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Publications of Charles M. Becker    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Books   
@book{fds322918,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Marchenko, GA and Khakimzhanov, S and Seitenova, AGS and Ivliev, V},
   Title = {Social security reform in transition economies: Lessons from
             Kazakhstan},
   Pages = {1-275},
   Publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan US},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780230607361},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230618022},
   Abstract = {© Charles M. Becker, Grigori A. Marchenko, Sabit
             Khakimzhanov, Ai-Gul S. Seitenova, and Vladimir Ivliev,
             2009. All rights reserved. This book examines social
             security reform in the Central Asian republic of Kazakhstan,
             with a focus on lessons for late reformers such as China and
             Russia.},
   Doi = {10.1057/9780230618022},
   Key = {fds322918}
}

@book{fds147108,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Grigory A. Marchenko and Sabit Khakimzhanov and Ai-Gul S. Seitenova and Vladimir Ivliev},
   Title = {SOCIAL SECURITY REFORM IN TRANSITION ECONOMICS: LESSONS FROM
             KAZAKHSTAN},
   Publisher = {New York: Palgrave Macmillan},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds147108}
}

@book{fds27073,
   Author = {Mills, Edwin S. and Charles M. Becker},
   Title = {STUDIES IN INDIAN URBAN DEVELOPMENT},
   Publisher = {New York: Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds27073}
}

@book{fds17431,
   Author = {National Research Council and Panel on Urban Population
             Dynamics. Mark R. Montgomery and Richard Stren and editors and the assistance of Holly Reed},
   Title = {CITIES TRANSFORMED: THE DYNAMICS OF DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE IN
             DEVELOPING COUNTRIES},
   Publisher = {National Academies Press},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {. http://www.nap.edu/books/0309088623/html/},
   Key = {fds17431}
}

@book{fds27070,
   Author = {Becker, Charles M. and Andrew M. Hamer and Andrew R.
             Morrison},
   Title = {BEYOND URBAN BIAS: AFRICAN CITIES IN AN AGE OF STRUCTURAL
             ADJUSTMENT},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds27070}
}

@book{fds27071,
   Author = {Becker, Charles M. and Jeffrey G. Williamson and Edwin S.
             Mills},
   Title = {INDIAN URBANIZATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH SINCE
             1960},
   Publisher = {Johns Hopkins University Press},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds27071}
}

@book{fds27072,
   Author = {Becker, Charles M. and Trevor Bell and Haider Ali Khan and Patricia Pollard},
   Title = {THE IMPACT OF SANCTIONS ON SOUTH AFRICA},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds27072}
}


%% Book Reviews   
@article{fds17434,
   Author = {C.M. Becker},
   Title = {Review of Arne Tostensen, et al., Eds. 2001. ASSOCIATIONAL
             LIFE IN AFRICAN CITIES: POPULAR RESPONSES TO THE URBAN
             CRISIS: Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstutet},
   Journal = {African Studies Review},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {193-94},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17434}
}

@article{fds17435,
   Author = {C.M. Becker},
   Title = {Review of Bill Freund and Vishnu Padayachee, Eds. 2002.
             (D)URBAN VORTEX: SOUTH AFRICAN CITY IN TRANSITION.
             Pietermaritzburg, South Africa: University of Natal
             Press},
   Journal = {African Studies Review},
   Volume = {47},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds17435}
}

@article{fds17443,
   Author = {C.M. Becker},
   Title = {Review of World Bank. 2000. ENTERING THE 21ST CENTURY: WORLD
             DEVELOPMENT REPORT 1999/2000. New York: Oxford University
             Press.},
   Journal = {Regional Science & Urban Economics},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds17443}
}

@article{fds17444,
   Author = {C.M. Becker},
   Title = {Review of Shirin Akiner, Sander Tideman, and John Hay, Eds.
             SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL ASIA. New York: St.
             Martins Press.},
   Journal = {Journal of Energy & Development},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds17444}
}


%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds343393,
   Author = {Becker, C and Rickert, T},
   Title = {Zoned out? The determinants of manufactured housing rents:
             Evidence from North Carolina},
   Journal = {Journal of Housing Economics},
   Volume = {46},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhe.2019.03.003},
   Abstract = {© 2019 Elsevier Inc. This paper explores determinants of
             manufactured housing park (MHP) plot rents in North
             Carolina, with particular focus on the distinction among
             high-growth urban parks and small town/rural parks, and on
             the possible role played by zoning restrictiveness. Little
             is known about how MHP rents are determined, even though it
             is estimated that more than 10 million Americans live in
             MHPs. We implement a hedonic model and an instrumental
             variables approach to examine the relationship between MHP
             rents and local housing markets, land use restrictions, and
             other factors. We find that, contrary to expectations,
             zoning is strongly negatively associated with park rents in
             periurban and rural parks, but appears as a positive driver
             in high-growth cities. We then extend this model to an
             out-of-sample prediction for MHPs rents in
             Texas.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jhe.2019.03.003},
   Key = {fds343393}
}

@article{fds349908,
   Author = {Steiner, S and Becker, CM},
   Title = {How marriages based on bride capture differ: Evidence from
             Kyrgyzstan},
   Journal = {Demographic Research},
   Volume = {41},
   Pages = {579-592},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2019.41.20},
   Abstract = {© 2019 Susan Steiner & Charles M. Becker. BACKGROUND A
             significant proportion of women in the Kyrgyz Republic marry
             via ala kachuu, generally translated as bride capture or
             kidnapping. Many regard this practice as harmless elopement
             or a tradition; others perceive it as a form of forced
             marriage. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to the
             understanding of ala kachuu by exploring the extent to which
             couples in these marriages differ from those in arranged or
             love marriages. METHODS We use the 2013 wave of the Life in
             Kyrgyzstan survey to compute profile similarity indices for
             the personality of couples. We then regress marriage type on
             the profile similarity index, controlling for
             sociodemographic variables. RESULTS Couples in marriages
             resulting from bride capture are far less assortatively
             matched on personality traits than other couples, especially
             those who have only recently married. CONCLUSIONS This
             greater dissimilarity is consistent with ala kachuu being
             forced marriage rather than merely staged or ritualized
             elopement. CONTRIBUTION This paper provides a novel source
             of evidence on the possible nonconsensual nature of bride
             capture in Kyrgyzstan, adding further weight to those
             arguing that it is forced.},
   Doi = {10.4054/DemRes.2019.41.20},
   Key = {fds349908}
}

