of the transition from
             claws to nails. This study helps clarify the evolutionary
             history of the second pedal digit with fossils representing
             the distal phalanx of digit two (dpII), and has broader
             implications for other digits. Among extant primates, the
             keratinized structure on the pedal dpII widely varies in
             form. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers have narrow,
             distally tapering, dorsally inclined nails (termed a
             'grooming claws' for their use in autogrooming), while
             extant anthropoids have more typical nails that are wider
             and lack distal tapering or dorsal inclination. At least two
             fossil primate species thought to be stem members of the
             Strepsirrhini appear to have had grooming claws, yet
             reconstructions of the ancestral euprimate condition based
             on direct evidence from the fossil record are ambiguous due
             to inadequate fossil evidence for the earliest haplorhines.
             Seven recently discovered, isolated distal phalanges from
             four early Eocene localities in Wyoming (USA) closely
             resemble those of the pedal dpII in extant prosimians. On
             the basis of faunal associations, size, and morphology,
             these specimens are recognized as the grooming phalanges of
             five genera of haplorhine primates, including one of the
             oldest known euprimates (∼56 Ma), Teilhardina brandti.
             Both the phylogenetic distribution and antiquity of primate
             grooming phalanges now strongly suggest that ancestral
             euprimates had grooming claws, that these structures were
             modified from a primitive claw rather than a flat nail, and
             that the evolutionary loss of 'grooming claws' represents an
             apomorphy for crown anthropoids.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.03.010},
   Key = {fds337597}
}

@misc{fds337598,
   Author = {Pampush, JD and Spradley, JP and Morse, PE and Griffith, D and Gladman,
             JT and Gonzales, LA and Kay, RF},
   Title = {Adaptive wear-based changes in dental topography associated
             with atelid (Mammalia: Primates) diets},
   Journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {584-606},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly069},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of
             the Linnean Society. Primates are generally characterized by
             low-crowned, brachydont molars relative to many other groups
             of mammals. This conservative architecture may create
             special challenges for maintaining dental functionality in
             the case of a diet requiring proficient shearing ability
             (e.g. folivory). One recent hypothesis, the 'dental
             sculpting hypothesis', suggests that some folivorous
             primates have dentitions that functionally harness macrowear
             in maintaining occlusal sharpness. We examined the
             relationships between four dental topography metrics
             [Dirichlet normal energy (DNE), orientation patch count
             rotated (OPCR), relief index (RFI) and occlusal relief (OR)]
             against macrowear [as measured by the dentine exposure ratio
             (DER)] in lower first molars of Ateles and Alouatta, which
             are two closely related platyrrhines with different diets
             (Alouatta is a folivore and Ateles a frugivore). We find
             support for the dental sculpting hypothesis, in that DNE
             increases with macrowear in the folivorous Alouatta but not
             in the frugivorous Ateles. Multiple contradictions between
             OPCR and the other variables suggest that this metric is a
             poor reflection of the molar form-function relationship in
             these primates. Distributions of relief measures (RFI and
             OR) confound expectations and prior observations, in that
             Ateles shows higher values than Alouatta, because these
             measures are thought to be correlated with dental shearing
             ability. We discuss the role that the relatively thicker
             enamel caps of Ateles might play in the distributions of
             these metrics.},
   Doi = {10.1093/biolinnean/bly069},
   Key = {fds337598}
}


%% Myers, Barry S.   
@booklet{Kliewer93,
   Author = {M. A. Kliewer and L. Gray and J. Paver and W. D. Richardson and J. B. Vogler and J. H. Mcelhaney and B. S.
             Myers},
   Title = {Acute spinal ligament disruption - mr-imaging with anatomic
             correlation},
   Journal = {Jmri-journal Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {855 -- 861},
   Year = {1993},
   ISSN = {1053-1807},
   Abstract = {Disruption of spinal ligaments can lead to instability that
             jeopardizes the spinal cord and nerve roots. Magnetic
             resonance (MR) imaging can directly image spinal ligaments;
             however, the sensitivity with which this modality
             demonstrates ligament injury has, to the authors' knowledge,
             not been reported. On a biomechanical testing machine, 28
             cadaveric spines were subjected to controlled injury that
             resulted in ligament tears. The spines were then imaged with
             plain radiography, computed tomography, and MR imaging (1.5
             T). The images were analyzed for evidence of ligament injury
             before dissection of the specimen. Forty-one of 52 (79\%)
             ligament tears of various types were correctly identified at
             MR imaging. Disruptions of the anterior and posterior
             longitudinal ligaments were most conspicuous and were
             detected in all seven cases in which they were present (no
             false-positive or false-negative results); disruptions of
             the ligamentum flavum, capsular ligaments, and interspinous
             ligaments could also be identified but less reliably (three
             false-positive and 11 false-negative results). That MR
             imaging can reliably and directly allow assessment of spinal
             ligament disruption In this in vitro model suggests its
             potential utility for this assessment in
             patients.},
   Key = {Kliewer93}
}


%% Nunn, Charles L   
@article{fds343337,
   Author = {Samson, DR and Vining, A and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Sleep influences cognitive performance in
             lemurs.},
   Journal = {Animal Cognition},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-019-01266-1},
   Abstract = {Primates spend almost half their lives asleep, yet little is
             known about how sleep influences their waking cognition. We
             hypothesized that diurnal and cathemeral lemurs differ in
             their need for consistent, non-segmented sleep for next-day
             cognitive function-including long-term memory consolidation,
             self-control, foraging efficiency, and sociality.
             Specifically, we expected that strictly diurnal Propithecus
             is more reliant on uninterrupted sleep for cognitive
             performance, as compared to four other lemur species that
             are more flexibly active (i.e., cathemeral). We
             experimentally inhibited sleep and tested next-day
             performance in 30 individuals of 5 lemur species over 960
             total nights at the Duke Lemur Center in Durham, North
             Carolina. Each set of pair-housed lemurs experienced a sleep
             restriction and/or deprivation protocol and was subsequently
             tested in a variety of fitness-relevant cognitive tasks.
             Within-subject comparisons of performance on these tasks
             were made by switching the pair from the experimental sleep
             inhibited condition to a normal sleep environment, thus
             ensuring cognitive equivalency among individuals. We
             validated effectiveness of the protocol via actigraphy and
             infrared videography. Our results suggest that 'normal'
             non-disrupted sleep improved memory consolidation for all
             lemurs. Additionally, on nights of normal sleep, diurnal
             lemurs performed better in foraging efficiency tasks than
             cathemeral lemurs. Social behaviors changed in
             species-specific ways after exposure to experimental
             conditions, and self-control was not significantly linked
             with sleep condition. Based on these findings, the links
             between sleep, learning, and memory consolidation appear to
             be evolutionarily conserved in primates.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10071-019-01266-1},
   Key = {fds343337}
}

@article{fds341951,
   Author = {Miller, IF and Churchill, SE and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Speeding in the slow lane: Phylogenetic comparative analyses
             reveal that not all human life history traits are
             exceptional.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {130},
   Pages = {36-44},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.12.007},
   Abstract = {Humans are thought to exhibit an unusual suite of life
             history traits relative to other primates, with a longer
             lifespan, later age at first reproduction, and shorter
             interbirth interval. These assumptions are key components of
             popular hypotheses about human life history evolution, but
             they have yet to be investigated phylogenetically. We
             applied two phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate
             whether these human life history traits differ from
             expectations based on other primates: one fits and selects
             between Brownian and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of trait
             evolution; the other tests for phylogenetic outliers by
             predicting phenotypic characteristics based on trait
             covariation and phylogeny for a species of interest. We
             found that humans have exceptionally short interbirth
             intervals, long lifespans, and high birth masses. We failed
             to find evidence that humans have a delayed age at first
             reproduction relative to body mass or other covariates.
             Overall, our results support several previous assertions
             about the uniqueness of human life history characteristics
             and the importance of cooperative breeding and socioecology
             in human life history evolution. However, we suggest that
             several hypotheses about human life history need to be
             revised in light of our finding that humans do not have a
             delayed age at first reproduction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.12.007},
   Key = {fds341951}
}

@article{fds342244,
   Author = {Herrera, JP and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Coevolution and coextinction of primates and their
             parasites},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {102-102},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342244}
}

@article{fds342245,
   Author = {Amoroso, CR and Kappeler, PM and Fichtel, C and Nunn,
             CL},
   Title = {Water availability, primate ranging behavior, and
             implications for parasite transmission: an experimental and
             observational study of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur
             rufifrons) in a dry deciduous forest},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {6-6},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342245}
}

@article{fds341491,
   Author = {Kappeler, PM and Nunn, CL and Vining, AQ and Goodman,
             SM},
   Title = {Evolutionary dynamics of sexual size dimorphism in
             non-volant mammals following their independent colonization
             of Madagascar.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1454},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36246-x},
   Abstract = {As predicted by sexual selection theory, males are larger
             than females in most polygynous mammals, but recent studies
             found that ecology and life history traits also affect
             sexual size dimorphism (SSD) through evolutionary changes in
             either male size, female size, or both. The primates of
             Madagascar (Lemuriformes) represent the largest group of
             mammals without male-biased SSD. The eco-evo-devo hypothesis
             posited that adaptations to unusual climatic
             unpredictability on Madagascar have ultimately reduced SSD
             in lemurs after dispersing to Madagascar, but data have not
             been available for comparative tests of the corresponding
             predictions that SSD is also absent in other terrestrial
             Malagasy mammals and that patterns of SSD changed following
             the colonization of Madagascar. We used phylogenetic methods
             and new body mass data to test these predictions among the
             four endemic radiations of Malagasy primates, carnivorans,
             tenrecs, and rodents. In support of our prediction, we found
             that male-biased SSD is generally absent among all Malagasy
             mammals. Phylogenetic comparative analyses further indicated
             that after their independent colonization of Madagascar, SSD
             decreased in primates and tenrecs, but not in the other
             lineages or when analyzed across all species. We discuss
             several mechanisms that may have generated these patterns
             and conclude that neither the eco-evo-devo hypothesis,
             founder effects, the island rule nor sexual selection theory
             alone can provide a compelling explanation for the observed
             patterns of SSD in Malagasy mammals.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-36246-x},
   Key = {fds341491}
}

@article{fds341492,
   Author = {Miller, IF and Barton, RA and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Quantitative uniqueness of human brain evolution revealed
             through phylogenetic comparative analysis.},
   Journal = {Elife},
   Volume = {8},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.41250},
   Abstract = {While the human brain is clearly large relative to body
             size, less is known about the timing of brain and brain
             component expansion within primates and the relative
             magnitude of volumetric increases. Using Bayesian
             phylogenetic comparative methods and data for both extant
             and fossil species, we identified that a distinct shift in
             brain-body scaling occurred as hominins diverged from other
             primates, and again as humans and Neanderthals diverged from
             other hominins. Within hominins, we detected a pattern of
             directional and accelerating evolution towards larger
             brains, consistent with a positive feedback process in the
             evolution of the human brain. Contrary to widespread
             assumptions, we found that the human neocortex is not
             exceptionally large relative to other brain structures.
             Instead, our analyses revealed a single increase in relative
             neocortex volume at the origin of haplorrhines, and an
             increase in relative cerebellar volume in
             apes.},
   Doi = {10.7554/eLife.41250},
   Key = {fds341492}
}

@article{fds338038,
   Author = {Dallas, TA and Han, BA and Nunn, CL and Park, AW and Stephens, PR and Drake, JM},
   Title = {Host traits associated with species roles in parasite
             sharing networks},
   Journal = {Oikos},
   Volume = {128},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-32},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/oik.05602},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Authors The community of host species that a
             parasite infects is often explained by functional traits and
             phylogeny, predicting that closely related hosts or those
             with particular traits share more parasites with other
             hosts. Previous research has examined parasite community
             similarity by regressing pairwise parasite community
             dissimilarity between two host species against host
             phylogenetic distance. However, pairwise approaches cannot
             target specific host species responsible for
             disproportionate levels of parasite sharing. To better
             identify why some host species contribute differentially to
             parasite diversity patterns, we represent parasite sharing
             using ecological networks consisting of host species
             connected by instances of shared parasitism. These networks
             can help identify host species and traits associated with
             high levels of parasite sharing that may subsequently
             identify important hosts for parasite maintenance and
             transmission within communities. We used global-scale
             parasite sharing networks of ungulates, carnivores, and
             primates to determine if host importance – encapsulated by
             the network measures degree, closeness, betweenness, and
             eigenvector centrality – was predictable based on host
             traits. Our findings suggest that host centrality in
             parasite sharing networks is a function of host population
             density and range size, with range size reflecting both
             species geographic range and the home range of those
             species. In the full network, host taxonomic family became
             an important predictor of centrality, suggesting a role for
             evolutionary relationships between host and parasite
             species. More broadly, these findings show that trait data
             predict key properties of ecological networks, thus
             highlighting a role for species traits in understanding
             network assembly, stability, and structure.},
   Doi = {10.1111/oik.05602},
   Key = {fds338038}
}

@article{fds338474,
   Author = {Samson, DR and Crittenden, AN and Mabulla, IA and Mabulla, AZP and Nunn,
             CL},
   Title = {Does the moon influence sleep in small-scale
             societies?},
   Journal = {Sleep Health},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {509-514},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleh.2018.08.004},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:The lunar cycle is expected to influence
             sleep-wake patterns in human populations that have greater
             exposure to the environment, as might be found in forager
             populations that experience few environmental buffers. We
             investigated this "moonlight" hypothesis in two African
             populations: one composed of hunter-gatherers (with minimal
             environmental buffering) and the other rural
             agriculturalists (with low-to-moderate environmental
             buffering). SETTING:Research was conducted on Hadza
             hunter-gatherers from the Sengele community near Lake Eyasi
             in northern Tanzania and in Mandena, Madagascar, in a rural
             community of approximately 4000 farmers.
             PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-one adult Hadza and 21 Malagasy adults
             were recruited. MEASUREMENTS:We used the CamNtech
             Motionwatch 8 actigraph and generated data on an
             epoch-by-epoch, 1-minute basis. RESULTS:In general support
             of the moonlight hypothesis, we uncovered an association
             between sleep-wake patterns and lunar cycle (ie., moonlight)
             for Hadza hunter-gatherers. However, the direction of the
             effect was opposite to what we predicted: as the potential
             for exposure to moonlight increased, activity generally
             shifted to a pattern of less nighttime activity and greater
             daytime activity. No significant effects were found in the
             Malagasy agriculturalists. CONCLUSIONS:The proposal that
             human behaviors are linked with moon phase is a popular
             belief that persists despite the absence of consistent
             evidence. We provide the first direct evidence that lunar
             cycle is linked to sleep-wake pattern in a hunter-gatherer
             society, suggesting that moonlight does not inhibit
             sleep-wake patterns in the ways that electric lighting
             does.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.sleh.2018.08.004},
   Key = {fds338474}
}

@article{fds339237,
   Author = {Kelly, CD and Stoehr, AM and Nunn, C and Smyth, KN and Prokop,
             ZM},
   Title = {Sexual dimorphism in immunity across animals: a
             meta-analysis.},
   Journal = {Ecology Letters},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1885-1894},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ele.13164},
   Abstract = {In animals, sex differences in immunity are proposed to
             shape variation in infection prevalence and intensity among
             individuals in a population, with females typically expected
             to exhibit superior immunity due to life-history trade-offs.
             We performed a systematic meta-analysis to investigate the
             magnitude and direction of sex differences in immunity and
             to identify factors that shape sex-biased immunocompetence.
             In addition to considering taxonomic and methodological
             effects as moderators, we assessed age-related effects,
             which are predicted to occur if sex differences in immunity
             are due to sex-specific resource allocation trade-offs with
             reproduction. In a meta-analysis of 584 effects from 124
             studies, we found that females exhibit a significantly
             stronger immune response than do males, but the effect size
             is relatively small, and became non-significant after
             controlling for phylogeny. Female-biased immunity was more
             pronounced in adult than immature animals. More recently
             published studies did not report significantly smaller
             effect sizes. Among taxonomic and methodological subsets of
             the data, some of the largest effect sizes were in insects,
             further supporting previous suggestions that testosterone is
             not the only potential driver of sex differences in
             immunity. Our findings challenge the notion of pervasive
             biases towards female-biased immunity and the role of
             testosterone in driving these differences.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ele.13164},
   Key = {fds339237}
}

@article{fds335485,
   Author = {Samson, DR and Bray, J and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {The cost of deep sleep: Environmental influences on sleep
             regulation are greater for diurnal lemurs.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {578-589},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23455},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Primates spend almost half their lives asleep,
             yet we know little about how evolution has shaped variation
             in the duration or intensity of sleep (i.e., sleep
             regulation) across primate species. Our objective was to
             test hypotheses related to how sleeping site security
             influences sleep intensity in different lemur species.
             METHODS:We used actigraphy and infrared videography to
             generate sleep measures in 100 individuals (males = 51,
             females = 49) of seven lemur species (genera: Eulemur,
             Lemur, Propithecus, and Varecia) at the Duke Lemur Center in
             Durham, NC. We also generated experimental data using sleep
             deprivation for 16 individuals. This experiment used a
             pair-wise design for two sets of paired lemurs from each
             genus, where the experimental pair experienced a sleep
             deprivation protocol while the control experienced normal
             sleeping conditions. We calculated a sleep depth composite
             metric from weighted z scores of three sleep intensity
             variables. RESULTS:We found that, relative to cathemeral
             lemurs, diurnal Propithecus was characterized by the deepest
             sleep and exhibited the most disruptions to normal
             sleep-wake regulation when sleep deprived. In contrast,
             Eulemur mongoz was characterized by significantly lighter
             sleep than Propithecus, and E. mongoz showed the fewest
             disruptions to normal sleep-wake regulation when sleep
             deprived. Security of the sleeping site led to greater sleep
             depth, with access to outdoor housing linked to lighter
             sleep in all lemurs that were studied. CONCLUSIONS:We
             propose that sleeping site security was an essential
             component of sleep regulation throughout primate evolution.
             This work suggests that sleeping site security may have been
             an important factor associated with the evolution of sleep
             in early and later hominins.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23455},
   Key = {fds335485}
}

@article{fds335486,
   Author = {Miller, IF and Schneider-Crease, I and Nunn, CL and Muehlenbein,
             MP},
   Title = {Estimating infection prevalence: Best practices and their
             theoretical underpinnings.},
   Journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {6738-6747},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4179},
   Abstract = {Accurately estimating infection prevalence is fundamental to
             the study of population health, disease dynamics, and
             infection risk factors. Prevalence is estimated as the
             proportion of infected individuals ("individual-based
             estimation"), but is also estimated as the proportion of
             samples in which evidence of infection is detected
             ("anonymous estimation"). The latter method is often used
             when researchers lack information on individual host
             identity, which can occur during noninvasive sampling of
             wild populations or when the individual that produced a
             fecal sample is unknown. The goal of this study was to
             investigate biases in individual-based versus anonymous
             prevalence estimation theoretically and to test whether
             mathematically derived predictions are evident in a
             comparative dataset of gastrointestinal helminth infections
             in nonhuman primates. Using a mathematical model, we predict
             that anonymous estimates of prevalence will be lower than
             individual-based estimates when (a) samples from infected
             individuals do not always contain evidence of infection
             and/or (b) when false negatives occur. The mathematical
             model further predicts that no difference in bias should
             exist between anonymous estimation and individual-based
             estimation when one sample is collected from each
             individual. Using data on helminth parasites of primates, we
             find that anonymous estimates of prevalence are
             significantly and substantially (12.17%) lower than
             individual-based estimates of prevalence. We also observed
             that individual-based estimates of prevalence from studies
             employing single sampling are on average 6.4% higher than
             anonymous estimates, suggesting a bias toward sampling
             infected individuals. We recommend that researchers use
             individual-based study designs with repeated sampling of
             individuals to obtain the most accurate estimate of
             infection prevalence. Moreover, to ensure accurate
             interpretation of their results and to allow for prevalence
             estimates to be compared among studies, it is essential that
             authors explicitly describe their sampling designs and
             prevalence calculations in publications.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ece3.4179},
   Key = {fds335486}
}

@article{fds332813,
   Author = {Nunn, CL and Samson, DR},
   Title = {Sleep in a comparative context: Investigating how human
             sleep differs from sleep in other primates.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {601-612},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23427},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Primates vary in their sleep durations and,
             remarkably, humans sleep the least per 24-hr period of the
             30 primates that have been studied. Using phylogenetic
             methods that quantitatively situate human phenotypes within
             a broader primate comparative context, we investigated the
             evolution of human sleep architecture, focusing on: total
             sleep duration, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep duration,
             non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep duration, and proportion
             of sleep in REM. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We used two different
             Bayesian methods: phylogenetic prediction based on
             phylogenetic generalized least squares and a multistate
             Onrstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) evolutionary model of random drift
             and stabilizing selection. RESULTS:Phylogenetic prediction
             confirmed that humans sleep less than predicted for a
             primate of our body mass, predation risk, brain size,
             foraging needs, sexual selection, and diet. These analyses
             further revealed that humans pack an unexpectedly higher
             proportion of REM sleep within a shorter overall sleep
             duration, and do so by reducing NREM sleep (rather than
             increasing REM). The OU model generally confirmed these
             findings, with shifts along the human lineage inferred for
             TST, NREM, and proportion of REM, but not for REM.
             DISCUSSION:We propose that the risks and opportunity costs
             of sleep are responsible for shorter sleep durations in
             humans, with risks arising from terrestrial sleep involving
             threats from predators and conspecifics, and opportunity
             costs because time spent sleeping could be used for
             learning, creating material objects, and
             socializing.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23427},
   Key = {fds332813}
}

@article{fds335487,
   Author = {Park, AW and Farrell, MJ and Schmidt, JP and Huang, S and Dallas, TA and Pappalardo, P and Drake, JM and Stephens, PR and Poulin, R and Nunn, CL and Davies, TJ},
   Title = {Characterizing the phylogenetic specialism-generalism
             spectrum of mammal parasites.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1874},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.2613},
   Abstract = {The distribution of parasites across mammalian hosts is
             complex and represents a differential ability or opportunity
             to infect different host species. Here, we take a
             macroecological approach to investigate factors influencing
             why some parasites show a tendency to infect species widely
             distributed in the host phylogeny (phylogenetic generalism)
             while others infect only closely related hosts. Using a
             database on over 1400 parasite species that have been
             documented to infect up to 69 terrestrial mammal host
             species, we characterize the phylogenetic generalism of
             parasites using standard effect sizes for three metrics:
             mean pairwise phylogenetic distance (PD), maximum PD and
             phylogenetic aggregation. We identify a trend towards
             phylogenetic specialism, though statistically host
             relatedness is most often equivalent to that expected from a
             random sample of host species. Bacteria and arthropod
             parasites are typically the most generalist, viruses and
             helminths exhibit intermediate generalism, and protozoa are
             on average the most specialist. While viruses and helminths
             have similar mean pairwise PD on average, the viruses
             exhibit higher variation as a group. Close-contact
             transmission is the transmission mode most associated with
             specialism. Most parasites exhibiting phylogenetic
             aggregation (associating with discrete groups of species
             dispersed across the host phylogeny) are helminths and
             viruses.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2017.2613},
   Key = {fds335487}
}

@article{fds339401,
   Author = {Miller, IF and Barton, RA and Churchill, S and Nunn,
             CL},
   Title = {Quantifying human uniqueness through phylogenetic
             comparative methods},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds339401}
}

@article{fds339402,
   Author = {Nunn, CL},
   Title = {A roadmap for 'core concepts' in evolutionary
             medicine.},
   Journal = {Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health},
   Volume = {2018},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {24-25},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emph/eox026},
   Doi = {10.1093/emph/eox026},
   Key = {fds339402}
}

@article{fds339403,
   Author = {Nunn, CL},
   Title = {The 1918 influenza pandemic: Ecological, historical, and
             evolutionary perspectives.},
   Journal = {Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health},
   Volume = {2018},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {199-200},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/emph/eoy021},
   Doi = {10.1093/emph/eoy021},
   Key = {fds339403}
}

@article{fds339358,
   Author = {Sumner, KM and McCabe, CM and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Network size, structure, and pathogen transmission: A
             simulation study comparing different community detection
             algorithms},
   Journal = {Behaviour},
   Volume = {155},
   Number = {7-9},
   Pages = {639-670},
   Publisher = {BRILL},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1568539X-00003508},
   Abstract = {© 2018 Copyright 2018 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The
             Netherlands. Social substructure can influence pathogen
             transmission. Modularity measures the degree of social
             contact within versus between "communities" in a network,
             with increasing modularity expected to reduce transmission
             opportunities. We investigated how social substructure
             scales with network size and disease transmission. Using
             small-scale primate social networks, we applied seven
             community detection algorithms to calculate modularity and
             subgroup cohesion, defined as individuals' interactions
             within subgroups proportional to the network. We found
             larger networks were more modular with higher subgroup
             cohesion, but the association's strength varied by community
             detection algorithm and substructure measure. These findings
             highlight the importance of choosing an appropriate
             community detection algorithm for the question of interest,
             and if not possible, using multiple algorithms. Disease
             transmission simulations revealed higher modularity and
             subgroup cohesion resulted in fewer infections, confirming
             that social substructure has epidemiological consequences.
             Increased subdivision in larger networks could reflect
             constrained time budgets or evolved defences against disease
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1163/1568539X-00003508},
   Key = {fds339358}
}

