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Duke University

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Publications of Christine E. Wall    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books   
@book{fds306059,
   Title = {Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology},
   Pages = {496 pages},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE},
   Year = {2008},
   ISBN = {0387765840},
   Abstract = {This integrative volume is the most comprehensive text on
             primate craniofacial biology and function and includes
             introductory chapters on how primatologists study
             adaptations in primates and a discussion of in vivo
             approaches for studying ...},
   Key = {fds306059}
}


%% Refereed Publications   
@misc{fds241355,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Mork, AL and Brooke, AG and De Oliveira Melo and LC and Valenca-Montenegro, MM and Valle, YBM and Monterio de Croz MAO, and Lucas, PW and Schmitt, D and Taylor, AB and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {The evolutionary morphology of tree gouging in
             marmosets},
   Booktitle = {The Smallest Anthropoids: The Marmoset/Callimico
             Radiation},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Davis, LC and Ford, SM and PorterLM},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds241355}
}

@misc{fds241344,
   Author = {Schmitt, D and Wall, CE and Lemelin, P},
   Title = {Experimental comparative anatomy in physical anthropology:
             the functional anatomy of the skull and the contributions of
             Dr. William Hylander.},
   Booktitle = {Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds241344}
}

@misc{fds241351,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Symphyseal fusion in selenodont artiodactyls: new insights
             from in vivo and comparative data},
   Booktitle = {Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds241351}
}

@misc{fds241352,
   Author = {Perry, JMG and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Scaling of the chewing muscles in prosimians},
   Booktitle = {Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds241352}
}

@misc{fds241353,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Wiliams, SH and Johnson, KR and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Specialization of the superficial anterior temporalis muscle
             for hard-object feeding in baboons},
   Pages = {113-126},
   Booktitle = {Primate Craniofacial Function and Biology},
   Publisher = {Springer Academic Publishers},
   Editor = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds241353}
}

@misc{fds241348,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Johnson,
             KR and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {Functional morphology of the primate masticatory apparatus
             and the origin of primates},
   Pages = {179-231},
   Booktitle = {Primate Origins and Adaptations: A Multidisciplinary
             Perspective},
   Publisher = {Kluwer Press},
   Editor = {Ravosa, MJ and Dagosto, M},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds241348}
}

@misc{fds241347,
   Author = {Hylander, WL and Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Ross, CF and Wall, CE and Johnson, KR},
   Title = {Jaw adductor force and symphyseal fusion},
   Pages = {229-257},
   Booktitle = {Shaping Primate Evolution},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Editor = {Anapol, F and German, RZ and Jablonski, N},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds241347}
}

@misc{fds241343,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Smith, KK},
   Title = {Ingestion in mammals},
   Series = {Encyclopedia of Life Sciences},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Life Sciences},
   Publisher = {Macmillan},
   Year = {2001},
   url = {http://www.els.net},
   Key = {fds241343}
}

@misc{fds241345,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Schmitt, D and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {A preliminary report on the jaw mechanics during tree
             gouging in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)},
   Pages = {283-298},
   Booktitle = {Dental Morphology 2001},
   Publisher = {Sheffield Academic Press, Ltd},
   Editor = {Brook, A},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds241345}
}

@misc{fds241346,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Schmitt, D and Vinyard, CJ and Johnson, KR and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Correlation between transverse mandibular movement and
             masseter muscle activity during chewing in Papio
             anubis},
   Pages = {277-282},
   Booktitle = {Dental Morphology 2001},
   Publisher = {Sheffield Academic Press, Ltd},
   Editor = {Brook, A},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds241346}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds340868,
   Author = {Granatosky, MC and Bryce, CM and Hanna, J and Fitzsimons, A and Laird,
             MF and Stilson, K and Wall, CE and Ross, CF},
   Title = {Inter-stride variability triggers gait transitions in
             mammals and birds.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {285},
   Number = {1893},
   Pages = {20181766},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1766},
   Abstract = {Speed-related gait transitions occur in many animals, but it
             remains unclear what factors trigger gait changes. While the
             most widely accepted function of gait transitions is that
             they reduce locomotor costs, there is no obvious metabolic
             trigger signalling animals when to switch gaits. An
             alternative approach suggests that gait transitions serve to
             reduce locomotor instability. While there is evidence
             supporting this in humans, similar research has not been
             conducted in other species. This study explores energetics
             and stride variability during the walk-run transition in
             mammals and birds. Across nine species, energy savings do
             not predict the occurrence of a gait transition. Instead,
             our findings suggest that animals trigger gait transitions
             to maintain high locomotor rhythmicity and reduce unstable
             states. Metabolic efficiency is an important benefit of gait
             transitions, but the reduction in dynamic instability may be
             the proximate trigger determining when those transitions
             occur.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2018.1766},
   Key = {fds340868}
}

@article{fds337013,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Holmes, M and Soderblom, EJ and Taylor,
             AB},
   Title = {Proteomics and immunohistochemistry identify the expression
             of α-cardiac myosin heavy chain in the jaw-closing muscles
             of sooty mangabeys (order Primates).},
   Journal = {Arch Oral Biol},
   Volume = {91},
   Pages = {103-108},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The jaw-closing muscles of humans and nonprimate
             mammals express alpha-cardiac fibers but MyHC α-cardiac has
             not been identified in the jaw adductors of nonhuman
             primates. We determined whether MyHC α-cardiac is expressed
             in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of the
             sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), an African Old World
             monkey that specializes on hard seeds. DESIGN: LC-MS/MS
             based proteomics was used to identify the presence of MyHC
             Iα. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze the
             composition and distribution of fiber types in the
             superficial masseter and temporalis muscles of eight C.
             atys. Serial sections were stained against MyHC α-cardiac
             (MYH6), as well as MyHC-1 (NOQ7.5.4D), MyHC-2 (MY-32), and
             MyHC-M (2F4). RESULTS: Proteomics analysis identified the
             presence of Myosin-6 (MyHC α-cardiac) in both heart atrium
             and superficial masseter. MyHC α-cardiac was expressed in
             abundance in the superficial masseter and temporalis muscles
             of all eight individuals and hybrid fibers were common.
             CONCLUSIONS: The identification of MyHC α-cardiac in the
             jaw adductors of sooty mangabeys is a novel finding for
             nonhuman primates. The abundance of MyHC α-cardiac
             indicates a fatigue-resistant fiber population characterized
             by intermediate speed of contraction between pure MyHC-1 and
             MyHC-2 isoforms. We suggest that α-cardiac fibers may be
             advantageous to sooty mangabeys, whose feeding behavior
             includes frequent crushing of relatively large, hard seeds
             during the power stroke of ingestion. Additional studies
             comparing jaw-adductor fiber phenotype of hard-object
             feeding primates and other mammals are needed to explore
             this relationship further.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.01.019},
   Key = {fds337013}
}

@article{fds331563,
   Author = {Huq, E and Taylor, AB and Su, Z and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Fiber type composition of epaxial muscles is geared toward
             facilitating rapid spinal extension in the leaper Galago
             senegalensis.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {95-106},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23405},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that the vertical leaper Galago
             senegalensis will have epaxial extensor muscles with a fast
             fiber phenotype to facilitate rapid spinal extension during
             leaping in comparison to the slow-moving quadruped
             Nycticebus coucang. To test this, we determined the
             percentage of fiber cross-sectional area (%CSA) devoted to
             Type 2 fibers in epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis compared
             to those of N. coucang. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
             Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Type 1, Type 2,
             and hybrid fibers in iliocostalis, longissimus, and
             multifidus muscles of G. senegalensis (n = 3) and N.
             coucang (n = 3). Serial muscle sections were used to
             estimate and compare proportions, cross-sectional areas
             (CSAs), and %CSAs of Type 1, Type 2, and hybrid fibers
             between species. RESULTS: Epaxial muscles of G. senegalensis
             were comprised predominantly of Type 2 fibers with large
             CSAs (%CSA range ≈ 83-94%; range of mean
             CSA = 1,218-1,586 μm2 ). N. coucang epaxial muscles
             were comprised predominantly Type 1 fibers with large CSAs
             (%CSA range ≈ 69-77%; range of mean CSA = 983-1,220
             μm2 ). DISCUSSION: The predominance of Type 2 fibers in G.
             senegalensis epaxial muscles facilitates rapid muscle
             excursion and spinal extension during leaping, and is
             consistent with their relatively long muscle fibers. The
             predominance of Type 1 fibers in N. coucang epaxial muscles
             may aid in maintaining stable postures during bridging and
             cantilevering behaviors characteristic of slow-climbing.
             These histochemical characteristics highlight the major
             divergent locomotor repertoires of G. senegalensis and N.
             coucang.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.23405},
   Key = {fds331563}
}

@article{fds323222,
   Author = {Ying, R and Wall, CE},
   Title = {A method for discrimination of noise and EMG signal regions
             recorded during rhythmic behaviors.},
   Journal = {Journal of Biomechanics},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {4113-4118},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.10.010},
   Abstract = {Analyses of muscular activity during rhythmic behaviors
             provide critical data for biomechanical studies. Electrical
             potentials measured from muscles using electromyography
             (EMG) require discrimination of noise regions as the first
             step in analysis. An experienced analyst can accurately
             identify the onset and offset of EMG but this process takes
             hours to analyze a short (10-15s) record of rhythmic EMG
             bursts. Existing computational techniques reduce this time
             but have limitations. These include a universal threshold
             for delimiting noise regions (i.e., a single signal value
             for identifying the EMG signal onset and offset),
             pre-processing using wide time intervals that dampen
             sensitivity for EMG signal characteristics, poor performance
             when a low frequency component (e.g., DC offset) is present,
             and high computational complexity leading to lack of time
             efficiency. We present a new statistical method and MATLAB
             script (EMG-Extractor) that includes an adaptive algorithm
             to discriminate noise regions from EMG that avoids these
             limitations and allows for multi-channel datasets to be
             processed. We evaluate the EMG-Extractor with EMG data on
             mammalian jaw-adductor muscles during mastication, a
             rhythmic behavior typified by low amplitude onsets/offsets
             and complex signal pattern. The EMG-Extractor consistently
             and accurately distinguishes noise from EMG in a manner
             similar to that of an experienced analyst. It outputs the
             raw EMG signal region in a form ready for further
             analysis.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.10.010},
   Key = {fds323222}
}

@article{fds323223,
   Author = {Peckre, L and Fabre, A-C and Wall, CE and Brewer, D and Ehmke, E and Haring, D and Shaw, E and Welser, K and Pouydebat,
             E},
   Title = {Holding-on: co-evolution between infant carrying and
             grasping behaviour in strepsirrhines.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {37729},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37729},
   Abstract = {The origin and evolution of manual grasping remain poorly
             understood. The ability to cling requires important grasping
             abilities and is essential to survive in species where the
             young are carried in the fur. A previous study has suggested
             that this behaviour could be a pre-adaptation for the
             evolution of fine manipulative skills. In this study we
             tested the co-evolution between infant carrying in the fur
             and manual grasping abilities in the context of food
             manipulation. As strepsirrhines vary in the way infants are
             carried (mouth vs. fur), they are an excellent model to test
             this hypothesis. Data on food manipulation behaviour were
             collected for 21 species of strepsirrhines. Our results show
             that fur-carrying species exhibited significantly more
             frequent manual grasping of food items. This study clearly
             illustrates the potential novel insights that a behaviour
             (infant carrying) that has previously been largely ignored
             in the discussion of the evolution of primate manipulation
             can bring.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep37729},
   Key = {fds323223}
}