@article{fds338034,
   Author = {Werner, C and Edling, C and Becker, C and Kim, E and Kleinbach, R and Sartbay, FE and Teachout, W},
   Title = {Bride kidnapping in post-Soviet Eurasia: a roundtable
             discussion},
   Journal = {Central Asian Survey},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {582-601},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02634937.2018.1511519},
   Abstract = {© 2018, © 2018 Southseries Inc. Throughout Eurasia, bride
             kidnapping continues to be a fairly common way to get
             married. The practice is becoming increasingly
             controversial. Some local actors argue the practice is a
             cultural tradition, while others question its acceptability,
             particularly when a woman is forced to marry against her
             will. Many scholars, journalists and non-governmental
             organization workers view non-consensual variations of bride
             kidnapping as a form of gender-based violence. In October
             2016, an interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered at the
             annual Central Eurasia Studies Society conference to assess
             existing scholarship on bride kidnapping in post-Soviet
             Eurasia. Using an innovative format, this paper offers an
             edited transcript of that roundtable discussion. The
             roundtable format provides readers an opportunity to see a
             diverse range of perspectives and opinions in response to
             several questions about bride kidnapping. This paper
             provides a thorough introduction to key issues surrounding
             bride kidnapping and offers suggestions for areas that need
             further exploration.},
   Doi = {10.1080/02634937.2018.1511519},
   Key = {fds338034}
}

@article{fds338033,
   Author = {Olofsgård, A and Wachtel, P and Becker, CM},
   Title = {The economics of transition literature},
   Journal = {Economics of Transition},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {827-840},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecot.12196},
   Abstract = {© 2018 The Authors Economics of Transition © 2018 The
             European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Published
             by Blackwell Publishing Ltd This article is based on a panel
             discussion on the contribution of the economics of
             transition literature to the broader understanding of
             economic and social development. All panel participants have
             been working in the field for decades and made important
             contributions to this literature. The transition experience
             was a social experiment on a scale not seen before, and many
             lessons were learned that travel beyond the specific region.
             Important contributions in areas such as political economy,
             contract theory, and the sequencing and complementarity of
             reforms were discussed. It was concluded that there is
             little reason at this point to consider economics of
             transition and development economics as separate subfields
             as they share the same intellectual objective, and
             complement each other in our understanding of the
             development process.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ecot.12196},
   Key = {fds338033}
}

@article{fds320570,
   Author = {Ye, VY and Becker, CM},
   Title = {The Z-axis: Elevation gradient effects in Urban
             America},
   Journal = {Regional Science and Urban Economics},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {217},
   Pages = {312-329},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2017.10.002},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This paper presents an in-depth
             analysis of hilliness effects in American urban communities.
             Using data from seventeen cities, we establish robust
             relationships between topography and density, income and
             housing value gradients. We find that high-income households
             display strong preference not only for higher altitude but
             also for unevenness, leading to spatial income
             stratification at both the city and tract-level. We analyze
             potential causes of this propensity: micro-climate, crime,
             congestion, view effects, and use of public transit. We
             conclude that multi-dimensional spatial methods are crucial
             to investigations of cities with substantial unevenness.
             Moreover, redistributive social and economic policies must
             struggle with a fundamental, topographical dimension to
             inequality.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2017.10.002},
   Key = {fds320570}
}

@article{fds322915,
   Author = {An, G and Becker, CM and Cheng, E},
   Title = {Economic Crisis, Income Gaps, Uncertainty, and
             Inter-regional Migration Responses: Kazakhstan
             2000–2014},
   Journal = {The Journal of Development Studies},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1452-1470},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2016.1257118},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis
             Group. There is ample empirical evidence that internal
             migration occurs in response to wage differentials;
             recently, evidence has emerged that international migration
             is deterred by rising destination uncertainty. However, to
             our knowledge, there has been no analysis of how internal
             migration responds to differing incentives during good times
             and bad. This paper provides insight into this issue using
             detailed regional economic and migration data for Kazakhstan
             during boom (2000–2007) and crisis (2008–2014) periods.
             While conventional forces are affirmed, we find that the
             crisis deters migration and weakens the effect of wage
             differentials–while also reducing the deterrent effect of
             relative uncertainty.},
   Doi = {10.1080/00220388.2016.1257118},
   Key = {fds322915}
}

@article{fds320571,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Mirkasimov, B and Steiner, S},
   Title = {Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.},
   Journal = {Demography},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1401-1423},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-017-0591-1},
   Abstract = {We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride
             kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form
             of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men
             and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers.
             Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse
             consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey
             data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable
             exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in
             kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and
             IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in
             kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with
             children born to other mothers. The largest difference is
             between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude
             of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of
             average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first
             statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced
             marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the
             women involved but potentially also for their
             children.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13524-017-0591-1},
   Key = {fds320571}
}

@article{fds320567,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Turaeva, M},
   Title = {Queen Bees and Domestic Violence: Patrilocal Marriage in
             Tajikistan},
   Journal = {Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid)},
   Number = {232},
   Pages = {48 pages},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   Abstract = {A longstanding tradition of patrilocal marriage – living
             with the parents-in-law – affects every generation of
             Central Asian women and their choices regarding
             childbearing, employment and education. While
             anthropological evidence suggests that elder matriarchs
             (Queen Bees) play a key and often detrimental role in the
             lives of the junior women in their households, rigorous
             empirical studies are scarce. We use Tajikistan 2012 DHS
             data to explore the correlation between domestic violence
             and young married women’s living arrangements. Through a
             quasi-experimental study designed, we establish a positive
             and statistically significant treatment effect. Women who
             live with the in-law family are at least 24.6% more likely
             to experience emotional abuse committed by their
             husbands/partners. A similar effect does not emerge between
             physical violence, either severe or less severe, and a
             presence of the Queen Bee in the household.},
   Key = {fds320567}
}

@article{fds320568,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Turaeva, M},
   Title = {Appendix to 'Queen Bees and Domestic Violence: Patrilocal
             Marriage in Tajikistan'},
   Journal = {Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid)},
   Number = {233},
   Pages = {35 pages},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   Abstract = {Appendix to “Queen Bees and Domestic Violence: Patrilocal
             Marriage in Tajikistan,” available here:
             http://ssrn.com/abstract=2862096.},
   Key = {fds320568}
}