@article{fds335488,
   Author = {McCabe, CM and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Effective Network Size Predicted From Simulations of
             Pathogen Outbreaks Through Social Networks Provides a Novel
             Measure of Structure-Standardized Group Size.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Veterinary Science},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {71},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00071},
   Abstract = {The transmission of infectious disease through a population
             is often modeled assuming that interactions occur randomly
             in groups, with all individuals potentially interacting with
             all other individuals at an equal rate. However, it is well
             known that pairs of individuals vary in their degree of
             contact. Here, we propose a measure to account for such
             heterogeneity: effective network size (ENS), which refers to
             the size of a maximally complete network (i.e.,
             unstructured, where all individuals interact with all others
             equally) that corresponds to the outbreak characteristics of
             a given heterogeneous, structured network. We simulated
             susceptible-infected (SI) and susceptible-infected-recovered
             (SIR) models on maximally complete networks to produce
             idealized outbreak duration distributions for a disease on a
             network of a given size. We also simulated the transmission
             of these same diseases on random structured networks and
             then used the resulting outbreak duration distributions to
             predict the ENS for the group or population. We provide the
             methods to reproduce these analyses in a public R package,
             "enss." Outbreak durations of simulations on randomly
             structured networks were more variable than those on
             complete networks, but tended to have similar mean durations
             of disease spread. We then applied our novel metric to
             empirical primate networks taken from the literature and
             compared the information represented by our ENSs to that by
             other established social network metrics. In AICc model
             comparison frameworks, group size and mean distance proved
             to be the metrics most consistently associated with ENS for
             SI simulations, while group size, centralization, and
             modularity were most consistently associated with ENS for
             SIR simulations. In all cases, ENS was shown to be
             associated with at least two other independent metrics,
             supporting its use as a novel metric. Overall, our study
             provides a proof of concept for simulation-based approaches
             toward constructing metrics of ENS, while also revealing the
             conditions under which this approach is most
             promising.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fvets.2018.00071},
   Key = {fds335488}
}

@article{fds337331,
   Author = {Yu, JJ and Manus, MB and Mueller, O and Windsor, SC and Horvath, JE and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {Antibacterial soap use impacts skin microbial communities in
             rural Madagascar.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {e0199899},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199899},
   Abstract = {The skin harbors diverse communities of microorganisms, and
             alterations to these communities can impact the
             effectiveness of the skin as a barrier to infectious
             organisms or injury. As the global availability and adoption
             of antibacterial products increases, it is important to
             understand how these products affect skin microbial
             communities of people living in rural areas of developing
             countries, where risks of infection and injury often differ
             from urban populations in developed countries. We
             investigated the effect of antibacterial soap on skin
             microbial communities in a rural Malagasy population that
             practices subsistence agriculture in the absence of
             electricity and running water. We quantified the amount of
             soap used by each participant and obtained skin swab samples
             at three time points: prior to soap use, immediately after
             one week of soap use, and two weeks after soap use was
             discontinued. Soap use did not significantly impact
             ecological measures of diversity and richness (alpha
             diversity). However, the amount of soap used was a predictor
             of community-level change (beta diversity), with changes
             persisting for at least two weeks after subjects stopped
             using soap. Our results indicate that the overall species
             richness of skin microbial communities may be resistant to
             short-term use of antibacterial soap in settings
             characterized by regular contact with the natural
             environment, yet these communities may undergo shifts in
             microbial composition. Lifestyle changes associated with the
             use of antibacterial soap may therefore cause rapid
             alterations in skin microbial communities, with the
             potential for effects on skin health.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0199899},
   Key = {fds337331}
}

@article{fds338475,
   Author = {Manus, MB and Bloomfield, GS and Leonard, AS and Guidera, LN and Samson,
             DR and Nunn, CL},
   Title = {High prevalence of hypertension in an agricultural village
             in Madagascar.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {e0201616},
   Year = {2018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201616},
   Abstract = {Elevated blood pressure presents a global health threat,
             with rates of hypertension increasing in low and
             middle-income countries. Lifestyle changes may be an
             important driver of these increases in blood pressure.
             Hypertension is particularly prevalent in African countries,
             though the majority of studies have focused on mainland
             Africa. We collected demographic and health data from 513
             adults living in a community in rural Madagascar. We used
             generalized linear mixed models to assess body mass index
             (BMI), age, sex, and attributes related to household
             composition and lifestyle as predictors of blood pressure
             and hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension in this
             cohort was 49.1% (both sexes combined: N = 513; females:
             50.3%, N = 290; males: 47.5%, N = 223). Blood pressure, as
             well as hypertensive state, was positively associated with
             age and BMI. Lifestyle and household factors had no
             significant relationships with blood pressure. The
             prevalence of hypertension was similar to that found in
             urban centers of other African countries, yet almost double
             what has been previously found in Madagascar. Future
             research should investigate the drivers of hypertension in
             rural communities worldwide, as well as the lifestyle,
             cultural, and genetic factors that underlie variation in
             hypertension across space and time.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0201616},
   Key = {fds338475}
}


%% Perchalski, Bernadette   
@article{fds337605,
   Author = {Perchalski, B and Placke, A and Sukhdeo, SM and Shaw, CN and Gosman, JH and Raichlen, DA and Ryan, TM},
   Title = {Asymmetry in the Cortical and Trabecular Bone of the Human
             Humerus During Development},
   Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)},
   Volume = {301},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1012-1025},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Editor = {Yamada, DS and Albertine, DKH},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23705},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.23705},
   Key = {fds337605}
}


%% Pontzer, Herman   
@article{fds342247,
   Author = {Gurven, M and Trumble, B and Stieglitz, J and Cummings, D and Kaplan, H and Blackwell, AD and Yetish, G and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Methodological differences cannot explain associations
             between health, anthropometrics, and excess resting
             metabolic rate.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {169},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {197-198},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23811},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23811},
   Key = {fds342247}
}

@article{fds342246,
   Author = {Rosinger, AY and Pontzer, H and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Tanner,
             SN and Sands, JM},
   Title = {Age-related decline in urine concentration may not be
             universal: Comparative study from the U.S. and two
             small-scale societies.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {705-716},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23788},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Evidence from industrialized populations suggests
             that urine concentrating ability declines with age. However,
             lifestyle factors including episodic protein intake and low
             hypertension may help explain differences between
             populations. Whether this age-related decline occurs among
             small-scale populations with active lifestyles and
             non-Western diets is unknown. We test the universality of
             age-related urine concentration decline. MATERIALS AND
             METHODS:We used urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine
             osmolality (Uosm) data from 15,055 U.S. nonpregnant adults
             without kidney failure aged 18-80 in 2007-2012 participating
             in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
             (NHANES). We tested the relationship of age on urine
             concentration biomarkers with multiple linear regressions
             using survey commands. We compared results to longitudinal
             data on Usg from 116 Tsimane' forager-horticulturalists (266
             observations) adults aged 18-83 in 2013-2014 from Lowland
             Bolivia, and to 38 Hadza hunter-gatherers (156 observations)
             aged 18-75 in 2010-2015 from Tanzania using random-effects
             panel linear regressions. RESULTS:Among U.S. adults, age was
             significantly negatively associated with Usg (Adjusted beta
             [B] = -0.0009 g/mL/10 years; SE = 0.0001;
             p < 0.001) and Uosm (B = -28.1 mOsm/kg/10 yr;
             SE = 2.4; p < 0.001). In contrast, among Tsimane'
             (B = 0.0003 g/mL/10 yr; SE = 0.0002; p = 0.16)
             and Hadza (B = -0.0004 g/mL/10 yr; SE = 0.0004;
             p = 0.29) age was not associated with Usg. Older
             Tsimane' and Hadza exhibited similar within-individual
             variability in Usg equivalent to younger adults.
             DISCUSSION:While U.S. adults exhibited age-related declines
             in urine concentration, Tsimane' and Hadza adults did not
             exhibit the same statistical decline in Usg. Mismatches
             between evolved physiology and modern environments in
             lifestyle may affect kidney physiology and disease
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23788},
   Key = {fds342246}
}

@article{fds337776,
   Author = {Ocobock, C and Overbeck, A and Carlson, C and Royer, C and Mervenne, A and Thurber, C and Dugas, LR and Carlson, B and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Sustained high levels of physical activity lead to improved
             performance among "Race Across the USA" athletes.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {789-794},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23781},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:To investigate physiological and performance
             adaptations associated with extremely high daily sustained
             physical activity levels, we followed six runners
             participating in the 2015 Race Across the USA. Participants
             completed over 42.2 km a day for 140 days, covering nearly
             5,000 km. This analysis examines the improvement in
             running speed and potential adaptation in mean submaximal
             heart rate (SHR) throughout the race. METHODS:Data were
             collected during three 1-week long periods corresponding to
             the race beginning, middle, and end and included heart rates
             (HRs), body mass, running distances and speeds. HR data were
             collected using ActiTrainer HR monitors. Running speeds and
             distances were also recorded throughout the entire race.
             RESULTS:Athletes ran significantly faster as the race
             progressed (p < .001), reducing their mean marathon time
             by over 63 min. Observed mean SHR during the middle of the
             race was significantly lower than at the beginning
             (p = .003); however, there was no significant difference
             between mean SHR at the middle and end of the race
             (p = .998). CONCLUSION:These results indicate an early
             training effect in SHR during the first half of the race,
             which suggests that other physiological and biomechanical
             mechanisms were responsible for the continued improvement in
             running speed and adaptation to the high levels of sustained
             physical activity.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23781},
   Key = {fds337776}
}

@article{fds342248,
   Author = {Hora, M and Pontzer, H and Sladek, V},
   Title = {Persistence hunting in Levant: Both Neandertals and modern
             humans could run down a horse},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {107-107},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342248}
}

@article{fds342249,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Pontzer, H and Sanz, C and Morgan, D},
   Title = {Arboreal Positional Behavior in Humans, Chimpanzees, and
             Gorillas},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {131-131},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342249}
}

@article{fds342250,
   Author = {Swanson, ZS and Pontzer, H and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Steiper,
             ME},
   Title = {The effect of the alpha-actinin 3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism
             and mtDNA on energy expenditure in modern
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {242-243},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342250}
}

@article{fds342251,
   Author = {Sayre, MK and Pontzer, H and Wood, BA and Alexander, GA and Raichlen,
             DA},
   Title = {Influence of physical activity on aging and frailty in human
             foragers},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {217-217},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342251}
}

@article{fds342252,
   Author = {Wood, BM and Harris, JA and Vashro, L and Sayre, MK and Raichlen, DA and Pontzer, H and Sancilio, A and Berbesque, JC and Crittenden, AN and Mabulla, AZP and Jones, JH and Cashdan, E},
   Title = {Hadza Hunter-Gatherers Exhibit Gender Differences in Space
             Use and Spatial Cognition Consistent with the Ecology of
             Male and Female Targeted Foods},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {168},
   Pages = {273-274},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342252}
}

@article{fds342253,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Brown, MH and Raichlen, DA and Wood, BM and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Ross, SR},
   Title = {Water throughput in humans and apes},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342253}
}

@article{fds342254,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Dugas, LR and Madimenos, FC and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The energetic ecology of childhood: Tradeoffs in energy
             allocation and the impact of market integration on ontogeny
             and health},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342254}
}

@article{fds342255,
   Author = {Levy, SB and Sancilio, A and Christopher, L and Madimenos, FC and Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H and Bribiescas, RG},
   Title = {An assessment of urinary triiodothyronine (T3) levels as a
             biomarker of thyroid hormone action: preliminary data from
             the Shuar Health and Life History Project},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds342255}
}

@article{fds342881,
   Author = {Christopher, L and Madimenos, FC and Bribiescas, RG and Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {High energy requirements and water throughput of adult Shuar
             forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Ecuador.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Human Biology : the Official Journal of
             the Human Biology Council},
   Pages = {e23223},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23223},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:We measured total energy expenditure (TEE;
             kcal/d) and water throughput (L/d) among Shuar
             forager-horticulturalists from Amazonian Ecuador to compare
             their daily energy and water demands to adults in other
             small-scale and industrialized populations. METHODS:TEE and
             water throughput were measured using the doubly labeled
             water method among 15 Shuar adults (eight women, seven men;
             age range 18-60 years) living in a relatively remote
             village. We used multiple regression to assess the effects
             of anthropometric variables (body size, fat free mass, age,
             and sex) on TEE and water throughput. We also compared Shuar
             TEE and water throughput to those of other small-scale and
             industrialized societies. RESULTS:TEE among Shuar adults
             (men: 4141 ± 645 kcal/d, women: 2536 ±
             281 kcal/d) was most strongly correlated with fat free
             mass. Estimated physical activity levels (PAL) calculated as
             (TEE/estimated BMR), were greater for men (2.34 ± 0.29)
             than women (1.83 ± 0.14, P < 0.001). Water
             throughput was also greater among Shuar men
             (9.37 ± 2.34 L/d) than women (4.76 ± 0.36 L/d,
             P < 0.001). Shuar TEE and water throughput were elevated
             compared to adults in industrialized populations.
             DISCUSSION:TEE and PAL of Shuar men are among the highest
             recorded during normal daily life, and likely reflect both
             high levels of physical activity and cultural dietary
             practices. Drinking large amounts of chicha, a traditional
             carbohydrate-rich drink made from manioc, likely contributes
             to the high levels of water throughput among Shuar men, and
             may contribute to elevated TEE.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajhb.23223},
   Key = {fds342881}
}

@article{fds342257,
   Author = {Pontzer, H and Wood, BM and Raichlen, DA},
   Title = {Hunter-gatherers as models in public health.},
   Journal = {Obesity Reviews : an Official Journal of the International
             Association for the Study of Obesity},
   Volume = {19 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {24-35},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.12785},
   Abstract = {Hunter-gatherer populations are remarkable for their
             excellent metabolic and cardiovascular health and thus are
             often used as models in public health, in an effort to
             understand the root, evolutionary causes of non-communicable
             diseases. Here, we review recent work on health, activity,
             energetics and diet among hunter-gatherers and other
             small-scale societies (e.g. subsistence farmers,
             horticulturalists and pastoralists), as well as recent
             fossil and archaeological discoveries, to provide a more
             comprehensive perspective on lifestyle and health in these
             populations. We supplement these analyses with new data from
             the Hadza, a hunter-gatherer population in northern
             Tanzania. Longevity among small-scale populations approaches
             that of industrialized populations, and metabolic and
             cardiovascular disease are rare. Obesity prevalence is very
             low (<5%), and mean body fat percentage is modest (women:
             24-28%, men: 9-18%). Activity levels are high, exceeding
             100 min d-1 of moderate and vigorous physical activity,
             but daily energy expenditures are similar to industrialized
             populations. Diets in hunter-gatherer and other small-scale
             societies tend to be less energy dense and richer in fibre
             and micronutrients than modern diets but are not invariably
             low carbohydrate as sometimes argued. A more integrative
             understanding of hunter-gatherer health and lifestyle,
             including elements beyond diet and activity, will improve
             public health efforts in industrialized populations.},
   Doi = {10.1111/obr.12785},
   Key = {fds342257}
}

@article{fds342258,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Method and rationale for recalculating dilution spaces to a
             single, common time point in doubly labeled water
             studies.},
   Journal = {European Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1620-1624},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0361-1},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:The doubly labeled water (DLW) method has become
             widely used in studies of energy expenditure and body
             composition. Researchers differ in the analytical methods
             used to calculate the dilution spaces for deuterium and
             oxygen-18. Some determine dilution spaces using isotope
             enrichments extrapolated to the instant of dosing with DLW
             (slope-intercept method), but others use measured
             enrichments from body water samples obtained 3-10 h after
             dosing (plateau method). These differences limit the
             comparability of analyses across labs. METHODS:I derive a
             simple mathematical approach for recalculating reported
             dilution spaces to any time point post dosing, using
             reported dilution spaces and rates of isotope depletion.
             Simulated data are used to examine the effects of different
             dilution space protocols. RESULTS:Recalculating dilution
             spaces enables researchers to determine outcome variables of
             interest (e.g., total body water, energy expenditure, and
             water throughput) from different labs under a unified
             protocol for determining dilution spaces, and improves
             comparisons among studies. CONCLUSIONS:Differences between
             dilution space protocols can lead to substantial differences
             in outcome variables of interest in DLW studies. When
             comparing results of DLW studies that employ different
             dilution space protocols, dilution spaces should be
             recalculated for a common time point, and outcome variables
             recalculated as needed, prior to comparison across
             studies.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41430-018-0361-1},
   Key = {fds342258}
}

@article{fds342256,
   Author = {Machanda, Z and Brazeau, N and Castillo, E and Otarola-Castillo, E and Pontzer, H and Emery Thompson and M and Muller, M and Wrangham,
             R},
   Title = {MUSCULOSKELETAL GROWTH IN WILD CHIMPANZEES WITH IMPLICATIONS
             FOR SOCIAL BEHAVIOR},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds342256}
}

@article{fds339328,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Energy Constraint as a Novel Mechanism Linking Exercise and
             Health.},
   Journal = {Physiology (Bethesda, Md.)},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {384-393},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00027.2018},
   Abstract = {Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in
             daily physical activity, maintaining total energy
             expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus
             suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity,
             reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced
             downregulation improves health at moderate levels of
             physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme
             workloads.},
   Doi = {10.1152/physiol.00027.2018},
   Key = {fds339328}
}

@article{fds337752,
   Author = {Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Alternative Energy Physiological evolution in the human
             lineage},
   Journal = {Natural History},
   Volume = {126},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {37-39},
   Publisher = {NATURAL HISTORY MAGAZINE},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   Key = {fds337752}
}

@article{fds337753,
   Author = {Gagnon, CM and Steiper, ME and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Elite swimmers do not exhibit a body mass index trade-off
             across a wide range of event distances.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1882},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0684},
   Abstract = {There is a trade-off reflected in the contrasting phenotypes
             of elite long-distance runners, who are typically leaner,
             and elite sprinters, who are usually more heavily muscled.
             It is unclear, however, whether and how swimmers' bodies
             vary across event distances from the 50 m swim, which is
             about a 20-30 s event, to the 10 000 m marathon swim, which
             is about a 2 h event. We examined data from the 2012
             Olympics to test whether swimmers' phenotypes differed
             across event distances. We show that across all swimming
             event distances, from the 50 m sprint to the 10 000 m
             marathon, swimmers converge on a single optimal body mass
             index (BMI) in men's and women's events, in marked contrast
             with the strong inverse relationship between BMI and event
             distance found in runners. The absence of a speed-endurance
             trade-off in the body proportions of swimmers indicates a
             fundamental difference in design pressures and performance
             capability in terrestrial versus aquatic
             environments.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.0684},
   Key = {fds337753}
}

@article{fds337754,
   Author = {Finestone, EM and Brown, MH and Ross, SR and Pontzer,
             H},
   Title = {Great ape walking kinematics: Implications for hominoid
             evolution.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-55},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23397},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Great apes provide a point of reference for
             understanding the evolution of locomotion in hominoids and
             early hominins. We assessed (1) the extent to which great
             apes use diagonal sequence, diagonal couplet gaits, like
             other primates, (2) the extent to which gait and posture
             vary across great apes, and (3) the role of body mass and
             limb proportions on ape quadrupedal kinematics.
             METHODS:High-speed digital video of zoo-housed bonobos (Pan
             paniscus, N = 8), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes,
             N = 13), lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla, N = 13),
             and orangutans (Pongo spp. N = 6) walking over-ground at
             self-selected speeds were used to determine the timing of
             limb touch-down, take-off, and to measure joint and segment
             angles at touch-down, midstance, and take-off. RESULTS:The
             great apes in our study showed broad kinematic and
             spatiotemporal similarity in quadrupedal walking.
             Size-adjusted walking speed was the strongest predictor of
             gait variables. Body mass had a negligible effect on
             variation in joint and segment angles, but stride frequency
             did trend higher among larger apes in analyses including
             size-adjusted speed. In contrast to most other primates,
             great apes did not favor diagonal sequence footfall
             patterns, but exhibited variable gait patterns that
             frequently shifted between diagonal and lateral sequences.
             CONCLUSION:Similarities in the terrestrial walking
             kinematics of extant great apes likely reflect their similar
             post-cranial anatomy and proportions. Our results suggest
             that the walking kinematics of orthograde, suspensory
             Miocene ape species were likely similar to living great
             apes, and highlight the utility of videographic and
             behavioral data in interpreting primate skeletal
             morphology.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23397},
   Key = {fds337754}
}

@article{fds342259,
   Author = {Willis, EA and Saint-Maurice, PF and Pontzer, H and Matthews,
             CE},
   Title = {Is More Physical Activity Always Better? Constrained vs
             Additive Total Energy Expenditure Models.},
   Journal = {Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {841-841},
   Publisher = {LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds342259}
}

@article{fds337755,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Ellison, PT and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H and Eick,
             G and Liebert, MA and Cepon-Robins, TJ and Gildner, TE and Snodgrass,
             JJ},
   Title = {Tradeoffs between immune function and childhood growth among
             Amazonian forager-horticulturalists.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {E3914-E3921},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717522115},
   Abstract = {Immune function is an energetically costly physiological
             activity that potentially diverts calories away from less
             immediately essential life tasks. Among developing
             organisms, the allocation of energy toward immune function
             may lead to tradeoffs with physical growth, particularly in
             high-pathogen, low-resource environments. The present study
             tests this hypothesis across diverse timeframes, branches of
             immunity, and conditions of energy availability among
             humans. Using a prospective mixed-longitudinal design, we
             collected anthropometric and blood immune biomarker data
             from 261 Amazonian forager-horticulturalist Shuar children
             (age 4-11 y old). This strategy provided baseline measures
             of participant stature, s.c. body fat, and humoral and
             cell-mediated immune activity as well as subsample
             longitudinal measures of linear growth (1 wk, 3 mo, 20 mo)
             and acute inflammation. Multilevel analyses demonstrate
             consistent negative effects of immune function on growth,
             with children experiencing up to 49% growth reduction during
             periods of mildly elevated immune activity. The direct
             energetic nature of these relationships is indicated by (i)
             the manifestation of biomarker-specific negative immune
             effects only when examining growth over timeframes capturing
             active competition for energetic resources, (ii) the
             exaggerated impact of particularly costly inflammation on
             growth, and (iii) the ability of children with greater
             levels of body fat (i.e., energy reserves) to completely
             avoid the growth-inhibiting effects of acute inflammation.
             These findings provide evidence for immunologically and
             temporally diverse body fat-dependent tradeoffs between
             immune function and growth during childhood. We discuss the
             implications of this work for understanding human
             developmental energetics and the biological mechanisms
             regulating variation in human ontogeny, life history, and
             health.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1717522115},
   Key = {fds337755}
}

@article{fds337756,
   Author = {Kozma, EE and Webb, NM and Harcourt-Smith, WEH and Raichlen, DA and D'Août, K and Brown, MH and Finestone, EM and Ross, SR and Aerts, P and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Hip extensor mechanics and the evolution of walking and
             climbing capabilities in humans, apes, and fossil
             hominins.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {4134-4139},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1715120115},
   Abstract = {The evolutionary emergence of humans' remarkably economical
             walking gait remains a focus of research and debate, but
             experimentally validated approaches linking locomotor
             capability to postcranial anatomy are limited. In this
             study, we integrated 3D morphometrics of hominoid pelvic
             shape with experimental measurements of hip kinematics and
             kinetics during walking and climbing, hamstring activity,
             and passive range of hip extension in humans, apes, and
             other primates to assess arboreal-terrestrial trade-offs in
             ischium morphology among living taxa. We show that
             hamstring-powered hip extension during habitual walking and
             climbing in living apes and humans is strongly predicted,
             and likely constrained, by the relative length and
             orientation of the ischium. Ape pelves permit greater
             extensor moments at the hip, enhancing climbing capability,
             but limit their range of hip extension, resulting in a
             crouched gait. Human pelves reduce hip extensor moments but
             permit a greater degree of hip extension, which greatly
             improves walking economy (i.e., distance traveled/energy
             consumed). Applying these results to fossil pelves suggests
             that early hominins differed from both humans and extant
             apes in having an economical walking gait without
             sacrificing climbing capability. Ardipithecus was capable of
             nearly human-like hip extension during bipedal walking, but
             retained the capacity for powerful, ape-like hip extension
             during vertical climbing. Hip extension capability was
             essentially human-like in Australopithecus afarensis and
             Australopithecus africanus, suggesting an economical walking
             gait but reduced mechanical advantage for powered hip
             extension during climbing.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1715120115},
   Key = {fds337756}
}

@article{fds337759,
   Author = {Eyre, J and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {The Effect of bi-iliac breadth on thermoregulation during
             running},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {80-81},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337759}
}

@article{fds337757,
   Author = {Castillo, ER and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Locomotor-respiratory dynamics and gait frequency tuning in
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {43-44},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337757}
}

@article{fds337758,
   Author = {Urlacher, SS and Snodgrass, JJ and Dugas, LR and Sugiyama, LS and Pontzer, H},
   Title = {Direct measures of total and resting energy expenditure
             among Shuar forager-horticulturalist children: Evolutionary
             and epidemiological implications},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {281-281},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337758}
}

@article{fds337760,
   Author = {Swanson, ZS and Pontzer, H and Luke, A and Dugas, LR and Steiper,
             ME},
   Title = {The effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D
             polymorphism on energy expenditure in modern
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {268-268},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337760}
}

@article{fds337761,
   Author = {Raichlen, DA and Hamilton, MT and Harris, JA and Hsu, C-H and Keadle,
             SK and Klimentidis, YC and Marx, TJ and Matthews, CE and Pontzer, H and Sayre, MK and Wood, BM and Zderic, TW and Alexander,
             GE},
   Title = {Fractal patterns of physical activity in hunter-gatherers
             suggest universal scaling of daily movement in
             humans},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {218-219},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds337761}
}


%% Pusey, Anne   
@article{fds343336,
   Author = {Surbeck, M and Boesch, C and Crockford, C and Thompson, ME and Furuichi,
             T and Fruth, B and Hohmann, G and Ishizuka, S and Machanda, Z and Muller,
             MN and Pusey, A and Sakamaki, T and Tokuyama, N and Walker, K and Wrangham,
             R and Wroblewski, E and Zuberbühler, K and Vigilant, L and Langergraber, K},
   Title = {Males with a mother living in their group have higher
             paternity success in bonobos but not chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Current Biology : Cb},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {R354-R355},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.040},
   Abstract = {In many group-living mammals, mothers may increase the
             reproductive success of their daughters even after they are
             nutritionally independent and fully grown [1]. However,
             whether such maternal effects exist for adult sons is
             largely unknown. Here we show that males have higher
             paternity success when their mother is living in the group
             at the time of the offspring's conception in bonobos (N = 39
             paternities from 4 groups) but not in chimpanzees (N = 263
             paternities from 7 groups). These results are consistent
             with previous research showing a stronger role of mothers
             (and females more generally) in bonobo than chimpanzee
             societies.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cub.2019.03.040},
   Key = {fds343336}
}