@article{fds323224,
   Author = {Dumont, M and Wall, CE and Botton-Divet, L and Goswami, A and Peigné,
             S and Fabre, AC},
   Title = {Do functional demands associated with locomotor habitat,
             diet, and activity pattern drive skull shape evolution in
             musteloid carnivorans?},
   Journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnean Society},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {858-878},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bij.12719},
   Abstract = {© 2016 The Linnean Society of London. A major goal of
             evolutionary studies is to better understand how complex
             morphologies are related to the different functions and
             behaviours in which they are involved. For example, during
             locomotion and hunting behaviour, the head and the eyes have
             to stay at an appropriate level in order to reliably judge
             distance as well as to provide postural information. The
             morphology and orientation of the orbits and cranial base
             will have an impact on eye orientation. Consequently,
             variation in orbital and cranial base morphology is expected
             to be correlated with aspects of an animal's lifestyle. In
             this study, we investigate whether the shape of the skull
             evolves in response to the functional demands imposed by
             ecology and behaviour using geometric morphometric methods.
             We test if locomotor habitats, diet, and activity pattern
             influence the shape of the skull in musteloid carnivorans
             using (M)ANOVAs and phylogenetic (M)ANOVAs, and explore the
             functional correlates of morphological features in relation
             to locomotor habitats, diet, and activity pattern. Our
             results show that phylogeny, locomotion and, diet strongly
             influence the shape of the skull, whereas the activity
             pattern seems to have a weakest influence. We also show that
             the locomotor environment is highly integrated with foraging
             and feeding, which can lead to similar selective pressures
             and drive the evolution of skull shape in the same
             direction. Finally, we show similar responses to functional
             demands in musteloids, a super family of close related
             species, as are typically observed across all mammals
             suggesting the pervasiveness of these functional
             demands.},
   Doi = {10.1111/bij.12719},
   Key = {fds323224}
}

@article{fds322462,
   Author = {Druzinsky, RE and Balhoff, JP and Crompton, AW and Done, J and German,
             RZ and Haendel, MA and Herrel, A and Herring, SW and Lapp, H and Mabee, PM and Muller, H-M and Mungall, CJ and Sternberg, PW and Van Auken and K and Vinyard, CJ and Williams, SH and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Muscle Logic: New Knowledge Resource for Anatomy Enables
             Comprehensive Searches of the Literature on the Feeding
             Muscles of Mammals.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {e0149102},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149102},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:In recent years large bibliographic databases
             have made much of the published literature of biology
             available for searches. However, the capabilities of the
             search engines integrated into these databases for
             text-based bibliographic searches are limited. To enable
             searches that deliver the results expected by comparative
             anatomists, an underlying logical structure known as an
             ontology is required. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THE
             ONTOLOGY:Here we present the Mammalian Feeding Muscle
             Ontology (MFMO), a multi-species ontology focused on
             anatomical structures that participate in feeding and other
             oral/pharyngeal behaviors. A unique feature of the MFMO is
             that a simple, computable, definition of each muscle, which
             includes its attachments and innervation, is true across
             mammals. This construction mirrors the logical foundation of
             comparative anatomy and permits searches using language
             familiar to biologists. Further, it provides a template for
             muscles that will be useful in extending any anatomy
             ontology. The MFMO is developed to support the Feeding
             Experiments End-User Database Project (FEED,
             https://feedexp.org/), a publicly-available, online
             repository for physiological data collected from in vivo
             studies of feeding (e.g., mastication, biting, swallowing)
             in mammals. Currently the MFMO is integrated into FEED and
             also into two literature-specific implementations of
             Textpresso, a text-mining system that facilitates powerful
             searches of a corpus of scientific publications. We evaluate
             the MFMO by asking questions that test the ability of the
             ontology to return appropriate answers (competency
             questions). We compare the results of queries of the MFMO to
             results from similar searches in PubMed and Google Scholar.
             RESULTS AND SIGNIFICANCE:Our tests demonstrate that the MFMO
             is competent to answer queries formed in the common language
             of comparative anatomy, but PubMed and Google Scholar are
             not. Overall, our results show that by incorporating
             anatomical ontologies into searches, an expanded and
             anatomically comprehensive set of results can be obtained.
             The broader scientific and publishing communities should
             consider taking up the challenge of semantically enabled
             search capabilities.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0149102},
   Key = {fds322462}
}

@article{fds241349,
   Author = {Huq, E and Wall, CE and Taylor, AB},
   Title = {Epaxial muscle fiber architecture favors enhanced excursion
             and power in the leaper Galago senegalensis.},
   Journal = {Journal of Anatomy},
   Volume = {227},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {524-540},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0021-8782},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.12351},
   Abstract = {Galago senegalensis is a habitual arboreal leaper that
             engages in rapid spinal extension during push-off. Large
             muscle excursions and high contraction velocities are
             important components of leaping, and experimental studies
             indicate that during leaping by G. senegalensis, peak power
             is facilitated by elastic storage of energy. To date,
             however, little is known about the functional relationship
             between epaxial muscle fiber architecture and locomotion in
             leaping primates. Here, fiber architecture of select epaxial
             muscles is compared between G. senegalensis (n = 4) and the
             slow arboreal quadruped, Nycticebus coucang (n = 4). The
             hypothesis is tested that G. senegalensis exhibits
             architectural features of the epaxial muscles that
             facilitate rapid and powerful spinal extension during the
             take-off phase of leaping. As predicted, G. senegalensis
             epaxial muscles have relatively longer, less pinnate fibers
             and higher ratios of tendon length-to-fiber length,
             indicating the capacity for generating relatively larger
             muscle excursions, higher whole-muscle contraction
             velocities, and a greater capacity for elastic energy
             storage. Thus, the relatively longer fibers and higher
             tendon length-to-fiber length ratios can be functionally
             linked to leaping performance in G. senegalensis. It is
             further predicted that G. senegalensis epaxial muscles have
             relatively smaller physiological cross-sectional areas
             (PCSAs) as a consequence of an architectural trade-off
             between fiber length (excursion) and PCSA (force). Contrary
             to this prediction, there are no species differences in
             relative PCSAs, but the smaller-bodied G. senegalensis
             trends towards relatively larger epaxial muscle mass. These
             findings suggest that relative increase in muscle mass in G.
             senegalensis is largely attributable to longer fibers. The
             relative increase in erector spinae muscle mass may
             facilitate sagittal flexibility during leaping. The
             similarity between species in relative PCSAs provides
             empirical support for previous work linking osteological
             features of the vertebral column in lorisids with axial
             stability and reduced muscular effort associated with slow,
             deliberate movements during anti-pronograde
             locomotion.},
   Doi = {10.1111/joa.12351},
   Key = {fds241349}
}

@article{fds303351,
   Author = {Dumont, M and Wall, CE and Goswami, A and Peigné, S and Fabre,
             AC},
   Title = {Do constraints associated with locomotor habitat, diet, and
             activity pattern drive skull shape evolution in musteloid
             carnivorans?},
   Journal = {Biological Journal of the Linnaean Society},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds303351}
}

@article{fds303352,
   Author = {Druzinsky, RED and Lapp, H and Crompton, AW and Herrel, A and Herring,
             SW and Mungall, C and Mabee, P and German, RZ and Vunyard, CJ and Williams,
             SH and Wall, CE},
   Title = {The Mammalian Feeding Muscle Ontology: an anatomy ontology
             for oral/pharyngeal structures},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Publisher = {Public Library of Science},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   Key = {fds303352}
}

@article{fds303353,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Perry, JMG},
   Title = {Testing the frequent recruitment hypothesis: Sexual
             dimorphism, fiber architecture, and frequent type in the
             jaw-adductor muscles of Papio anubis},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Publisher = {Wiley: 12 months},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1096-8644},
   Key = {fds303353}
}

@article{fds241359,
   Author = {Deans, AR and Lewis, SE and Huala, E and Anzaldo, SS and Ashburner, M and Balhoff, JP and Blackburn, DC and Blake, JA and Burleigh, JG and Chanet,
             B and Cooper, LD and Courtot, M and Csösz, S and Cui, H and Dahdul, W and Das, S and Dececchi, TA and Dettai, A and Diogo, R and Druzinsky, RE and Dumontier, M and Franz, NM and Friedrich, F and Gkoutos, GV and Haendel,
             M and Harmon, LJ and Hayamizu, TF and He, Y and Hines, HM and Ibrahim, N and Jackson, LM and Jaiswal, P and James-Zorn, C and Köhler, S and Lecointre, G and Lapp, H and Lawrence, CJ and Le Novère and N and Lundberg, JG and Macklin, J and Mast, AR and Midford, PE and Mikó, I and Mungall, CJ and Oellrich, A and Osumi-Sutherland, D and Parkinson, H and Ramírez, MJ and Richter, S and Robinson, PN and Ruttenberg, A and Schulz, KS and Segerdell, E and Seltmann, KC and Sharkey, MJ and Smith,
             AD and Smith, B and Specht, CD and Squires, RB and Thacker, RW and Thessen,
             A and Fernandez-Triana, J and Vihinen, M and Vize, PD and Vogt, L and Wall,
             CE and Walls, RL and Westerfeld, M and Wharton, RA and Wirkner, CS and Woolley, JB and Yoder, MJ and Zorn, AM and Mabee,
             P},
   Title = {Finding our way through phenotypes.},
   Journal = {Plos Biology},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e1002033},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1544-9173},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10187 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Despite a large and multifaceted effort to understand the
             vast landscape of phenotypic data, their current form
             inhibits productive data analysis. The lack of a
             community-wide, consensus-based, human- and
             machine-interpretable language for describing phenotypes and
             their genomic and environmental contexts is perhaps the most
             pressing scientific bottleneck to integration across many
             key fields in biology, including genomics, systems biology,
             development, medicine, evolution, ecology, and systematics.
             Here we survey the current phenomics landscape, including
             data resources and handling, and the progress that has been
             made to accurately capture relevant data descriptions for
             phenotypes. We present an example of the kind of integration
             across domains that computable phenotypes would enable, and
             we call upon the broader biology community, publishers, and
             relevant funding agencies to support efforts to surmount
             today's data barriers and facilitate analytical
             reproducibility.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.1002033},
   Key = {fds241359}
}

@article{fds241360,
   Author = {Horvath, JE and Ramachandran, GL and Fedrigo, O and Nielsen, WJ and Babbitt, CC and St Clair and EM and Pfefferle, LW and Jernvall, J and Wray,
             GA and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Genetic comparisons yield insight into the evolution of
             enamel thickness during human evolution.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {73},
   Pages = {75-87},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0047-2484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.01.005},
   Abstract = {Enamel thickness varies substantially among extant hominoids
             and is a key trait with significance for interpreting
             dietary adaptation, life history trajectory, and
             phylogenetic relationships. There is a strong link in humans
             between enamel formation and mutations in the exons of the
             four genes that code for the enamel matrix proteins and the
             associated protease. The evolution of thick enamel in humans
             may have included changes in the regulation of these genes
             during tooth development. The cis-regulatory region in the
             5' flank (upstream non-coding region) of MMP20, which codes
             for enamelysin, the predominant protease active during
             enamel secretion, has previously been shown to be under
             strong positive selection in the lineages leading to both
             humans and chimpanzees. Here we examine evidence for
             positive selection in the 5' flank and 3' flank of AMELX,
             AMBN, ENAM, and MMP20. We contrast the human sequence
             changes with other hominoids (chimpanzees, gorillas,
             orangutans, gibbons) and rhesus macaques (outgroup), a
             sample comprising a range of enamel thickness. We find no
             evidence for positive selection in the protein-coding
             regions of any of these genes. In contrast, we find strong
             evidence for positive selection in the 5' flank region of
             MMP20 and ENAM along the lineage leading to humans, and in
             both the 5' flank and 3' flank regions of MMP20 along the
             lineage leading to chimpanzees. We also identify putative
             transcription factor binding sites overlapping some of the
             species-specific nucleotide sites and we refine which
             sections of the up- and downstream putative regulatory
             regions are most likely to harbor important changes. These
             non-coding changes and their potential for differential
             regulation by transcription factors known to regulate tooth
             development may offer insight into the mechanisms that allow
             for rapid evolutionary changes in enamel thickness across
             closely-related species, and contribute to our understanding
             of the enamel phenotype in hominoids.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.01.005},
   Key = {fds241360}
}