@article{fds320569,
   Author = {Ye, V and Becker, CM},
   Title = {The (Literally) Steepest Slope: Spatial, Temporal, and
             Elevation Variance Gradients in Urban Spatial
             Modelling},
   Journal = {Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid)},
   Number = {202},
   Pages = {54 pages},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {October},
   Abstract = {This paper presents an analysis of elevation gradient and
             temporal future-station effects in urban real estate
             markets. Using an extraordinary dataset from the Hong Kong
             publicly-constructed housing sector, we find enormous
             housing price effects caused by levels of terrain incline
             between apartments and subway stations. Ceteris paribus, two
             similar apartments with closest metro stations of the same
             walking distance may sell at a difference of up to 20%
             because of differences in the apartment-station slope alone.
             Anticipatory effects are similarly robust: apartment buyers
             regard a future, closer metro station as being 60% present
             when making purchases two years prior to its
             opening.},
   Key = {fds320569}
}

@article{fds322916,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Rouse, CE and Chen, M},
   Title = {Can a summer make a difference? The impact of the American
             Economic Association Summer Program on minority student
             outcomes},
   Journal = {Economics of Education Review},
   Volume = {53},
   Pages = {46-71},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.03.009},
   Abstract = {© 2016 Elsevier Ltd In the 1970s, the American Economic
             Association (AEA) was one of several professional
             associations to launch a summer program with the goal of
             increasing racial and ethnic diversity in its profession. In
             this paper we estimate the effectiveness of the AEA's
             program which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to
             rigorously study such a summer program. Using a comparison
             group consisting of those who applied to, but did not
             attend, the program and controlling for an array of
             background characteristics, we find that program
             participants were over 40 percentage points more likely to
             apply to and attend a Ph.D. program in economics, 26
             percentage points more likely to complete a Ph.D., and about
             15 percentage points more likely to ever work in an
             economics-related academic job. Using our estimates, we
             calculate that the program may directly account for 17–21
             percent of the Ph.D.s awarded to minorities in economics
             over the past 20 years.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.03.009},
   Key = {fds322916}
}

@article{fds336352,
   Author = {Geissler, K and Stearns, SC and Becker, C and Thirumurthy, H and Holmes,
             GM},
   Title = {The relationship between violence in Northern Mexico and
             potentially avoidable hospitalizations in the USA-Mexico
             border region.},
   Journal = {Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England)},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {14-23},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdv012},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Substantial proportions of US residents in the
             USA-Mexico border region cross into Mexico for health care;
             increases in violence in northern Mexico may have affected
             this access. We quantified associations between violence in
             Mexico and decreases in access to care for border county
             residents. We also examined associations between border
             county residence and access. METHODS:We used hospital
             inpatient data for Arizona, California and Texas (2005-10)
             to estimate associations between homicide rates and the
             probability of hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive
             (ACS) conditions. Hospitalizations for ACS conditions were
             compared with homicide rates in Mexican municipalities
             matched by patient residence. RESULTS:A 1 SD increase in the
             homicide rate of the nearest Mexican municipality was
             associated with a 2.2 percentage point increase in the
             probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition for
             border county patients. Residence in a border county was
             associated with a 1.3 percentage point decrease in the
             probability of being hospitalized for an ACS condition.
             CONCLUSIONS:Increased homicide rates in Mexico were
             associated with increased hospitalizations for ACS
             conditions in the USA, although residence in a border county
             was associated with decreased probability of being
             hospitalized for an ACS condition. Expanding access in the
             border region may mitigate these effects by providing
             alternative sources of care.},
   Doi = {10.1093/pubmed/fdv012},
   Key = {fds336352}
}

@article{fds320572,
   Author = {Nigmatulina, D and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Is High-Tech Care in a Middle Income Country Worth It?
             Evidence from Perinatal Centers in Russia},
   Journal = {Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) Working
             Paper},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {198},
   Pages = {585-620},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecot.12098},
   Abstract = {How much does a dramatic increase in technology improve
             healthcare quality in an upper-middle income country? Using
             rich vital statistics data on infant and maternal health
             outcomes, this study evaluates the effect of introducing
             technologically advanced perinatal hospitals in 24 regions
             of Russia on infant mortality during the period 2009-2013. A
             7-year aggregate panel dataset reveals that opening a
             perinatal center corresponds to infant mortality reduction
             by 3.8% from the baseline rate, neonatal (0-28 day)
             mortality by 7% and early neonatal (0-6 day) mortality by
             7.3%. We find that the perinatal centers help to save 263
             additional infant lives annually, ranging from 3 to 25 lives
             in regions with different birth rates. We further estimate
             an annual average cost of 52 mln rb (or 2.6 m 2014 PPP USD)
             per life saved in an average region, which is much higher
             than the cost of similar interventions in the
             US.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ecot.12098},
   Key = {fds320572}
}

@article{fds320573,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Yea, A},
   Title = {The Value of Manufactured Housing Communities: A
             Dual-Ownership Model},
   Journal = {Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) Working
             Paper},
   Number = {196},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   Abstract = {There are roughly 50,000 manufactured housing communities
             (MHCs) in the United States, yet there appears to be
             virtually no academic research on their asset values. Using
             a detailed, proprietary database provided by Colliers
             International, we address this gap. We find that, due to the
             dual nature of rental and ownership in manufactured housing
             ownership, MHC values are driven by community rental income
             and thus affected by median month contract housing rents
             that surround the community. While value remains affected by
             traditional factors such as occupancy, location quality, and
             size of land, it emerges that manufactured housing community
             sales values are highly sensitive to local rental
             alternatives. We also find evidence that corporate MHC
             buyers pay less and sellers receive more for parks relative
             to smaller “mom-n-pop” owners.},
   Key = {fds320573}
}

@article{fds237914,
   Author = {Geissler, KH and Becker, C and Stearns, SC and Thirumurthy, H and Holmes, GM},
   Title = {Exploring the Association of Homicides in Northern Mexico
             and Healthcare Access for US Residents.},
   Journal = {Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1214-1224},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1557-1912},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0053-4},
   Abstract = {Many legal residents in the United States (US)-Mexico border
             region cross from the US into Mexico for medical treatment
             and pharmaceuticals. We analyzed whether recent increases in
             homicides in Mexico are associated with reduced healthcare
             access for US border residents. We used data on healthcare
             access, legal entries to the US from Mexico, and Mexican
             homicide rates (2002-2010). Poisson regression models
             estimated associations between homicide rates and total
             legal US entries. Multivariate difference-in-difference
             linear probability models evaluated associations between
             Mexican homicide rates and self-reported measures of
             healthcare access for US residents. Increased homicide rates
             were associated with decreased legal entries to the US from
             Mexico. Contrary to expectations, homicides did not have
             significant associations with healthcare access measures for
             legal residents in US border counties. Despite a decrease in
             border crossings, increased violence in Mexico did not
             appear to negatively affect healthcare access for US border
             residents.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10903-014-0053-4},
   Key = {fds237914}
}