@article{fds342135,
   Author = {Wolf, TM and Singer, RS and Lonsdorf, EV and Maclehose, R and Gillespie,
             TR and Lipende, I and Raphael, J and Terio, K and Murray, C and Pusey, A and Hahn, BH and Kamenya, S and Mjungu, D and Travis,
             DA},
   Title = {Syndromic Surveillance of Respiratory Disease in Free-Living
             Chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Ecohealth},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-019-01400-y},
   Abstract = {Disease surveillance in wildlife is rapidly expanding in
             scope and methodology, emphasizing the need for formal
             evaluations of system performance. We examined a syndromic
             surveillance system for respiratory disease detection in
             Gombe National Park, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2012, with
             respect to data quality, disease trends, and respiratory
             disease detection. Data quality was assessed by examining
             community coverage, completeness, and consistency. The data
             were examined for baseline trends; signs of respiratory
             disease occurred at a mean frequency of less than 1 case per
             week, with most weeks containing zero observations of
             abnormalities. Seasonal and secular (i.e., over a period of
             years) trends in respiratory disease frequency were not
             identified. These baselines were used to develop algorithms
             for outbreak detection using both weekly counts and weekly
             prevalence thresholds and then compared retrospectively on
             the detection of 13 respiratory disease clusters from 2005
             to 2012. Prospective application of outbreak detection
             algorithms to real-time syndromic data would be useful in
             triggering a rapid outbreak response, such as targeted
             diagnostic sampling, enhanced surveillance, or
             mitigation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10393-019-01400-y},
   Key = {fds342135}
}

@article{fds339573,
   Author = {Wolf, TM and Annie Wang and W and Lonsdorf, EV and Gillespie, TR and Pusey,
             A and Gilby, IC and Travis, DA and Singer, RS},
   Title = {Optimizing syndromic health surveillance in free ranging
             great apes: the case of Gombe National Park.},
   Journal = {Journal of Applied Ecology},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {509-518},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13284},
   Abstract = {1. Syndromic surveillance is an incipient approach to early
             wildlife disease detection. Consequently, systematic
             assessments are needed for methodology validation in
             wildlife populations. 2. We evaluated the sensitivity of a
             syndromic surveillance protocol for respiratory disease
             detection among chimpanzees in Gombe National Park,
             Tanzania. Empirical health, behavioural and demographic data
             were integrated with an agent-based, network model to
             simulate disease transmission and surveillance. 3.
             Surveillance sensitivity was estimated as 66% (95%
             Confidence Interval: 63.1, 68.8%) and 59.5% (95% Confidence
             Interval: 56.5%, 62.4%) for two monitoring methods (weekly
             count and prevalence thresholds, respectively), but
             differences among calendar quarters in outbreak size and
             surveillance sensitivity suggest seasonal effects. 4. We
             determined that a weekly detection threshold of ≥2
             chimpanzees with clinical respiratory disease leading to
             outbreak response protocols (enhanced observation and
             biological sampling) is an optimal algorithm for outbreak
             detection in this population. 5. Synthesis and applications.
             This is the first quantitative assessment of syndromic
             surveillance in wildlife, providing a model approach to
             detecting disease emergence. Coupling syndromic surveillance
             with targeted diagnostic sampling in the midst of suspected
             outbreaks will provide a powerful system for detecting
             disease transmission and understanding population
             impacts.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1365-2664.13284},
   Key = {fds339573}
}

@article{fds341493,
   Author = {Bibollet-Ruche, F and Russell, RM and Liu, W and Stewart-Jones, GBE and Sherrill-Mix, S and Li, Y and Learn, GH and Smith, AG and Gondim, MVP and Plenderleith, LJ and Decker, JM and Easlick, JL and Wetzel, KS and Collman, RG and Ding, S and Finzi, A and Ayouba, A and Peeters, M and Leendertz, FH and van Schijndel, J and Goedmakers, A and Ton, E and Boesch, C and Kuehl, H and Arandjelovic, M and Dieguez, P and Murai, M and Colin, C and Koops, K and Speede, S and Gonder, MK and Muller, MN and Sanz,
             CM and Morgan, DB and Atencia, R and Cox, D and Piel, AK and Stewart, FA and Ndjango, J-BN and Mjungu, D and Lonsdorf, EV and Pusey, AE and Kwong,
             PD and Sharp, PM and Shaw, GM and Hahn, BH},
   Title = {CD4 receptor diversity in chimpanzees protects against SIV
             infection.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {3229-3238},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821197116},
   Abstract = {Human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIVs) use CD4
             as the primary receptor to enter target cells. Here, we show
             that the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine
             coding variants present in wild populations, and that this
             diversity interferes with SIV envelope (Env)-CD4
             interactions. Testing the replication fitness of SIVcpz
             strains in CD4+ T cells from captive chimpanzees, we found
             that certain viruses were unable to infect cells from
             certain hosts. These differences were recapitulated in CD4
             transfection assays, which revealed a strong association
             between CD4 genotypes and SIVcpz infection phenotypes. The
             most striking differences were observed for three
             substitutions (Q25R, Q40R, and P68T), with P68T generating a
             second N-linked glycosylation site (N66) in addition to an
             invariant N32 encoded by all chimpanzee CD4 alleles. In
             silico modeling and site-directed mutagenesis identified
             charged residues at the CD4-Env interface and clashes
             between CD4- and Env-encoded glycans as mechanisms of
             inhibition. CD4 polymorphisms also reduced Env-mediated cell
             entry of monkey SIVs, which was dependent on at least one D1
             domain glycan. CD4 allele frequencies varied among wild
             chimpanzees, with high diversity in all but the western
             subspecies, which appeared to have undergone a selective
             sweep. One allele was associated with lower SIVcpz
             prevalence rates in the wild. These results indicate that
             substitutions in the D1 domain of the chimpanzee CD4 can
             prevent SIV cell entry. Although some SIVcpz strains have
             adapted to utilize these variants, CD4 diversity is
             maintained, protecting chimpanzees against infection with
             SIVcpz and other SIVs to which they are exposed.},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1821197116},
   Key = {fds341493}
}

@article{fds341241,
   Author = {Wilson, ML and Mjungu, DC and Pintea, L and Barbian, HJ and Li, Y and Wroblewski, EE and Pusey, AE and Hahn, BH},
   Title = {UNHABITUATED CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES) IN THE HIGHLANDS
             NORTH OF GOMBE NATIONAL PARK, TANZANIA},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {2 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds341241}
}

@article{fds341242,
   Author = {Wellens, KR and Stanton, MA and Pusey, AE and Lonsdorf, EV and Murray,
             CM},
   Title = {MATERNAL GREGARIOUSNESS DURING EARLY INFANCY PREDICTS
             OFFSPRING SOCIAL PATTERNS IN ADULTHOOD IN WILD
             CHIMPANZEES},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds341242}
}

@article{fds341243,
   Author = {Lonsdorf, E and Murray, CM and Wilson, ML and Walker, KK and Boehm, E and Pusey, AE},
   Title = {CAUSES OF INFANT MORTALITY AND MATERNAL RESPONSES TO INFANT
             DEATH IN WILD CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds341243}
}

@article{fds341244,
   Author = {Walker, K and Travis, D and Pusey, AE and Lonsdorf,
             E},
   Title = {CHALLENGES DURING THE POST-WEANING PERIOD FOR WILD
             CHIMPANZEES.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Pages = {1 pages},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds341244}
}

@article{fds338476,
   Author = {Barbian, HJ and Connell, AJ and Avitto, AN and Russell, RM and Smith,
             AG and Gundlapally, MS and Shazad, AL and Li, Y and Bibollet-Ruche, F and Wroblewski, EE and Mjungu, D and Lonsdorf, EV and Stewart, FA and Piel,
             AK and Pusey, AE and Sharp, PM and Hahn, BH},
   Title = {CHIIMP: An automated high-throughput microsatellite
             genotyping platform reveals greater allelic diversity in
             wild chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Ecology and Evolution},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {7946-7963},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4302},
   Abstract = {Short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites,
             are commonly used to noninvasively genotype wild-living
             endangered species, including African apes. Until recently,
             capillary electrophoresis has been the method of choice to
             determine the length of polymorphic STR loci. However, this
             technique is labor intensive, difficult to compare across
             platforms, and notoriously imprecise. Here we developed a
             MiSeq-based approach and tested its performance using
             previously genotyped fecal samples from long-term studied
             chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using data
             from eight microsatellite loci as a reference, we designed a
             bioinformatics platform that converts raw MiSeq reads into
             locus-specific files and automatically calls alleles after
             filtering stutter sequences and other PCR artifacts.
             Applying this method to the entire Gombe population, we
             confirmed previously reported genotypes, but also identified
             31 new alleles that had been missed due to sequence
             differences and size homoplasy. The new genotypes, which
             increased the allelic diversity and heterozygosity in Gombe
             by 61% and 8%, respectively, were validated by replicate
             amplification and pedigree analyses. This demonstrated
             inheritance and resolved one case of an ambiguous paternity.
             Using both singleplex and multiplex locus amplification, we
             also genotyped fecal samples from chimpanzees in the Greater
             Mahale Ecosystem in Tanzania, demonstrating the utility of
             the MiSeq-based approach for genotyping nonhabituated
             populations and performing comparative analyses across field
             sites. The new automated high-throughput analysis platform
             (available at https://github.com/ShawHahnLab/chiimp) will
             allow biologists to more accurately and effectively
             determine wildlife population size and structure, and thus
             obtain information critical for conservation
             efforts.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ece3.4302},
   Key = {fds338476}
}

@article{fds335489,
   Author = {Feldblum, JT and Manfredi, S and Gilby, IC and Pusey,
             AE},
   Title = {The timing and causes of a unique chimpanzee community
             fission preceding Gombe's "Four-Year War".},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {730-744},
   Editor = {Tagg, N and Stewart, FA},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23462},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:While permanent group fissions are documented in
             humans and other primate species, they are relatively rare
             in male philopatric primates. One of the few apparent cases
             occurred in 1973 in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, when a
             community of chimpanzees split into two separate groups,
             preceding the famous "Four-Year War." We tested the
             hypothesis that the original group was a single cohesive
             community that experienced permanent fission, and
             investigated several potential catalysts. MATERIALS AND
             METHODS:We calculated association, grooming, and ranging
             metrics from historical data and used community detection
             algorithms and matrix permutation tests to determine the
             timing, dynamics, and causes of changes in social network
             subgrouping structure. RESULTS:We found that the two
             communities indeed split from one cohesive community, albeit
             one with incipient subgrouping. The degree of subgrouping in
             grooming and association networks increased sharply in 1971
             and 1972, a period characterized by a dominance struggle
             between three high-ranking males and unusually high
             male:female sex ratios. Finally, we found a relationship
             between post-split community membership and previous
             association, grooming and ranging patterns in most periods
             of analysis, one that became more pronounced as the fission
             approached. DISCUSSION:Our analysis suggests that the
             community began to split during a time of an unusually
             male-biased sex ratio and a protracted dominance struggle,
             and that adult males remained with those with whom they had
             preferentially associated prior to the split. We discuss the
             costs and benefits of group membership in chimpanzees and
             contrast these results with group fissions in humans and
             other taxa.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23462},
   Key = {fds335489}
}

@article{fds335491,
   Author = {Adamescu, GS and Plumptre, AJ and Abernethy, KA and Polansky, L and Bush, ER and Chapman, CA and Shoo, LP and Fayolle, A and Janmaat, KRL and Robbins, MM and Ndangalasi, HJ and Cordeiro, NJ and Gilby, IC and Wittig, RM and Breuer, T and Hockemba, MBN and Sanz, CM and Morgan, DB and Pusey, AE and Mugerwa, B and Gilagiza, B and Tutin, C and Ewango, CEN and Sheil, D and Dimoto, E and Baya, F and Bujo, F and Ssali, F and Dikangadissi, JT and Jeffery, K and Valenta, K and White, L and Masozera, M and Wilson, ML and Bitariho, R and Ndolo Ebika and ST and Gourlet-Fleury, S and Mulindahabi, F and Beale,
             CM},
   Title = {Annual cycles are the most common reproductive strategy in
             African tropical tree communities},
   Journal = {Biotropica},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {418-430},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/btp.12561},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Association for Tropical Biology and
             Conservation We present the first cross-continental
             comparison of the flowering and fruiting phenology of
             tropical forests across Africa. Flowering events of 5446
             trees from 196 species across 12 sites and fruiting events
             of 4595 trees from 191 species across 11 sites were
             monitored over periods of 6 to 29 years and analyzed to
             describe phenology at the continental level. To study
             phenology, we used Fourier analysis to identify the dominant
             cycles of flowering and fruiting for each individual tree
             and we identified the time of year African trees bloom and
             bear fruit and their relationship to local seasonality.
             Reproductive strategies were diverse, and no single regular
             cycle was found in >50% of individuals across all 12 sites.
             Additionally, we found annual flowering and fruiting cycles
             to be the most common. Sub-annual cycles were the next most
             common for flowering, whereas supra-annual patterns were the
             next most common for fruiting. We also identify variation in
             different subsets of species, with species exhibiting mainly
             annual cycles most common in West and West Central African
             tropical forests, while more species at sites in East
             Central and East African forests showed cycles ranging from
             sub-annual to supra-annual. Despite many trees showing
             strong seasonality, at most sites some flowering and
             fruiting occurred all year round. Environmental factors with
             annual cycles are likely to be important drivers of seasonal
             periodicity in trees across Africa, but proximate triggers
             are unlikely to be constant across the continent.},
   Doi = {10.1111/btp.12561},
   Key = {fds335491}
}

@article{fds335492,
   Author = {Ozga, AT and Nockerts, R and Wilson, ML and Gilby, IC and Pusey, A and Stone, AC},
   Title = {Oral microbiome variation in chimpanzees from Gombe National
             Park},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {196-196},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335492}
}

@article{fds335493,
   Author = {Massey, JS and Mcfarlin, S and Mudakikwa, A and Stoinski, TS and Cranfield, MR and Bromage, TG and Pusey, A and Mjungu, D and Collins, A and Mcnulty, KP},
   Title = {The ontogeny of sexual dimorphism among known-aged Virunga
             mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) and Gombe
             chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {165},
   Pages = {168-169},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   Key = {fds335493}
}

@article{fds330839,
   Author = {Walker, KK and Walker, CS and Goodall, J and Pusey,
             AE},
   Title = {Maturation is prolonged and variable in female
             chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {114},
   Pages = {131-140},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.10.010},
   Abstract = {Chimpanzees are important referential models for the study
             of life history in hominin evolution. Age at sexual maturity
             and first reproduction are key life history milestones that
             mark the diversion of energy from growth to reproduction and
             are essential in comparing life history trajectories between
             chimpanzees and humans. Yet, accurate information on ages at
             these milestones in wild chimpanzees is difficult to obtain
             because most females transfer before breeding. Precise age
             at first birth is only known from a relatively small number
             of non-dispersing individuals. Moreover, due to small sample
             sizes, the degree to which age at maturation milestones
             varies is unknown. Here we report maturation milestones and
             explore sources of variance for 36 wild female chimpanzees
             of known age, including eight dispersing females born in
             Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Using Kaplan-Meier survival
             analysis, including censored intervals, we find an average
             age of 11.5 years (range 8.5-13.9) at sexual maturity and
             14.9 years (range 11.1-22.1) at first birth. These values
             exceed previously published averages for wild chimpanzees by
             one or more years. Even in this larger sample, age at first
             birth is likely underestimated due to the disproportionate
             number of non-dispersing females, which, on average, give
             birth two years earlier than dispersing females. Model
             selection using Cox Proportional Hazards models shows that
             age at sexual maturity is delayed in females orphaned before
             age eight years and those born to low-ranking mothers. Age
             at first birth is most delayed in dispersing females and
             those orphaned before age eight years. These data provide
             improved estimates of maturation milestones in a population
             of wild female chimpanzees and indicate the importance of
             maternal factors in development.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.10.010},
   Key = {fds330839}
}

@article{fds323609,
   Author = {Barbian, HJ and Li, Y and Ramirez, M and Klase, Z and Lipende, I and Mjungu, D and Moeller, AH and Wilson, ML and Pusey, AE and Lonsdorf, EV and Bushman, FD and Hahn, BH},
   Title = {Destabilization of the gut microbiome marks the end-stage of
             simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild
             chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {n/a-n/a},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22515},
   Abstract = {Enteric dysbiosis is a characteristic feature of progressive
             human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but
             has not been observed in simian immunodeficiency virus
             (SIVmac)-infected macaques, including in animals with
             end-stage disease. This has raised questions concerning the
             mechanisms underlying the HIV-1 associated enteropathy, with
             factors other than virus infection, such as lifestyle and
             antibiotic use, implicated as playing possible causal roles.
             Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) is
             also associated with increased mortality in wild-living
             communities, and like HIV-1 and SIVmac, can cause CD4+ T
             cell depletion and immunodeficiency in infected individuals.
             Given the central role of the intestinal microbiome in
             mammalian health, we asked whether gut microbial
             constituents could be identified that are indicative of
             SIVcpz status and/or disease progression. Here, we
             characterized the gut microbiome of SIVcpz-infected and
             -uninfected chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania.
             Subjecting a small number of fecal samples (N = 9) to
             metagenomic (shotgun) sequencing, we found bacteria of the
             family Prevotellaceae to be enriched in SIVcpz-infected
             chimpanzees. However, 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a larger
             number of samples (N = 123) failed to show significant
             differences in both the composition and diversity (alpha and
             beta) of gut bacterial communities between infected
             (N = 24) and uninfected (N = 26) chimpanzees.
             Similarly, chimpanzee stool-associated circular virus
             (Chi-SCV) and chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAdV) identified by
             metagenomic sequencing were neither more prevalent nor more
             abundant in SIVcpz-infected individuals. However, fecal
             samples collected from SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees within 5
             months before their AIDS-related death exhibited significant
             compositional changes in their gut bacteriome. These data
             indicate that SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees retain a stable
             gut microbiome throughout much of their natural infection
             course, with a significant destabilization of bacterial (but
             not viral) communities observed only in individuals with
             known immunodeficiency within the last several months before
             their death. Am. J. Primatol. 80:e22515, 2018. © 2015 Wiley
             Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajp.22515},
   Key = {fds323609}
}

@article{fds323606,
   Author = {Lonsdorf, EV and Gillespie, TR and Wolf, TM and Lipende, I and Raphael,
             J and Bakuza, J and Murray, CM and Wilson, ML and Kamenya, S and Mjungu, D and Collins, DA and Gilby, IC and Stanton, MA and Terio, KA and Barbian, HJ and Li, Y and Ramirez, M and Krupnick, A and Seidl, E and Goodall, J and Hahn,
             BH and Pusey, AE and Travis, DA},
   Title = {Socioecological correlates of clinical signs in two
             communities of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Gombe
             National Park, Tanzania.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Primatology},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22562},
   Abstract = {Disease and other health hazards pose serious threats to the
             persistence of wild ape populations. The total chimpanzee
             population at Gombe National Park, Tanzania, has declined
             from an estimated 120 to 150 individuals in the 1960's to
             around 100 individuals by the end of 2013, with death
             associated with observable signs of disease as the leading
             cause of mortality. In 2004, we began a non-invasive
             health-monitoring program in the two habituated communities
             in the park (Kasekela and Mitumba) with the aim of
             understanding the prevalence of health issues in the
             population, and identifying the presence and impacts of
             various pathogens. Here we present prospectively collected
             data on clinical signs (observable changes in health) in the
             chimpanzees of the Kasekela (n = 81) and Mitumba
             (n = 32) communities over an 8-year period (2005-2012).
             First, we take a population approach and analyze prevalence
             of clinical signs in five different categories:
             gastrointestinal system (diarrhea), body condition
             (estimated weight loss), respiratory system (coughing,
             sneezing etc.), wounds/lameness, and dermatologic issues by
             year, month, and community membership. Mean monthly
             prevalence of each clinical sign per community varied, but
             typically affected <10% of observed individuals. Secondly,
             we analyze the presence of clinical signs in these
             categories as they relate to individual demographic and
             social factors (age, sex, and dominance rank) and simian
             immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz) infection status. Adults
             have higher odds of being observed with diarrhea, loss of
             body condition, and wounds or lameness when compared to
             immatures, while males have a higher probability of being
             observed with wounds or lameness than females. In contrast,
             signs of respiratory illness appear not to be related to
             chimpanzee-specific factors and skin abnormalities are very
             rare. For a subset of known-rank individuals, dominance rank
             predicts the probability of wounding/lameness in adult
             males, but does not predict any adverse clinical signs in
             adult females. Instead, adult females with SIVcpz infection
             are more likely to be observed with diarrhea, a finding that
             warrants further investigation. Comparable data are needed
             from other sites to determine whether the prevalence of
             clinical signs we observe are relatively high or low, as
             well as to more fully understand the factors influencing
             health of wild apes at both the population and individual
             level. Am. J. Primatol. 80:e22562, 2018. © 2016 Wiley
             Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajp.22562},
   Key = {fds323606}
}

@article{fds335490,
   Author = {Walker, CS and Walker, KK and Paulo, G and Pusey,
             AE},
   Title = {Morphological Identification of Hair Recovered from Feces
             for Detection of Cannibalism in Eastern Chimpanzees.},
   Journal = {Folia Primatologica},
   Volume = {89},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {240-250},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488509},
   Abstract = {Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are primarily frugivorous but
             consume a variable amount of meat from a variety of
             organisms, including other chimpanzees. Cannibalism is rare,
             usually follows lethal aggression, and does not occur
             following natural deaths. While chimpanzee cannibalism has
             been documented at multiple sites, many instances of this
             behavior go unrecorded. Identification of chimpanzee remains
             in feces, however, can provide indirect evidence of
             cannibalism. Hair, in particular, typically passes through
             the gastrointestinal tract undamaged and is commonly used
             for purposes of identification in wildlife forensics. Here
             we test the hypothesis that eastern chimpanzee (Pan
             troglodytes schweinfurthii) guard hair morphology can be
             reliably distinguished from the hairs of their most common
             prey species. Methods and results are presented in the
             context of a case study involving a suspected chimpanzee
             infanticide from Gombe, Tanzania. We find that chimpanzee
             guard hair morphology is unique among tested mammals and
             that the presence of abundant chimpanzee hair in feces is
             likely the result of cannibalism and not incidental
             ingestion from grooming or other means. Accordingly,
             morphological analysis of guard hairs from feces is a
             promising, cost-effective tool for the determination of
             cannibalistic acts in chimpanzees.},
   Doi = {10.1159/000488509},
   Key = {fds335490}
}


%% Schmitt, Daniel O.   
@article{fds342136,
   Author = {Granatosky, MC and Schmitt, D},
   Title = {The mechanical origins of arm-swinging.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {130},
   Pages = {61-71},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.02.001},
   Abstract = {Arm-swinging is a locomotor mode observed only in primates,
             in which the hindlimbs no longer have a weight bearing
             function and the forelimbs must propel the body forward and
             support the entirety of the animal's mass. It has been
             suggested that the evolution of arm-swinging was preceded by
             a shift to inverted quadrupedal walking for purposes of
             feeding and balance, yet little is known about the mechanics
             of limb use during inverted quadrupedal walking. In this
             study, we test whether the mechanics of inverted quadrupedal
             walking make sense as precursors to arm-swinging and whether
             there are fundamental differences in inverted quadrupedal
             walking in primates compared to non-primate mammals that
             would explain the evolution of arm-swinging in primates
             only. Based on kinetic limb-loading data collected during
             inverted quadrupedal walking in primates (seven species) and
             non-primate mammals (three species), we observe that in
             primates the forelimb serves as the primary propulsive and
             weight bearing limb. Additionally, heavier individuals tend
             to support a greater distribution of body weight on their
             forelimbs than lighter ones. These kinetic patterns are not
             observed in non-primate mammals. Based on these findings, we
             propose that the ability to adopt arm-swinging is fairly
             simple for relatively large-bodied primates and merely
             requires the animal to release its grasping foot from the
             substrate. This study fills an important gap concerning the
             origins of arm-swinging and illuminates previously unknown
             patterns of primate locomotor evolution.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.02.001},
   Key = {fds342136}
}

@article{fds341872,
   Author = {Miller, CE and Johnson, LE and Pinkard, H and Lemelin, P and Schmitt,
             D},
   Title = {Limb phase flexibility in walking: A test case in the
             squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus)},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Zoology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12983-019-0299-8},
   Abstract = {© 2019 The Author(s). Background: Previous analyses of
             factors influencing footfall timings and gait selection in
             quadrupeds have focused on the implications for energetic
             cost or gait mechanics separately. Here we present a model
             for symmetrical walking gaits in quadrupedal mammals that
             combines both factors, and aims to predict the substrate
             contexts in which animals will select certain ranges of
             footfall timings that (1) minimize energetic cost, (2)
             minimize rolling and pitching moments, or (3) balance the
             two. We hypothesize that energy recovery will be a priority
             on all surfaces, and will be the dominant factor determining
             footfall timings on flat, ground-like surfaces. The ability
             to resist pitch and roll, however, will play a larger role
             in determining footfall choice on narrower and more complex
             branch-like substrates. As a preliminary test of the
             expectations of the model, we collected sample data on
             footfall timings in a primate with relatively high
             flexibility in footfall timings-the squirrel monkey (Saimiri
             sciureus)-walking on a flat surface, straight pole, and a
             pole with laterally-projecting branches to simulate
             simplified ground and branch substrates. We compare limb
             phase values on these supports to the expectations of the
             model. Results: As predicted, walking steps on the flat
             surface tended towards limb phase values that promote energy
             exchange. Both pole substrates induced limb phase values
             predicted to favor reduced pitching and rolling moments.
             Conclusions: These data provide novel insight into the ways
             in which animals may choose to adjust their behavior in
             response to movement on flat versus complex substrates and
             the competing selective factors that influence footfall
             timing in mammals. These data further suggest a pathway for
             future investigations using this perspective.},
   Doi = {10.1186/s12983-019-0299-8},
   Key = {fds341872}
}