@article{fds241379,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Briggs, MM and Huq, E and Hylander, WL and Schachat,
             F},
   Title = {Regional variation in IIM myosin heavy chain expression in
             the temporalis muscle of female and male baboons (Papio
             anubis).},
   Journal = {Archives of Oral Biology},
   Volume = {58},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {435-443},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23102552},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to determine whether high
             amounts of fast/type II myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in the
             superficial as compared to the deep temporalis muscle of
             adult female and male baboons (Papio anubis) correlates with
             published data on muscle function during chewing.
             Electromyographic (EMG) data show a regional specialization
             in activation from low to high amplitude activity during
             hard/tough object chewing cycles in the baboon superficial
             temporalis.(48,49) A positive correlation between fast/type
             II MyHC amount and EMG activity will support the high
             occlusal force hypothesis.Deep anterior temporalis (DAT),
             superficial anterior temporalis (SAT), and superficial
             posterior temporalis (SPT) muscle samples were analyzed
             using SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis to test the prediction
             that SAT and SPT will show high amounts of fast/type II MyHC
             compared to DAT. Serial muscle sections were incubated
             against NOQ7.5.4D and MY32 antibodies to determine the
             breadth of slow/type I versus fast/type II expression within
             each section.Type I and type IIM MyHCs comprise nearly 100%
             of the MyHCs in the temporalis muscle. IIM MyHC was the
             overwhelmingly predominant fast MyHC, though there was a
             small amount of type IIA MyHC (≤5%) in DAT in two
             individuals. SAT and SPT exhibited a fast/type II phenotype
             and contained large amounts of IIM MyHC whereas DAT
             exhibited a type I/type II (hybrid) phenotype and contained
             a significantly greater proportion of MyHC-I. MyHC-I
             expression in DAT was sexually dimorphic as it was more
             abundant in females.The link between the distribution of IIM
             MyHC and high relative EMG amplitudes in SAT and SPT during
             hard/tough object chewing cycles is evidence of regional
             specialization in fibre type to generate high occlusal
             forces during chewing. The high proportion of MyHC-I in DAT
             of females may be related to a high frequency of individual
             fibre recruitment in comparison to males.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.09.008},
   Key = {fds241379}
}

@article{fds241363,
   Author = {Kivell, TL and Guimont, I and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Sex-related shape dimorphism in the human radiocarpal and
             midcarpal joints.},
   Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)},
   Volume = {296},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {19-30},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1932-8486},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000314656300003&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Previous research has revealed significant size differences
             between human male and female carpal bones but it is unknown
             if there are significant shape differences as well. This
             study investigated sex-related shape variation and
             allometric patterns in five carpal bones that make up the
             radiocarpal and midcarpal joints in modern humans. We found
             that many aspects of carpal shape (76% of all variables
             quantified) were similar between males and females, despite
             variation in size. However, 10 of the shape ratios were
             significantly different between males and females, with at
             least one significant shape difference observed in each
             carpal bone. Within-sex standard major axis regressions
             (SMA) of the numerator (i.e., the linear variables) on the
             denominator (i.e., the geometric mean) for each
             significantly different shape ratio indicated that most
             linear variables scaled with positive allometry in both
             males and females, and that for eight of the shape ratios,
             sex-related shape variation is associated with statistically
             similar sex-specific scaling relationships. Only the length
             of the scaphoid body and the height of the lunate triquetrum
             facet showed a significantly higher SMA slope in females
             compared with males. These findings indicate that the
             significant differences in the majority of the shape ratios
             are a function of subtle (i.e., not statistically
             significant) scaling differences between males and females.
             There are a number of potential developmental, functional,
             and evolutionary factors that may cause sex-related shape
             differences in the human carpus. The results highlight the
             potential for subtle differences in scaling to result in
             functionally significant differences in shape.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.22609},
   Key = {fds241363}
}

@article{fds214334,
   Author = {C.E. Wall and M. Briggs and E. Huq and W.L. Hylander and F.
             Schachat},
   Title = {Regional variation in myosin heavy chain composition in the
             temporalis muscle of female and male baboons (Papio
             anubis)},
   Journal = {Archives of Oral Biology},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.09.008},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.09.008},
   Key = {fds214334}
}

@article{fds214340,
   Author = {Kivell TL and Guimont I and Wall CE},
   Title = {Sexual shape dimorphism in the human midcarpal
             joint},
   Journal = {Anatomical Record},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.22609},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.22609},
   Key = {fds214340}
}

@article{fds241374,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Williams, SH and Wall, CE and Doherty, AH and Crompton,
             AW and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {A preliminary analysis of correlations between chewing motor
             patterns and mandibular morphology across
             mammals.},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {260-270},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21724618},
   Abstract = {The establishment of a publicly-accessible repository of
             physiological data on feeding in mammals, the Feeding
             Experiments End-user Database (FEED), along with
             improvements in reconstruction of mammalian phylogeny,
             significantly improves our ability to address long-standing
             questions about the evolution of mammalian feeding. In this
             study, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to examine
             correlations between jaw robusticity and both the relative
             recruitment and the relative time of peak activity for the
             superficial masseter, deep masseter, and temporalis muscles
             across 19 mammalian species from six orders. We find little
             evidence for a relationship between jaw robusticity and
             electromyographic (EMG) activity for either the superficial
             masseter or temporalis muscles across mammals. We
             hypothesize that future analyses may identify significant
             associations between these physiological and morphological
             variables within subgroups of mammals that share similar
             diets, feeding behaviors, and/or phylogenetic histories.
             Alternatively, the relative peak recruitment and timing of
             the balancing-side (i.e., non-chewing-side) deep masseter
             muscle (BDM) is significantly negatively correlated with the
             relative area of the mandibular symphysis across our
             mammalian sample. This relationship exists despite BDM
             activity being associated with different loading regimes in
             the symphyses of primates compared to ungulates, suggesting
             a basic association between magnitude of symphyseal loads
             and symphyseal area among these mammals. Because our sample
             primarily represents mammals that use significant transverse
             movements during chewing, future research should address
             whether the correlations between BDM activity and symphyseal
             morphology characterize all mammals or should be restricted
             to this "transverse chewing" group. Finally, the significant
             correlations observed in this study suggest that
             physiological parameters are an integrated and evolving
             component of feeding across mammals.},
   Doi = {10.1093/icb/icr066},
   Key = {fds241374}
}

@article{fds241375,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Doherty, AH and Crompton,
             AW and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {A preliminary analysis of correlated evolution in Mammalian
             chewing motor patterns.},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {247-259},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21719433},
   Abstract = {Descriptive and quantitative analyses of electromyograms
             (EMG) from the jaw adductors during feeding in mammals have
             demonstrated both similarities and differences among species
             in chewing motor patterns. These observations have led to a
             number of hypotheses of the evolution of motor patterns, the
             most comprehensive of which was proposed by Weijs in 1994.
             Since then, new data have been collected and additional
             hypotheses for the evolution of motor patterns have been
             proposed. Here, we take advantage of these new data and a
             well-resolved species-level phylogeny for mammals to test
             for the correlated evolution of specific components of
             mammalian chewing motor patterns. We focus on the evolution
             of the coordination of working-side (WS) and balancing-side
             (BS) jaw adductors (i.e., Weijs' Triplets I and II), the
             evolution of WS and BS muscle recruitment levels, and the
             evolution of asynchrony between pairs of muscles. We
             converted existing chewing EMG data into binary traits to
             incorporate as much data as possible and facilitate robust
             phylogenetic analyses. We then tested hypotheses of
             correlated evolution of these traits across our phylogeny
             using a maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian Markov
             Chain Monte Carlo method. Both sets of analyses yielded
             similar results highlighting the evolutionary changes that
             have occurred across mammals in chewing motor patterns. We
             find support for the correlated evolution of (1) Triplets I
             and II, (2) BS deep masseter asynchrony and Triplets I and
             II, (3) a relative delay in the activity of the BS deep
             masseter and a decrease in the ratio of WS to BS muscle
             recruitment levels, and (4) a relative delay in the activity
             of the BS deep masseter and a delay in the activity of the
             BS posterior temporalis. In contrast, changes in relative WS
             and BS activity levels across mammals are not correlated
             with Triplets I and II. Results from this work can be
             integrated with dietary and morphological data to better
             understand how feeding and the masticatory apparatus have
             evolved across mammals in the context of new masticatory
             demands.},
   Doi = {10.1093/icb/icr068},
   Key = {fds241375}
}

@article{fds241376,
   Author = {Hylander, WL and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Johnson,
             KR},
   Title = {Functional and evolutionary significance of the recruitment
             and firing patterns of the jaw adductors during chewing in
             Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi).},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {145},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {531-547},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21590749},
   Abstract = {Jaw-muscle electromyographic (EMG) patterns indicate that
             compared with thick-tailed galagos and ring-tailed lemurs,
             anthropoids recruit more relative EMG from their
             balancing-side deep masseter, and that this muscle peaks
             late in the power stroke. These recruitment and firing
             patterns in anthropoids are thought to cause the mandibular
             symphysis to wishbone (lateral transverse bending),
             resulting in relatively high symphyseal stresses. We test
             the hypothesis that living strepsirrhines with robust,
             partially fused symphyses have muscle recruitment and firing
             patterns more similar to anthropoids, unlike those
             strepsirrhines with highly mobile unfused symphyses.
             Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the superficial and deep
             masseter, anterior and posterior temporalis, and medial
             pterygoid muscles were recorded in four dentally adult
             Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi). As predicted, we
             find that sifaka motor patterns are more similar to
             anthropoids. For example, among sifakas, recruitment levels
             of the balancing-side (b-s) deep masseter are high, and the
             b-s deep masseter fires late during the power stroke. As
             adult sifakas often exhibit nearly complete symphyseal
             fusion, these data support the hypothesis that the evolution
             of symphyseal fusion in primates is functionally linked to
             wishboning. Furthermore, these data provide compelling
             evidence for the convergent evolution of the wishboning
             motor patterns in anthropoids and sifakas.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.21529},
   Key = {fds241376}
}

@article{fds241378,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Williams, SH and Gapeyev, V and Liu, X and Lapp, H and German, RZ},
   Title = {Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user
             database.},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {215-223},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21700574},
   Abstract = {The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a
             research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working
             Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that
             permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology
             of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to
             compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format
             stored at a central source, develop a standardized
             terminology for describing and organizing the data, and
             carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains
             raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves
             as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a
             repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as
             text and images that describe experimental protocols,
             research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata
             incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use
             of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic
             data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions
             concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes
             involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among
             mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern
             conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the
             extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding
             behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing
             digital archive that will facilitate new research into
             understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.},
   Doi = {10.1093/icb/icr047},
   Key = {fds241378}
}