@article{fds237924,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Merkuryeva, IS},
   Title = {Disability incidence and official health status transitions
             in Russia.},
   Journal = {Economics and Human Biology},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {74-88},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22119094},
   Abstract = {This paper examines determinants of being disabled in
             Russia, along with the probability of moving from one
             disability status to another, using data from 1994 through
             2005 from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey.
             Results from multinomial probit regressions indicate that
             disability risk rises sharply with age, declines with income
             and self-reported good health, and is lower for women.
             Neither smoking nor drinking alcohol increases either the
             risk of being or becoming disabled. Recovery--health status
             improvement--improves with household size. Misclassification
             or measurement error is important: a surprisingly large
             proportion of "incurably" disabled Russians do in fact
             recover. This study has been funded in part by National
             Institute of Aging grant #2P30 AG17248-02 through the
             Population Aging Center at the University of Colorado at
             Boulder. We are grateful to Aleksandr Andreev for
             outstanding research assistance. Jeanine Braithwaite, John
             Komlos, Cem Mete, Mieke Meurs, Daniel Mont, Frank Sloan, and
             five anonymous referees contributed valuable comments. We
             acknowledge our appreciation without implicating them in
             remaining errors and misinterpretations.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ehb.2011.06.005},
   Key = {fds237924}
}

@article{fds237923,
   Author = {Andreev, AA and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Age-adjusted disability rates and regional effects in
             Russia},
   Journal = {Demographic Research},
   Volume = {23},
   Pages = {749-770},
   Publisher = {Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1435-9871},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2010.23.27},
   Abstract = {We provide three measures of age-standardized disability
             rates for each Russian region and show that most, though not
             all, of the regional patterns in disability prevalence
             disappear with standardization. Disability prevalence
             remains unusually high for women in St Petersburg and
             Belgorod but the "remote but healthy" pattern is nearly
             gone. We conclude that differences in age structure largely
             account for the differences in disability prevalence across
             regions of Russia. © 2010 Aleksandr A. Andreev & Charles M.
             Becker.},
   Doi = {10.4054/DemRes.2010.23.27},
   Key = {fds237923}
}

@article{fds237925,
   Author = {Anthopolos, R and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Global Infant Mortality: Correcting for Undercounting},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {467-481},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0305-750X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.013},
   Abstract = {The UN Millennium Development Goals highlight the infant
             mortality rate (IMR) as a measure of progress in improving
             neonatal health and more broadly as an indicator of basic
             health care. However, prior research has shown that IMRs
             (and in particular perinatal mortality) can be
             underestimated dramatically, depending on a particular
             country's live birth criterion, vital registration system,
             and reporting practices. This study assesses infant
             mortality undercounting for a global dataset using an
             approach popularized in productivity economics. Using a
             one-sided error, frontier estimation technique, we
             recalculate rates and concurrently derive a measure of
             likely undercount for each country. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
             All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.11.013},
   Key = {fds237925}
}

@article{fds237915,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {Urbanization and rural-urban migration},
   Pages = {516-531},
   Booktitle = {INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS},
   Publisher = {Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA: Edward
             Elgar},
   Editor = {Amitava Krishna Dutt and Jaime Ros},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds237915}
}

@article{fds305695,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Craigie, TA},
   Title = {W. Arthur lewis in retrospect},
   Journal = {The Review of Black Political Economy},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {187-216},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0034-6446},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12114-008-9010-6},
   Abstract = {This paper reviews several themes from the writings of W.
             Arthur Lewis, both the first black Nobel Laureate in
             Economics and the first from a developing country, and
             examines them from the perspective of two to five decades of
             hindsight. The paper emphasizes three main interrelated
             aspects; economic growth, economic dualism, and "the
             evolution of the economic order"-the forces that drive the
             prices of goods and relative incomes across countries.
             Lewis's messages still resonate today, as he foresaw the
             rise of industrial exports from developing countries-and
             also that it would not end the large gaps among nations'
             standards of living. The paper both documents these rises
             and asks whether one could have predicted it from
             information available in the 1960s, or whether additional
             prescience was necessary. © 2008 Springer Science +
             Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12114-008-9010-6},
   Key = {fds305695}
}

@article{fds237930,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Urzhumova, DS},
   Title = {Mortality recovery and stabilization in Kazakhstan,
             1995-2001.},
   Journal = {Economics and Human Biology},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {97-122},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1570-677X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15722264},
   Abstract = {This paper documents both the extraordinary rise in
             mortality that accompanied economic deterioration in the
             former Soviet Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as the far
             more tentative recovery. Kazakhstan's multi-ethnic
             population also makes it possible to identify a large
             mortality disadvantage for those--especially working-age
             males--who are not of Kazakh ethnicity. There are also stark
             regional differences--mortality decline is underway in many
             areas with substantial economic recovery, while elsewhere
             there has been no discernable improvement.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ehb.2004.12.003},
   Key = {fds237930}
}

@article{fds237947,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Musabek, EN and Seitenova, AGS and Urzhumova,
             DS},
   Title = {The migration response to economic shock: Lessons from
             Kazakhstan},
   Journal = {Journal of Comparative Economics},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {107-132},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jce.2004.12.003},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the determinants of migration between
             Kazakhstan and Russia for different age groups and by
             urban/rural residence, using monthly data for the period
             1995 to 1999. Using reconciled migration data and a
             comparable macroeconomic data set for the two countries,
             these monthly data make it possible to assess different
             groups' responses to differential economic events. We find a
             virtually immediate response to the 1998 Russian financial
             crisis and to relative exchange rate movements. However,
             longer lags apply to the response to construction activity
             and to wage differentials. Movements in real pensions do not
             induce important responses. © 2005 Association for
             Comparative Economic Studies. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jce.2004.12.003},
   Key = {fds237947}
}

@article{fds237948,
   Author = {Seitenova, AGS and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Kazakhstan's pension system: Pressures for change and
             dramatic reforms},
   Journal = {Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {151-187},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0018-280X},
   Abstract = {Five years ago, Kazakhstan embarked on a dramatic reform of
             its pension and social security system in order to move from
             an unsustainable public denned benefit ("solidarity") system
             to one of defined mandatory contributions (accumulative
             system). While assessment of long-run success is premature,
             early results have exceeded expectations. This paper
             considers the reform's rationale and initial impact: Why did
             the Government of Kazakhstan decide to introduce a new
             pension system? What advantages did the state perceive? Was
             the Government's decision appropriate, and what alternatives
             existed? The paper also analyzes pension reform issues that
             have yet to be fully resolved. © Hitotsubashi
             University.},
   Key = {fds237948}
}