@article{fds341494,
   Author = {Miller, CE and Pinkard, H and Johnson, LE and Schmitt,
             D},
   Title = {Pitch control and speed limitation during overground
             deceleration in lemurid primates.},
   Journal = {Journal of Morphology},
   Volume = {280},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {300-306},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.20944},
   Abstract = {An animal's fitness is influenced by the ability to move
             safely through its environment. Recent models have shown
             that aspects of body geometry, for example, limb length and
             center of mass (COM) position, appear to set limits for
             pitch control in cursorial quadrupeds. Models of pitch
             control predict that the body shape of these and certain
             other primates, with short forelimbs and posteriorly
             positioned COM, should allow them to decelerate rapidly
             while minimizing the risk of pitching forward. We chose to
             test these models in two non-cursorial lemurs: Lemur catta,
             the highly terrestrial ring-tailed lemur, and Eulemur
             fulvus, the highly arboreal brown lemur. We modeled the
             effects of changes in limb length and COM position on
             maximum decelerative potential for both species, as well as
             collecting data on maximal decelerations across whole
             strides. In both species, maximum measured decelerations
             fell below the range of pitch-limited deceleration values
             predicted by the geometric model, with the ring-tailed lemur
             approaching its pitch limit more closely. Both lemurs showed
             decelerative potential equivalent to or higher than horses,
             the only comparative model currently available. These data
             reinforce the hypothesis that a relatively simple model of
             body geometry can predict aspects of maximum performance in
             animals. In this case, it appears that the body geometry of
             primates is skewed toward avoiding forward pitch in maximal
             decelerations.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jmor.20944},
   Key = {fds341494}
}

@article{fds341495,
   Author = {Granatosky, MC and Schmitt, D and Hanna, J},
   Title = {Comparison of spatiotemporal gait characteristics between
             vertical climbing and horizontal walking in
             primates.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {222},
   Number = {Pt 2},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.185702},
   Abstract = {During quadrupedal walking, most primates utilize
             diagonal-sequence diagonal-couplet gaits, large limb
             excursions and hindlimb-biased limb loading. These gait
             characteristics are thought to be basal to primates, but the
             selective pressure underlying these gait changes remains
             unknown. Some researchers have examined these
             characteristics during vertical climbing and propose that
             primate quadrupedal gait characteristics may have arisen due
             to the mechanical challenges of moving on vertical supports.
             Unfortunately, these studies are usually limited in scope
             and do not account for varying strategies based on body size
             or phylogeny. Here, we test the hypothesis that the
             spatiotemporal gait characteristics that are used during
             horizontal walking in primates are also present during
             vertical climbing irrespective of body size and phylogeny.
             We examined footfall patterns, diagonality, speed and stride
             length in eight species of primates across a range of body
             masses. We found that, during vertical climbing, primates
             slow down, keep more limbs in contact with the substrate at
             any one time, and increase the frequency of lateral-sequence
             gaits compared with horizontal walking. Taken together,
             these characteristics are assumed to increase stability
             during locomotion. Phylogenetic relatedness and body size
             differences have little influence on locomotor patterns
             observed across species. These data reject the idea that the
             suite of spatiotemporal gait features observed in primates
             during horizontal walking are in some way evolutionarily
             linked to selective pressures associated with mechanical
             requirements of vertical climbing. These results also
             highlight the importance of behavioral flexibility for
             negotiating the challenges of locomotion in an arboreal
             environment.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.185702},
   Key = {fds341495}
}

@article{fds338039,
   Author = {Fabre, A-C and Granatosky, MC and Hanna, JB and Schmitt,
             D},
   Title = {Do forelimb shape and peak forces co-vary in
             strepsirrhines?},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {167},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {602-614},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23688},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:In this study, we explore whether ground reaction
             forces recorded during horizontal walking co-vary with the
             shape of the long bones of the forelimb in strepsirrhines.
             To do so, we quantify (1) the shape of the shaft and
             articular surfaces of each long bone of the forelimb, (2)
             the peak vertical, mediolateral, and horizontal ground
             reaction forces applied by the forelimb during arboreal
             locomotion, and (3) the relationship between the shape of
             the forelimb and peak forces. MATERIALS AND
             METHODS:Geometric morphometric approaches were used to
             quantify the shape of the bones. Kinetic data were collected
             during horizontal arboreal walking in eight species of
             strepsirrhines that show variation in habitual substrate use
             and morphology of the forelimb. These data were then used to
             explore the links between locomotor behavior, morphology,
             and mechanics using co-variation analyses in a phylogenetic
             framework. RESULTS:Our results show significant differences
             between slow quadrupedal climbers (lorises), vertical
             clinger and leapers (sifaka), and active arboreal quadrupeds
             (ring-tailed lemur, ruffed lemur) in both ground reaction
             forces and the shape of the long bones of the forelimb, with
             the propulsive and medially directed peak forces having the
             highest impact on the shape of the humerus. Co-variation
             between long bone shape and ground reaction forces was
             detected in both the humerus and ulna even when accounting
             for differences in body mass. DISCUSSION:These results
             demonstrate the importance of considering limb-loading
             beyond just peak vertical force, or substrate reaction
             force. A re-evaluation of osseous morphology and functional
             interpretations is necessary in light of these
             findings.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23688},
   Key = {fds338039}
}

@article{fds337047,
   Author = {Snyder, ML and Schmitt, D},
   Title = {Effects of aging on the biomechanics of Coquerel's sifaka
             (Propithecus coquereli): Evidence of robustness to
             senescence.},
   Journal = {Experimental Gerontology},
   Volume = {111},
   Pages = {235-240},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.07.019},
   Abstract = {It is well-known that as humans age they experience
             significant changes in gait including reduction in velocity
             and ground reaction forces and changes in leg mechanics.
             Progressive changes in gait can lead to disability and
             frailty, defined as an inability to carry out activities of
             daily living. This topic is relevant to basic understanding
             of the aging process and for clinical intervention. As such,
             studies of frailty can benefit from nonhuman animal models,
             yet little is known about gait frailty in nonhuman primates.
             This study examines a nonhuman primate model to evaluate its
             relevance to understanding human aging processes. To test
             the null hypothesis that age-related changes in joint
             function and gait do occur in primate models in a similar
             fashion to humans, a detailed gait analysis, including
             velocity, footfall timings, and vertical ground reaction
             forces, on bipedal locomotion was performed in Coquerel's
             sifaka (Propithecus coquereli), ranging in age from
             5 years to 24 years. None of the spatiotemporal or
             kinetic gait variables measured was significantly correlated
             with age alone. There was a slight but significant reduction
             in locomotor velocity when animals were grouped into "young"
             and "old" categories. These data show that aging P.
             coquereli experience only subtle age-related changes, that
             were not nearly as extensive as reported in humans. This
             lack of change suggests that unlike humans, lemurs maintain
             gait competency at high levels, possibly because these
             animals maintain reproductive capacity close to their age of
             death and that frailty may be selected against, since gait
             disability would result in injury and death that would
             preclude independent living. Although nonhuman primates
             should experience age-related senescence, their locomotor
             performance should remain robust throughout their lifetimes,
             which raises questions about the use of primate models of
             gait disability, an area that deserves further
             investigation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.exger.2018.07.019},
   Key = {fds337047}
}

@article{fds337048,
   Author = {Hughes-Oliver, CN and Srinivasan, D and Schmitt, D and Queen,
             RM},
   Title = {Gender and limb differences in temporal gait parameters and
             gait variability in ankle osteoarthritis.},
   Journal = {Gait & Posture},
   Volume = {65},
   Pages = {228-233},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.07.180},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The effects of ankle osteoarthritis on gait are
             noticeable in the clinic, but are difficult to quantify and
             score without detailed kinematic and kinetic analysis.
             Evaluationof temporal gait parameters and gait variability
             is a potential alternative. RESEARCH QUESTION: This study
             aimed to determine associations between limb and gender with
             temporal gait parameters and gait variability in ankle OA
             patients to evaluate the utility of these parameters for
             gait assessment in a clinical setting. METHODS: Following
             informed consent, 242 end-stage unilateral ankle OA patients
             walked at self-selected speed across force plates. Means and
             stride-to-stride standard deviations (SD) of stride, swing,
             stance, and double support times were determined for each
             patient. Limb x Gender ANCOVA models co-varying for walking
             speed were run for swing and stance times, while stride and
             double support times were only compared between genders.
             Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS (α = 0.05).
             RESULTS: Walking speed affected all measures of interest.
             After adjusting for walking speed, mean stride time, stride
             time SD, and stance time SD were 3.5%, 67% and 29% higher
             among women than men (p = 0.002, 0.035 and 0.02
             respectively). Swing time was 12% higher and stance time was
             6% lower on the affected side compared to the unaffected
             side (p < 0.001 for both). SIGNIFICANCE: Women have
             longer stride times and higher variability, which may
             indicate higher fall risk. Both genders minimized loading on
             the affected limb by increasing swing time and reducing
             stance time on the affected side. Simple, easy to record
             temporal gait patterns can provide useful insight into gait
             abnormalities in patients with ankle OA.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.07.180},
   Key = {fds337048}
}

@article{fds332803,
   Author = {Granatosky, MC and Fitzsimons, A and Zeininger, A and Schmitt,
             D},
   Title = {Mechanisms for the functional differentiation of the
             propulsive and braking roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs
             during quadrupedal walking in primates and
             felines.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology},
   Volume = {221},
   Number = {Pt 2},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.162917},
   Abstract = {During quadrupedal walking in most animals, the forelimbs
             play a net braking role, whereas the hindlimbs are net
             propulsive. However, the mechanism by which this
             differentiation occurs remains unclear. Here, we test two
             models to explain this pattern using primates and felines:
             (1) the horizontal strut effect (in which limbs are modeled
             as independent struts), and (2) the linked strut model (in
             which limbs are modeled as linked struts with a center of
             mass in between). Video recordings were used to determine
             point of contact, timing of mid-stance, and limb
             protraction/retraction duration. Single-limb forces were
             used to calculate contact time, impulses and the proportion
             of the stride at which the braking-to-propulsive transition
             (BP) occurred for each limb. We found no association between
             the occurrence of the BP and mid-stance, little influence of
             protraction and retraction duration on the
             braking-propulsive function of a limb, and a causative
             relationship between vertical force distribution between
             limbs and the patterns of horizontal forces. These findings
             reject the horizontal strut effect, and provide some support
             for the linked strut model, although predictions were not
             perfectly matched. We suggest that the position of the
             center of mass relative to limb contact points is a very
             important, but not the only, factor driving functional
             differentiation of the braking and propulsive roles of the
             limbs in quadrupeds. It was also found that primates have
             greater differences in horizontal impulse between their
             limbs compared with felines, a pattern that may reflect a
             fundamental arboreal adaptation in primates.},
   Doi = {10.1242/jeb.162917},
   Key = {fds332803}
}

@article{fds329281,
   Author = {Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D and Jensen, JL and Shapiro,
             LJ},
   Title = {Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal
             loading during walking in young children.},
   Journal = {Gait & Posture},
   Volume = {59},
   Pages = {18-22},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027},
   Abstract = {The assumption that the morphology of the human calcaneus
             reflects high and cyclical impact forces at heel strike
             during adult human walking has never been experimentally
             tested. Since a walking step with a heel strike is an
             emergent behavior in children, an ontogenetic study provides
             a natural experiment to begin testing the relationship
             between the mechanics of heel strike and calcaneal anatomy.
             This study examined the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of
             stepping in children to determine the location of the center
             of pressure (COP) relative to the calcaneus and the
             orientation and magnitude of ground reaction forces during
             foot contact. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data
             were analyzed for 18 children ranging in age from 11.5 to
             43.1 months. Early steppers used a flat foot contact (FFC)
             and experienced relatively high vertical and resultant GRFs
             with COP often anterior to the calcaneus. More experienced
             walkers used an initial heel contact (IHC) in which GRFs
             were significantly lower but the center of pressure remained
             under the heel a greater proportion of time. Thus, during
             FFC the foot experienced higher loading, but the heel itself
             was relatively wider and the load was distributed more
             evenly. In IHC walkers load was concentrated on the anterior
             calcaneus and a narrower heel, suggesting a need for
             increased calcaneal robusticity during development to
             mitigate injury. These results provide new insight into foot
             loading outside of typical mature contact patterns, inform
             structure-function relationships during development, and
             illuminate potential causes of heel injury in young
             walkers.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027},
   Key = {fds329281}
}


%% Simons, Elwyn L.   
@article{fds185143,
   Title = {Seiffert E.R., Simons E.L., & Attia Y. (2003) Fossil
             evidence for an ancient divergence of lorises and galagos.
             Nature 422: 421-424. PDF 

Simons E.L. (2001) The cranium of Parapithecus grangeri, an Egyptian Oligocene anthropoidean primate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 98: 7892-7897.

Simons E.L., Seiffert E.R., Chatrath P.S., & Attia Y. (2001) Earliest record of a parapithecid anthropoid from the Jebel Qatrani Formation, northern Egypt. Folia Primatol. 72: 316-331.

Seiffert E.R. & Simons E.L. (2001) Astragalar morphology of late Eocene anthropoids from the Fayum Depression (Egypt) and the origin of catarrhine primates. J. Hum. Evol. 41: 577-605.

Seiffert E.R., Simons E.L., & Fleagle J.G. (2000) Anthropoid humeri from the late Eocene of Egypt. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 97: 10062-10067.

Simons E.L. & Seiffert E.R. (1999) A partial skeleton of Proteopithecus sylviae (Primates, Anthropoidea): First associated dental and postcranial remains of an Eocene anthropoidean. C. R. Acad. Sci. II 329: 921-927.


Simons E.L., Plavcan J.M., & Fleagle J.G. (1999) Canine sexual dimorphism in Egyptian Eocene anthropoid primates: Catopithecus and Proteopithecus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 96: 2559-2562.

Simons E.L. (1998) The prosimian fauna of the Fayum Eocene/Oligocene deposits of Egypt. Folia Primatol. 69: (Suppl. 1): 286-294.

Simons E.L. (1997) Preliminary description of the cranium of Proteopithecus sylviae, an Egyptian late Eocene anthropoidean primate. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 94: 14970-14975.

Simons E.L. & Rasmussen D.T. (1996) Skull of Catopithecus browni, an early Tertiary catarrhine. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100: 261-292.