@article{fds241372,
   Author = {Perry, JMG and Hartstone-Rose, A and Wall, CE},
   Title = {The jaw adductors of strepsirrhines in relation to body
             size, diet, and ingested food size.},
   Journal = {Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)},
   Volume = {294},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {712-728},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1932-8486},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.21354},
   Abstract = {Body size and food properties account for much of the
             variation in the hard tissue morphology of the masticatory
             system whereas their influence on the soft tissue anatomy
             remains relatively understudied. Data on jaw adductor fiber
             architecture and experimentally determined ingested food
             size in a broad sample of 24 species of extant
             strepsirrhines allows us to evaluate several hypotheses
             about the influence of body size and diet on the masticatory
             muscles. Jaw adductor mass scales isometrically with body
             mass (β = 0.99, r = 0.95), skull size (β = 1.04, r =
             0.97), and jaw length cubed (β = 1.02, r = 0.95). Fiber
             length also scales isometrically with body mass (β = 0.28,
             r = 0.85), skull size (β = 0.33, r = 0.84), and jaw length
             cubed (β = 0.29, r = 0.88). Physiological cross-sectional
             area (PCSA) scales with isometry or slight positive
             allometry with body mass (β = 0.76, r = 0.92), skull size
             (β = 0.78, r = 0.94), and jaw length cubed (β = 0.78, r =
             0.91). Whereas PCSA is isometric to body size estimates in
             frugivores, it is positively allometric in folivores.
             Independent of body size, fiber length is correlated with
             maximum ingested food size, suggesting that ingestive gape
             is related to fiber excursion. Comparisons of temporalis,
             masseter, and medial pterygoid PCSA in strepsirrhines of
             different diets suggest that there may be functional
             partitioning between these muscle groups.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ar.21354},
   Key = {fds241372}
}

@article{fds241373,
   Author = {Babbitt, CC and Warner, LR and Fedrigo, O and Wall, CE and Wray,
             GA},
   Title = {Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts during human
             origins.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological
             Sciences},
   Volume = {278},
   Number = {1708},
   Pages = {961-969},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21177690},
   Abstract = {There are numerous anthropological analyses concerning the
             importance of diet during human evolution. Diet is thought
             to have had a profound influence on the human phenotype, and
             dietary differences have been hypothesized to contribute to
             the dramatic morphological changes seen in modern humans as
             compared with non-human primates. Here, we attempt to
             integrate the results of new genomic studies within this
             well-developed anthropological context. We then review the
             current evidence for adaptation related to diet, both at the
             level of sequence changes and gene expression. Finally, we
             propose some ways in which new technologies can help
             identify specific genomic adaptations that have resulted in
             metabolic and morphological differences between humans and
             non-human primates.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rspb.2010.2433},
   Key = {fds241373}
}

@article{fds241377,
   Author = {Fedrigo, O and Pfefferle, AD and Babbitt, CC and Haygood, R and Wall,
             CE and Wray, GA},
   Title = {A potential role for glucose transporters in the evolution
             of human brain size.},
   Journal = {Brain, Behavior and Evolution},
   Volume = {78},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {315-326},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21986508},
   Abstract = {Differences in cognitive abilities and the relatively large
             brain are among the most striking differences between humans
             and their closest primate relatives. The energy trade-off
             hypothesis predicts that a major shift in energy allocation
             among tissues occurred during human origins in order to
             support the remarkable expansion of a metabolically
             expensive brain. However, the molecular basis of this
             adaptive scenario is unknown. Two glucose transporters
             (SLC2A1 and SLC2A4) are promising candidates and present
             intriguing mutations in humans, resulting, respectively, in
             microcephaly and disruptions in whole-body glucose
             homeostasis. We compared SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 expression
             between humans, chimpanzees and macaques, and found
             compensatory and biologically significant expression changes
             on the human lineage within cerebral cortex and skeletal
             muscle, consistent with mediating an energy trade-off. We
             also show that these two genes are likely to have undergone
             adaptation and participated in the development and
             maintenance of a larger brain in the human lineage by
             modulating brain and skeletal muscle energy allocation. We
             found that these two genes show human-specific signatures of
             positive selection on known regulatory elements within their
             5'-untranslated region, suggesting an adaptation of their
             regulation during human origins. This study represents the
             first case where adaptive, functional and genetic lines of
             evidence implicate specific genes in the evolution of human
             brain size.},
   Doi = {10.1159/000329852},
   Key = {fds241377}
}

@article{fds214342,
   Author = {Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Williams SH and Gapeyev V and Liu X and Lapp H and German RZ},
   Title = {Overview of the feeding experiments end-user database
             (FEED)},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds214342}
}

@article{fds241356,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Doherty, AH and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Ross, CF and Herring, SW and Crompton, AW},
   Title = {Patterns of functional integration in the mammalian
             masticatory apparatus},
   Journal = {American Zoologist},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {260-272},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-1569},
   Key = {fds241356}
}

@article{fds241357,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Crompton, AW and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Patterns of jaw-muscle recruitment evolution in
             mammals},
   Journal = {American Zoologist},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {247-259},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-1569},
   Key = {fds241357}
}

@article{fds241358,
   Author = {Fedrigo, O and Pfefferele, AD and Babbitt, CC and Haygood, R and Wall,
             CE and Wray, GA},
   Title = {Molecular evidence that a metabolic trade-off contributed to
             human brain size evolution},
   Journal = {Brain, Behavior, and Evolution},
   Volume = {78},
   Pages = {315-326},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000329852},
   Doi = {10.1159/000329852},
   Key = {fds241358}
}

@article{fds214347,
   Author = {Babbitt CC and Fedrigo O and Warner LR and Wall CE and Wray
             GA},
   Title = {Genomic signatures of diet-related shifts in primate
             evolution},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the Royal Society B},
   Volume = {278},
   Pages = {961},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds214347}
}

@article{fds241371,
   Author = {MacLean, EL and Barrickman, NL and Johnson, EM and Wall,
             CE},
   Title = {Sociality, ecology, and relative brain size in
             lemurs.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {471-478},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19410273},
   Abstract = {The social brain hypothesis proposes that haplorhine
             primates have evolved relatively large brains for their body
             size primarily as an adaptation for living in complex social
             groups. Studies that support this hypothesis have shown a
             strong relationship between relative brain size and group
             size in these taxa. Recent reports suggest that this pattern
             is unique to haplorhine primates; many nonprimate taxa do
             not show a relationship between group size and relative
             brain size. Rather, pairbonded social monogamy appears to be
             a better predictor of a large relative brain size in many
             nonprimate taxa. It has been suggested that haplorhine
             primates may have expanded the pairbonded relationship
             beyond simple dyads towards the evolution of complex social
             groups. We examined the relationship between group size,
             pairbonding, and relative brain size in a sample of 19
             lemurs; strepsirrhine primates that last share a common
             ancestor with monkeys and apes approximately 75 Ma. First,
             we evaluated the social brain hypothesis, which predicts
             that species with larger social groups will have relatively
             larger brains. Secondly, we tested the pairbonded
             hypothesis, which predicts that species with a pairbonded
             social organization will have relatively larger brains than
             non-pairbonded species. We found no relationship between
             group size or pairbonding and relative brain size in lemurs.
             We conducted two further analyses to test for possible
             relationships between two nonsocial variables, activity
             pattern and diet, and relative brain size. Both diet and
             activity pattern are significantly associated with relative
             brain size in our sample. Specifically, frugivorous species
             have relatively larger brains than folivorous species, and
             cathemeral species have relatively larger brains than
             diurnal, but not nocturnal species. These findings highlight
             meaningful differences between Malagasy strepsirrhines and
             haplorhines, and between Malagasy strepsirrhines and
             nonprimate taxa, regarding the social and ecological factors
             associated with increases in relative brain size. The
             results suggest that factors such as foraging complexity and
             flexibility of activity patterns may have driven selection
             for increases in brain size in lemurs.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.12.005},
   Key = {fds241371}
}

@article{fds241369,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas:
             implications for understanding the biomechanics of
             mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls.},
   Journal = {Journal of Anatomy},
   Volume = {214},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {65-78},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1469-7580},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19166474},
   Abstract = {The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and
             biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in
             vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We
             compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats
             and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from
             biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during
             mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average
             600-700 microepsilon on the working side and approximately
             450 microepsilon on the balancing side. Maximum principal
             tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30
             degrees dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the
             corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular
             to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in
             both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side
             corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or
             lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus.
             Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with
             comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology
             suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular
             corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it
             experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of
             higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical
             explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that
             torsion influences relative corpus size and shape.
             Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur
             along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during
             the power stroke has two implications. First, added
             clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo
             approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between
             mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading.
             Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their
             ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of
             selenodont artiodactyl jaws.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7580.2008.01008.x},
   Key = {fds241369}
}

@article{fds303354,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {In vivo bone strain in the mandibular corpus of selenodont
             artiodactyls},
   Journal = {Journal of Anatomy},
   Volume = {214},
   Pages = {65-78},
   Publisher = {Wiley: 12 months},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1469-7580},
   Key = {fds303354}
}

@article{fds241370,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Patterns of variation across primates in jaw-muscle
             electromyography during mastication.},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {294-311},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1540-7063},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21669792},
   Abstract = {Biologists that study mammals continue to discuss the
             evolution of and functional variation in jaw-muscle activity
             during chewing. A major barrier to addressing these issues
             is collecting sufficient in vivo data to adequately capture
             neuromuscular variation in a clade. We combine data on
             jaw-muscle electromyography (EMG) collected during
             mastication from 14 species of primates and one of
             treeshrews to assess patterns of neuromuscular variation in
             primates. All data were collected and analyzed using the
             same methods. We examine the variance components for EMG
             parameters using a nested ANOVA design across successive
             hierarchical factors from chewing cycle through species for
             eight locations in the masseter and temporalis muscles.
             Variation in jaw-muscle EMGs was not distributed equally
             across hierarchical levels. The timing of peak EMG activity
             showed the largest variance components among chewing cycles.
             Relative levels of recruitment of jaw muscles showed the
             largest variance components among chewing sequences and
             cycles. We attribute variation among chewing cycles to (1)
             changes in food properties throughout the chewing sequence,
             (2) variation in bite location, and (3) the multiple ways
             jaw muscles can produce submaximal bite forces. We
             hypothesize that variation among chewing sequences is
             primarily related to variation in properties of food. The
             significant proportion of variation in EMGs potentially
             linked to food properties suggests that experimental
             biologists must pay close attention to foods given to
             research subjects in laboratory-based studies of feeding.
             The jaw muscles exhibit markedly different variance
             components among species suggesting that primate jaw muscles
             have evolved as distinct functional units. The
             balancing-side deep masseter (BDM) exhibits the most
             variation among species. This observation supports previous
             hypotheses linking variation in the timing and activation of
             the BDM to symphyseal fusion in anthropoid primates and in
             strepsirrhines with robust symphyses. The working-side
             anterior temporalis shows a contrasting pattern with little
             variation in timing and relative activation across primates.
             The consistent recruitment of this muscle suggests that
             primates have maintained their ability to produce vertical
             jaw movements and force in contrast to the evolutionary
             changes in transverse occlusal forces driven by the varying
             patterns of activation in the BDM.},
   Doi = {10.1093/icb/icn071},
   Key = {fds241370}
}

@article{fds214351,
   Author = {Vinyard CJ and Wall CE and Williams SH and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Patterns of variation in jaw- muscle electromyography during
             mastication across Primates},
   Journal = {Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Volume = {48},
   Pages = {294},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds214351}
}