@article{fds237949,
   Author = {Becker, C and Paltsev, SV},
   Title = {Economic consequences of demographic change in the former
             USSR: Social transfers in the Kyrgyz Republic},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1849-1870},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0305-750X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.06.009},
   Abstract = {Dramatic demographic changes accompanied the decay and
             collapse of the Soviet Union. This paper considers their
             long-run economic effects, particularly with respect to
             impacts on government budgetary positions due to social
             transfers. Using a detailed actuarial forecasting model for
             the Central Asian country of Kyrgyzstan, the paper
             demonstrates that the effect of the transition will be felt
             far into the 21st century, as government budget pressures to
             meet social expenditure needs result in lower savings rates
             and higher public debt. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.worlddev.2004.06.009},
   Key = {fds237949}
}

@article{fds237950,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Musabek, EN and Seitenova, AGS and Urzhumova,
             DS},
   Title = {Short-term migration responses of women and men during
             economic turmoil: Lessons from Kazakhstan},
   Journal = {Eurasian Geography and Economics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {228-243},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/1538-7216.44.3.228},
   Abstract = {A team of population specialists from the United States and
             Kazakhstan uses heretofore unpublished data of the
             Kazakhstan Statistical Agency to assess gender and age
             differences in the propensity to migrate from Kazakhstan for
             the period 1991-2001. The interstate character of the
             population movements analyzed means that Slavic, German, and
             other non-Kazakh ethnic groups are disproportionately
             represented among the emigrant population, but the key focus
             is on identifying the differing migration responses of men
             and women during economic crisis, in this case the
             precipitous decline in economic activity following the
             dissolution of the USSR. © 2003 by V.H. Winston and Son,
             Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.2747/1538-7216.44.3.228},
   Key = {fds237950}
}

@article{fds147109,
   Author = {C.M. Becker and E.N. Musabek and A.S. Seitenova and D.S.
             Urzhumova},
   Title = {Short-run migration responses of men and women during a
             period of economic turmoil: lessons from
             Kazakhstan},
   Journal = {Eurasian Geography and Economics},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {228-43},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {There is an extensive literature on gender differences in
             the causes and patterns of migration (Becker and Morrison,
             1999). While men and women have many common reasons for
             moving from one region or country to another, there are
             prominent differences as well. However, almost nothing is
             known as to whether men or women react more rapidly to
             changing opportunities, and to gender differences in
             response to economic and social crisis. This paper attempts
             to provide insights into both issues using monthly data from
             the Republic of Kazakhstan.},
   Key = {fds147109}
}

@article{fds237952,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {Fertility Decline in sub-Saharan Africa},
   Journal = {Journal of African Policy Studies},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {1-16},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   Abstract = {Historically, fertility in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been
             quite high, and in the past half century has declined far
             more slowly than in most other parts of the world (Locoh,
             2002). Indeed, during the past three decades the world as a
             whole has witnessed a remarkable decline in the number of
             live births a woman who survives her fecund lifespan can
             expect to produce given prevailing age- specific birth
             rates. This total fertility rate (TFR) has declined from 4.8
             in 1970 to only 2.8 in 1997 for the world as a whole (World
             Bank [1995] and [2000]; UN [2001]), an unprecedented
             decline. For sub-Saharan Africa during this period, the
             subcontinent-wide TFR declined from 6.6 to 5.3, with the
             entire decline occurring after 1980. This special issue is
             devoted to the topic of Africa’s nascent fertility
             decline. Is further decline likely? Is the decline
             widespread or concentrated in a few regions? Since the
             continent has suffered economic stagnation for the past
             quarter-century, and since in most of the world, fertility
             decline is associated with economic progress, what
             alternative explanations can be given for the fertility
             decline that has occurred? Of the proximate causes, which
             are most important, and are there underlying forces that can
             be associated with these declines?},
   Key = {fds237952}
}

@article{fds237954,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Seitenova, AS and Piedra, J},
   Title = {Demand for bank loans and credit bureau services in the
             Republic of},
   Journal = {,” Central Asian Journal of Management, Economics and
             Social Research},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-19},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {In order to judge the potential viability of a Credit Bureau
             in the Republic of Kazakhstan, this study estimates the
             number of credit applications during 2000-2001, and projects
             changes through 2004. We assume that credit applications
             provide a good indicator of demand for Credit Bureau
             services, since the banking sector currently extends more
             than 90% of all credit within the ROK . Beyond bank
             operations, Kazakhstan is fundamentally a cash economy, so
             that there is little reason to assess levels of non-bank
             demand for credit reporting. The National Bank of Kazakhstan
             (NBK), which supervises and regulates the banking sector,
             provided the primary source of information for this study.
             Its Credit Registry archives all data related to banking
             loans by borrower type and main characteristics, including
             size, interest rate, and duration. We believe the
             information contained therein is complete and fundamentally
             unbiased. Unfortunately, the Credit Registry’s database
             does not track loans below one million tenge (about USD
             6,500) for individuals and three million tenge for
             businesses. We correct for this information base gap in the
             analysis that follows below. We estimate that in 2004 the
             number of applications will be between 314,000 and 690,000.
             These numbers reflect a base year (2000) number of loan
             applications of between 171,000 to 225,000. Barring any
             unexpected volatility arising from exogenous factors, the
             number of applications is expected to increase on average
             between 16.4% and 32.4% over the period 2001-2004. These
             estimates do not take into account expected growth of retail
             business across all economic sectors and the anticipated
             high level of conversion of debit cards into credit cards.
             Besides banks, the largest users of credit bureau services
             around the world are entities that extend credit to
             customers at the consumer level; growth at present in
             Kazakhstan is very high, but from a very small base. The
             remainder of this section discusses both principal empirical
             findings and briefly discusses the social importance of
             Credit Bureaus in a broad economic context. Section 2 then
             discusses patterns of bank loans; Section 3 estimates the
             number of borrowers in Kazakhstan, Section 4 provides
             further detail on the nature of banking sector loans, and
             Section 5 offers aggregate forecasts.},
   Key = {fds237954}
}

@article{fds237953,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Paltsev, SV},
   Title = {Macro-Experimental Economics in the Kyrgyz Republic: Social
             Security Sustainability and},
   Journal = {Comparative Economic Studies},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1-34},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {Fall},
   Abstract = {Despite a decade of transition, pension systems in formerly
             socialist countries still desperately need viable reform.
             This paper assesses reform packages advocated by different
             international agencies, and considers their sensitivity to
             varying economic and demographic assumptions. Failure to
             account for demographic-economic interactions strongly
             biases forecasts. Few viable reform options exist, due to
             the near absence of capital markets, the collapse of formal
             sector employment, and huge differences between urban and
             rural sectors. The divergent results from projections made
             under different assumptions imply that policymakers should
             examine the realism of policy suggestions (and associated
             actuarial forecasts) very carefully.},
   Key = {fds237953}
}