Wunderlich R.E., Simons E.L., & Jungers W.L. (1996) New pedal remains of Megaladapis and their functional significance. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 100: 115-138. }, Key = {fds185143} } %% Smith, Kathleen K. @article{fds340584, Author = {Smith, KK and Keyte, AL}, Title = {Adaptations of the Marsupial Newborn: Birth as an Extreme Environment.}, Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)}, Year = {2018}, Month = {December}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24049}, Abstract = {At birth a mammalian neonate enters an extreme environment compared to the intrauterine environment in which it has grown. This transition may be particularly extreme in marsupials because they are born at an exceedingly altricial state, after an exceptionally short gestation. Their stage of development must be considered embryonic by almost any criteria. Yet at this very early stage of development marsupials must travel to the teat, attach and suckle, and have basic functioning of all major physiological systems. In this article, we review the adaptations of the marsupial neonate for survival at an embryonic state, showing that the neonate exhibits a mosaic of accelerations and delays of various tissues and organs as well as several special adaptations to produce the functioning newborn. We then discuss the development of the craniofacial region, the body axis and limbs in order to detail some of the major changes to development leading to this uniquely configured neonate. We show that marsupial development arises out of a variety of heterochronies (changes in relative timing of events) and heterotopies (changes in location of specific developmental events) at the genetic, cellular and organ level. We argue that these data support hypotheses that many of the specific patterns seen in marsupial development arise from the basic constraint of embryonic energetic and tissue resources. Finally ideas on the evolutionary context of the marsupial developmental strategy are briefly reviewed. Anat Rec, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.}, Doi = {10.1002/ar.24049}, Key = {fds340584} } %% Struhsaker, Thomas T @article{fds342191, Author = {Struhsaker, TT and Angedakin, S and Landsmann, A}, Title = {Facial and genital lesions in baboons (Papio anubis) of Kibale National Park, Uganda.}, Journal = {Primates; Journal of Primatology}, Volume = {60}, Number = {2}, Pages = {109-112}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-019-00715-2}, Abstract = {We describe and document with digital images two adult male baboons (Papio anubis) from the Kibale National Park, Uganda who were infected with some kind of disease having clinical signs suggestive of Treponema pallidum. One of these males was missing his premaxilla, part of the maxilla, upper incisors, canines, and possibly the first premolars. The condition of his scrotum was not seen. The other adult male had prominent inflammation of his scrotum and, to a lesser extent, his penis. Otherwise, both males appeared normal and healthy and were apparently well integrated into the same social group. These observations suggest that an earlier report of an adult female baboon living in the same area who was missing her entire premaxilla and nose and most of her maxilla may have been suffering from a similar infection, rather than a congenital disorder, as previously speculated. If these lesions were due to T. pallidum infections, then this disease has a greater geographical distribution among non-human primates than previously known.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10329-019-00715-2}, Key = {fds342191} } %% Terborgh, John W. @article{fds342497, Author = {Terborgh, J and Zhu, K and Alvarez Loayza and P and Cornejo Valverde, F}, Title = {Seed limitation in an Amazonian floodplain forest.}, Journal = {Ecology}, Volume = {100}, Number = {5}, Pages = {e02642}, Year = {2019}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2642}, Abstract = {We monitored a close-spaced grid of 289 seed traps in 1.44 ha for 8.4 yr in an Amazonian floodplain forest. In a tree community containing hundreds of species, a median of just three to four species of tree seeds falls annually into each 0.5-m2 establishment site. The number of seed species reaching a given site increased linearly with time for the duration of the monitoring period, indicating a roughly random arrival of seed species in a given site-year. The number of seed species captured each year over the entire grid ranged from one-third to one-half of the total captured over the 8.4 yr of monitoring, revealing a substantial temporal component of variation in the seed rain. Seed rain at the 0.5-m2 scale displayed extreme spatial variability when all potentially viable seeds were tallied, whereas the rain of dispersed seeds was scant, more nearly uniform, and better mixed. Dispersal limitation, defined as failure of seeds to reach establishment sites, is ≥99% per year for a majority of species, explaining why seed augmentation experiments are often successful. Dispersal limitation has been evoked as an explanation for distance-dependent species turnover in tropical tree communities, but that interpretation contrasts with the fact that many Amazonian tree species possess large geographical ranges that extend for hundreds or thousands of kilometers. A better understanding of the processes that bridge the gap between the scales of seedling establishment and the regulation of forest composition will require new methodologies for studying dispersal on scales larger than those yet achieved.}, Doi = {10.1002/ecy.2642}, Key = {fds342497} } @article{fds342561, Author = {Levi, T and Barfield, M and Holt, RD and Terborgh, J}, Title = {Reply to Cannon and Lerdau: Maintenance of tropical forest tree diversity.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, Volume = {116}, Number = {17}, Pages = {8106}, Year = {2019}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902666116}, Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1902666116}, Key = {fds342561} } @article{fds339848, Author = {Esquivel-Muelbert, A and Baker, TR and Dexter, KG and Lewis, SL and Brienen, RJW and Feldpausch, TR and Lloyd, J and Monteagudo-Mendoza, A and Arroyo, L and Álvarez-Dávila, E and Higuchi, N and Marimon, BS and Marimon-Junior, BH and Silveira, M and Vilanova, E and Gloor, E and Malhi, Y and Chave, J and Barlow, J and Bonal, D and Davila Cardozo and N and Erwin, T and Fauset, S and Hérault, B and Laurance, S and Poorter, L and Qie, L and Stahl, C and Sullivan, MJP and Ter Steege and H and Vos, VA and Zuidema, PA and Almeida, E and Almeida de Oliveira and E and Andrade, A and Vieira, SA and Aragão, L and Araujo-Murakami, A and Arets, E and Aymard C, GA and Baraloto, C and Camargo, PB and Barroso, JG and Bongers, F and Boot, R and Camargo, JL and Castro, W and Chama Moscoso and V and Comiskey, J and Cornejo Valverde and F and Lola da Costa and AC and Del Aguila Pasquel and J and Di Fiore and A and Fernanda Duque and L and Elias, F and Engel, J and Flores Llampazo and G and Galbraith, D and Herrera Fernández and R and Honorio Coronado and E and Hubau, W and Jimenez-Rojas, E and Lima, AJN and Umetsu, RK and Laurance, W and Lopez-Gonzalez, G and Lovejoy, T and Aurelio Melo Cruz and O and Morandi, PS and Neill, D and Núñez Vargas, P and Pallqui Camacho and NC and Parada Gutierrez and A and Pardo, G and Peacock, J and Peña-Claros, M and Peñuela-Mora, MC and Petronelli, P and Pickavance, GC and Pitman, N and Prieto, A and Quesada, C and Ramírez-Angulo, H and Réjou-Méchain, M and Restrepo Correa and Z and Roopsind, A and Rudas, A and Salomão, R and Silva, N and Silva Espejo, J and Singh, J and Stropp, J and Terborgh, J and Thomas, R and Toledo, M and Torres-Lezama, A and Valenzuela Gamarra and L and van de Meer, PJ and van der Heijden, G and van der Hout, P and Vasquez Martinez and R and Vela, C and Vieira, ICG and Phillips, OL}, Title = {Compositional response of Amazon forests to climate change.}, Journal = {Global Change Biology}, Volume = {25}, Number = {1}, Pages = {39-56}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14413}, Abstract = {Most of the planet's diversity is concentrated in the tropics, which includes many regions undergoing rapid climate change. Yet, while climate-induced biodiversity changes are widely documented elsewhere, few studies have addressed this issue for lowland tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate whether the floristic and functional composition of intact lowland Amazonian forests have been changing by evaluating records from 106 long-term inventory plots spanning 30 years. We analyse three traits that have been hypothesized to respond to different environmental drivers (increase in moisture stress and atmospheric CO2 concentrations): maximum tree size, biogeographic water-deficit affiliation and wood density. Tree communities have become increasingly dominated by large-statured taxa, but to date there has been no detectable change in mean wood density or water deficit affiliation at the community level, despite most forest plots having experienced an intensification of the dry season. However, among newly recruited trees, dry-affiliated genera have become more abundant, while the mortality of wet-affiliated genera has increased in those plots where the dry season has intensified most. Thus, a slow shift to a more dry-affiliated Amazonia is underway, with changes in compositional dynamics (recruits and mortality) consistent with climate-change drivers, but yet to significantly impact whole-community composition. The Amazon observational record suggests that the increase in atmospheric CO2 is driving a shift within tree communities to large-statured species and that climate changes to date will impact forest composition, but long generation times of tropical trees mean that biodiversity change is lagging behind climate change.}, Doi = {10.1111/gcb.14413}, Key = {fds339848} } @article{fds340870, Author = {Levi, T and Barfield, M and Barrantes, S and Sullivan, C and Holt, RD and Terborgh, J}, Title = {Tropical forests can maintain hyperdiversity because of enemies.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, Volume = {116}, Number = {2}, Pages = {581-586}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1813211116}, Abstract = {Explaining the maintenance of tropical forest diversity under the countervailing forces of drift and competition poses a major challenge to ecological theory. Janzen-Connell effects, in which host-specific natural enemies restrict the recruitment of juveniles near conspecific adults, provide a potential mechanism. Janzen-Connell is strongly supported empirically, but existing theory does not address the stable coexistence of hundreds of species. Here we use high-performance computing and analytical models to demonstrate that tropical forest diversity can be maintained nearly indefinitely in a prolonged state of transient dynamics due to distance-responsive natural enemies. Further, we show that Janzen-Connell effects lead to community regulation of diversity by imposing a diversity-dependent cost to commonness and benefit to rarity. The resulting species-area and rank-abundance relationships are consistent with empirical results. Diversity maintenance over long time spans does not require dispersal from an external metacommunity, speciation, or resource niche partitioning, only a small zone around conspecific adults in which saplings fail to recruit. We conclude that the Janzen-Connell mechanism can explain the maintenance of tropical tree diversity while not precluding the operation of other niche-based mechanisms such as resource partitioning.}, Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1813211116}, Key = {fds340870} } @article{fds339311, Author = {Bastin, JF and Rutishauser, E and Kellner, JR and Saatchi, S and Pélissier, R and Hérault, B and Slik, F and Bogaert, J and De Cannière, C and Marshall, AR and Poulsen, J and Alvarez-Loyayza, P and Andrade, A and Angbonga-Basia, A and Araujo-Murakami, A and Arroyo, L and Ayyappan, N and de Azevedo, CP and Banki, O and Barbier, N and Barroso, JG and Beeckman, H and Bitariho, R and Boeckx, P and Boehning-Gaese, K and Brandão, H and Brearley, FQ and Breuer Ndoundou Hockemba and M and Brienen, R and Camargo, JLC and Campos-Arceiz, A and Cassart, B and Chave, J and Chazdon, R and Chuyong, G and Clark, DB and Clark, CJ and Condit, R and Honorio Coronado and EN and Davidar, P and de Haulleville, T and Descroix, L and Doucet, JL and Dourdain, A and Droissart, V and Duncan, T and Silva Espejo and J and Espinosa, S and Farwig, N and Fayolle, A and Feldpausch, TR and Ferraz, A and Fletcher, C and Gajapersad, K and Gillet, JF and Amaral, ILD and Gonmadje, C and Grogan, J and Harris, D and Herzog, SK and Homeier, J and Hubau, W and Hubbell, SP and Hufkens, K and Hurtado, J and Kamdem, NG and Kearsley, E and Kenfack, D and Kessler, M and Labrière, N and Laumonier, Y and Laurance, S and Laurance, WF and Lewis, SL and Libalah, MB and Ligot, G and Lloyd, J and Lovejoy, TE and Malhi, Y and Marimon, BS and Marimon Junior and BH and Martin, EH and Matius, P and Meyer, V and Mendoza Bautista, C and Monteagudo-Mendoza, A and Mtui, A and Neill, D and Parada Gutierrez and GA and Pardo, G and Parren, M and Parthasarathy, N and Phillips, OL and Pitman, NCA and Ploton, P and Ponette, Q and Ramesh, BR and Razafimahaimodison, JC and Réjou-Méchain, M and Rolim, SG}, Title = {Pan-tropical prediction of forest structure from the largest trees}, Journal = {Global Ecology and Biogeography}, Volume = {27}, Number = {11}, Pages = {1366-1383}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {November}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12803}, Abstract = {© 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: Large tropical trees form the interface between ground and airborne observations, offering a unique opportunity to capture forest properties remotely and to investigate their variations on broad scales. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and field inventories. To close this gap, we propose a new pan-tropical model to predict plot-level forest structure properties and biomass from only the largest trees. Location: Pan-tropical. Time period: Early 21st century. Major taxa studied: Woody plants. Methods: Using a dataset of 867 plots distributed among 118 sites across the tropics, we tested the prediction of the quadratic mean diameter, basal area, Lorey's height, community wood density and aboveground biomass (AGB) from the ith largest trees. Results: Measuring the largest trees in tropical forests enables unbiased predictions of plot- and site-level forest structure. The 20 largest trees per hectare predicted quadratic mean diameter, basal area, Lorey's height, community wood density and AGB with 12, 16, 4, 4 and 17.7% of relative error, respectively. Most of the remaining error in biomass prediction is driven by differences in the proportion of total biomass held in medium-sized trees (50–70 cm diameter at breast height), which shows some continental dependency, with American tropical forests presenting the highest proportion of total biomass in these intermediate-diameter classes relative to other continents. Main conclusions: Our approach provides new information on tropical forest structure and can be used to generate accurate field estimates of tropical forest carbon stocks to support the calibration and validation of current and forthcoming space missions. It will reduce the cost of field inventories and contribute to scientific understanding of tropical forest ecosystems and response to climate change.}, Doi = {10.1111/geb.12803}, Key = {fds339311} } @article{fds332893, Author = {Bagchi, R and Swamy, V and Latorre Farfan and JP and Terborgh, J and Vela, CIA and Pitman, NCA and Sanchez, WG}, Title = {Defaunation increases the spatial clustering of lowland Western Amazonian tree communities}, Journal = {Journal of Ecology}, Volume = {106}, Number = {4}, Pages = {1470-1482}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12929}, Abstract = {© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society Declines of large vertebrates in tropical forests may reduce dispersal of tree species that rely on them, and the resulting undispersed seedlings might suffer increased distance- and density-dependent mortality. Consequently, extirpation of large vertebrates may alter the composition and spatial structure of plant communities and impair ecosystem functions like carbon storage. We analysed spatial patterns of tree recruitment within six forest plots along a defaunation gradient in western Amazonia. We divided recruits into two size cohorts (“saplings”: ≥1 m tall and <1 cm diameter at breast height [dbh], and juveniles, 1–2 cm dbh) and examined the spatial organisation of conspecific recruits within each cohort (within-cohort) and around conspecific reproductive-sized trees (between-cohort). We used replicated spatial point pattern analysis to quantify relationships between recruit clustering and cohort, defaunation intensity, each tree species reliance on hunted dispersers and the interactions among these three covariates. Within-cohort clustering of conspecific saplings increased with reliance of tree species on hunted dispersers, and this trend strengthened significantly as defaunation increased, probably because of reduced dispersal. Within-cohort clustering of conspecifics declined from saplings to juveniles, suggesting density-dependent mortality of saplings. However, the positive relationship between sapling clustering and defaunation did not lead to greater reductions in within-cohort clustering during the sapling–juvenile transition, suggesting that higher conspecific densities did not translate into increased mortality. Instead, the increased spatial clustering associated with defaunation was retained for juvenile recruits. Between-cohort clustering was unrelated to defaunation and did not change during the sapling–juvenile transition. Synthesis. Defaunation increased spatial aggregation of saplings of tree species reliant on hunted dispersers. The increase in sapling clustering did not increase density-dependent thinning, and persisted into older recruit cohorts, suggesting that hunting may initiate long-term spatial reorganisation of Amazonian tree communities. The lack of increased density-dependent thinning indicates that reduced dispersal did not increase mortality of large-vertebrate dispersed tree species that contribute disproportionately to forest biomass. We, therefore, caution against the fait accompli acceptance of the prediction by recent modelling studies that overhunting will precipitate a collapse in carbon sequestration by tropical forests.}, Doi = {10.1111/1365-2745.12929}, Key = {fds332893} } @article{fds332329, Author = {Terborgh, JW and Davenport, LC and Belcon, AU and Katul, G and Swenson, JJ and Fritz, SC and Baker, PA}, Title = {Twenty-three-year timeline of ecological stable states and regime shifts in upper Amazon oxbow lakes}, Journal = {Hydrobiologia}, Volume = {807}, Number = {1}, Pages = {99-111}, Publisher = {Springer Nature}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3384-z}, Abstract = {© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. Regime shifts in shallow lakes are often associated with anthropogenic impacts, such as land-use change, non-point source nutrient loading, and overfishing. These shifts have mostly been examined in lakes in temperate and boreal regions and within anthropogenically disturbed basins. Here, it is demonstrated that tropical floodplain lakes in a region of virtually no human disturbance naturally undergo frequent regime shifts. We demonstrate this using satellite imagery to provide a 23-year time series of 22-oxbow lakes or “cochas” along 300 km of the Manu River in SE Perú. In any year, a majority of these lakes is in a macrophyte-free, phytoplankton-dominated state. However, over the 23 years covered by images, roughly a third of the lakes experienced abrupt shifts to a floating macrophyte state. Macrophyte cover persisted for ≤ 3 year. Analysis of water level fluctuations sampled on a subset of the lakes for 1 year suggests that lake isolation from streams and the main river facilitates regime shifts. Multiple forcing factors, both internal and external to the lakes themselves, could drive the observed regime shifts, but insufficient data exist from this remote region to identify the key processes.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10750-017-3384-z}, Key = {fds332329} } @article{fds332330, Author = {Gomes, VHF and IJff, SD and Raes, N and Amaral, IL and Salomão, RP and de Souza Coelho and L and de Almeida Matos and FD and Castilho, CV and de Andrade Lima Filho and D and López, DC and Guevara, JE and Magnusson, WE and Phillips, OL and Wittmann, F and de Jesus Veiga Carim and M and Martins, MP and Irume, MV and Sabatier, D and Molino, J-F and Bánki, OS and da Silva Guimarães, JR and Pitman, NCA and Piedade, MTF and Mendoza, AM and Luize, BG and Venticinque, EM and de Leão Novo and EMM and Vargas, PN and Silva, TSF and Manzatto, AG and Terborgh, J and Reis, NFC and Montero, JC and Casula, KR and Marimon, BS and Marimon, B-H and Coronado, ENH and Feldpausch, TR and Duque, A and Zartman, CE and Arboleda, NC and Killeen, TJ and Mostacedo, B and Vasquez, R and Schöngart, J and Assis, RL and Medeiros, MB and Simon, MF and Andrade, A and Laurance, WF and Camargo, JL and Demarchi, LO and Laurance, SGW and de Sousa Farias and E and Nascimento, HEM and Revilla, JDC and Quaresma, A and Costa, FRC and Vieira, ICG and Cintra, BBL and Castellanos, H and Brienen, R and Stevenson, PR and Feitosa, Y and Duivenvoorden, JF and Aymard C and GA and Mogollón, HF and Targhetta, N and Comiskey, JA and Vicentini, A and Lopes, A and Damasco, G and Dávila, N and García-Villacorta, R and Levis, C and Schietti, J and Souza, P and Emilio, T and Alonso, A and Neill, D and Dallmeier, F and Ferreira, LV and Araujo-Murakami, A and Praia, D and do Amaral, DD and Carvalho, FA and de Souza, FC and Feeley, K and Arroyo, L and Pansonato, MP and Gribel, R and Villa, B and Licona, JC and Fine, PVA and Cerón, C and Baraloto, C and Jimenez, EM and Stropp, J and Engel, J and Silveira, M and Mora, MCP and Petronelli, P and Maas, P and Thomas-Caesar, R and Henkel, TW and Daly, D and Paredes, MR and Baker, TR and Fuentes, A and Peres, CA and Chave, J and Pena, JLM and Dexter, KG and Silman, MR and Jørgensen, PM and Pennington, T and Di Fiore and A and Valverde, FC and Phillips, JF and Rivas-Torres, G and von Hildebrand, P and van Andel, TR and Ruschel, AR and Prieto, A and Rudas, A and Hoffman, B and Vela, CIA and Barbosa, EM and Zent, EL and Gonzales, GPG and Doza, HPD and de Andrade Miranda and IP and Guillaumet, J-L and Pinto, LFM and de Matos Bonates and LC and Silva, N and Gómez, RZ and Zent, S and Gonzales, T and Vos, VA and Malhi, Y and Oliveira, AA and Cano, A and Albuquerque, BW and Vriesendorp, C and Correa, DF and Torre, EV and van der Heijden, G and Ramirez-Angulo, H and Ramos, JF and Young, KR and Rocha, M and Nascimento, MT and Medina, MNU and Tirado, M and Wang, O and Sierra, R and Torres-Lezama, A and Mendoza, C and Ferreira, C and Baider, C and Villarroel, D and Balslev, H and Mesones, I and Giraldo, LEU and Casas, LF and Reategui, MAA and Linares-Palomino, R and Zagt, R and Cárdenas, S and Farfan-Rios, W and Sampaio, AF and Pauletto, D and Sandoval, EHV and Arevalo, FR and Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, I and Garcia-Cabrera, K and Hernandez, L and Gamarra, LV and Alexiades, MN and Pansini, S and Cuenca, WP and Milliken, W and Ricardo, J and Lopez-Gonzalez, G and Pos, E and Ter Steege, H}, Title = {Species Distribution Modelling: Contrasting presence-only models with plot abundance data.}, Journal = {Scientific Reports}, Volume = {8}, Number = {1}, Pages = {1003}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18927-1}, Abstract = {Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used in ecology and conservation. Presence-only SDMs such as MaxEnt frequently use natural history collections (NHCs) as occurrence data, given their huge numbers and accessibility. NHCs are often spatially biased which may generate inaccuracies in SDMs. Here, we test how the distribution of NHCs and MaxEnt predictions relates to a spatial abundance model, based on a large plot dataset for Amazonian tree species, using inverse distance weighting (IDW). We also propose a new pipeline to deal with inconsistencies in NHCs and to limit the area of occupancy of the species. We found a significant but weak positive relationship between the distribution of NHCs and IDW for 66% of the species. The relationship between SDMs and IDW was also significant but weakly positive for 95% of the species, and sensitivity for both analyses was high. Furthermore, the pipeline removed half of the NHCs records. Presence-only SDM applications should consider this limitation, especially for large biodiversity assessments projects, when they are automatically generated without subsequent checking. Our pipeline provides a conservative estimate of a species' area of occupancy, within an area slightly larger than its extent of occurrence, compatible to e.g. IUCN red list assessments.}, Doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-18927-1}, Key = {fds332330} } @article{fds332894, Author = {Terborgh, J and Davenport, LC and Ong, L and Campos-Arceiz, A}, Title = {Foraging impacts of Asian megafauna on tropical rain forest structure and biodiversity}, Journal = {Biotropica}, Volume = {50}, Number = {1}, Pages = {84-89}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/btp.12488}, Abstract = {© 2017 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation Megaherbivores are known to influence the structure, composition, and diversity of vegetation. In Central Africa, forest elephants act as ecological filters by breaking tree saplings and stripping them of foliage. Much less is known about impacts of megafauna on Southeast Asian rain forests. Here, we ask whether herbivory by Asian megafauna has impacts analogous to those of African forest elephants. To answer this, we studied forest (1) structure, (2) composition, (3) diversity, and (4) tree scars in Belum and Krau, two protected areas of Peninsular Malaysia, and compared the results with those obtained in African forests. Elephants are abundant in Belum but have been absent in Krau since 1993. We found that stem density and diversity, especially of tree saplings, were higher in Krau than in Belum. Palms and other monocots were also more abundant in Krau. In Belum, however, small monocots (<1 m tall) were very abundant but larger ones (>1 m tall) were virtually absent, suggesting size-selective removal. The frequency of stem-break scars was equal at Belum and Krau but less than in Central Africa and greater than in the Peruvian Amazon where tapirs are the only megafauna. Pigs and tapirs could also contribute to the high frequency of tree scars recorded in Malaysian forests. Forest-dwelling elephants in Asia seem to have a reduced impact on tree saplings compared to African forest elephants, but a very strong impact on monocots.}, Doi = {10.1111/btp.12488}, Key = {fds332894} } %% Tomasello, Michael @article{fds329385, Author = {Hepach, R and Vaish, A and Müller, K and Tomasello, M}, Title = {The relation between young children's physiological arousal and their motivation to help others.}, Journal = {Neuropsychologia}, Volume = {126}, Pages = {113-119}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.010}, Abstract = {Children are motivated to help others from an early age. However, little is known about the internal biological mechanisms underlying their motivation to help. Here, we compiled data from five separate studies in which children, ranging in age from 18 months to 5.5 years, witnessed an adult needing help. In all studies, we assessed both (1) children's internal physiological arousal via changes in their pupil dilation, and (2) the latency and likelihood of them providing help. The results showed that the greater the baseline-corrected change in children's internal arousal in response to witnessing the need situation, the faster and more likely children were to help the adult. This was not the case for the baseline measure of children's tonic arousal state. Together, these results suggest that children's propensity to help is systematically related to their physiological arousal after they witness others needing help. This sheds new light on the biological mechanisms underlying not only young children's social perception but also their prosocial motivation more generally.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.010}, Key = {fds329385} } @article{fds326700, Author = {Kachel, U and Svetlova, M and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Three-Year-Olds' Reactions to a Partner's Failure to Perform Her Role in a Joint Commitment.}, Journal = {Child Development}, Volume = {89}, Number = {5}, Pages = {1691-1703}, Year = {2018}, Month = {September}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12816}, Abstract = {When children make a joint commitment to collaborate, obligations are created. Pairs of 3-year-old children (N = 144) made a joint commitment to play a game. In three different conditions the game was interrupted in the middle either because: (a) the partner child intentionally defected, (b) the partner child was ignorant about how to play, or (c) the apparatus broke. The subject child reacted differently in the three cases, protesting normatively against defection (with emotional arousal and later tattling), teaching when the partner seemed to be ignorant, or simply blaming the apparatus when it broke. These results suggest that 3-year-old children are competent in making appropriate normative evaluations of intentions and obligations of collaborative partners.}, Doi = {10.1111/cdev.12816}, Key = {fds326700} } @article{fds333648, Author = {Kachel, G and Moore, R and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Two-year-olds use adults' but not peers' points.}, Journal = {Developmental Science}, Volume = {21}, Number = {5}, Pages = {e12660}, Year = {2018}, Month = {September}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12660}, Abstract = {In the current study, 24- to 27-month-old children (N = 37) used pointing gestures in a cooperative object choice task with either peer or adult partners. When indicating the location of a hidden toy, children pointed equally accurately for adult and peer partners but more often for adult partners. When choosing from one of three hiding places, children used adults' pointing to find a hidden toy significantly more often than they used peers'. In interaction with peers, children's choice behavior was at chance level. These results suggest that toddlers ascribe informative value to adults' but not peers' pointing gestures, and highlight the role of children's social expectations in their communicative development.}, Doi = {10.1111/desc.12660}, Key = {fds333648} } @article{fds332985, Author = {Tomasello, M}, Title = {Great Apes and Human Development: A Personal History}, Journal = {Child Development Perspectives}, Volume = {12}, Number = {3}, Pages = {189-193}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {September}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12281}, Abstract = {© 2018 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2018 The Society for Research in Child Development In this article, I recount my history of research with great apes. From the beginning, the idea was to compare apes to human children, with an eye to discovering facts relevant to describing and explaining processes of human development. The research went through three more or less distinct stages, focusing on communication and social learning, social cognition and theory of mind, and cooperation and shared intentionality. I conclude by identifying problems and prospects for comparative research in developmental psychology.}, Doi = {10.1111/cdep.12281}, Key = {fds332985} } @article{fds337395, Author = {Tomasello, M}, Title = {How children come to understand false beliefs: A shared intentionality account.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, Volume = {115}, Number = {34}, Pages = {8491-8498}, Year = {2018}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1804761115}, Abstract = {To predict and explain the behavior of others, one must understand that their actions are determined not by reality but by their beliefs about reality. Classically, children come to understand beliefs, including false beliefs, at about 4-5 y of age, but recent studies using different response measures suggest that even infants (and apes!) have some skills as well. Resolving this discrepancy is not possible with current theories based on individual cognition. Instead, what is needed is an account recognizing that the key processes in constructing an understanding of belief are social and mental coordination with other persons and their (sometimes conflicting) perspectives. Engaging in such social and mental coordination involves species-unique skills and motivations of shared intentionality, especially as they are manifest in joint attention and linguistic communication, as well as sophisticated skills of executive function to coordinate the different perspectives involved. This shared intentionality account accords well with documented differences in the cognitive capacities of great apes and human children, and it explains why infants and apes pass some versions of false-belief tasks whereas only older children pass others.}, Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1804761115}, Key = {fds337395} } @article{fds335757, Author = {Bohn, M and Zimmermann, L and Call, J and Tomasello, M}, Title = {The social-cognitive basis of infants' reference to absent entities.}, Journal = {Cognition}, Volume = {177}, Pages = {41-48}, Year = {2018}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.03.024}, Abstract = {Recent evidence suggests that infants as young as 12 month of age use pointing to communicate about absent entities. The tacit assumption underlying these studies is that infants do so based on tracking what their interlocutor experienced in a previous shared interaction. The present study addresses this assumption empirically. In three experiments, 12-month-old infants could request additional desired objects by pointing to the location in which these objects were previously located. We systematically varied whether the adult from whom infants were requesting had previously experienced the former content of the location with the infant. Infants systematically adjusted their pointing to the now empty location to what they experienced with the adult previously. These results suggest that infants' ability to communicate about absent referents is based on an incipient form of common ground.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2018.03.024}, Key = {fds335757} } @article{fds333647, Author = {House, BR and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Modeling social norms increasingly influences costly sharing in middle childhood.}, Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology}, Volume = {171}, Pages = {84-98}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.12.014}, Abstract = {Prosocial and normative behavior emerges in early childhood, but substantial changes in prosocial behavior in middle childhood may be due to it becoming integrated with children's understanding of what is normative. Here we show that information about what is normative begins influencing children's costly sharing in middle childhood in a sample of 6- to 11-year-old German children. Information about what is normative was most influential when indicating what was "right" (i.e., "The right thing is to choose this"). It was less influential when indicating what was prescribed by a rule (i.e., "There is a rule that says to choose this") or when it indicated what the majority of people do (i.e., "Most people choose this"). These findings support the idea that middle childhood is when social norms begin to shape children's costly sharing and provide insight into the psychological foundations of the relationship between norms and prosocial behavior.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.12.014}, Key = {fds333647} } @article{fds329386, Author = {Domberg, A and Köymen, B and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Children's reasoning with peers in cooperative and competitive contexts.