@article{fds241361,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Ravosa, MJ and Williams, SH and Wall, CE and Johnson,
             KR and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {Jaw-muscle function and the origin of primates},
   Pages = {179-231},
   Publisher = {Springer US},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-33507-0_6},
   Abstract = {Anthropologists studying primate chewing have focused on the
             origins and evolution of the masticatory apparatus of
             anthropoids and humans. We know far less about the
             functional morphology and evolution of the masticatory
             apparatus in the earliest euprimates (e.g., Jablonski,
             1986). A more complete understanding of masticatory
             apparatus function in the earliest primates would greatly
             benefit studies of chewing behavior in both strepsirrhines
             and haplorhines. We begin addressing this shortcoming in
             this chapter by asking, "To what extent do treeshrews share
             similar jaw-muscle activity patterns during chewing with
             living primates?" We use the small, nonprimate mammal,
             Belangers treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri), as an extant model
             of jaw-muscle activity during chewing, or mastication, in
             early euprimates. By comparing living primates to this
             treeshrew, we can infer whether the origin of primates
             involved significant changes in jaw-muscle activity patterns
             during chewing. Because we can make some basic functional
             links between jaw-muscle activity patterns and jaw form, our
             results will aid future interpretations of masticatory
             apparatus function from jaw form in living and fossil
             primates. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
             2007.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-0-387-33507-0_6},
   Key = {fds241361}
}

@article{fds241368,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Masticatory motor patterns in ungulates: a quantitative
             assessment of jaw-muscle coordination in goats, alpacas and
             horses.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics
             and Physiology},
   Volume = {307},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {226-240},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1932-5223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jez.362},
   Abstract = {We investigated patterns of jaw-muscle coordination during
             rhythmic mastication in three species of ungulates
             displaying the marked transverse jaw movements typical of
             many large mammalian herbivores. In order to quantify
             consistent motor patterns during chewing, electromyograms
             were recorded from the superficial masseter, deep masseter,
             posterior temporalis and medial pterygoid muscles of goats,
             alpacas and horses. Timing differences between muscle pairs
             were evaluated in the context of an evolutionary model of
             jaw-muscle function. In this model, the closing and food
             reduction phases of mastication are primarily controlled by
             two distinct muscle groups, triplet I (balancing-side
             superficial masseter and medial pterygoid and working-side
             posterior temporalis) and triplet II (working-side
             superficial masseter and medial pterygoid and balancing-side
             posterior temporalis), and the asynchronous activity of the
             working- and balancing-side deep masseters. The three
             species differ in the extent to which the jaw muscles are
             coordinated as triplet I and triplet II. Alpacas, and to a
             lesser extent, goats, exhibit the triplet pattern whereas
             horses do not. In contrast, all three species show marked
             asynchrony of the working-side and balancing-side deep
             masseters, with jaw closing initiated by the working-side
             muscle and the balancing-side muscle firing much later
             during closing. However, goats differ from alpacas and
             horses in the timing of the balancing-side deep masseter
             relative to the triplet II muscles. This study highlights
             interspecific differences in the coordination of jaw muscles
             to influence transverse jaw movements and the production of
             bite force in herbivorous ungulates.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jez.362},
   Key = {fds241368}
}

@article{fds241382,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Johnson, KR and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Masseter electromyography during chewing in ring-tailed
             lemurs (Lemur catta).},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {130},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {85-95},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16345068},
   Abstract = {We examined masseter recruitment and firing patterns during
             chewing in four adult ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta),
             using electromyography (EMG). During chewing of tougher
             foods, the working-side superficial masseter tends to show,
             on average, 1.7 times more scaled EMG activity than the
             balancing-side superficial masseter. The working-side deep
             masseter exhibits, on average, 2.4 times the scaled EMG
             activity of the balancing-side deep masseter. The relatively
             larger activity in the working-side muscles suggests that
             ring-tailed lemurs recruit relatively less force from their
             balancing-side muscles during chewing. The superficial
             masseter working-to-balancing-side (W/B) ratio for lemurs
             overlaps with W/B ratios from anthropoid primates. In
             contrast, the lemur W/B ratio for the deep masseter is more
             similar to that of greater galagos, while both are
             significantly larger than W/B ratios of anthropoids. Because
             ring-tailed lemurs have unfused and hence presumably weaker
             symphyses, these data are consistent with the symphyseal
             fusion-muscle recruitment hypothesis stating that symphyseal
             fusion in anthropoids provides increased strength for
             resisting forces created by the balancing-side jaw muscles
             during chewing. Among the masseter muscles of ring-tailed
             lemurs, the working-side deep masseter peaks first on
             average, followed in succession by the balancing-side deep
             masseter, balancing-side superficial masseter, and finally
             the working-side superficial masseter. Ring-tailed lemurs
             are similar to greater galagos in that their balancing-side
             deep masseter peaks well before their working-side
             superficial masseter. We see the opposite pattern in
             anthropoids, where the balancing-side deep masseter peaks,
             on average, after the working-side superficial masseter.
             This late activity of the balancing-side deep masseter in
             anthropoids is linked to lateral-transverse bending, or
             wishboning, of their mandibular symphyses. Subsequently, the
             stresses incurred during wishboning are hypothesized to be a
             proximate reason for strengthening, and hence fusion, of the
             anthropoid symphysis. Thus, the absence of this
             muscle-firing pattern in ring-tailed lemurs with their
             weaker, unfused symphyses provides further correlational
             support for the symphyseal fusion late-acting balancing-side
             deep masseter hypothesis linking wishboning and symphyseal
             strengthening in anthropoids. The early peak activity of the
             working-side deep masseter in ring-tailed lemurs is unlike
             galagos and most similar to the pattern seen in macaques and
             baboons. We hypothesize that this early activity of the
             working-side deep masseter moves the lower jaw both
             laterally toward the working side and vertically upward, to
             position it for the upcoming power stroke. From an
             evolutionary perspective, the differences in peak firing
             times for the working-side deep masseter between ring-tailed
             lemurs and greater galagos indicate that deep masseter
             firing patterns are not conserved among strepsirrhines.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20307},
   Key = {fds241382}
}

@article{fds304464,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Johnson, KR and Williams, SH and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Phase II jaw movements and masseter muscle activity during
             chewing in Papio anubis.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {129},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {215-224},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16278877},
   Abstract = {It was proposed that the power stroke in primates has two
             distinct periods of occlusal contact, each with a
             characteristic motion of the mandibular molars relative to
             the maxillary molars. The two movements are called phase I
             and phase II, and they occur sequentially in that order (Kay
             and Hiiemae [1974] Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 40:227-256, Kay
             and Hiiemae [1974] Prosimian Biology, Pittsburgh: University
             of Pittsburgh Press, p. 501-530). Phase I movement is said
             to be associated with shearing along a series of crests,
             producing planar phase I facets and crushing on surfaces on
             the basins of the molars. Phase I terminates in centric
             occlusion. Phase II movement is said to be associated with
             grinding along the same surfaces that were used for crushing
             at the termination of phase I. Hylander et al. ([1987] Am J.
             Phys. Anthropol. 72:287-312; see also Hiiemae [1984] Food
             Acquisition and Processing, London: Academic Press, p.
             257-281; Hylander and Crompton [1980] Am J. Phys. Anthropol.
             52:239-251, [1986] Arch. Oral. Biol. 31:841-848) analyzed
             data on macaques and suggested that phase II movement may
             not be nearly as significant for food breakdown as phase I
             movement simply because, based on the magnitude of
             mandibular bone strain patterns, adductor muscle and
             occlusal forces are likely negligible during movement out of
             centric occlusion. Our goal is to better understand the
             functional significance of phase II movement within the
             broader context of masticatory kinematics during the power
             stroke. We analyze vertical and transverse mandibular motion
             and relative activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles
             during phase I and II movements in Papio anubis. We test
             whether significant muscle activity and, by inference,
             occlusal force occurs during phase II movement. We find that
             during phase II movement, there is negligible force
             developed in the superficial and deep masseter and the
             anterior and posterior temporalis muscles. Furthermore,
             mandibular movements are small during phase II compared to
             phase I. These results suggest that grinding during phase II
             movement is of minimal importance for food breakdown, and
             that most food breakdown on phase II facets occurs primarily
             at the end of phase I movement (i.e., crushing during phase
             I movement). We note, however, that depending on the
             orientation of phase I facets, significant grinding also
             occurs along phase I facets during phase
             I.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20290},
   Key = {fds304464}
}

@article{fds241381,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Williams, SH and Johnson, KR and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Phase II occlusion in relation to jaw movement and masseter
             muscle recruitment during chewing in Papio
             anubis.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {129},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {215-224},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16278877},
   Abstract = {It was proposed that the power stroke in primates has two
             distinct periods of occlusal contact, each with a
             characteristic motion of the mandibular molars relative to
             the maxillary molars. The two movements are called phase I
             and phase II, and they occur sequentially in that order (Kay
             and Hiiemae [1974] Am J. Phys. Anthropol. 40:227-256, Kay
             and Hiiemae [1974] Prosimian Biology, Pittsburgh: University
             of Pittsburgh Press, p. 501-530). Phase I movement is said
             to be associated with shearing along a series of crests,
             producing planar phase I facets and crushing on surfaces on
             the basins of the molars. Phase I terminates in centric
             occlusion. Phase II movement is said to be associated with
             grinding along the same surfaces that were used for crushing
             at the termination of phase I. Hylander et al. ([1987] Am J.
             Phys. Anthropol. 72:287-312; see also Hiiemae [1984] Food
             Acquisition and Processing, London: Academic Press, p.
             257-281; Hylander and Crompton [1980] Am J. Phys. Anthropol.
             52:239-251, [1986] Arch. Oral. Biol. 31:841-848) analyzed
             data on macaques and suggested that phase II movement may
             not be nearly as significant for food breakdown as phase I
             movement simply because, based on the magnitude of
             mandibular bone strain patterns, adductor muscle and
             occlusal forces are likely negligible during movement out of
             centric occlusion. Our goal is to better understand the
             functional significance of phase II movement within the
             broader context of masticatory kinematics during the power
             stroke. We analyze vertical and transverse mandibular motion
             and relative activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles
             during phase I and II movements in Papio anubis. We test
             whether significant muscle activity and, by inference,
             occlusal force occurs during phase II movement. We find that
             during phase II movement, there is negligible force
             developed in the superficial and deep masseter and the
             anterior and posterior temporalis muscles. Furthermore,
             mandibular movements are small during phase II compared to
             phase I. These results suggest that grinding during phase II
             movement is of minimal importance for food breakdown, and
             that most food breakdown on phase II facets occurs primarily
             at the end of phase I movement (i.e., crushing during phase
             I movement). We note, however, that depending on the
             orientation of phase I facets, significant grinding also
             occurs along phase I facets during phase
             I.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20290},
   Key = {fds241381}
}

@article{fds241394,
   Author = {Hylander, WL and Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Ross, C and Ravosa, MR and Williams, SH and Johnson, KR},
   Title = {Temporalis function in anthropoids and strepsirrhines: an
             EMG study.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {128},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-56},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15714512},
   Abstract = {The major purpose of this study is to analyze anterior and
             posterior temporalis muscle force recruitment and firing
             patterns in various anthropoid and strepsirrhine primates.
             There are two specific goals for this project. First, we
             test the hypothesis that in addition to transversely
             directed muscle force, the evolution of symphyseal fusion in
             primates may also be linked to vertically directed
             balancing-side muscle force during chewing (Hylander et al.
             [2000] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 112:469-492). Second, we test
             the hypothesis of whether strepsirrhines retain the
             hypothesized primitive mammalian condition for the firing of
             the anterior temporalis, whereas anthropoids have the
             derived condition (Weijs [1994] Biomechanics of Feeding in
             Vertebrates; Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 282-320).
             Electromyographic (EMG) activities of the left and right
             anterior and posterior temporalis muscles were recorded and
             analyzed in baboons, macaques, owl monkeys, thick-tailed
             galagos, and ring-tailed lemurs. In addition, as we used the
             working-side superficial masseter as a reference muscle, we
             also recorded and analyzed EMG activity of the left and
             right superficial masseter in these primates. The data for
             the anterior temporalis provided no support for the
             hypothesis that symphyseal fusion in primates is linked to
             vertically directed jaw muscle forces during mastication.
             Thus, symphyseal fusion in primates is most likely mainly
             linked to the timing and recruitment of transversely
             directed forces from the balancing-side deep masseter
             (Hylander et al. [2000] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
             112:469-492). In addition, our data demonstrate that the
             firing patterns for the working- and balancing-side anterior
             temporalis muscles are near identical in both strepsirrhines
             and anthropoids. Their working- and balancing-side anterior
             temporalis muscles fire asynchronously and reach peak
             activity during the power stroke. Similarly, their working-
             and balancing-side posterior temporalis muscles also fire
             asynchronously and reach peak activity during the power
             stroke. Compared to these strepsirrhines, however, the
             balancing-side posterior temporalis of anthropoids appears
             to have a relatively delayed firing pattern. Moreover, based
             on their smaller W/B ratios, anthropoids demonstrate a
             relative increase in muscle-force recruitment of the
             balancing-side posterior temporalis. This in turn suggests
             that anthropoids may emphasize the duration and magnitude of
             the power stroke during mastication. This hypothesis,
             however, requires additional testing. Furthermore, during
             the latter portion of the power stroke, the late activity of
             the balancing-side posterior temporalis of anthropoids
             apparently assists the balancing-side deep masseter in
             driving the working-side molars through the terminal portion
             of occlusion.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20058},
   Key = {fds241394}
}