@article{fds237928,
   Author = {Quddus, M and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Speculative Price Bubbles in the Rice Market and the 1974
             Bangladesh Famine},
   Journal = {Journal of Economic Development},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {155-175},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.jed.or.kr/full-text/25-2/quddus.PDF},
   Abstract = {This paper investigates the role played by speculative price
             bubbles in destabilizing food markets in Bangladesh during
             the 1974 famine. The hypothesis of speculative price bubbles
             in the rice market is tested using weekly price data. These
             tests are based on a theoretical model of storable food
             markets in which agents exhibit rational expectations. It is
             shown that such markets are susceptible to destabilizing
             trends by self-fulfilling expectations. While "explosive
             price bubbles" have received extensive attention in
             macroeconomics, they have not been used in development
             economics to explain famines. Amartya Sen has hypothesized
             that speculative forces are a possible source of instability
             in the food market. Our empirical tests based on techniques
             from the recent literature on price bubbles lend some
             credence to the hypothesis that excessive speculation may
             have produced price bubbles in the rice market which
             directly contributed to the Bangladesh famine in
             1974.},
   Key = {fds237928}
}

@article{fds237951,
   Author = {Anderson, KH and Becker, CM},
   Title = {Post-Soviet pension systems, retirement, and elderly
             poverty: Findings from the Kyrgyz Republic},
   Journal = {Most},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {459-478},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {Fall},
   ISSN = {1120-7388},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009556526212},
   Abstract = {Using data from household surveys of the Kyrgyz Republic, we
             explore determinants of pension receipt and wage employment
             as well as poverty and extreme poverty status. Data are
             taken from surveys in late 1993 (a period of extreme
             economic dislocation) and late 1996 (a time of nascent
             recovery). While the surveys are not perfectly comparable,
             their contrast also enables us to make some tentative
             conclusions about recovery in the post-Soviet era. The first
             section briefly discusses patterns of the Kyrgyz economy and
             the public pension system. We then turn to a description of
             the data in Section 2, and provide an overview of pensioner
             characteristics. Section 3 presents multivariate models of
             pension receipt and wage employment. The determinants of
             poverty status in 1993 and 1996 are contrasted in Section 4,
             while Section 5 offers concluding remarks about the
             implications of our research for pension
             policy.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1009556526212},
   Key = {fds237951}
}

@article{fds237946,
   Author = {Becker, C and Bloom, D},
   Title = {The Demographic crisis in the Former Soviet Union:
             Introduction},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1913-1919},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00097-7},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00097-7},
   Key = {fds237946}
}

@article{fds237931,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Hemley, DD},
   Title = {Demographic change in the former Soviet Union during the
             transition period},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1957-1975},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00113-2},
   Abstract = {This paper examines patterns of mortality and other
             demographic changes across the former Soviet Union. Using
             regional data from the early 1990s, a simultaneous equations
             model of fertility, marriage, divorce, infant mortality and
             abortion is estimated as a function of economic and social
             variables. The paper then looks at determinants of life
             expectancy and specific causes of death. Demographic
             scenarios are then forecast on the basis of specific
             economic environments; these forecasts in turn are used to
             forecast life expectancies in the coming decades. In
             plausible environments, there is little reason to anticipate
             a rapid recovery in male or female life expectancies, while
             further declines in fertility appear imminent.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00113-2},
   Key = {fds237931}
}

@article{fds237944,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Bibosunova, DI and Holmes, GE and Ibragimova,
             MM},
   Title = {Maternal care vs. economic wealth and the health of
             newborns: Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic and Kansas City,
             USA},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2057-2072},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00093-X},
   Abstract = {This paper focuses on a narrow aspect of the demographic and
             health crisis in the former Soviet Union, examining the
             extent to which maternal behavior can compensate for poverty
             and poor medical conditions. Using sister hospital data form
             Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and Kansas City, USA covering nearly
             1,500 live births, the paper finds that Kyrgyzstani women
             are partially successful in compensating by taking better
             care of themselves and their newborn children. Moreover,
             ethnicity within Kyrgyzstan has no apparent impact on
             maternal behavior. Careful behavior, however, does not
             remove al disadvantages, and targeted interventions are
             still greatly needed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00093-X},
   Key = {fds237944}
}

@article{fds237945,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Urzhumova, DS},
   Title = {Pension burdens and labor force participation in
             Kazakstan},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2087-2103},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00107-7},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the pressures imposed by the vast
             pension system in the former Soviet republic of Kazakstan.
             Today, some 17% of the country receives pension payments,
             one of the highest rates in the world - despite the fact
             that Kazakstan is only now completing its demographic
             transition. Using a pooled regional-time series data set
             from pre- and post-Soviet eras, the paper also examines
             determinants of pension populations and the labor force
             participation rate. It finds that Kazakstanis in the
             post-Soviet era respond to price incentives both with
             respect to real pensions and real wage rates - in stark
             contrast to dramatically backward-bending labor supply
             curves of the Soviet era.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0305-750X(98)00107-7},
   Key = {fds237945}
}

@article{fds237942,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Grewe, C},
   Title = {Rural-Urban Migration in Africa: Do Age-Gender Cohorts
             Matter?},
   Journal = {Journal of African Economies},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {228-270},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   Abstract = {Rural-urban migration has been modeled by both demographers
             and economists since the 1960s. Little regard has been given
             by either discipline for the other's models. In particular,
             economists have disregarded the possibility that net
             migration rates can be strongly affected by shifts in the
             demographic composition of the population under
             consideration. Aggregate studies implicitly assume that the
             demographic structure is constant. The purpose of this paper
             is to address this void in the African context. We examine
             three hypotheses: 1) that variables explaining the net urban
             in-migration rates vary with the age of the migrants; 2)
             that changes in the availability of services in urban areas
             is a factor in migration; and 3) that cohort structures (age
             pyramids) are also part of the explanation.},
   Key = {fds237942}
}