}, Journal = {British Journal of Developmental Psychology}, Volume = {36}, Number = {1}, Pages = {64-77}, Year = {2018}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12213}, Abstract = {We report two studies that demonstrate how five- and seven-year-olds adapt their production of arguments to either a cooperative or a competitive context. Two games elicited agreements from peer dyads about placing animals on either of two halves of a playing field owned by either child. Children had to produce arguments to justify these decisions. Played in a competitive context that encouraged placing animals on one's own half, children's arguments showed a bias that was the result of withholding known arguments. In a cooperative context, children produced not only more arguments, but also more 'two-sided' arguments. Also, seven-year-olds demonstrated a more frequent and strategic use of arguments that specifically refuted decisions that would favour their peers. The results suggest that cooperative contexts provide a more motivating context for children to produce arguments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Reasoning is a social skill that allows people to reach joint decisions. Preschoolers give reasons for their proposals in their peer conversations. By adolescence, children use sophisticated arguments (e.g., refutations and rebuttals). What the present study adds? Cooperation offers a more motivating context for children's argument production. Seven-year-olds are more strategic than five-year-olds in their reasoning with peers. Children's reasoning with others becomes more sophisticated after preschool years.}, Doi = {10.1111/bjdp.12213}, Key = {fds329386} } @article{fds331567, Author = {Vaish, A and Hepach, R and Tomasello, M}, Title = {The specificity of reciprocity: Young children reciprocate more generously to those who intentionally benefit them.}, Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology}, Volume = {167}, Pages = {336-353}, Publisher = {Elsevier BV}, Year = {2018}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.005}, Abstract = {Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits. Our findings support this third, richer possibility; the 3-year-olds who received benefits through the good intentions of a benefactor were subsequently more generous toward the benefactor than children who either (a) received the same benefits from the benefactor unintentionally or (b) observed the benefactor bestow the same benefits on another individual. Thus, young children are especially motivated to benefit those who have demonstrated goodwill toward them, suggesting, as one possible mechanism, an early sense of gratitude.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.005}, Key = {fds331567} } @article{fds332984, Author = {Tomasello, M and Call, J}, Title = {Thirty years of great ape gestures.}, Journal = {Animal Cognition}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-018-1167-1}, Abstract = {We and our colleagues have been doing studies of great ape gestural communication for more than 30 years. Here we attempt to spell out what we have learned. Some aspects of the process have been reliably established by multiple researchers, for example, its intentional structure and its sensitivity to the attentional state of the recipient. Other aspects are more controversial. We argue here that it is a mistake to assimilate great ape gestures to the species-typical displays of other mammals by claiming that they are fixed action patterns, as there are many differences, including the use of attention-getters. It is also a mistake, we argue, to assimilate great ape gestures to human gestures by claiming that they are used referentially and declaratively in a human-like manner, as apes' "pointing" gesture has many limitations and they do not gesture iconically. Great ape gestures constitute a unique form of primate communication with their own unique qualities.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10071-018-1167-1}, Key = {fds332984} } @article{fds330413, Author = {Köymen, B and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Children's meta-talk in their collaborative decision making with peers.}, Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology}, Volume = {166}, Pages = {549-566}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.09.018}, Abstract = {In collaborative decision making, children must evaluate the evidence behind their respective claims and the rationality of their respective proposals with their partners. In the main study, 5- and 7-year-old peer dyads (N = 196) were presented with a novel animal. In the key condition, children in a dyad individually received conflicting information about what the animal needs (e.g., rocks vs. sand for food) from sources that differ in reliability (with first-hand vs. indirect evidence). Dyads in both age groups were able to reliably settle on the option with the best supporting evidence. Moreover, in making their decision, children, especially 7-year-olds, engaged in various kinds of meta-talk about the evidence and its validity. In a modified version of the key condition in Study 2, 3- and 5-year-olds (N = 120) interacted with a puppet who tried to convince children to change their minds by producing meta-talk. When the puppet insisted and produced meta-talk, 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, were more likely to change their minds if their information was unreliable. These results suggest that even preschoolers can engage in collaborative reasoning successfully, but the ability to reflect on the process by stepping back to jointly examine the evidence emerges only during the early school years.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.09.018}, Key = {fds330413} } @article{fds330414, Author = {Engelmann, JM and Herrmann, E and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Concern for Group Reputation Increases Prosociality in Young Children.}, Journal = {Psychological Science}, Volume = {29}, Number = {2}, Pages = {181-190}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797617733830}, Abstract = {The motivation to build and maintain a positive personal reputation promotes prosocial behavior. But individuals also identify with their groups, and so it is possible that the desire to maintain or enhance group reputation may have similar effects. Here, we show that 5-year-old children actively invest in the reputation of their group by acting more generously when their group's reputation is at stake. Children shared significantly more resources with fictitious other children not only when their individual donations were public rather than private but also when their group's donations (effacing individual donations) were public rather than private. These results provide the first experimental evidence that concern for group reputation can lead to higher levels of prosociality.}, Doi = {10.1177/0956797617733830}, Key = {fds330414} } @article{fds332050, Author = {Mammen, M and Köymen, B and Tomasello, M}, Title = {The reasons young children give to peers when explaining their judgments of moral and conventional rules.}, Journal = {Developmental Psychology}, Volume = {54}, Number = {2}, Pages = {254-262}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000424}, Abstract = {Moral justifications work, when they do, by invoking values that are shared in the common ground of the interlocutors. We asked 3- and 5-year-old peer dyads (N = 144) to identify and punish norm transgressors. In the moral condition, the transgressor violated a moral norm (e.g., by stealing); in the social rules condition, she/he violated a context-specific rule (e.g., by placing a yellow toy in a green box, instead of a yellow box). Children in both age groups justified their punishment in the social rules condition mostly by referring to the rule (e.g., "He must put yellow toys in the yellow box"). In contrast, in the moral condition they mostly justified their punishment by simply referring to the observed fact (e.g., "He stole"), seeing no need to state the norm involved (e.g., "He must not steal"), presumably because they assumed this as part of their moral common ground with their partner. These results suggest that preschoolers assume certain common ground moral values with their peers and use these in formulating explicit moral judgments and justifications. (PsycINFO Database Record}, Doi = {10.1037/dev0000424}, Key = {fds332050} } @article{fds329017, Author = {Grocke, P and Rossano, F and Tomasello, M}, Title = {Young children are more willing to accept group decisions in which they have had a voice.}, Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology}, Volume = {166}, Pages = {67-78}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.08.003}, Abstract = {People accept an unequal distribution of resources if they judge that the decision-making process was fair. In this study, 3- and 5-year-old children played an allocation game with two puppets. The puppets decided against a fair distribution in all conditions, but they allowed children to have various degrees of participation in the decision-making process. Children of both ages protested less when they were first asked to agree with the puppets' decision compared with when there was no agreement. When ignored, the younger children protested less than the older children-perhaps because they did not expect to have a say in the process-whereas they protested more when they were given an opportunity to voice their opinion-perhaps because their stated opinion was ignored. These results suggest that during the preschool years, children begin to expect to be asked for their opinion in a decision, and they accept disadvantageous decisions if they feel that they have had a voice in the decision-making process.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.08.003}, Key = {fds329017} } @article{fds335758, Author = {Halina, M and Liebal, K and Tomasello, M}, Title = {The goal of ape pointing.}, Journal = {Plos One}, Volume = {13}, Number = {4}, Pages = {e0195182}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195182}, Abstract = {Captive great apes regularly use pointing gestures in their interactions with humans. However, the precise function of this gesture is unknown. One possibility is that apes use pointing primarily to direct attention (as in "please look at that"); another is that they point mainly as an action request (such as "can you give that to me?"). We investigated these two possibilities here by examining how the looking behavior of recipients affects pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Upon pointing to food, subjects were faced with a recipient who either looked at the indicated object (successful-look) or failed to look at the indicated object (failed-look). We predicted that, if apes point primarily to direct attention, subjects would spend more time pointing in the failed-look condition because the goal of their gesture had not been met. Alternatively, we expected that, if apes point primarily to request an object, subjects would not differ in their pointing behavior between the successful-look and failed-look conditions because these conditions differed only in the looking behavior of the recipient. We found that subjects did differ in their pointing behavior across the successful-look and failed-look conditions, but contrary to our prediction subjects spent more time pointing in the successful-look condition. These results suggest that apes are sensitive to the attentional states of gestural recipients, but their adjustments are aimed at multiple goals. We also found a greater number of individuals with a strong right-hand than left-hand preference for pointing.}, Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0195182}, Key = {fds335758} } %% Tung, Jenny @article{fds342761, Author = {Grieneisen, LE and Charpentier, MJE and Alberts, SC and Blekhman, R and Bradburd, G and Tung, J and Archie, EA}, Title = {Genes, geology and germs: gut microbiota across a primate hybrid zone are explained by site soil properties, not host species.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences}, Volume = {286}, Number = {1901}, Pages = {20190431}, Year = {2019}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.0431}, Abstract = {Gut microbiota in geographically isolated host populations are often distinct. These differences have been attributed to between-population differences in host behaviours, environments, genetics and geographical distance. However, which factors are most important remains unknown. Here, we fill this gap for baboons by leveraging information on 13 environmental variables from 14 baboon populations spanning a natural hybrid zone. Sampling across a hybrid zone allowed us to additionally test whether phylosymbiosis (codiversification between hosts and their microbiota) is detectable in admixed, closely related primates. We found little evidence of genetic effects: none of host genetic ancestry, host genetic relatedness nor genetic distance between host populations were strong predictors of baboon gut microbiota. Instead, gut microbiota were best explained by the baboons' environments, especially the soil's geologic history and exchangeable sodium. Indeed, soil effects were 15 times stronger than those of host-population FST, perhaps because soil predicts which foods are present, or because baboons are terrestrial and consume soil microbes incidentally with their food. Our results support an emerging picture in which environmental variation is the dominant predictor of host-associated microbiomes. We are the first to show that such effects overshadow host species identity among members of the same primate genus.}, Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2019.0431}, Key = {fds342761} } @article{fds341043, Author = {Devoto, AE and Santini, JM and Olm, MR and Anantharaman, K and Munk, P and Tung, J and Archie, EA and Turnbaugh, PJ and Seed, KD and Blekhman, R and Aarestrup, FM and Thomas, BC and Banfield, JF}, Title = {Megaphages infect Prevotella and variants are widespread in gut microbiomes.}, Journal = {Nature Microbiology}, Volume = {4}, Number = {4}, Pages = {693-700}, Year = {2019}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0338-9}, Abstract = {Bacteriophages (phages) dramatically shape microbial community composition, redistribute nutrients via host lysis and drive evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Despite their importance, much remains to be learned about phages in the human microbiome. We investigated the gut microbiomes of humans from Bangladesh and Tanzania, two African baboon social groups and Danish pigs; many of these microbiomes contain phages belonging to a clade with genomes >540 kilobases in length, the largest yet reported in the human microbiome and close to the maximum size ever reported for phages. We refer to these as Lak phages. CRISPR spacer targeting indicates that Lak phages infect bacteria of the genus Prevotella. We manually curated to completion 15 distinct Lak phage genomes recovered from metagenomes. The genomes display several interesting features, including use of an alternative genetic code, large intergenic regions that are highly expressed and up to 35 putative transfer RNAs, some of which contain enigmatic introns. Different individuals have distinct phage genotypes, and shifts in variant frequencies over consecutive sampling days reflect changes in the relative abundance of phage subpopulations. Recent homologous recombination has resulted in extensive genome admixture of nine baboon Lak phage populations. We infer that Lak phages are widespread in gut communities that contain the Prevotella species, and conclude that megaphages, with fascinating and underexplored biology, may be common but largely overlooked components of human and animal gut microbiomes.}, Doi = {10.1038/s41564-018-0338-9}, Key = {fds341043} } @article{fds341045, Author = {Vilgalys, TP and Rogers, J and Jolly, CJ and Mukherjee, S and Tung, J}, Title = {Evolution of DNA Methylation in Papio Baboons.}, Journal = {Molecular Biology and Evolution}, Volume = {36}, Number = {3}, Pages = {527-540}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy227}, Abstract = {Changes in gene regulation have long been thought to play an important role in primate evolution. However, although a number of studies have compared genome-wide gene expression patterns across primate species, fewer have investigated the gene regulatory mechanisms that underlie such patterns, or the relative contribution of drift versus selection. Here, we profiled genome-scale DNA methylation levels in blood samples from five of the six extant species of the baboon genus Papio (4-14 individuals per species). This radiation presents the opportunity to investigate DNA methylation divergence at both shallow and deeper timescales (0.380-1.4 My). In contrast to studies in human populations, but similar to studies in great apes, DNA methylation profiles clearly mirror genetic and geographic structure. Divergence in DNA methylation proceeds fastest in unannotated regions of the genome and slowest in regions of the genome that are likely more constrained at the sequence level (e.g., gene exons). Both heuristic approaches and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models suggest that DNA methylation levels at a small set of sites have been affected by positive selection, and that this class is enriched in functionally relevant contexts, including promoters, enhancers, and CpG islands. Our results thus indicate that the rate and distribution of DNA methylation changes across the genome largely mirror genetic structure. However, at some CpG sites, DNA methylation levels themselves may have been a target of positive selection, pointing to loci that could be important in connecting sequence variation to fitness-related traits.}, Doi = {10.1093/molbev/msy227}, Key = {fds341045} } @article{fds341046, Author = {Wango, TL and Musiega, D and Mundia, CN and Altmann, J and Alberts, SC and Tung, J}, Title = {Climate and Land Cover Analysis Suggest No Strong Ecological Barriers to Gene Flow in a Natural Baboon Hybrid Zone}, Journal = {International Journal of Primatology}, Volume = {40}, Number = {1}, Pages = {53-70}, Year = {2019}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-017-9989-2}, Abstract = {© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Admixture between diverging taxa has made, and continues to make, an important contribution to primate diversity and evolution. However, although naturally occurring hybrids have now been documented in all major primate lineages, we still know relatively little about the factors that shape when and where admixture occurs. Baboons (genus Papio), in which multiple natural hybrid zones are well described, provide a valuable system to investigate these factors. Here, we combined Geographic Information Systems and weather station data with information on genetically characterized populations in southern Kenya to investigate if ecological variables present a potential barrier to gene flow between anubis baboons and yellow baboons in the region. Specifically, we asked if altitude, seasonal temperature, or seasonal precipitation differ for weather stations in anubis, yellow, or hybrid ranges in southern Kenya, and if land cover or altitude covary with population ancestry near the hybrid zone. Our analyses suggest that the range of yellow baboons in Kenya is climatically distinct from the range of anubis baboons, with hybrids in intermediate regions. However, we identified no clear pattern of climate or land cover differentiation near the hybrid zone itself. Thus, when yellow baboons and anubis baboons come into contact, our data suggest that the resulting population composition is not consistently predicted by the ecological variables we considered. Our results support the designation of baboons as highly flexible “generalists,” and suggest that more fine-grained analyses (e.g., relative success in ecologically stressful years) may be necessary to detect clear signals of ecological barriers to gene flow.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10764-017-9989-2}, Key = {fds341046} } @article{fds341729, Author = {Rogers, J and Raveendran, M and Harris, RA and Mailund, T and Leppälä, K and Athanasiadis, G and Schierup, MH and Cheng, J and Munch, K and Walker, JA and Konkel, MK and Jordan, V and Steely, CJ and Beckstrom, TO and Bergey, C and Burrell, A and Schrempf, D and Noll, A and Kothe, M and Kopp, GH and Liu, Y and Murali, S and Billis, K and Martin, FJ and Muffato, M and Cox, L and Else, J and Disotell, T and Muzny, DM and Phillips-Conroy, J and Aken, B and Eichler, EE and Marques-Bonet, T and Kosiol, C and Batzer, MA and Hahn, MW and Tung, J and Zinner, D and Roos, C and Jolly, CJ and Gibbs, RA and Worley, KC and Baboon Genome Analysis Consortium}, Title = {The comparative genomics and complex population history of Papio baboons.}, Journal = {Science Advances}, Volume = {5}, Number = {1}, Pages = {eaau6947}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau6947}, Abstract = {Recent studies suggest that closely related species can accumulate substantial genetic and phenotypic differences despite ongoing gene flow, thus challenging traditional ideas regarding the genetics of speciation. Baboons (genus Papio) are Old World monkeys consisting of six readily distinguishable species. Baboon species hybridize in the wild, and prior data imply a complex history of differentiation and introgression. We produced a reference genome assembly for the olive baboon (Papio anubis) and whole-genome sequence data for all six extant species. We document multiple episodes of admixture and introgression during the radiation of Papio baboons, thus demonstrating their value as a model of complex evolutionary divergence, hybridization, and reticulation. These results help inform our understanding of similar cases, including modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other ancient hominins.}, Doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aau6947}, Key = {fds341729} } @article{fds341496, Author = {Debray, R and Snyder-Mackler, N and Kohn, JN and Wilson, ME and Barreiro, LB and Tung, J}, Title = {Social affiliation predicts mitochondrial DNA copy number in female rhesus macaques.}, Journal = {Biology Letters}, Volume = {15}, Number = {1}, Pages = {20180643}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0643}, Abstract = {In many social mammals, social adversity predicts compromised health and reduced fitness. These effects are thought to be driven in part by chronic social stress, but their molecular underpinnings are not well understood. Recent work suggests that chronic stress can affect mitochondrial copy number, heteroplasmy rates and function. Here, we tested the first two possibilities for the first time in non-human primates. We manipulated dominance rank in captive female rhesus macaques ( n = 45), where low rank induces chronic social stress, and measured mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and heteroplasmy in five peripheral blood mononuclear cell types from each study subject. We found no effect of dominance rank on either mtDNA copy number or heteroplasmy rates. However, grooming rate, a measure of affiliative social behaviour predicted by high social status, was positively associated with mtDNA copy number in B cells, cytotoxic T cells and monocytes. Our results suggest that social interactions can influence mtDNA regulation in immune cells. Further, they indicate the importance of considering both affiliative and competitive interactions in investigating this relationship.}, Doi = {10.1098/rsbl.2018.0643}, Key = {fds341496} } @article{fds341044, Author = {Snyder-Mackler, N and Sanz, J and Kohn, JN and Voyles, T and Pique-Regi, R and Wilson, ME and Barreiro, LB and Tung, J}, Title = {Social status alters chromatin accessibility and the gene regulatory response to glucocorticoid stimulation in rhesus macaques.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, Volume = {116}, Number = {4}, Pages = {1219-1228}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1811758115}, Abstract = {Low social status is an important predictor of disease susceptibility and mortality risk in humans and other social mammals. These effects are thought to stem in part from dysregulation of the glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated stress response. However, the molecular mechanisms that connect low social status and GC dysregulation to downstream health outcomes remain elusive. Here, we used an in vitro GC challenge to investigate the consequences of experimentally manipulated social status (i.e., dominance rank) for immune cell gene regulation in female rhesus macaques, using paired control and GC-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. We show that social status not only influences immune cell gene expression but also chromatin accessibility at hundreds of regions in the genome. Social status effects on gene expression were less pronounced following GC treatment than under control conditions. In contrast, social status effects on chromatin accessibility were stable across conditions, resulting in an attenuated relationship between social status, chromatin accessibility, and gene expression after GC exposure. Regions that were more accessible in high-status animals and regions that become more accessible following GC treatment were enriched for a highly concordant set of transcription factor binding motifs, including motifs for the GC receptor cofactor AP-1. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that social status alters the dynamics of GC-mediated gene regulation and identify chromatin accessibility as a mechanism involved in social stress-driven GC resistance. More broadly, they emphasize the context-dependent nature of social status effects on gene regulation and implicate epigenetic remodeling of chromatin accessibility as a contributing factor.}, Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1811758115}, Key = {fds341044} } @article{fds342137, Author = {Snyder-Mackler, N and Voyles, T and Tung, J}, Title = {Generating RNA Baits for Capture-Based Enrichment.}, Journal = {Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)}, Volume = {1963}, Pages = {107-120}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9176-1_12}, Abstract = {Capture-based enrichment techniques have revolutionized genomic analysis of species and populations for which only low-quality or contaminated DNA samples (e.g., ancient DNA, noninvasively collected DNA, environmental DNA) are available. This chapter outlines an optimized laboratory protocol for generating RNA "baits" for genome-wide capture of target DNA from a larger pool of DNA. This method relies on the in vitro transcription of biotinylated RNA baits, which has the dual benefit of eliminating the high cost of synthesizing custom baits and producing a bait set that targets the majority of regions genome-wide. We provide a detailed protocol for the three main steps involved in bait library construction: (1) making a DNA library from a high-quality DNA sample for the organism of interest or a closely related species; (2) using duplex-specific nuclease digestion to reduce the representation of repetitive regions in the DNA library; and (3) performing in vitro transcription of the repetitive region-depleted DNA library to generate biotinylated RNA baits. Where applicable, we include notes and recommendations based on our own experiences.}, Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4939-9176-1_12}, Key = {fds342137} } @article{fds340588, Author = {Lea, AJ and Vockley, CM and Johnston, RA and Del Carpio and CA and Barreiro, LB and Reddy, TE and Tung, J}, Title = {Genome-wide quantification of the effects of DNA methylation on human gene regulation.}, Journal = {Elife}, Volume = {7}, Year = {2018}, Month = {December}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.37513}, Abstract = {Changes in DNA methylation are involved in development, disease, and the response to environmental conditions. However, not all regulatory elements are functionally methylation-dependent (MD). Here, we report a method, mSTARR-seq, that assesses the causal effects of DNA methylation on regulatory activity at hundreds of thousands of fragments (millions of CpG sites) simultaneously. Using mSTARR-seq, we identify thousands of MD regulatory elements in the human genome. MD activity is partially predictable using sequence and chromatin state information, and distinct transcription factors are associated with higher activity in unmethylated versus methylated DNA. Further, pioneer TFs linked to higher activity in the methylated state appear to drive demethylation of experimentally methylated sites. MD regulatory elements also predict methylation-gene expression relationships across individuals, where they are 1.6x enriched among sites with strong negative correlations. mSTARR-seq thus provides a map of MD regulatory activity in the human genome and facilitates interpretation of differential methylation studies.}, Doi = {10.7554/eLife.37513}, Key = {fds340588} } @article{fds340756, Author = {Lea, AJ and Akinyi, MY and Nyakundi, R and Mareri, P and Nyundo, F and Kariuki, T and Alberts, SC and Archie, EA and Tung, J}, Title = {Dominance rank-associated gene expression is widespread, sex-specific, and a precursor to high social status in wild male baboons.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America}, Volume = {115}, Number = {52}, Pages = {E12163-E12171}, Year = {2018}, Month = {December}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1811967115}, Abstract = {In humans and other hierarchical species, social status is tightly linked to variation in health and fitness-related traits. Experimental manipulations of social status in female rhesus macaques suggest that this relationship is partially explained by status effects on immune gene regulation. However, social hierarchies are established and maintained in different ways across species: While some are based on kin-directed nepotism, others emerge from direct physical competition. We investigated how this variation influences the relationship between social status and immune gene regulation in wild baboons, where hierarchies in males are based on fighting ability but female hierarchies are nepotistic. We measured rank-related variation in gene expression levels in adult baboons of both sexes at baseline and in response to ex vivo stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We identified >2,000 rank-associated genes in males, an order of magnitude more than in females. In males, high status predicted increased expression of genes involved in innate immunity and preferential activation of the NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory pathway, a pattern previously associated with low status in female rhesus macaques. Using Mendelian randomization, we reconcile these observations by demonstrating that high status-associated gene expression patterns are precursors, not consequences, of high social status in males, in support of the idea that physiological condition determines who attains high rank. Together, our work provides a test of the relationship between social status and immune gene regulation in wild primates. It also emphasizes the importance of social context in shaping the relationship between social status and immune function.}, Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1811967115}, Key = {fds340756} } @article{fds337435, Author = {Lea, A and Akinyi, M and Nyakundi, R and Mareri, P and Nyundo, F and Kariuki, T and Alberts, S and Archie, E and Tung, J}, Title = {Dominance rank-associated immune gene expression is widespread, sex-specific, and a precursor to high social status in wild male baboons}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/366021}, Abstract = {In humans and other hierarchical species, social status is tightly linked to variation in health and fitness-related traits. Experimental manipulations of social status in female rhesus macaques suggest that this relationship is partially explained by status effects on immune gene regulation. However, social hierarchies are established and maintained in different ways across species: while some are based on kin-directed nepotism, others emerge from direct physical competition. We investigated how this variation influences the relationship between social status and immune gene regulation in wild baboons, where hierarchies in males are based on fighting ability but female hierarchies are nepotistic. We measured rank-related variation in gene expression levels in adult baboons of both sexes at baseline and in response to ex vivo stimulation with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We identified >2000 rank-associated genes in males, an order of magnitude more than in females. In males, high status predicted increased expression of genes involved in innate immunity and preferential activation of the NFkB-mediated pro-inflammatory pathway, a pattern previously associated with low status in female rhesus macaques. Using Mendelian randomization, we reconcile these observations by demonstrating that high status-associated gene expression patterns are precursors, not consequences, of high social status in males, in support of the idea that physiological condition determines who attains high rank. Together, our work provides the first test of the relationship between social status and immune gene regulation in wild primates. It also emphasizes the importance of social context in shaping the relationship between social status and immune function.}, Doi = {10.1101/366021}, Key = {fds337435} } %% Valenta, Kim @article{fds342762, Author = {Zohdy, S and Valenta, K and Rabaoarivola, B and Karanewsky, CJ and Zaky, W and Pilotte, N and Williams, SA and Chapman, CA and Farris, ZJ}, Title = {Causative agent of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) detected in wild lemurs.}, Journal = {International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife}, Volume = {9}, Pages = {119-121}, Year = {2019}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.04.005}, Abstract = {The lemurs of Madagascar are threatened by human activities. We present the first molecular detection of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in a wild non-human primate, the mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus). Zoonotic D. immitis infection has been associated with clinical pathology that includes serious and often fatal cardiac and pulmonary reactions. With human encroachment and associated increases in free-roaming dog populations in Madagascar, we examined lemurs for zoonotic canid pathogens. D. immitis presents a new potential conservation threat to lemurs. We highlight the need for wide-ranging and effective interventions, particularly near protected areas, to address this growing conservation issue.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.ijppaw.2019.04.005}, Key = {fds342762} } @article{fds342352, Author = {Sarkar, D and Chapman, CA and Valenta, K and Angom, SC and Kagoro, W and Sengupta, R}, Title = {A Tiered Analysis of Community Benefits and Conservation Engagement from the Makerere University Biological Field Station, Uganda}, Journal = {The Professional Geographer}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00330124.2018.1547976}, Abstract = {© 2019, © 2019 by American Association of Geographers. Conservation plans have evolved beyond biodiversity protection to include the welfare of the communities surrounding protected areas. Local community engagement initiatives include development of ecotourism, revenue-sharing arrangements, and resource access agreements. Although research stations are common in African national parks, their contributions to biodiversity protection and community benefits have seldom featured in the literature. In this article, we consider whether community benefits accruing from field research stations are effective and indicate how they could promote community–park relationships. We employ a mixed methods approach to understand the impacts on the local community of a field station located in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We find that the presence of a research station in Kibale National Park provides long-term direct employment for fifty-two people and indirect, cascading benefits for up to 720 people several kilometers away. Additionally, other important community benefits, primarily health care and education, are associated with the research field station. Although benefits of the research station do not eliminate community–park conflict, the long-term presence of researchers and the gains to local people associated with them are underappreciated and important means to better integrate the goals of biodiversity protection and local community investment. Key Words: community perception, conservation evaluation, economic benefits, inclusive conservation plans, park–people interaction, research station, Uganda.