@article{fds241380,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Williams, SH and Wall, CE and Johnson, KR and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Jaw-muscle electromyography during chewing in Belanger's
             treeshrews (Tupaia belangeri).},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {127},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {26-45},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15486965},
   Abstract = {We examined masseter and temporalis recruitment and firing
             patterns during chewing in five male Belanger's treeshrews
             (Tupaia belangeri), using electromyography (EMG). During
             chewing, the working-side masseters tend to show almost
             three times more scaled EMG activity than the balancing-side
             masseters. Similarly, the working-side temporalis muscles
             have more than twice the scaled EMG activity of the
             balancing-side temporalis. The relatively higher activity in
             the working-side muscles suggests that treeshrews recruit
             less force from their balancing-side muscles during chewing.
             Most of the jaw-closing muscles in treeshrews can be sorted
             into an early-firing or late-firing group, based on
             occurrence of peak activity during the chewing cycle.
             Specifically, the first group of jaw-closing muscles to
             reach peak activity consists of the working-side anterior
             and posterior temporalis and the balancing-side superficial
             masseter. The balancing-side anterior and posterior
             temporalis and the working-side superficial masseter peak
             later in the power stroke. The working-side deep masseter
             peaks, on average, slightly before the working-side
             superficial masseter. The balancing-side deep masseter
             typically peaks early, at about the same time as the
             balancing-side superficial masseter. Thus, treeshrews are
             unlike nonhuman anthropoids that peak their working-side
             deep masseters early and their balancing-side deep masseters
             late in the power stroke. Because in anthropoids the late
             firing of the balancing-side deep masseter contributes to
             wishboning of the symphysis, the treeshrew EMG data suggest
             that treeshrews do not routinely wishbone their symphyses
             during chewing. Based on the treeshrew EMG data, we
             speculate that during chewing, primitive euprimates 1)
             recruited more force from the working-side jaw-closing
             muscles as compared to the balancing-side muscles, 2) fired
             an early group of jaw-closing muscles followed by a second
             group of muscles that peaked later in the power stroke, 3)
             did not fire their working-side deep masseter significantly
             earlier than their working-side superficial masseter, and 4)
             did not routinely fire their balancing-side deep masseter
             after the working-side superficial masseter.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.20176},
   Key = {fds241380}
}

@article{fds241393,
   Author = {Vinyard, CJ and Wall, CE and Williams, SH and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {Comparative functional analysis of skull morphology of
             tree-gouging primates.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {120},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {153-170},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12541333},
   Abstract = {Many primates habitually feed on tree exudates such as gums
             and saps. Among these exudate feeders, Cebuella pygmaea,
             Callithrix spp., Phaner furcifer, and most likely Euoticus
             elegantulus elicit exudate flow by biting into trees with
             their anterior dentition. We define this behavior as
             gouging. Beyond the recent publication by Dumont ([1997] Am
             J Phys Anthropol 102:187-202), there have been few attempts
             to address whether any aspect of skull form in gouging
             primates relates to this specialized feeding behavior.
             However, many researchers have proposed that tree gouging
             results in larger bite force, larger internal skull loads,
             and larger jaw gapes in comparison to other chewing and
             biting behaviors. If true, then we might expect primate
             gougers to exhibit skull modifications that provide
             increased abilities to produce bite forces at the incisors,
             withstand loads in the skull, and/or generate large gapes
             for gouging. We develop 13 morphological predictions based
             on the expectation that gouging involves relatively large
             jaw forces and/or jaw gapes. We compare skull shapes for P.
             furcifer to five cheirogaleid taxa, E. elegantulus to six
             galagid species, and C. jacchus to two tamarin species, so
             as to assess whether gouging primates exhibit these
             predicted morphological shapes. Our results show little
             morphological evidence for increased force-production or
             load-resistance abilities in the skulls of these gouging
             primates. Conversely, these gougers tend to have skull
             shapes that are advantageous for creating large gapes. For
             example, all three gouging species have significantly lower
             condylar heights relative to the toothrow at a given
             mandibular length in comparison with closely related,
             nongouging taxa. Lowering the height of the condyle relative
             to the mandibular toothrow should reduce the stretching of
             the masseters and medial pterygoids during jaw opening, as
             well as position the mandibular incisors more anteriorly at
             wide jaw gapes. In other words, the lower incisors will
             follow a more vertical trajectory during both jaw opening
             and closing. We predict, based on these findings, that
             tree-gouging primates do not generate unusually large
             forces, but that they do use relatively large gapes during
             gouging. Of course, in vivo data on jaw forces and jaw gapes
             are required to reliably assess skull functions during
             gouging.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.10129},
   Key = {fds241393}
}

@article{fds241392,
   Author = {Williams, SH and Wall, CE and Vinyard, CJ and Hylander,
             WL},
   Title = {A biomechanical analysis of skull form in gum-harvesting
             galagids.},
   Journal = {Folia Primatologica},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {197-209},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0015-5713},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12399659},
   Abstract = {Among primates, some highly gummivorous species habitually
             gouge trees to elicit exudate flow whereas others scrape the
             hardened gums from trees. These foraging behaviors are
             thought to require high external forces at the anterior
             dentition. In this study, we test whether skull form in
             gouging and scraping galagids corresponds to this suggested
             need to produce these higher external forces and to resist
             increased internal loads in the jaws. We find few consistent
             morphological patterns linking skull form and the generation
             of high forces during gouging. However, there is some
             tendency for gougers and scrapers to show increased load
             resistance capabilities in their mandibles. Future research
             on the mechanical properties of trees exploited by these
             species and on jaw function during gouging and scraping will
             improve our understanding of the mechanical demands of gum
             feeding on the galagid skull form.},
   Doi = {10.1159/000065429},
   Key = {fds241392}
}

@article{fds241391,
   Author = {Hylander, WL and Ravosa, MJ and Ross, CF and Wall, CE and Johnson,
             KR},
   Title = {Symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force: an EMG
             study.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {469-492},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10918125},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study is to test various hypotheses
             about balancing-side jaw muscle recruitment patterns during
             mastication, with a major focus on testing the hypothesis
             that symphyseal fusion in anthropoids is due mainly to
             vertically- and/or transversely-directed jaw muscle forces.
             Furthermore, as the balancing-side deep masseter has been
             shown to play an important role in wishboning of the macaque
             mandibular symphysis, we test the hypothesis that primates
             possessing a highly mobile mandibular symphysis do not
             exhibit the balancing-side deep masseter firing pattern that
             causes wishboning of the anthropoid mandible. Finally, we
             also test the hypothesis that balancing-side muscle
             recruitment patterns are importantly related to allometric
             constraints associated with the evolution of increasing body
             size. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the left and right
             superficial and deep masseters were recorded and analyzed in
             baboons, macaques, owl monkeys, and thick-tailed galagos.
             The masseter was chosen for analysis because in the frontal
             projection its superficial portion exerts force primarily in
             the vertical (dorsoventral) direction, whereas its deep
             portion has a relatively larger component of force in the
             transverse direction. The symphyseal fusion-muscle
             recruitment hypothesis predicts that unlike anthropoids,
             galagos develop bite force with relatively little
             contribution from their balancing-side jaw muscles. Thus,
             compared to galagos, anthropoids recruit a larger percentage
             of force from their balancing-side muscles. If true, this
             means that during forceful mastication, galagos should have
             working-side/balancing-side (W/B) EMG ratios that are
             relatively large, whereas anthropoids should have W/B ratios
             that are relatively small. The EMG data indicate that
             galagos do indeed have the largest average W/B ratios for
             both the superficial and deep masseters (2.2 and 4.4,
             respectively). Among the anthropoids, the average W/B ratios
             for the superficial and deep masseters are 1.9 and 1.0 for
             baboons, 1.4 and 1.0 for macaques, and both values are 1.4
             for owl monkeys. Of these ratios, however, the only
             significant difference between thick-tailed galagos and
             anthropoids are those associated with the deep masseter.
             Furthermore, the analysis of masseter firing patterns
             indicates that whereas baboons, macaques and owl monkeys
             exhibit the deep masseter firing pattern associated with
             wishboning of the macaque mandibular symphysis, galagos do
             not exhibit this firing pattern. The allometric
             constraint-muscle recruitment hypothesis predicts that
             larger primates must recruit relatively larger amounts of
             balancing-side muscle force so as to develop equivalent
             amounts of bite force. Operationally this means that during
             forceful mastication, the W/B EMG ratios for the superficial
             and deep masseters should be negatively correlated with body
             size. Our analysis clearly refutes this hypothesis. As
             already noted, the average W/B ratios for both the
             superficial and deep masseter are largest in thick-tailed
             galagos, and not, as predicted by the allometric constraint
             hypothesis, in owl monkeys, an anthropoid whose body size is
             smaller than that of thick-tailed galagos. Our analysis also
             indicates that owl monkeys have W/B ratios that are small
             and more similar to those of the much larger-sized baboons
             and macaques. Thus, both the analysis of the W/B EMG ratios
             and the muscle firing pattern data support the hypothesis
             that symphyseal fusion and transversely-directed muscle
             force in anthropoids are functionally linked. This in turn
             supports the hypothesis that the evolution of symphyseal
             fusion in anthropoids is an adaptation to strengthen the
             symphysis so as to counter increased wishboning stress
             during forceful unilateral mastication. (ABSTRACT
             TRUNCATED)},
   Doi = {10.1002/1096-8644(200008)112:4<469::aid-ajpa5>3.0.co;2},
   Key = {fds241391}
}

@article{fds241366,
   Author = {Ross, CF and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Biomechanics of mammalian feeding and primate
             evolution},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {447-448},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-8644(200008)112:4<447::AID-AJPA2>3.0.CO;2-B},
   Doi = {10.1002/1096-8644(200008)112:4<447::AID-AJPA2>3.0.CO;2-B},
   Key = {fds241366}
}

@article{fds241365,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {A comment on: the instantaneous center of rotation during
             human jaw opening and its significance in interpreting the
             functional meaning of condylar translation (Chen, x., 1998,
             Am J phys anthropol 106:35-46)},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {110},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {105-107},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10490472},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1096-8644(199909)110:1<105::aid-ajpa9>3.},
   Key = {fds241365}
}