@article{fds305693,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Grewe, CD},
   Title = {Cohort-specific rural-urban migration in
             Africa.},
   Journal = {Journal of African Economies},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {228-270},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jae.a020904},
   Abstract = {"Rural-urban migration has been modeled by both demographers
             and economists since the 1960s. Little regard has been given
             by either discipline for the other's models.... The purpose
             of this paper is to address this void in the African
             context. We examine three hypotheses: (1) that variables
             explaining the net urban in-migration rates vary with the
             age of the migrants; (2) that changes in the availability of
             services in urban areas [are] a factor in migration; and (3)
             that cohort structures (age pyramids) are also part of the
             explanation."},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordjournals.jae.a020904},
   Key = {fds305693}
}

@article{fds237943,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Hemley, D},
   Title = {Interregional Inequality in Russia during the Transition
             Period},
   Journal = {Comparative Economic Studies},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-81},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {May},
   Key = {fds237943}
}

@article{fds237941,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Morrison, AR},
   Title = {Observational equivalence in the modeling of African labor
             markets and urbanization},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {535-554},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0305-750X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(93)90108-L},
   Abstract = {This article examines the appropriateness of neoclassical
             and rent-seeking models of urbanization for the African
             milieu and demonstrates that the reduced forms of these two
             models may be quite similar. The models are not
             observationally equivalent, however, and methods of
             distinguishing between them are discussed. A demographic
             cohort shift model of African urbanization also is
             presented. Its excellent predictive power suggests that
             migration models that assume migrant homogeneity (i.e.,
             highly aggregate migration models) ignore information that
             can be useful in predicting trends in migration flows. ©
             1993.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0305-750X(93)90108-L},
   Key = {fds237941}
}

@article{fds237940,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {The demo-economic impact of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan
             Africa},
   Journal = {World Development},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1599-1619},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0305-750X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X(90)90058-6},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the available data on the incidence and
             spread of AIDS and the associated human immunodeficiency
             virus (HIV) in Africa. Assessments of the impact of the
             spread of AIDS on African population growth and economic
             performance are then offered. The interactions with present
             economic and public health policy receive particular
             attention. The paper stresses continued emphasis on rural
             development and greater efforts to control other sexually
             transmitted diseases along with increased promotion of
             condoms as means of slowing the spread of AIDS. ©
             1990.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0305-750X(90)90058-6},
   Key = {fds237940}
}

@article{fds237938,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Morrison, A},
   Title = {The Determinants of Urban Population Growth in sub-Saharan
             Africa},
   Journal = {Economic Development and Cultural Change},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {259-278},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds237938}
}

@article{fds237939,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {The impact of sanctions on South Africa and its
             periphery},
   Journal = {African Studies Review},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {61-88},
   Publisher = {JSTOR},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/524419},
   Doi = {10.2307/524419},
   Key = {fds237939}
}

@article{fds237937,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Bartik, T and Bush, J and Lake, S},
   Title = {Saturn and State Economic Development},
   Journal = {Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {. 29 40},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {Spring},
   Key = {fds237937}
}

@article{fds237934,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Mills, ES and Williamson, JG},
   Title = {Modelling Indian migration and city growth,
             1960-2000.},
   Journal = {Economic Development &Amp; Cultural Change},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-33},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {This paper uses a multisectoral model of the Indian economy
             to isolate the sources of Indian economic growth and
             urbanization since 1960. it stresses spatial issues so that
             it can provide predictions on rural/urban labor demands,
             which, when combined with unequal labor supplies, generate
             migration flows.-Authors},
   Key = {fds237934}
}

@article{fds237935,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {Economic sanctions against South Africa},
   Journal = {World Politics},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {147-173},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010438},
   Doi = {10.2307/2010438},
   Key = {fds237935}
}

@article{fds237936,
   Author = {Becker, CM},
   Title = {Urban sector income distribution and economic
             development},
   Journal = {Journal of Urban Economics},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-145},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0094-1190},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-1190(87)90010-6},
   Abstract = {This paper examines the relationship between measures of
             urban sector inequality and economic development for a
             sample of 25 developing and newly industrialized countries.
             A U-shaped relationship is found in which bottom urban
             quintiles' income shares initially decline and then rise as
             per capita income increases. This relationship is
             strengthened when an estimate of urban per capita income
             replaces national per capita income as the development
             measure. The curves suggest that per capita incomes of the
             bottom quintiles will never decline as development proceeds,
             but may rise only very slowly. © 1987.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0094-1190(87)90010-6},
   Key = {fds237936}
}

@article{fds237933,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Mills, ES and Williamson, JG},
   Title = {Dynamics of rural-urban migration in India:
             1960-1981.},
   Journal = {Indian Journal of Quantitative Economics},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-43},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   Abstract = {"This paper analyzes a multi-sectoral simulation model of
             the Indian economy designed to isolate the sources of Indian
             economic growth and urbanization since 1960. The model
             shares many common traits with other computable general
             equilibrium (CGE) simulation models, and its underlying
             framework is neoclassical. The model stresses spatial issues
             so that it can provide predictions on rural/urban labor
             demands, and hence on migration flows. The central issue we
             seek to evaluate is whether a neoclassical development
             paradigm can explain adequately the somewhat paradoxical
             patterns of urbanization and economic growth observed in
             India since 1960. Our conclusion is a qualified, affirmative
             response, based on the model's ability to replicate key
             macroeconomic variables."},
   Key = {fds237933}
}

@article{fds237917,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Ray, KC},
   Title = {Water resources in the soviet union: Trends and
             prospects},
   Journal = {Studies in Environmental Science},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {347-379},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0166-1116},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-1116(08)72120-4},
   Abstract = {Soviet growth has placed heavy demands on its water
             resources. As in capitalist countries, rapid economic
             development has been accompanied by declines in the quality
             of the USSR's natural resources. Plans to continue high
             rates of investment ensure that the problems will worsen
             unless major efforts are made to meet the challenge. In view
             of the USSR's relatively limited water endowment, dramatic
             plans have been made, including serious consideration of
             immense water diversion schemes. This paper surveys and
             evaluates trends in Soviet water use. It then examines the
             impact of the Soviet economic structure on the severity of
             water resource problems. Simple models of firm behavior
             indicate that environmental destruction by a Soviet firm may
             be greater than that by its capitalist counterpart. These
             microeconomic problems carry over to an aggregate level in
             view of the national emphasis on construction and industry.
             Given the critical need for fresh water, the Soviet response
             has been to plan massive water treatment and diversion
             projects.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0166-1116(08)72120-4},
   Key = {fds237917}
}