}, Doi = {10.1080/00330124.2018.1547976}, Key = {fds342352} } @article{fds340867, Author = {Kirumira, D and Baranga, D and Hartter, J and Valenta, K and Tumwesigye, C and Kagoro, W and Chapman, C}, Title = {Evaluating a union between health care and conservation: A mobile clinic improves park-people relations, yet poaching increases}, Journal = {Conservation and Society}, Volume = {17}, Number = {1}, Pages = {51-62}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/cs.cs_17_72}, Abstract = {© 2018 Kirumira et al. It is widely viewed that by providing employment or services to neighbouring communities, a protected area may increase positive attitudes towards conservation and discourage encroachment, but this is rarely tested. Our research examines this view by evaluating local attitudes towards the park and incidence of encroachment before and after the implementation of a novel conservation strategy- A mobile health clinic-in the predominantly agricultural communities bordering Kibale National Park, Uganda. The implementation of the mobile clinic programme coincided with a more positive attitude towards the park and a decrease in the number of people who 'disliked' the park. Despite this, the incidence of encroachment increased. There are a number of possible explanations for this contradiction, including respondents giving answers they believe will maintain the service they appreciate, and that while the local community may appreciate the mobile clinic, this appreciation is not sufficient to make people alter their behaviour because of tradition or need (e.g., the need among the very poor to feed their family or send a child to school is very high). Overall, people typically expressed that they did not have a problem with living adjacent to the park, except for the harm done by crop-raiding animals. However, local people expressed the view that they receive few benefits from the park- A perception that might be improved with more extensive use of the mobile clinic.}, Doi = {10.4103/cs.cs_17_72}, Key = {fds340867} } @article{fds339287, Author = {Nevo, O and Valenta, K and Razafimandimby, D and Melin, AD and Ayasse, M and Chapman, CA}, Title = {Frugivores and the evolution of fruit colour.}, Journal = {Biology Letters}, Volume = {14}, Number = {9}, Year = {2018}, Month = {September}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0377}, Abstract = {The ecological function of fruit colour has been the focus of many studies. The most commonly tested hypothesis is that fruit colour has evolved to facilitate detection by seed-dispersing animals. We tested whether distributions of fruit colours are consistent with the hypothesis that colour is an evolved signal to seed dispersers using a comparative community approach. We compared the contrast between ripe fruits and leaf backgrounds at two sites, one in Madagascar where seed dispersers are primarily night-active, red-green colour-blind lemurs, and the other in Uganda, where most vertebrate seed dispersers are day-active primates and birds with greater capacity for colour vision. We show that fruits in Uganda have higher contrast against leaf background in the red-green and luminance channels whereas fruits in Madagascar contrast more in the yellow-blue channel. These results indicate that fruit colour has evolved to contrast against background leaves in response to the visual capabilities of local seed disperser communities.}, Doi = {10.1098/rsbl.2018.0377}, Key = {fds339287} } @article{fds338477, Author = {Valenta, K and Kalbitzer, U and Razafimandimby, D and Omeja, P and Ayasse, M and Chapman, CA and Nevo, O}, Title = {The evolution of fruit colour: phylogeny, abiotic factors and the role of mutualists.}, Journal = {Scientific Reports}, Volume = {8}, Number = {1}, Pages = {14302}, Year = {2018}, Month = {September}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32604-x}, Abstract = {The adaptive significance of fruit colour has been investigated for over a century. While colour can fulfil various functions, the most commonly tested hypothesis is that it has evolved to increase fruit visual conspicuousness and thus promote detection and consumption by seed dispersing animals. However, fruit colour is a complex trait which is subjected to various constraints and selection pressures. As a result, the effect of animal selection on fruit colour are often difficult to identify, and several studies have failed to detect it. Here, we employ an integrative approach to examine what drives variation in fruit colour. We quantified the colour of ripe fruit and mature leaves of 97 tropical plant species from three study sites in Madagascar and Uganda. We used phylogenetically controlled models to estimate the roles of phylogeny, abiotic factors, and dispersal mode on fruit colour variation. Our results show that, independent of phylogeny and leaf coloration, mammal dispersed fruits are greener than bird dispersed fruits, while the latter are redder than the former. In addition, fruit colour does not correlate with leaf colour in the visible spectrum, but fruit reflection in the ultraviolet area of the spectrum is strongly correlated with leaf reflectance, emphasizing the role of abiotic factors in determining fruit colour. These results demonstrate that fruit colour is affected by both animal sensory ecology and abiotic factors and highlight the importance of an integrative approach which controls for the relevant confounding factors.}, Doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-32604-x}, Key = {fds338477} } @article{fds342353, Author = {Brown, KA and MacDougall, LK and Valenta, K and Simor, A and Johnstone, J and Mubareka, S and Broukhanski, G and Garber, G and McGeer, A and Daneman, N}, Title = {Increased environmental sample area and recovery of Clostridium difficile spores from hospital surfaces by quantitative PCR and enrichment culture.}, Journal = {Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology}, Volume = {39}, Number = {8}, Pages = {917-923}, Year = {2018}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.103}, Abstract = {OBJECTIVE:Clostridium difficile spores play an important role in transmission and can survive in the environment for several months. Optimal methods for measuring environmental C. difficile are unknown. We sought to determine whether increased sample surface area improved detection of C. difficile from environmental samples. SETTING:Samples were collected from 12 patient rooms in a tertiary-care hospital in Toronto, Canada. METHODS:Samples represented small surface-area and large surface-area floor and bedrail pairs from single-bed rooms of patients with low (without prior antibiotics), medium (with prior antibiotics), and high (C. difficile infected) shedding risk. Presence of C. difficile in samples was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with targets on the 16S rRNA and toxin B genes and using enrichment culture. RESULTS:Of the 48 samples, 64·6% were positive by 16S qPCR (geometric mean, 13·8 spores); 39·6% were positive by toxin B qPCR (geometric mean, 1·9 spores); and 43·8% were positive by enrichment culture. By 16S qPCR, each 10-fold increase in sample surface area yielded 6·6 times (95% CI, 3·2-13) more spores. Floor surfaces yielded 27 times (95% CI, 4·9-181) more spores than bedrails, and rooms of C. difficile-positive patients yielded 11 times (95% CI, 0·55-164) more spores than those of patients without prior antibiotics. Toxin B qPCR and enrichment culture returned analogous findings. CONCLUSIONS:Clostridium difficile spores were identified in most floor and bedrail samples, and increased surface area improved detection. Future research aiming to understand the role of environmental C. difficile in transmission should prefer samples with large surface areas.}, Doi = {10.1017/ice.2018.103}, Key = {fds342353} } @article{fds338478, Author = {Paim, FP and Valenta, K and Chapman, CA and Paglia, AP and de Queiroz, HL}, Title = {Tree community structure reflects niche segregation of three parapatric squirrel monkey species (Saimiri spp.).}, Journal = {Primates; Journal of Primatology}, Volume = {59}, Number = {4}, Pages = {395-404}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10329-018-0659-6}, Abstract = {Integration between ecology and biogeography provides insights into how niche specialization affects the geographical distribution of species. Given that rivers are not effective barriers to dispersal in three parapatric species of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri vanzolinii, S. cassiquiarensis and S. macrodon) inhabiting floodplain forests of Central Amazonia, we tested whether forest structure and tree diversity may explain species differences in niche specialization and spatial segregation. We sampled 6617 trees of 326 species in three habitats (high várzea, low várzea and chavascal) used by three Saimiri species, and estimated tree species richness in each of them. For each tree, we measured variables known to influence habitat use in primates, such as crown area and presence of lianas, epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes. We used ANOVA to compare these variables and performed multivariate analyses (NMDS, ANOSIM and SIMPER) to evaluate dissimilarities in forest structure among each habitat inhabited by the three Saimiri species. We identified differences in the tree species richness, crown area and presence of lianas, epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes between the three habitats for all Saimiri species. NMDS demonstrated that areas of high and low várzeas occupied by S. vanzolinii were clearly separated from the other species. We also found that different plant species contributed to dissimilarity among Saimiri ranges. Our findings support the hypothesis that tree community structure may promote niche specialization and spatial segregation among primates. We discuss how these patterns could have been favored by historical changes in forest flood patterns, the evolutionary history of Saimiri spp., and past competition.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10329-018-0659-6}, Key = {fds338478} } @article{fds340242, Author = {Valenta, K and Nevo, O and Chapman, CA}, Title = {Primate Fruit Color: Useful Concept or Alluring Myth?}, Journal = {International Journal of Primatology}, Volume = {39}, Number = {3}, Pages = {321-337}, Publisher = {Springer Nature America, Inc}, Year = {2018}, Month = {June}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-018-0025-y}, Abstract = {© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. While the importance of frugivorous primates as seed dispersers is well established, the question of the extent to which they exert selective pressure on fruit color phenotypes is contested. Numerous studies have identified suites of primate fruit colors, but the lack of agreement among them illustrates the difficulty of identifying the match between primate foraging behavior and the extent of primate–plant coevolution. This may indicate that primates do not shape fruit traits, at least in a consistent direction, or that the evolution of fruit color is affected by a complex array of selection pressures in which primates play only a part. Here, we review the role of primates in shaping fruit color in the context of primate color vision phenotypes, and fruit phenotypic constraints and selective pressures. To test the hypothesis that fruit color is subjected to selection pressures by primates, we offer six testable predictions aimed at disentangling the complex array of factors that can contribute to fruit color phenotypes, including animal mutualists, animal antagonists, and developmental and phylogenetic constraints of fruits. We conclude that identifying the importance of primate seed dispersers in shaping fruit visual traits is possible, but more complex than previously thought.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10764-018-0025-y}, Key = {fds340242} } @article{fds340243, Author = {Nevo, O and Valenta, K}, Title = {The Ecology and Evolution of Fruit Odor: Implications for Primate Seed Dispersal}, Journal = {International Journal of Primatology}, Volume = {39}, Number = {3}, Pages = {338-355}, Publisher = {Springer Nature America, Inc}, Year = {2018}, Month = {June}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10764-018-0021-2}, Abstract = {© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Primates are now known to possess a keen sense of smell that serves them in various contexts, including feeding. Many primate species are frugivorous and provide essential seed dispersal services to a variety of plants. Studies of pollination ecology, and recently seed dispersal ecology, indicate that animal mutualist behavior exerts selection pressures that drive changes in flower and fruit traits. As a result, the use of olfaction in in primate feeding ecology may have affected the evolution of fruit odor in species that rely on primate seed dispersal. However, this hypothesis is seldom tested. Here, we summarize the available information on how primates may have affected the evolution of fruit odor. We ask what the chemistry of primate fruit odor may look like, what information fruit odor may convey, whether there are geographical differences in fruit odor, and what other factors may affect the odor of fruits consumed by primates. We identify many gaps in the available data and offer research questions, hypotheses, and predictions for future studies. Finally, to facilitate standardization in the field, we discuss methodological issues in the process of odor sampling and analysis.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10764-018-0021-2}, Key = {fds340243} } @article{fds338479, Author = {Adamescu, GS and Plumptre, AJ and Abernethy, KA and Polansky, L and Bush, ER and Chapman, CA and Shoo, LP and Fayolle, A and Janmaat, KRL and Robbins, MM and Ndangalasi, HJ and Cordeiro, NJ and Gilby, IC and Wittig, RM and Breuer, T and Hockemba, MBN and Sanz, CM and Morgan, DB and Pusey, AE and Mugerwa, B and Gilagiza, B and Tutin, C and Ewango, CEN and Sheil, D and Dimoto, E and Baya, F and Bujo, F and Ssali, F and Dikangadissi, JT and Jeffery, K and Valenta, K and White, L and Masozera, M and Wilson, ML and Bitariho, R and Ndolo Ebika and ST and Gourlet-Fleury, S and Mulindahabi, F and Beale, CM}, Title = {Annual cycles are the most common reproductive strategy in African tropical tree communities}, Journal = {Biotropica}, Volume = {50}, Number = {3}, Pages = {418-430}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/btp.12561}, Abstract = {© 2018 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation We present the first cross-continental comparison of the flowering and fruiting phenology of tropical forests across Africa. Flowering events of 5446 trees from 196 species across 12 sites and fruiting events of 4595 trees from 191 species across 11 sites were monitored over periods of 6 to 29 years and analyzed to describe phenology at the continental level. To study phenology, we used Fourier analysis to identify the dominant cycles of flowering and fruiting for each individual tree and we identified the time of year African trees bloom and bear fruit and their relationship to local seasonality. Reproductive strategies were diverse, and no single regular cycle was found in >50% of individuals across all 12 sites. Additionally, we found annual flowering and fruiting cycles to be the most common. Sub-annual cycles were the next most common for flowering, whereas supra-annual patterns were the next most common for fruiting. We also identify variation in different subsets of species, with species exhibiting mainly annual cycles most common in West and West Central African tropical forests, while more species at sites in East Central and East African forests showed cycles ranging from sub-annual to supra-annual. Despite many trees showing strong seasonality, at most sites some flowering and fruiting occurred all year round. Environmental factors with annual cycles are likely to be important drivers of seasonal periodicity in trees across Africa, but proximate triggers are unlikely to be constant across the continent.}, Doi = {10.1111/btp.12561}, Key = {fds338479} } @article{fds338480, Author = {Chapman, CA and Valenta, K and Bonnell, TR and Brown, KA and Chapman, LJ}, Title = {Solar radiation and ENSO predict fruiting phenology patterns in a 15-year record from Kibale National Park, Uganda}, Journal = {Biotropica}, Volume = {50}, Number = {3}, Pages = {384-395}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/btp.12559}, Abstract = {© 2018 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation Fruiting, flowering, and leaf set patterns influence many aspects of tropical forest communities, but there are few long-term studies examining potential drivers of these patterns, particularly in Africa. We evaluated a 15-year dataset of tree phenology in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to identify abiotic predictors of fruit phenological patterns and discuss our findings in light of climate change. We quantified fruiting for 326 trees from 43 species and evaluated these patterns in relation to solar radiance, rainfall, and monthly temperature. We used time-lagged variables based on seasonality in linear regression models to assess the effect of abiotic variables on the proportion of fruiting trees. Annual fruiting varied over 3.8-fold, and inter-annual variation in fruiting is associated with the extent of fruiting in the peak period, not variation in time of fruit set. While temperature and rainfall showed positive effects on fruiting, solar radiance in the two-year period encompassing a given year and the previous year was the strongest predictor of fruiting. As solar irradiance was the strongest predictor of fruiting, the projected increase in rainfall associated with climate change, and coincident increase in cloud cover suggest that climate change will lead to a decrease in fruiting. ENSO in the prior 24-month period was also significantly associated with annual ripe fruit production, and ENSO is also affected by climate change. Predicting changes in phenology demands understanding inter-annual variation in fruit dynamics in light of potential abiotic drivers, patterns that will only emerge with long-term data.}, Doi = {10.1111/btp.12559}, Key = {fds338480} } @article{fds338481, Author = {Chapman, CA and Bortolamiol, S and Matsuda, I and Omeja, PA and Paim, FP and Reyna-Hurtado, R and Sengupta, R and Valenta, K}, Title = {Primate population dynamics: variation in abundance over space and time}, Journal = {Biodiversity and Conservation}, Volume = {27}, Number = {5}, Pages = {1221-1238}, Publisher = {Springer Nature}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10531-017-1489-3}, Abstract = {© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature. The rapid disappearance of tropical forests, the potential impacts of climate change, and the increasing threats of bushmeat hunting to wildlife, makes it imperative that we understand wildlife population dynamics. With long-lived animals this requires extensive, long-term data, but such data is often lacking. Here we present longitudinal data documenting changes in primate abundance over 45 years at eight sites in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Complex patterns of change in primate abundance were dependent on site, sampling year, and species, but all species, except blue monkeys, colonized regenerating forest, indicating that park-wide populations are increasing. At two paired sites, we found that while the primate populations in the regenerating forests had increased from nothing to a substantial size, there was little evidence of a decline in the source populations in old-growth forest, with the possible exception of mangabeys at one of the paired sites. Censuses conducted in logged forest since 1970 demonstrated that for all species, except black-and-white colobus, the encounter rate was higher in the old-growth and lightly-logged forest than in heavily-logged forest. Black-and-white colobus generally showed the opposite trend and were most common in the heavily-logged forest in all but the first year of monitoring after logging, when they were most common in the lightly-logged forest. Overall, except for blue monkey populations which are declining, primate populations in Kibale National Park are growing; in fact the endangered red colobus populations have an annual growth rate of 3%. These finding present a positive conservation message and indicate that the Uganda Wildlife Authority is being effective in managing its biodiversity; however, with constant poaching pressure and changes such as the exponential growth of elephant populations that could cause forest degradation, continued monitoring and modification of conservation plans are needed.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10531-017-1489-3}, Key = {fds338481} } %% Wall, Christine E. @article{fds340868, Author = {Granatosky, MC and Bryce, CM and Hanna, J and Fitzsimons, A and Laird, MF and Stilson, K and Wall, CE and Ross, CF}, Title = {Inter-stride variability triggers gait transitions in mammals and birds.}, Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences}, Volume = {285}, Number = {1893}, Pages = {20181766}, Year = {2018}, Month = {December}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1766}, Abstract = {Speed-related gait transitions occur in many animals, but it remains unclear what factors trigger gait changes. While the most widely accepted function of gait transitions is that they reduce locomotor costs, there is no obvious metabolic trigger signalling animals when to switch gaits. An alternative approach suggests that gait transitions serve to reduce locomotor instability. While there is evidence supporting this in humans, similar research has not been conducted in other species. This study explores energetics and stride variability during the walk-run transition in mammals and birds. Across nine species, energy savings do not predict the occurrence of a gait transition. Instead, our findings suggest that animals trigger gait transitions to maintain high locomotor rhythmicity and reduce unstable states. Metabolic efficiency is an important benefit of gait transitions, but the reduction in dynamic instability may be the proximate trigger determining when those transitions occur.}, Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.1766}, Key = {fds340868} } @article{fds337013, Author = {Wall, CE and Holmes, M and Soderblom, EJ and Taylor, AB}, Title = {Proteomics and immunohistochemistry identify the expression of α-cardiac myosin heavy chain in the jaw-closing muscles of sooty mangabeys (order Primates).}, Journal = {Arch Oral Biol}, Volume = {91}, Pages = {103-108}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019}, Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The jaw-closing muscles of humans and nonprimate mammals express alpha-cardiac fibers but MyHC α-cardiac has not been identified in the jaw adductors of nonhuman primates. We determined whether MyHC α-cardiac is expressed in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an African Old World monkey that specializes on hard seeds. DESIGN: LC-MS/MS based proteomics was used to identify the presence of MyHC Iα. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the composition and distribution of fiber types in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of eight C. atys. Serial sections were stained against MyHC α-cardiac (MYH6), as well as MyHC-1 (NOQ7.5.4D), MyHC-2 (MY-32), and MyHC-M (2F4). RESULTS: Proteomics analysis identified the presence of Myosin-6 (MyHC α-cardiac) in both heart atrium and superficial masseter. MyHC α-cardiac was expressed in abundance in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of all eight individuals and hybrid fibers were common. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MyHC α-cardiac in the jaw adductors of sooty mangabeys is a novel finding for nonhuman primates. The abundance of MyHC α-cardiac indicates a fatigue-resistant fiber population characterized by intermediate speed of contraction between pure MyHC-1 and MyHC-2 isoforms. We suggest that α-cardiac fibers may be advantageous to sooty mangabeys, whose feeding behavior includes frequent crushing of relatively large, hard seeds during the power stroke of ingestion. Additional studies comparing jaw-adductor fiber phenotype of hard-object feeding primates and other mammals are needed to explore this relationship further.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019}, Key = {fds337013} } @article{fds331563, Author = {Huq, E and Taylor, AB and Su, Z and Wall, CE}, Title = {Fiber type composition of epaxial muscles is geared toward facilitating rapid spinal extension in the leaper Galago senegalensis.}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {166}, Number = {1}, Pages = {95-106}, Year = {2018}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23405}, Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared to those of N. coucang. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles of G. senegalensis (n = 3) and N. coucang (n = 3). Serial muscle sections were used to estimate and compare proportions, cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and %CSAs of Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers between species. RESULTS: Epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis were comprised predominantly of Type 2 fibers with large CSAs (%CSA range ≈ 83-94%; range of mean CSA = 1,218-1,586 μm2 ). N. coucang epaxial muscles were comprised predominantly Type 1 fibers with large CSAs (%CSA range ≈ 69-77%; range of mean CSA = 983-1,220 μm2 ). DISCUSSION: The predominance of Type 2 fibers in G. senegalensis epaxial muscles facilitates rapid muscle excursion and spinal extension during leaping, and is consistent with their relatively long muscle fibers. The predominance of Type 1 fibers in N. coucang epaxial muscles may aid in maintaining stable postures during bridging and cantilevering behaviors characteristic of slow-climbing. These histochemical characteristics highlight the major divergent locomotor repertoires of G. senegalensis and N. coucang.}, Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23405}, Key = {fds331563} } %% Williams, Blythe A. @misc{fds339574, Author = {Kirk, EC and Williams, BA}, Title = {Corrigendum to "New adapiform primate of Old World affinities from the Devil's Graveyard Formation of Texas" [J Hum Evol 61 (2011) 156-168].}, Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution}, Volume = {125}, Pages = {1}, Year = {2018}, Month = {December}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.008}, Abstract = {© 2011 Elsevier Ltd Kirk and Williams (2011:157) erected the genus Mescalerolemur, but on page 158 the new genus name was misspelled due to a printer's error as “Mescalolemur” in combination with the correct species epithet “horneri”. The principle of First Reviewer does not apply in this case (ICZN, 1999:Art. 24.2.5), as the etymology section states that the name derives from “Mescalero” (Kirk and Williams, 2011:158), and therefore there is clear evidence in the original publication itself that “Mescalolemur” is an incorrect spelling. It can be therefore concluded that Mescalerolemur Kirk and Williams, 2011 is the correct original spelling and that “Mescalolemur” is an incorrect original spelling, unavailable from a nomenclatural viewpoint.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.08.008}, Key = {fds339574} } @article{fds341813, Author = {Pampush, JD and Morse, PE and Chester, SGB and Spradley, JP and Williams, BA and Glander, KE and Teaford, MF and Kay, RF}, Title = {Dental Topography and Food Processing in Wild-Caught Costa Rican Alouatta}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {165}, Pages = {198-198}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, Key = {fds341813} } @misc{fds339741, Author = {Bhandari, A and Kay, RF and Williams, BA and Tiwari, BN and Bajpai, S and Hieronymus, T}, Title = {First record of the Miocene hominoid Sivapithecus from Kutch, Gujarat state, western India.}, Journal = {Plos One}, Volume = {13}, Number = {11}, Pages = {e0206314}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206314}, Abstract = {Hominoid remains from Miocene deposits in India and Pakistan have played a pivotal role in understanding the evolution of great apes and humans since they were first described in the 19th Century. We describe here a hominoid maxillary fragment preserving the canine and cheek teeth collected in 2011 from the Kutch (= Kachchh) basin in the Kutch district, Gujarat state, western India. A basal Late Miocene age is proposed based on the associated faunal assemblage that includes Hipparion and other age-diagnostic mammalian taxa. Miocene Hominoidea are known previously from several areas of the Siwalik Group in the outer western Himalayas of India, Pakistan, and Nepal. This is the first record of a hominoid from the Neogene of the Kutch Basin and represents a significant southern range extension of Miocene hominoids in the Indian peninsula. The specimen is assigned to the Genus Sivapithecus, species unspecified.}, Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0206314}, Key = {fds339741} } %% Wray, Gregory A. @article{fds343523, Author = {Davidson, PL and Thompson, JW and Foster, MW and Moseley, MA and Byrne, M and Wray, GA}, Title = {A comparative analysis of egg provisioning using mass spectrometry during rapid life history evolution in sea urchins.}, Journal = {Evol Dev}, Year = {2019}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ede.12289}, Abstract = {A dramatic life history switch that has evolved numerous times in marine invertebrates is the transition from planktotrophic (feeding) to lecithotrophic (nonfeeding) larval development-an evolutionary tradeoff with many important developmental and ecological consequences. To attain a more comprehensive understanding of the molecular basis for this switch, we performed untargeted lipidomic and proteomic liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on eggs and larvae from three sea urchin species: the lecithotroph Heliocidaris erythrogramma, the closely related planktotroph Heliocidaris tuberculata, and the distantly related planktotroph Lytechinus variegatus. We identify numerous molecular-level changes possibly associated with the evolution of lecithotrophy in H. erythrogramma. We find the massive lipid stores of H. erythrogramma eggs are largely composed of low-density, diacylglycerol ether lipids that, contrary to expectations, appear to support postmetamorphic development and survivorship. Rapid premetamorphic development in this species may instead be powered by upregulated carbohydrate metabolism or triacylglycerol metabolism. We also find proteins involved in oxidative stress regulation are upregulated in H. erythrogramma eggs, and apoB-like lipid transfer proteins may be important for echinoid oogenic nutrient provisioning. These results demonstrate how mass spectrometry can enrich our understanding of life history evolution and organismal diversity by identifying specific molecules associated with distinct life history strategies and prompt new hypotheses about how and why these adaptations evolve.}, Doi = {10.1111/ede.12289}, Key = {fds343523} } @article{fds341866, Author = {Wray, GA and Haag, ES}, Title = {Rudolf A. Raff (1941-2019).}, Journal = {Nature Ecology and Evolution}, Volume = {3}, Number = {4}, Pages = {518-519}, Year = {2019}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0844-z}, Doi = {10.1038/s41559-019-0844-z}, Key = {fds341866} } @article{fds340750, Author = {Oulhen, N and Foster, S and Wray, G and Wessel, G}, Title = {Identifying gene expression from single cells to single genes.}, Journal = {Methods in Cell Biology}, Volume = {151}, Pages = {127-158}, Publisher = {Elsevier}, Year = {2019}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.mcb.2018.11.018}, Abstract = {Gene regulatory networks reveal how transcription factors contribute to a dynamic cascade of cellular information processing. Recent advances in technologies have enhanced the toolkit for testing GRN mechanisms and connections. Here we emphasize three approaches that we have found important for interrogating transcriptional mechanisms in echinoderms: single cell mRNA sequencing (drop-seq), nascent RNA detection and identification, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We present these applications in order since it is a logical experimental protocol. With preliminary information from bulk mRNA transcriptome analysis and differential gene expression studies (DE-seq), one may need to test in what specific cells important genes may be expressed and to use single cell sequencing to define such links. Nascent RNA analysis with the Click-iT chemistry allows the investigator to deduce when the RNA was transcribed, not just identify its presence, and ChIP allows the investigator to study direct interactions of putative transcriptional regulators with the gene promoter of interest. This flow of thinking, and the technologies to support it, is presented here for echinoderms. While many of the procedures are general and applicable to many organisms and cell types, we emphasize unique aspects of the protocols for consideration in using echinoderm embryos, larvae, and adult tissues.}, Doi = {10.1016/bs.mcb.2018.11.018}, Key = {fds340750} } @article{fds339391, Author = {Eisthen, HL and Halanych, KM and Kelley, DB and White, SA and Phelps, SM and 66 additional authors}, Title = {New NSF policy will stifle innovation.}, Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)}, Volume = {362}, Number = {6412}, Pages = {297-298}, Publisher = {AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE}, Year = {2018}, Month = {October}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aav4793}, Doi = {10.1126/science.aav4793}, Key = {fds339391} } @article{fds337324, Author = {Bryois, J and Garrett, ME and Song, L and Safi, A and Giusti-Rodriguez, P and Johnson, GD and Shieh, AW and Buil, A and Fullard, JF and Roussos, P and Sklar, P and Akbarian, S and Haroutunian, V and Stockmeier, CA and Wray, GA and White, KP and Liu, C and Reddy, TE and Ashley-Koch, A and Sullivan, PF and Crawford, GE}, Title = {Evaluation of chromatin accessibility in prefrontal cortex of individuals with schizophrenia.}, Journal = {Nature Communications}, Volume = {9}, Number = {1}, Pages = {3121}, Year = {2018}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05379-y}, Abstract = {Schizophrenia genome-wide association studies have identified >150 regions of the genome associated with disease risk, yet there is little evidence that coding mutations contribute to this disorder. To explore the mechanism of non-coding regulatory elements in schizophrenia, we performed ATAC-seq on adult prefrontal cortex brain samples from 135 individuals with schizophrenia and 137 controls, and identified 118,152 ATAC-seq peaks. These accessible chromatin regions in the brain are highly enriched for schizophrenia SNP heritability. Accessible chromatin regions that overlap evolutionarily conserved regions exhibit an even higher heritability enrichment, indicating that sequence conservation can further refine functional risk variants. We identify few differences in chromatin accessibility between cases and controls, in contrast to thousands of age-related differential accessible chromatin regions. Altogether, we characterize chromatin accessibility in the human prefrontal cortex, the effect of schizophrenia and age on chromatin accessibility, and provide evidence that our dataset will allow for fine mapping of risk variants.}, Doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-05379-y}, Key = {fds337324} } @article{fds335282, Author = {Pizzollo, J and Nielsen, WJ and Shibata, Y and Safi, A and Crawford, GE and Wray, GA and Babbitt, CC}, Title = {Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.}, Journal = {Genome Biology and Evolution}, Volume = {10}, Number = {3}, Pages = {826-839}, Year = {2018}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy041}, Abstract = {Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.}, Doi = {10.1093/gbe/evy041}, Key = {fds335282} } @article{fds330379, Author = {Byrne, M and Koop, D and Morris, VB and Chui, J and Wray, GA and Cisternas, P}, Title = {Expression of genes and proteins of the pax-six-eya-dach network in the metamorphic sea urchin: Insights into development of the enigmatic echinoderm body plan and sensory structures.