@article{fds241390,
   Author = {Wall, CE},
   Title = {A model of temporomandibular joint function in anthropoid
             primates based on condylar movements during
             mastication.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-88},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10342466},
   Abstract = {The hypothesis that the shape of the bony temporomandibular
             joint (TMJ) is functionally related to sagittal sliding of
             the condyle during mastication is tested, and a model of the
             relation of sagittal sliding to mandibular size, TMJ shape,
             and diet is developed. Sagittal sliding is defined as
             fore-aft motion of the condyle during mandibular translation
             and/or angular rotation. Ascending ramus height is used as a
             structural correlate of the distance between the condyle and
             the mandibular axis of rotation (CR). Cineradiographic data
             on sagittal sliding and gape during mastication in Ateles
             spp., Macaca fascicularis, Papio anubis, and Pan troglodytes
             in conjunction with comparative data on mandibular size and
             TMJ shape are used to evaluate the hypothesis. The results
             show that 1) linear and angular gape are highly positively
             correlated with sagittal sliding, 2) pure mandibular
             translation is rare during mastication, 3) the CR is rarely
             if ever located at the condyle during mastication, 4)
             angular gape should be standardized in interindividual
             comparisons of sagittal sliding, and 5) the height of the
             ascending ramus (and by inference the CR-to-condyle
             distance) is highly positively correlated with absolute
             sagittal sliding. Sagittal sliding relative to the length of
             the articular eminence was the variable used to explore the
             relation between TMJ shape and sliding. This variable
             standardized absolute sagittal sliding relative to joint
             size. The relative depth and orientation of the articular
             eminence were not correlated with relative sagittal sliding.
             The anteroposterior curvature of the condyle was highly
             negatively correlated with relative sagittal sliding. Flat
             condyles are associated with large amounts of relative
             sagittal sliding. A flat condyle increases joint contact
             area, which reduces joint stress. A flat condyle also
             increases joint congruence, and this may facilitate the
             combined sliding and rolling motion of the condyle when the
             sliding motion is relatively large. The shape of the
             entoglenoid process was also positively correlated with
             relative sagittal sliding. A relatively large entoglenoid
             process may help to guide sagittal sliding and prevent
             excessive mediolateral sliding of the condyle. The
             functional model makes a number of predictions about the
             correlations between food consistency and food object size,
             mandibular size, TMJ shape, and sagittal sliding of the
             condyle during mastication and incision.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1096-8644(199905)109:1<67::aid-ajpa7>3.0},
   Key = {fds241390}
}

@article{fds241389,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Hylander, WL},
   Title = {A reply to "The instantaneous center of rotation during
             human jaw opening and its significance in interpreting the
             functional meaning of condylar translation" (Chen, X., 1998,
             Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 106:35-46)},
   Journal = {Am. J. Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {105},
   Pages = {105-107},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds241389}
}

@article{fds241388,
   Author = {Wall, CE},
   Title = {The expanded mandibular condyle of the Megaladapidae.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {263-276},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9209581},
   Abstract = {The Megaladapidae have a posterior expansion of the
             articular surface of the mandibular condyle. Several other
             strepsirhine species exhibit a similar condylar surface. In
             this study, I propose two behavioral scenarios in which the
             posterior articular expansion might function: 1) contact
             with the postglenoid process and resistance to joint stress
             during browsing, and 2) movement against the postglenoid
             process during the fast closing and power strokes of
             mastication, as a consequence of large transverse jaw
             movements and associated with a strong mandibular symphysis.
             These models are evaluated through dissection of the TMJ in
             Lepilemur and from comparative anatomical observations on
             strepsirhines and ungulates. In Lepilemur the mandibular
             symphysis is unfused, but compared to the unfused symphyses
             of other strepsirhines is strengthened by interlocking bony
             projections (Beecher [1977] Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
             47:325-336). An accessory articular meniscus is found
             between the posterior articular expansion and the
             postglenoid process in Lepilemur, suggesting that
             significant movement occurs in this part of the TMJ. The
             symphysis is fused in adult specimens of Megaladapis. A
             posterior articular expansion is common among ungulates, and
             its presence is associated not with browsing but with
             symphyseal fusion. This supports the second model and
             suggests that the posterior articular expansion functions as
             a movement surface during mastication. Schwartz and
             Tattersall ([1987] J. Hum. Evol. 16:23-40) cite the
             posterior articular expansion as a synapomorphy uniting an
             Adapis-Leptadapis clade with a Megaladapidae-Daubentonia-Indridae
             clade. The comparative evidence suggests that the posterior
             articular expansion has evolved convergently in adapines,
             notharctines, megaladapids, hapalemurids, and indrids as
             part of a functional complex related to herbivory. However,
             close morphological similarity of the posterior articular
             expansion among genera within these strepsirhine subfamilies
             and families indicates that it is probably a reliable
             synapomorphy at lower taxonomic levels.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1096-8644(199706)103:2<263::aid-ajpa9>3.},
   Key = {fds241388}
}

@article{fds241387,
   Author = {Jungers, WL and Falsetti, AB and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Shape, relative size, and size‐adjustments in
             morphometrics},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {21 S},
   Pages = {137-161},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330380608},
   Abstract = {Many problems in comparative biology and biological
             anthropology require meaningful definitions of “relative
             size” and “shape.” Here we review the distinguishing
             features of ratios and residuals and their relationships to
             other methods of “size‐adjustment” for continuous
             data. Eleven statistical techniques are evaluated in
             reference to one broadly interspecific data set
             (craniometries of adult Old World monkeys) and one narrowly
             intraspecific data set (anthropometries of adult Native
             American males). Three different types of residuals are
             compared to three versions of shape ratios, and these are
             contrasted to “cscores,” Penrose shape, and multivariate
             adjustments based on the first principal component of the
             logged variance‐covariance matrix; all methods are also
             compared to raw and logged raw data. In order to help us
             identify appropriate; methods for size‐adjustment,
             geometrically similar or “isometric” versions of the
             male vervet and the Inuit male were created by scalar
             multiplication of all variables. The geometric mean of all
             variables is used as overall “size” throughout this
             investigation, but our conclusions would be the same for
             most other size variables. Residual adjustments failed to
             correctly identify individuals of the same shape in both
             sampkles. Like residuals, cscores are also sample‐specific
             and incorrectly attribute different shape values to
             individuals known to be identical in shape. Multivariate
             “residuals” (e.g., discarding the first principal
             component and Burnaby's method) are plagued by similar
             problems. If one of the goals of an analysis is to identify
             individuals (OTUs) of the same shape after accounting for
             overalll size differences, then none of these methods can be
             recommended. We also reject the assertion that
             size‐adjusted variables should be unciorrelated with size
             of “size‐free”; rather, whether or not shape covaries
             with size is an important empirical determination in any
             analysis. Without explicit similarity criteria, “lines of
             subtraction” can be very misleading. Only variables in the
             Mosimann family of shape rations allowed us to identify
             sized individuals of the same shape (“Iso‐OUTs”).
             Residuals from isometric lines in logarithmic space,
             projections of logged data to a plane orthogonal to an
             isometric vector, and Penrose shape distance based on logged
             data are also part of this shape family. Shape defined in
             this manner can be significantly correlated with size in
             allometric data sets (e.g., guenon craniometrics); ratio
             shape differences may be largely independent of size in
             narrowly intraspecific or intrasexual data sets (e.g.,
             Native American anthropometrics). Log‐transformations of
             shape variables are not always necessary or desirable. We
             hope our findings enciourage other workers to question the
             assumptions and utility of residuals as size‐adjusted data
             and to explore shape and relative size within Mosimann's
             explicitly geometric framework. © 1995 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
             Copyright © 1995 Wiley‐Liss, Inc., A Wiley
             Company},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.1330380608},
   Key = {fds241387}
}

@article{fds241386,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Larson, SG and Stern, JT},
   Title = {EMG of the digastric muscle in gibbon and orangutan:
             functional consequences of the loss of the anterior
             digastric in orangutans.},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {549-567},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330940408},
   Abstract = {Unlike all other primates, the digastric muscle of the
             orangutan lacks an anterior belly; the posterior belly,
             while present, inserts directly onto the mandible. To
             understand the functional consequences of this morphologic
             novelty, the EMG activity patterns of the digastric muscle
             and other potential mandibular depressors were studied in a
             gibbon and an orangutan. The results suggest a significant
             degree of functional differentiation between the two
             digastric bellies. In the gibbon, the recruitment pattern of
             the posterior digastric during mastication is typically
             biphasic. It is an important mandibular depressor, active in
             this role during mastication and wide opening. It also acts
             with the anterior suprahyoid muscles to move the hyoid prior
             to jaw opening during mastication. The recruitment patterns
             of the anterior digastric suggest that it is functionally
             allied to the geniohyoid and mylohyoid. For example,
             although it transmits the force of the posterior digastric
             during mandibular depression, it functions independent of
             the posterior digastric during swallowing. Of the muscles
             studied, the posterior digastric was the only muscle to
             exhibit major differences in recruitment pattern between the
             two species. The posterior digastric retains its function as
             a mandibular depressor in orangutans, but is never recruited
             biphasically, and is not active prior to opening. The unique
             anatomy of the digastric muscle in orangutans results in
             decoupling of the mechanisms for hyoid movement and
             mandibular depression, and during unilateral activity it
             potentially contributes to substantial transverse movements
             of the mandible. Hypotheses to explain the loss of the
             anterior digastric should incorporate these functional
             conclusions.},
   Doi = {10.1002/ajpa.1330940408},
   Key = {fds241386}
}

@article{fds241385,
   Author = {Krause, DW and Hartman, JH and Wells, NA and Buckley, GA and Lockwood,
             CH and Wall, CE and Wunderlich, RE and Rabarison, JA and Randriamiaramanana, LL},
   Title = {Cretaceous mammal from Madagascar},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {368},
   Pages = {298},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds241385}
}

@article{fds241384,
   Author = {Wall, CE and Krause, DW},
   Title = {A biomechanical analysis of the masticatory apparatus of
             Ptilodus (Multituberculata)},
   Journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {172-187},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02724634.1992.10011448},
   Abstract = {This study investigates the biomechanics of dental function
             in Ptilodus (Multituberculata) through vector analysis of
             masticatory muscles and comparisons of mechanically relevant
             cranial and dental dimensions to extant functional
             analogues. To isolate function, feeding behavior is divided
             into incision, slicing-crushing, and grinding, and these
             activities are related to corresponding dental regions
             (incisors, premolars, and molars, respectively).
             Quantitative comparisons to living mammals are made with
             respect to inferred muscle vectors. The masticatory
             apparatus of Ptilodus appears to have been adapted for a
             variety of jaw movements, including powerful retraction
             during the grinding cycle (utilizing the posterior part of
             the temporalis muscle), and the generation of large bite
             forces at a variety of tooth positions. The lateral
             compression of p4 is one indication that resistant food
             objects were a dietary component. However, the size and
             orientation of the posterior surface of the mandibular
             condyle indicates an upper size limit of approximately 10 mm
             for relatively resistant items. The size and arrangement of
             the bony and muscular structures indicate that the
             masticatory apparatus was potentially versatile and, thus,
             that Ptilodus and, by inference, other multituberculates,
             were probably omnivorous. © 1992 by the Society of
             Vertebrate Paleontology.},
   Doi = {10.1080/02724634.1992.10011448},
   Key = {fds241384}
}