@article{fds237918,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Mills, ES and Williamson, JG},
   Title = {IMPACT OF UNBALANCED PRODUCTIVITY ADVANCE ON INDIAN
             URBANIZATION: SOME PRELIMINARY FINDINGS.},
   Journal = {Modeling and Simulation, Proceedings of the Annual
             Pittsburgh Conference},
   Pages = {187-194},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {0876648308},
   Abstract = {This paper investigates the impact of changes in sectoral
             productivity on output and employment patterns in a
             simulation model of the Indian economy. Productivity gains
             in major urban sectors are found to have fairly strong urban
             growth effects both in the short and long run. Rural
             productivity advances initially stem urban growth, but have
             little long run effect.},
   Key = {fds237918}
}

@article{fds237932,
   Author = {Becker, C and Fullerton, D},
   Title = {Income Tax Incentives to Promote Saving},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {331-351},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {June},
   Key = {fds237932}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds322917,
   Author = {Becker, C and Mendelsohn, SJ and Benderskaya, K},
   Title = {Russia’s planned urbanisation and misplaced urban
             development},
   Pages = {99-142},
   Booktitle = {Urban Growth in Emerging Economies: Lessons from the
             BRICS},
   Publisher = {Routledge},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780415718752},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9781315867878},
   Doi = {10.4324/9781315867878},
   Key = {fds322917}
}

@misc{fds339570,
   Author = {Becker, C and Price, G},
   Title = {Curriculum intensity in graduate preparatory programs: The
             impact on performance and progression to graduate study
             among minority students in economics},
   Pages = {146-159},
   Booktitle = {Doctoral Education and the Faculty of the
             Future},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780801445439},
   Key = {fds339570}
}

@misc{fds147113,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Gregory N. Price},
   Title = {Curriculum Intensity in Graduate Preparatory Programs:
             Impact on Performance and Progression to Graduate Study
             among Minority Students in Economics},
   Booktitle = {DOCTORAL EDUCATION AND THE FACULTY OF THE
             FUTURE},
   Publisher = {Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press},
   Editor = {Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Charlotte V. Kuh},
   Year = {2008},
   ISBN = {978-0-8014-4543-9},
   Key = {fds147113}
}

@misc{fds147117,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Ai-Gul Seitenova and Dina S.
             Urzhumova},
   Title = {Pension Reform in Central Asia: an Overview},
   Booktitle = {ECONOMICS OF INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY IN TRANSITION
             ECONOMIES},
   Publisher = {Tokyo: Maruzen Publishers},
   Editor = {Masaaki Kuboniwa and Yoshiaki Nishimura},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds147117}
}

@misc{fds147118,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Ai-Gul S. Seitenova},
   Title = {Fertility and Marriage in Kazakhstan's Transition Period:
             Implications for Social Security Policy},
   Booktitle = {ECONOMICS OF INTERGENERATIONAL EQUITY IN TRANSITION
             ECONOMIES},
   Publisher = {Tokyo: Maruzen Publishers},
   Editor = {Masaaki Kuboniwa and Yoshiaki Nishimura},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds147118}
}

@misc{fds237920,
   Author = {Becker, CM and Morrison, AR},
   Title = {Chapter 43 Urbanization in transforming economies},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {1673-1790},
   Booktitle = {Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780444821386},
   ISSN = {1574-0080},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0080(99)80012-1},
   Abstract = {The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic change in the
             way in which people live. Fifty years ago, only a small
             proportion of the less developed world lived in cities, and
             world poverty was overwhelmingly rural. In 1950, less than
             one-fifth of the population of the "third world" was urban;
             in the next five years or so, a majority of developing
             countries' populations will be urban. This dramatic social
             change has captured the attention of development economists
             and, to a lesser degree, urban economists. This chapter
             examines what has been learned in a variety of areas.
             Section 1 discusses the stylized patterns of urbanization in
             the developing world, while Section 2 turns to models of
             third world city growth and their empirical estimates,
             discussing partial equilibrium models, general equilibrium
             models, economy-wide computable general equilibrium (CGE)
             models, demographic-economic perspectives, and household
             migration modeling. Section 3 considers the impact of
             government policies on urbanization. Particular attention is
             devoted to structural adjustment policies, urban biases in
             public expenditures, and issues unique to (ex)-socialist
             economies. Section 4 examines structural impediments to
             urban development, including labor and land markets,
             transportation issues, public finance and social
             infrastructure concerns, and urban spatial structure. The
             final section looks at the macroeconomic impacts of
             urbanization-on wage gaps and income distribution, demand
             patterns and economic efficiency.11This survey should be
             regarded as a complement to Lucas' (1997) survey of internal
             migration in developing countries for the Handbook of
             Population and Family Economics. © 1999 Elsevier Science
             B.V.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1574-0080(99)80012-1},
   Key = {fds237920}
}

@misc{fds147111,
   Author = {C.M. Becker and A.R. Morrison},
   Title = {Urbanization in Transforming Economies},
   Series = {North-Holland Handbooks in Economics},
   Booktitle = {HANDBOOK OF REGIONAL URBAN ECONOMICS},
   Publisher = {Elsevier North-Holland},
   Editor = {P. Cheshire and E.S. Mills},
   Year = {1999},
   Abstract = {The past half-century has witnessed a dramatic change in the
             way in which people live. Fifty years ago, only a small
             proportion of the less developed world lived in cities, and
             world poverty was overwhelmingly rural. In 1950, less than
             one-fifth of the population of the "third world" was urban;
             in the next five years or so, a majority of developing
             countries' populations will be urban. This dramatic social
             change has captured the attention of development economists
             and, to a lesser degree, urban economists. The following
             pages examine what has been learned in a variety of areas.
             Section I discusses the stylized patterns of urbanization in
             the developing world, while Section II turns to models of
             third world city growth and their empirical estimates,
             discussing partial equilibrium models, general equilibrium
             models, economy- wide computable general equilibrium (CGE)
             models, demographic-economic perspectives, and household
             migration modeling. Section III considers the impact of
             government policies on urbanization. Particular attention is
             devoted to structural adjustment policies, urban biases in
             public expenditures, and issues unique to (ex)-socialist
             economies. Section IV examines structural impediments to
             urban development, including labor and land markets,
             transportation issues, public finance and social
             infrastructure concerns, and urban spatial structure. The
             final section looks at the macroeconomic impacts of
             urbanization -- on wage gaps and income distribution, on
             demand patterns, and on economic efficiency.},
   Key = {fds147111}
}


%% Working Papers   
@article{fds147112,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Irina S. Merkuryeva},
   Title = {Disability Risk and Miraculous Recoveries in
             Russia},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds147112}
}

@article{fds147115,
   Author = {Charles M. Becker and Ai-Gul S. Seitenova},
   Title = {Disability in Kazakhstan: making sense of recent
             trends},
   Series = {World Bank Social Protection Discussion Paper
             0802},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds147115}
}


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