}, Journal = {Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists}, Volume = {247}, Number = {1}, Pages = {239-249}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.24584}, Abstract = {Photoreception-associated genes of the Pax-Six-Eya-Dach network (PSEDN) are deployed for many roles in addition to photoreception development. In this first study of PSEDN genes during development of the pentameral body in sea urchins, we investigated their spatial expression in Heliocidaris erythrogramma.Expression of PSEDN genes in the hydrocoele of early (Dach, Eya, Six1/2) and/or late (Pax6, Six3/6) larvae, and the five hydrocoele lobes, the first morphological expression of pentamery, supports a role in body plan development. Pax6, Six1/2, and Six3/6 were localized to the primary and/or secondary podia and putative sensory/neuronal cells. Six1/2 and Six3/6 were expressed in the neuropil region in the terminal disc of the podia. Dach was localized to spines. Sequential up-regulation of gene expression as new podia and spines formed was evident. Rhabdomeric opsin and pax6 protein were localized to cells in the primary podia and spines.Our results support roles for PSEDN genes in development of the pentameral body plan, contributing to our understanding of how the most unusual body plan in the Bilateria may have evolved. Development of sensory cells within the Pax-Six expression field is consistent with the role of these genes in sensory cell development in diverse species. Developmental Dynamics 247:239-249, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.}, Doi = {10.1002/dvdy.24584}, Key = {fds330379} } @article{fds339223, Author = {Singh, A and Pinto, L and Martin, C and Rutherford, N and Ragunathan, A and Upadhyay, U and Kapoor, P and McRae, M and Siddiqui, A and Cantelmi, D and Heyland, A and Wray, G and Stone, JR}, Title = {Rudiment resorption as a response to starvation during larval development in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis}, Journal = {Canadian Journal of Zoology}, Volume = {96}, Number = {10}, Pages = {1178-1185}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjz-2017-0261}, Abstract = {© 2018, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved. Phenotypic flexibility (reversible phenotypic change) enables organisms to couple internal, ontogenetic responses with external, environmental cues. Phenotypic flexibility also provides organisms with the capacity to buffer stereotypical internal, developmental processes from unpredictable external, ecological events. Echinoids exhibit dramatic phenotypic flexibility in response to variation in exogenous nutrient supplies. The extent to which echinoids display this flexibility has been explored incompletely and research hitherto has been conducted predominantly on larval structures and morphologies. We investigated experimentally the extent to which the primordial juvenile, the developing rudiment, can exhibit the first phase in phenotypic flexibility among individuals. We report for the first time on rudiment regression and complete resorption as a response to starvation during larval development in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776) and identify a developmental “window of opportunity” within which this can occur. Based on our observations and previous suggestions, we speculate that sea urchin rudiments might provide means of buffering development during unfavorable conditions.}, Doi = {10.1139/cjz-2017-0261}, Key = {fds339223} } %% Yapuncich, Gabriel @article{fds341440, Author = {Yapuncich, GS and Churchill, SE and Cameron, N and Walker, CS}, Title = {Morphometric panel regression equations for predicting body mass in immature humans.}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {166}, Number = {1}, Pages = {179-195}, Year = {2018}, Month = {May}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23422}, Abstract = {OBJECTIVES:Predicting body mass is a frequent objective of several anthropological subdisciplines, but there are few published methods for predicting body mass in immature humans. Because most reference samples are composed of adults, predicting body mass outside the range of adults requires extrapolation, which may reduce the accuracy of predictions. Prediction equations developed from a sample of immature humans would reduce extrapolation for application to small-bodied target individuals, and should have utility in multiple predictive contexts. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Here, we present two novel body mass prediction equations derived from 3468 observations of stature and bi-iliac breadth from a large sample of immature humans (n = 173) collected in the Harpenden Growth Study. Prediction equations were generated using raw and natural log-transformed data and modeled using panel regression, which accounts for serial autocorrelation of longitudinal observations. Predictive accuracy was gauged with a global sample of human juveniles (n = 530 age- and sex-specific annual means) and compared to the performance of the adult morphometric prediction equation previously identified as most accurate for human juveniles. RESULTS:While the raw data panel equation is only slightly more accurate than the adult equation, the logged data panel equation generates very accurate body mass predictions across both sexes and all age classes of the test sample (mean absolute percentage prediction error = 2.47). DISCUSSION:The logged data panel equation should prove useful in archaeological, forensic, and paleontological contexts when predictor variables can be measured with confidence and are outside the range of modern adult humans.}, Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23422}, Key = {fds341440} } @article{fds341441, Author = {Gao, T and Yapuncich, GS and Daubechies, I and Mukherjee, S and Boyer, DM}, Title = {Development and Assessment of Fully Automated and Globally Transitive Geometric Morphometric Methods, With Application to a Biological Comparative Dataset With High Interspecific Variation.}, Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)}, Volume = {301}, Number = {4}, Pages = {636-658}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.23700}, Abstract = {Automated geometric morphometric methods are promising tools for shape analysis in comparative biology, improving researchers' abilities to quantify variation extensively (by permitting more specimens to be analyzed) and intensively (by characterizing shapes with greater fidelity). Although use of these methods has increased, published automated methods have some notable limitations: pairwise correspondences are frequently inaccurate and pairwise mappings are not globally consistent (i.e., they lack transitivity across the full sample). Here, we reassess the accuracy of published automated methods-cPDist (Boyer et al. Proc Nat Acad Sci 108 () 18221-18226) and auto3Dgm (Boyer et al.: Anat Rec 298 () 249-276)-and evaluate several modifications to these methods. We show that a substantial percentage of alignments and pairwise maps between specimens of dissimilar geometries were inaccurate in the study of Boyer et al. (Proc Nat Acad Sci 108 () 18221-18226), despite a taxonomically partitioned variance structure of continuous Procrustes distances. We show these inaccuracies are remedied using a globally informed methodology within a collection of shapes, rather than relying on pairwise comparisons (c.f. Boyer et al.: Anat Rec 298 () 249-276). Unfortunately, while global information generally enhances maps between dissimilar objects, it can degrade the quality of correspondences between similar objects due to the accumulation of numerical error. We explore a number of approaches to mitigate this degradation, quantify their performance, and compare the generated pairwise maps (and the shape space characterized by these maps) to a "ground truth" obtained from landmarks manually collected by geometric morphometricians. Novel methods both improve the quality of the pairwise correspondences relative to cPDist and achieve a taxonomic distinctiveness comparable to auto3Dgm. Anat Rec, 301:636-658, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.}, Doi = {10.1002/ar.23700}, Key = {fds341441} } @article{fds341443, Author = {Walker, CS and Yapuncich, GS and Sridhar, S and Cameron, N and Churchill, SE}, Title = {Evaluating morphometric body mass prediction equations with a juvenile human test sample: accuracy and applicability to small-bodied hominins.}, Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution}, Volume = {115}, Pages = {65-77}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.009}, Abstract = {Body mass is an ecologically and biomechanically important variable in the study of hominin biology. Regression equations derived from recent human samples allow for the reasonable prediction of body mass of later, more human-like, and generally larger hominins from hip joint dimensions, but potential differences in hip biomechanics across hominin taxa render their use questionable with some earlier taxa (i.e., Australopithecus spp.). Morphometric prediction equations using stature and bi-iliac breadth avoid this problem, but their applicability to early hominins, some of which differ in both size and proportions from modern adult humans, has not been demonstrated. Here we use mean stature, bi-iliac breadth, and body mass from a global sample of human juveniles ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 530 age- and sex-specific group annual means from 33 countries/regions) to evaluate the accuracy of several published morphometric prediction equations when applied to small humans. Though the body proportions of modern human juveniles likely differ from those of small-bodied early hominins, human juveniles (like fossil hominins) often differ in size and proportions from adult human reference samples and, accordingly, serve as a useful model for assessing the robustness of morphometric prediction equations. Morphometric equations based on adults systematically underpredict body mass in the youngest age groups and moderately overpredict body mass in the older groups, which fall in the body size range of adult Australopithecus (∼26-46 kg). Differences in body proportions, notably the ratio of lower limb length to stature, influence predictive accuracy. Ontogenetic changes in these body proportions likely influence the shift in prediction error (from under- to overprediction). However, because morphometric equations are reasonably accurate when applied to this juvenile test sample, we argue these equations may be used to predict body mass in small-bodied hominins, despite the potential for some error induced by differing body proportions and/or extrapolation beyond the original reference sample range.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.009}, Key = {fds341443} } @article{fds341442, Author = {Yapuncich, GS}, Title = {Alternative methods for calculating percentage prediction error and their implications for predicting body mass in fossil taxa}, Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution}, Volume = {115}, Pages = {140-145}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.001}, Abstract = {© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Since body mass covaries with many ecological aspects of an animal, body mass prediction of fossil taxa is a frequent goal of paleontologists. Body mass prediction often relies on a body mass prediction equation (BMPE): a bivariate relationship between a predictor variable (e.g., molar occlusal area, femoral head breadth) and body mass as observed in extant taxa. A variety of metrics have been used to assess the reliability of BMPEs, including percentage prediction error (%PE), which involves predicting body masses of a test sample comprising individuals with associated masses. A mean %PE can be calculated in two ways: 1) as the mean %PE of multiple individual predictions (%MPE), or 2) as the %PE of mean body mass generated from the mean predictor value of multiple individuals (here termed %PEM). Differences between these two approaches have never been formally examined and no formal protocols have been recommended. Using a large sample of cercopithecoid primates (406 individuals from 50 species/subspecies) with associated body masses, body mass is predicted with six previously published interspecific BMPEs. Both %MPE and %PEM are calculated and compared. For all BMPEs, the distributions of differences between %MPE and %PEM exhibit positive skew and have medians significantly greater than zero, indicating that the examined prediction equations are more accurate at predicting mean body mass when they are applied to mean predictor values. The decreased predictive accuracy of %MPE relative to %PEM likely stems from changing the unit of analysis from mean values (in the reference sample) to individual values (in the test sample) when calculating %MPE. Empirical results are supported with a simulated dataset. Implications for body mass prediction in fossil species are discussed.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.03.001}, Key = {fds341442} } %% Yoder, Anne D. @article{fds339734, Author = {Campbell, CR and Poelstra, JW and Yoder, AD}, Title = {What is Speciation Genomics? The roles of ecology, gene flow, and genomic architecture in the formation of species}, Journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society}, Volume = {124}, Number = {4}, Pages = {561-583}, Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)}, Year = {2018}, Month = {August}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/bly063}, Abstract = {© 2018 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. As is true of virtually every realm of the biological sciences, our understanding of speciation is increasingly informed by the genomic revolution of the past decade. Investigators can ask detailed questions relating to both the extrinsic (e.g. inter- and intra-population and ecological interactions) and intrinsic (e.g. genome content and architecture) forces that drive speciation. Technologies ranging from restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq), to whole genome sequencing and assembly, to transcriptomics, to CRISPR are revolutionizing the means by which investigators can both frame and test hypotheses of lineage diversification. Our review aims to examine both extrinsic and intrinsic aspects of speciation. Genome-scale data have already served to fundamentally clarify the role of gene flow during (and after) speciation, although we predict that the differential propensity for speciation among phylogenetic lineages will be one of the most exciting frontiers for future genomic investigation. We propose that a unified theory of speciation will take into account the idiosyncratic features of genomic architecture examined in the light of each organism's biology and ecology drawn from across the full breadth of the Tree of Life.}, Doi = {10.1093/biolinnean/bly063}, Key = {fds339734} } @article{fds337036, Author = {Blanco, MB and Dausmann, KH and Faherty, SL and Yoder, AD}, Title = {Tropical heterothermy is "cool": The expression of daily torpor and hibernation in primates.}, Journal = {Evolutionary Anthropology}, Volume = {27}, Number = {4}, Pages = {147-161}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/evan.21588}, Abstract = {Living nonhuman primates generally inhabit tropical forests, and torpor is regarded as a strategy employed by cold-adapted organisms. Yet, some primates employ daily torpor or hibernation (heterothermy) under obligatory, temporary, or emergency circumstances. Though heterothermy is present in most mammalian lineages, there are only three extant heterothermic primate lineages: bushbabies from Africa, lorises from Asia, and dwarf and mouse lemurs from Madagascar. Here, we analyze their phenotypes in the general context of tropical mammalian heterothermy. We focus on Malagasy lemurs as they have been the most intensively studied and also show an unmatched range of flexibility in their heterothermic responses. We discuss the evidence for whether heterothermy should be considered an ancestral or derived condition in primates. This consideration is particularly intriguing given that an understanding of the underlying mechanisms for hibernation in lemurs opens the possibility for insight into genotype-phenotype interactions, including those with biomedical relevance for humans.}, Doi = {10.1002/evan.21588}, Key = {fds337036} } @article{fds337037, Author = {Reis, MD and Gunnell, GF and Barba-Montoya, J and Wilkins, A and Yang, Z and Yoder, AD}, Title = {Using Phylogenomic Data to Explore the Effects of Relaxed Clocks and Calibration Strategies on Divergence Time Estimation: Primates as a Test Case.}, Journal = {Systematic Biology}, Volume = {67}, Number = {4}, Pages = {594-615}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/syy001}, Abstract = {Primates have long been a test case for the development of phylogenetic methods for divergence time estimation. Despite a large number of studies, however, the timing of origination of crown Primates relative to the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary and the timing of diversification of the main crown groups remain controversial. Here, we analysed a data set of 372 taxa (367 Primates and 5 outgroups, 3.4 million aligned base pairs) that includes nine primate genomes. We systematically explore the effect of different interpretations of fossil calibrations and molecular clock models on primate divergence time estimates. We find that even small differences in the construction of fossil calibrations can have a noticeable impact on estimated divergence times, especially for the oldest nodes in the tree. Notably, choice of molecular rate model (autocorrelated or independently distributed rates) has an especially strong effect on estimated times, with the independent rates model producing considerably more ancient age estimates for the deeper nodes in the phylogeny. We implement thermodynamic integration, combined with Gaussian quadrature, in the program MCMCTree, and use it to calculate Bayes factors for clock models. Bayesian model selection indicates that the autocorrelated rates model fits the primate data substantially better, and we conclude that time estimates under this model should be preferred. We show that for eight core nodes in the phylogeny, uncertainty in time estimates is close to the theoretical limit imposed by fossil uncertainties. Thus, these estimates are unlikely to be improved by collecting additional molecular sequence data. All analyses place the origin of Primates close to the K-Pg boundary, either in the Cretaceous or straddling the boundary into the Palaeogene.}, Doi = {10.1093/sysbio/syy001}, Key = {fds337037} } @article{fds330827, Author = {McKenney, EA and Maslanka, M and Rodrigo, A and Yoder, AD}, Title = {Bamboo Specialists from Two Mammalian Orders (Primates, Carnivora) Share a High Number of Low-Abundance Gut Microbes.}, Journal = {Microbial Ecology}, Volume = {76}, Number = {1}, Pages = {272-284}, Year = {2018}, Month = {July}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-017-1114-8}, Abstract = {Bamboo specialization is one of the most extreme examples of convergent herbivory, yet it is unclear how this specific high-fiber diet might selectively shape the composition of the gut microbiome compared to host phylogeny. To address these questions, we used deep sequencing to investigate the nature and comparative impact of phylogenetic and dietary selection for specific gut microbial membership in three bamboo specialists-the bamboo lemur (Hapalemur griseus, Primates: Lemuridae), giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca, Carnivora: Ursidae), and red panda (Ailurus fulgens, Carnivora: Musteloideadae), as well as two phylogenetic controls-the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta) and the Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus). We detected significantly higher Shannon diversity in the bamboo lemur (10.029) compared to both the giant panda (8.256; p = 0.0001936) and the red panda (6.484; p = 0.0000029). We also detected significantly enriched bacterial taxa that distinguished each species. Our results complement previous work in finding that phylogeny predominantly governs high-level microbiome community structure. However, we also find that 48 low-abundance OTUs are shared among bamboo specialists, compared to only 8 OTUs shared by the bamboo lemur and its sister species, the ringtail lemur (Lemur catta, a generalist). Our results suggest that deep sequencing is necessary to detect low-abundance bacterial OTUs, which may be specifically adapted to a high-fiber diet. These findings provide a more comprehensive framework for understanding the evolution and ecology of the microbiome as well as the host.}, Doi = {10.1007/s00248-017-1114-8}, Key = {fds330827} } @article{fds335287, Author = {Yoder, AD and Poelstra, JW and Tiley, GP and Williams, RC}, Title = {Neutral Theory Is the Foundation of Conservation Genetics.}, Journal = {Molecular Biology and Evolution}, Volume = {35}, Number = {6}, Pages = {1322-1326}, Year = {2018}, Month = {June}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msy076}, Abstract = {Kimura's neutral theory of molecular evolution has been essential to virtually every advance in evolutionary genetics, and by extension, is foundational to the field of conservation genetics. Conservation genetics utilizes the key concepts of neutral theory to identify species and populations at risk of losing evolutionary potential by detecting patterns of inbreeding depression and low effective population size. In turn, this information can inform the management of organisms and their habitat providing hope for the long-term preservation of both. We expand upon Avise's "inventorial" and "functional" categories of conservation genetics by proposing a third category that is linked to the coalescent and that we refer to as "process-driven." It is here that connections between Kimura's theory and conservation genetics are strongest. Process-driven conservation genetics can be especially applied to large genomic data sets to identify patterns of historical risk, such as population bottlenecks, and accordingly, yield informed intuitions for future outcomes. By examining inventorial, functional, and process-driven conservation genetics in sequence, we assess the progression from theory, to data collection and analysis, and ultimately, to the production of hypotheses that can inform conservation policies.}, Doi = {10.1093/molbev/msy076}, Key = {fds335287} } @article{fds333562, Author = {McKenney, EA and Koelle, K and Dunn, RR and Yoder, AD}, Title = {The ecosystem services of animal microbiomes.}, Journal = {Molecular Ecology}, Volume = {27}, Number = {8}, Pages = {2164-2172}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.14532}, Abstract = {Microbiologists often evaluate microbial community dynamics by formulating functional hypotheses based on ecological processes. Indeed, many of the methods and terms currently used to describe animal microbiomes derive from ecology and evolutionary biology. As our understanding of the composition and functional dynamics of "the microbiome" grows, we increasingly refer to the host as an ecosystem within which microbial processes play out. Even so, an ecosystem service framework that extends to the context of the host has thus far been lacking. Here, we argue that ecosystem services are a useful framework with which to consider the value of microbes to their hosts. We discuss those "microbiome services" in the specific context of the mammalian gut, providing a context from which to develop new hypotheses and to evaluate microbial functions in future studies and novel systems.}, Doi = {10.1111/mec.14532}, Key = {fds333562} } @article{fds332843, Author = {Larsen, PA and Hunnicutt, KE and Larsen, RJ and Yoder, AD and Saunders, AM}, Title = {Warning SINEs: Alu elements, evolution of the human brain, and the spectrum of neurological disease.}, Journal = {Chromosome Research : an International Journal on the Molecular, Supramolecular and Evolutionary Aspects of Chromosome Biology}, Volume = {26}, Number = {1-2}, Pages = {93-111}, Year = {2018}, Month = {March}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10577-018-9573-4}, Abstract = {Alu elements are a highly successful family of primate-specific retrotransposons that have fundamentally shaped primate evolution, including the evolution of our own species. Alus play critical roles in the formation of neurological networks and the epigenetic regulation of biochemical processes throughout the central nervous system (CNS), and thus are hypothesized to have contributed to the origin of human cognition. Despite the benefits that Alus provide, deleterious Alu activity is associated with a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. In particular, neurological networks are potentially vulnerable to the epigenetic dysregulation of Alu elements operating across the suite of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes that are critical for both mitochondrial and CNS function. Here, we highlight the beneficial neurological aspects of Alu elements as well as their potential to cause disease by disrupting key cellular processes across the CNS. We identify at least 37 neurological and neurodegenerative disorders wherein deleterious Alu activity has been implicated as a contributing factor for the manifestation of disease, and for many of these disorders, this activity is operating on genes that are essential for proper mitochondrial function. We conclude that the epigenetic dysregulation of Alu elements can ultimately disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis within the CNS. This mechanism is a plausible source for the incipient neuronal stress that is consistently observed across a spectrum of sporadic neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.}, Doi = {10.1007/s10577-018-9573-4}, Key = {fds332843} } @article{fds332733, Author = {Faherty, SL and Villanueva-Cañas, JL and Blanco, MB and Albà, MM and Yoder, AD}, Title = {Transcriptomics in the wild: Hibernation physiology in free-ranging dwarf lemurs.}, Journal = {Molecular Ecology}, Volume = {27}, Number = {3}, Pages = {709-722}, Year = {2018}, Month = {February}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.14483}, Abstract = {Hibernation is an adaptive strategy some mammals use to survive highly seasonal or unpredictable environments. We present the first investigation on the transcriptomics of hibernation in a natural population of primate hibernators: Crossley's dwarf lemurs (Cheirogaleus crossleyi). Using capture-mark-recapture techniques to track the same animals over a period of 7 months in Madagascar, we used RNA-seq to compare gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue (WAT) during three distinct physiological states. We focus on pathway analysis to assess the biological significance of transcriptional changes in dwarf lemur WAT and, by comparing and contrasting what is known in other model hibernating species, contribute to a broader understanding of genomic contributions of hibernation across Mammalia. The hibernation signature is characterized by a suppression of lipid biosynthesis, pyruvate metabolism and mitochondrial-associated functions, and an accumulation of transcripts encoding ribosomal components and iron-storage proteins. The data support a key role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) in regulating the shift in fuel economy during periods of severe food deprivation. This pattern of PDK4 holds true across representative hibernating species from disparate mammalian groups, suggesting that the genetic underpinnings of hibernation may be ancestral to mammals.}, Doi = {10.1111/mec.14483}, Key = {fds332733} } @article{fds333721, Author = {McKenney, EA and O'Connell, TM and Rodrigo, A and Yoder, AD}, Title = {Feeding strategy shapes gut metagenomic enrichment and functional specialization in captive lemurs.}, Journal = {Gut Microbes}, Volume = {9}, Number = {3}, Pages = {202-217}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2017.1408762}, Abstract = {Many studies have demonstrated the effects of host diet on gut microbial membership, metagenomics, and fermentation individually; but few have attempted to interpret the relationship among these biological phenomena with respect to host features (e.g. gut morphology). We quantitatively compare the fecal microbial communities, metabolic pathways, and fermentation products associated with the nutritional intake of frugivorous (fruit-eating) and folivorous (leaf-eating) lemurs. Our results provide a uniquely multidimensional and comparative perspective on the adaptive dynamics between host and microbiome. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed significant differential taxonomic and metabolic pathway enrichment, tailored to digest and detoxify different diets. Frugivorous metagenomes feature pathways to degrade simple carbohydrates and host-derived glycosaminoglycans, while folivorous metagenomes are equipped to break down phytic acid and other phytochemical compounds in an anaerobic environment. We used nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolic profiling of fecal samples to link metabolic pathways to fermentation products, confirming that the dissimilar substrates provided in each diet select for specific microbial functions. Fecal samples from frugivorous lemurs contained significantly different profiles of short chain fatty acids, alcohol fermentation products, amino acids, glucose, and glycerol compared to folivorous lemurs. We present the relationships between these datasets as an integrated visual framework, which we refer to as microbial geometry. We use microbial geometry to compare empirical gut microbial profiles across different feeding strategies, and suggest additional utility as a tool for hypothesis-generation.}, Doi = {10.1080/19490976.2017.1408762}, Key = {fds333721} } %% Zeininger, Angel @article{fds342260, Author = {Schmitt, D and Wunderlich, RE and Zeininger, A}, Title = {Forelimb and hindlimb peak forces in Gorilla}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {168}, Pages = {219-219}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds342260} } @article{fds342261, Author = {Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D and Wunderlich, RE}, Title = {Impact forces and hindlimb vertical impulses in Gorilla}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {168}, Pages = {280-280}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds342261} } @article{fds342262, Author = {Perchalski, BA and Zeininger, A}, Title = {Impact of gait selection on potential limb interference in primates and cats}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {168}, Pages = {188-189}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds342262} } @article{fds342263, Author = {Doyle, DJ and Holmes, M and Schmitt, D and Zeininger, A and Wall, CE}, Title = {Gorilla hindlimb muscle fiber phenotypes}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {168}, Pages = {62-62}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds342263} } @article{fds342264, Author = {Wunderlich, RE and Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D}, Title = {Plantar pressure distribution in Gorilla}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {168}, Pages = {275-275}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2019}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds342264} } @article{fds336367, Author = {Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D and Rose, MD and Turnquist, JE}, Title = {Center of mass movements and energy recovery during arm-swinging in atelines}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {165}, Pages = {310-310}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, Key = {fds336367} } @article{fds336368, Author = {Schmitt, D and Zeininger, A and Lemelin, P and Miller, CE and Granatosky, MC and Hanna, JB and Wunderlich, RE and Kivell, TL and Rose, MD and Turnquist, JE}, Title = {Digit clearance patterns in primates vary by limb and substrate reflecting different strategies between arboreal and terrestrial locomotion}, Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology}, Volume = {165}, Pages = {243-243}, Publisher = {WILEY}, Year = {2018}, Month = {April}, Key = {fds336368} } @article{fds336369, Author = {Grider-Potter, N and Zeininger, A}, Title = {Head stability and neck function during locomotion in Varecia variegata}, Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology}, Volume = {58}, Pages = {E82-E82}, Publisher = {OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC}, Year = {2018}, Month = {March}, Key = {fds336369} } @article{fds331087, Author = {Granatosky, MC and Fitzsimons, A and Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D}, Title = {Mechanisms for the functional differentiation of the propulsive and braking roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs during quadrupedal walking in primates and felines.}, Journal = {The Journal of Experimental Biology}, Volume = {221}, Number = {Pt 2}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.162917}, Abstract = {During quadrupedal walking in most animals, the forelimbs play a net braking role, whereas the hindlimbs are net propulsive. However, the mechanism by which this differentiation occurs remains unclear. Here, we test two models to explain this pattern using primates and felines: (1) the horizontal strut effect (in which limbs are modeled as independent struts), and (2) the linked strut model (in which limbs are modeled as linked struts with a center of mass in between). Video recordings were used to determine point of contact, timing of mid-stance, and limb protraction/retraction duration. Single-limb forces were used to calculate contact time, impulses and the proportion of the stride at which the braking-to-propulsive transition (BP) occurred for each limb. We found no association between the occurrence of the BP and mid-stance, little influence of protraction and retraction duration on the braking-propulsive function of a limb, and a causative relationship between vertical force distribution between limbs and the patterns of horizontal forces. These findings reject the horizontal strut effect, and provide some support for the linked strut model, although predictions were not perfectly matched. We suggest that the position of the center of mass relative to limb contact points is a very important, but not the only, factor driving functional differentiation of the braking and propulsive roles of the limbs in quadrupeds. It was also found that primates have greater differences in horizontal impulse between their limbs compared with felines, a pattern that may reflect a fundamental arboreal adaptation in primates.}, Doi = {10.1242/jeb.162917}, Key = {fds331087} } @article{fds330153, Author = {Zeininger, A and Schmitt, D and Jensen, JL and Shapiro, LJ}, Title = {Ontogenetic changes in foot strike pattern and calcaneal loading during walking in young children.}, Journal = {Gait & Posture}, Volume = {59}, Pages = {18-22}, Year = {2018}, Month = {January}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027}, Abstract = {The assumption that the morphology of the human calcaneus reflects high and cyclical impact forces at heel strike during adult human walking has never been experimentally tested. Since a walking step with a heel strike is an emergent behavior in children, an ontogenetic study provides a natural experiment to begin testing the relationship between the mechanics of heel strike and calcaneal anatomy. This study examined the ground reaction forces (GRFs) of stepping in children to determine the location of the center of pressure (COP) relative to the calcaneus and the orientation and magnitude of ground reaction forces during foot contact. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were analyzed for 18 children ranging in age from 11.5 to 43.1 months. Early steppers used a flat foot contact (FFC) and experienced relatively high vertical and resultant GRFs with COP often anterior to the calcaneus. More experienced walkers used an initial heel contact (IHC) in which GRFs were significantly lower but the center of pressure remained under the heel a greater proportion of time. Thus, during FFC the foot experienced higher loading, but the heel itself was relatively wider and the load was distributed more evenly. In IHC walkers load was concentrated on the anterior calcaneus and a narrower heel, suggesting a need for increased calcaneal robusticity during development to mitigate injury. These results provide new insight into foot loading outside of typical mature contact patterns, inform structure-function relationships during development, and illuminate potential causes of heel injury in young walkers.}, Doi = {10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.09.027}, Key = {fds330153} }

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