@article{fds241383,
   Author = {Wall, CE},
   Title = {Evidence of weaning stress and catch-up growth in the long
             bones of a central California Amerindian
             sample.},
   Journal = {Annals of Human Biology},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-22},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014469100001362},
   Abstract = {Diaphyseal growth patterns are described and analysed for a
             cross-sectional sample of immature Central California
             Amerindian skeletal remains. This collection is housed at
             the Lowie Museum of Anthropology, Berkeley, California, and
             comprises the largest immature skeletal sample of
             prehistoric Amerindians from the West Coast of North America
             examined to date. Mean long bone length values and estimates
             of growth velocity are compared to data reported for the
             Indian Knoll and Arikara skeletal samples. The Central
             California long bone growth curves are very similar to the
             Indian Knoll and Arikara from birth through dental age 2. A
             period of growth retardation is evident in the Central
             California sample at dental age 3, both in comparison to the
             Central California 2-year-olds and the Indian Knoll and
             Arikara 3-year-olds. However, estimated growth velocity
             indicates a comparable decline in growth rates for all three
             groups between ages 2 and 3. Catch-up growth is exhibited in
             the Central California long bones at dental ages 4 and 5.
             The departure from the expected cross-sectional growth curve
             between ages 3 and 5 is suggested to be correlated with the
             onset of weaning and a subsequent slow-down in skeletal
             growth. A method of quantitatively testing for the presence
             of poor growth performance in archaeological skeletal
             collections is applied to the Central California
             data.},
   Doi = {10.1080/03014469100001362},
   Key = {fds241383}
}


%% Papers Accepted   
@article{fds222149,
   Author = {Horvath J and Ramachandran GL and Fedrigo O and Babbitt CC and Jernvall
             J, Wray GA and Wall CE},
   Title = {Non-coding sequence changes in enamel genes allow for rapid
             enamel thickness trait changes across primates},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Evolution},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222149}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds241364,
   Author = {Ross, CF and Wall, CE},
   Title = {Mammalian feeding and primate evolution: An
             overview},
   Journal = {American Journal of Physical Anthropology},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {449-453},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0002-9483},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-8644(200008)112:4<449::AID-AJPA3>3.0.CO;2-6},
   Abstract = {Most of the papers included in this volume are derived from
             presentations in a symposium on Mammalian Feeding at the
             65th Annual Meetings of the American Association of Physical
             Anthropologists in North Carolina in 1996. The aims of this
             symposium were to gather together the preeminent researchers
             on mammalian mastication and document the state of research
             in that field. The symposium emphasized in vivo studies of
             mammalian feeding because of a paucity of recent reviews of
             this field, but included morphometric and modeling papers as
             well. Subsequently the papers were revised, and were
             submitted in spring 1998 for publication, pending the
             outcome of peer review. (C) 2000 Wiley-Liss,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/1096-8644(200008)112:4<449::AID-AJPA3>3.0.CO;2-6},
   Key = {fds241364}
}


%% Papers Presented/Symposia/Abstracts   
@article{fds214374,
   Author = {Huq E and Taylor AB and Wall CE},
   Title = {Fiber type composition of spinal extensors is geared toward
             facilitating rapid spinal extension in the leaper, Galago
             senegalensis},
   Journal = {Am. J. Physical Anthropology},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds214374}
}

@article{fds214375,
   Author = {M. C. Toler and C. E. Wall},
   Title = {Mandibular kinetics of gnawing in the aye-aye (Daubentonia
             madagascariensis) and biomechanical modeling of anterior
             tooth use},
   Journal = {Am. J. Physical Anthropology},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds214375}
}

@article{fds222157,
   Author = {M. Toler and C. Wall},
   Title = {ENERGETIC COSTS OF FEEDING BEHAVIORS IN THE AYE-AYE,
             Daubentonia madagascariensis},
   Journal = {Journal of Anatomy},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds222157}
}

@article{fds214372,
   Author = {Macias M and Churchill SE and Wall CE},
   Title = {Size and shape in the primate forelimb},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds214372}
}

@article{fds214371,
   Author = {Horvath JE and Wu C and Toler M and Fedrigo O and Pfefferle LW and Moore A and Ramachandran GL and Babbitt CC and Jernvall J and Wray GA and Wall
             CE},
   Title = {Enamel thickness in Microcebus murinus and Macaca mulatta
             and the evolutionary genetics of enamel matrix proteins in
             hominoids. Poster presentation, AAPA Annual Meeting,
             Portland OR},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds214371}
}

@article{fds29783,
   Author = {Olmsted MJ and Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Human bite force: the relation between EMG activity and bite
             force at a standardized gape},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds29783}
}

@article{fds29784,
   Author = {Perry JMG and Wall CE},
   Title = {A study of scaling patterns of physiological cross-sectional
             area of the chewing muscles in prosimians},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds29784}
}

@article{fds29824,
   Author = {Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Johnson KR and Williams SH and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Functional heterogeneity of the temporalis muscle of male
             and female baboons.},
   Series = {Festschrift to Honor William Hylander, American Association
             of Physical Anthropologists. Milwaukee, WI},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds29824}
}

@article{fds29827,
   Author = {Vinyard CJ and Wall CE and Williams SH and Garner BA and Johnson KR and Schmitt D and Hylander WL},
   Title = {The biomechanics of tree-gouging in common marmosets
             (Callithrix jacchus)},
   Series = {Advances in Marmoset and Goeldi’s Monkey (Callimico)
             Research: Anatomy, Behavior Ecology, Phylogeny and
             Conservation. American Association of Physical
             Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds29827}
}

@article{fds29830,
   Author = {Johnson KR and Wall CE and Williams SH and Hylander WL and Vinyard
             CJ},
   Title = {Is masticatory apparatus morphology correlated with
             jaw-msucle activity patterns among primate
             species?},
   Series = {Festschrift to Honor William Hylander, American Association
             of Physical Anthropologists. Milwaukee, WI},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds29830}
}

@article{fds29785,
   Author = {Perry JMG and Wall CE},
   Title = {Theoretical expectations and empirical features of prosimian
             chewing muscles},
   Journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {101A},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds29785}
}

@article{fds29786,
   Author = {Williams SH and Vinyard CJ and Wall CE and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds29786}
}

@article{fds29787,
   Author = {Perry JMG and Wall CE and Williams BA},
   Title = {The anatomy of the masticatory muscles in two strepsirrhine
             primates and inference of muscle attachment areas from
             osteological material},
   Journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds29787}
}

@article{fds29788,
   Author = {Williams SH and Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Strain in the mandibular symphysis of alpacas and the
             evolution of symphyseal fusion in camelids},
   Journal = {Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds29788}
}

@article{fds29789,
   Author = {Hylander WL and Vinyard CJ and Wall CE and Williams SH and Johnson
             KR},
   Title = {Convergence of the “wishboning” muscle activity pattern
             in anthropoids and strepsirrhines: The recruitment and
             firing of the jaw muscles in Propithecus
             verreauxi},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds29789}
}

@article{fds29790,
   Author = {Williams SH and Vinyard CJ and Wall CE and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Symphyseal fusion in anthropoids and ungulates: A case of
             functional convergence?},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds29790}
}

@article{fds29791,
   Author = {Williams SH and Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {. Jaw-muscle motor patterns in ungulates: Is there a
             transverse pattern?},
   Series = {Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds29791}
}

@article{fds29792,
   Author = {Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Johnson KR and Williams SH and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Analysis of phase II movements during the power stroke of
             chewing in Papio anubis},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S34},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds29792}
}

@article{fds29793,
   Author = {C. WallHylander W and Vinyard C and Wall C and Williams S and Johnson K},
   Title = {Recruitment and firing patterns of jaw muscles during
             mastication in ring-tailed lemurs},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S34},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds29793}
}

@article{fds29794,
   Author = {Wall CE and Vinyard CJ and Williams SH and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {Cranial morphology predicts relatively low forces and
             relatively large gapes during gouging in primate
             gummivores},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S32},
   Pages = {158-59},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29794}
}

@article{fds29795,
   Author = {Vinyard CJ and Williams SH and Wall CE and Johnson KR and Hylander
             WL},
   Title = {. Deep masseter recruitment patterns during chewing in
             callitrichids},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S32},
   Pages = {156},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29795}
}

@article{fds29832,
   Author = {Vinyard CJ and Ravosa MJ and Wall CE and Williams SH and Johnson KR and Hylander WL},
   Title = {Functional morphology of the primate masticatory apparatus
             and the origin of primates},
   Series = {First-Ever International Conference on Primate Origins and
             Adaptations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Chicago,
             IL},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29832}
}

@article{fds29797,
   Author = {Cole TM, III and Wall CE},
   Title = {Outline-based morphometrics and shape variation in the
             primate mandibular condyle},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S30},
   Pages = {127},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds29797}
}

@article{fds29798,
   Author = {Williams SH and Vinyard CJ and Wall CE},
   Title = {The mechanics of tree-gouging in Callithrix
             jacchus},
   Series = {S30},
   Pages = {298},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds29798}
}

@article{fds29834,
   Author = {Hylander WL and Ravosa MJ and Ross CF and Wall CE and Johnson
             KR},
   Title = {Jaw-muscle recruitment patterns during mastication in
             anthropoids and prosimians},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Volume = {S30},
   Pages = {185},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds29834}
}

@article{fds29800,
   Author = {Wall CE and Johnson KR and Hylander WL},
   Title = {EMG of the anterior temporalis muscle in adult male
             baboons},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S28},
   Pages = {272-273},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds29800}
}

@article{fds29802,
   Author = {Klein PJ and Wall CE and Schmitt D},
   Title = {Transverse tooth movements during mastication in Pan
             troglodytes},
   Series = {S28},
   Pages = {170-71},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds29802}
}

@article{fds29804,
   Author = {Williams SH and Wall CE},
   Title = {Morphological correlates of gummivory in the skull of
             prosimian primates},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S28},
   Pages = {278},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds29804}
}

@article{fds29806,
   Author = {Wall CE and Larson SG and Stern JT, Jr.},
   Title = {Working-side/balancing-side ratios in the superficial
             masseter muscle of hominoids},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S24},
   Pages = {234-35},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds29806}
}

@article{fds29837,
   Author = {Wall CE and Jungers WL},
   Title = {Kinematics and shape of the anthropoid TMJ: implications for
             the relation between function and morphological integration
             in the skull},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Volume = {S22},
   Pages = {238},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds29837}
}

@article{fds29811,
   Author = {Wall CE},
   Title = {Cineradiography of TMJ movements in monkeys and
             Pan},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S18},
   Pages = {202},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds29811}
}

@article{fds29813,
   Author = {Wall CE},
   Title = {The expanded mandibular condyle of the Megaladapidae:
             function and phylogeny},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S16},
   Pages = {203},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds29813}
}

@article{fds29816,
   Author = {Jungers WL and Wall CE and Falsetti AB},
   Title = {Ratios and residuals in the analysis of size and shape: a
             reconsideration and some recommendations},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S16},
   Pages = {120},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds29816}
}

@article{fds29818,
   Author = {Wall CE},
   Title = {Shape variation in the mandibular condyle of
             anthropoids},
   Journal = {Am. J. Physical Anthropology},
   Series = {S14},
   Pages = {170},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds29818}
}

@article{fds29821,
   Author = {Wall CE and Larson SG and Stern JT, Jr.},
   Title = {The role of the jaw opening muscles in the orangutan and the
             gibbon},
   Journal = {Am. J. Phys. Anthropology},
   Series = {S12},
   Pages = {180},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds29821}
}

@article{fds29822,
   Author = {Wall CE},
   Title = {Biomechanical correlates of inferred feeding behavior in
             Ptilodus (Multituberculata)},
   Journal = {J. Vert. Paleontol.},
   Volume = {10S},
   Pages = {47A},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds29822}
}

@article{fds44914,
   Author = {Vinyard, Wall and Williams, Johnson and Hylander},
   Title = {Are jaw-muscle activity patterns correlated with masticatory
             apparatus morphology among primate species?},
   Journal = {Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology},
   Year = {200},
   Key = {fds44914}
}


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