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Publications of Susan Roth    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds253631,
   Author = {Krause, ED and Roth, S},
   Title = {Child Sexual Abuse History and Feminine Gender-Role
             Identity},
   Journal = {Sex Roles},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {32-42},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0360-0025},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9855-6},
   Abstract = {The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and
             feminine gender-role identity was examined among 75 women
             with and 107 without a history of CSA. Undergraduates and
             hospital employees from a university in the Southern United
             States completed questionnaires on the internet. Three
             aspects of feminine identity were assessed, including how
             much participants identified with feminine versus masculine
             traits, endorsed stereotypes about women, and viewed
             themselves as meeting feminine self-standards. Participants
             with a history of CSA reported greater feminine
             self-discrepancy and endorsed more derogatory stereotypes
             about women than the comparison group. CSA was also linked
             to identifying with more feminine than masculine traits, but
             only among hospital employees. Results suggest that feminine
             identity is a meaningful construct to consider in the
             adjustment of CSA survivors. © 2010 Springer
             Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11199-010-9855-6},
   Key = {fds253631}
}

@article{fds253628,
   Author = {van der Kolk, BA and Roth, S and Pelcovitz, D and Sunday, S and Spinazzola, J},
   Title = {Disorders of extreme stress: The empirical foundation of a
             complex adaptation to trauma.},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {389-399},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.20047},
   Abstract = {Children and adults exposed to chronic interpersonal trauma
             consistently demonstrate psychological disturbances that are
             not captured in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
             diagnosis. The DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association,
             1994) Field Trial studied 400 treatment-seeking traumatized
             individuals and 128 community residents and found that
             victims of prolonged interpersonal trauma, particularly
             trauma early in the life cycle, had a high incidence of
             problems with (a) regulation of affect and impulses, (b)
             memory and attention, (c) self-perception, (d) interpersonal
             relations, (e) somatization, and (f) systems of meaning.
             This raises important issues about the categorical versus
             the dimensional nature of posttraumatic stress, as well as
             the issue of comorbidity in PTSD. These data invite further
             exploration of what constitutes effective treatment of the
             full spectrum of posttraumatic psychopathology.},
   Doi = {10.1002/jts.20047},
   Key = {fds253628}
}

@article{fds253627,
   Author = {Roth, S and Friedman, MJ},
   Title = {Childhood trauma remembered: A report on the current
             scientific knowledge base and its applications},
   Journal = {Journal of Child Sexual Abuse},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-109},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Editor = {Roth, S. and Friedman, M.J.(Chief},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8712},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v07n01_07},
   Abstract = {This article was developed by the International Society for
             Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) to inform professionals and
             the public about the complex and important issues that are
             involved in the current controversy about memories of
             childhood sexual abuse. It addresses the questions of
             childhood trauma, traumatic memory, the memory process,
             clinical issues and forensic implications pertaining to this
             controversy. We have tried to present a balanced review of
             these issues. As an international organization dedicated to
             promoting the best research and education in this field, we
             believe it essential that people who grapple with this
             controversial topic be equipped with the most accurate and
             comprehensive information possible. We hope that this
             article helps serve this purpose.},
   Doi = {10.1300/J070v07n01_07},
   Key = {fds253627}
}

@article{fds253632,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E and Pelcovitz, D and van der Kolk, B and Mandel,
             FS},
   Title = {Complex PTSD in victims exposed to sexual and physical
             abuse: results from the DSM-IV Field Trial for Posttraumatic
             Stress Disorder.},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {539-555},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9391940},
   Abstract = {Two hundred thirty four participants in the DSM-IV
             Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Field Trial who
             reported sexual and/or physical abuse were evaluated.
             Participants were categorized according to type of abuse
             (physical, sexual, both), duration of abuse (acute versus
             chronic), and onset of abuse (early versus late). Separate
             logistic regression analyses examined the relationship
             between age of onset, duration, abuse type, and the complex
             PTSD (CP) lifetime diagnosis for women and men. Sexually
             abused women, especially those who also experienced physical
             abuse, had a higher risk of developing CP, although CP
             symptoms occurred at a high base rate among physically
             abused women. The theoretical implications and incremental
             clinical usefulness of targeting CP symptoms with abused
             populations are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1024837617768},
   Key = {fds253632}
}

@article{fds253625,
   Author = {Newman, E and Riggs, DS and Roth, S},
   Title = {Thematic resolution, PTSD, and complex PTSD: the
             relationship between meaning and trauma-related
             diagnoses.},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {197-213},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1024873911644},
   Abstract = {The role of modifying schemas in trauma-focused
             psychotherapy has received theoretical and clinical
             attention. However, the relationship of schematic processing
             to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis has not
             been examined empirically. The current study-compared
             measures of thematic disruption among individuals with PTSD
             alone, PTSD with concurrent complex PTSD, and no PTSD.
             Eighty two participants were interviewed to assess PTSD
             status, complex PTSD status, traumatic life events, and
             trauma-related thematic processing. Results indicated that
             variables quantifying thematic disruption and thematic
             resolution significantly distinguished those individuals
             with concurrent PTSD plus complex PTSD from the other two
             groups. Exploratory analyses indicated that PTSD symptom
             severity and the interpersonal nature of the trauma were
             related to thematic disruption.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1024873911644},
   Key = {fds253625}
}

@article{fds253626,
   Author = {Pelcovitz, D and van der Kolk, B and Roth, S and Mandel, F and Kaplan,
             S and Resick, P},
   Title = {Development of a criteria set and a structured interview for
             disorders of extreme stress (SIDES).},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {3-16},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1024800212070},
   Abstract = {Data regarding the development of a structured interview
             measuring alterations that may accompany extreme stress are
             presented. A list of 27 criteria often seen in response to
             extreme trauma and not addressed by DSM-IV criteria for
             posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were generated based on
             a systematic review of the literature and a survey of 50
             experts. A structured interview for disorders of extreme
             stress (SIDES) measuring the presence of these criteria was
             administered to 520 subjects as part of the DSM-IV PTSD
             field trials. Inter-rater reliability as measured by Kappa
             coefficients for lifetime Disorders of Extreme Stress was
             .81. Internal consistency using coefficient alpha ranged
             from .53 to .96. Results indicate that the SIDES is a useful
             tool for investigation of response to extremes
             stress.},
   Doi = {10.1023/a:1024800212070},
   Key = {fds253626}
}

@article{fds253630,
   Author = {Davidson, JR and Book, SW and Colket, JT and Tupler, LA and Roth, S and David, D and Hertzberg, M and Mellman, T and Beckham, JC and Smith, RD and Davison, RM and Katz, R and Feldman, ME},
   Title = {Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic
             stress disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychological Medicine},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {153-160},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9122295},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: In post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) there
             is a need for self-rating scales that are sensitive to
             treatment effects and have been tested in a broad range of
             trauma survivors. Separate measures of frequency and
             severity may also provide an advantage. METHODS: Three
             hundred and fifty-three men and women completed the Davidson
             Trauma Scale (DTS), a 17-item scale measuring each DSM-IV
             symptom of PTSD on 5-point frequency and severity scales.
             These subjects comprised war veterans, survivors of rape or
             hurricane and a mixed trauma group participating in a
             clinical trial. Other scales were included as validity
             checks as follows: Global ratings, SCL-90-R, Eysenck Scale,
             Impact of Event Scale and Structured Clinical Interview for
             DSM-III-R. RESULTS: The scale demonstrated good test-retest
             reliability (r = 0.86), internal consistency (r = 0.99). One
             main factor emerged for severity and a smaller one for
             intrusion. In PTSD diagnosed subjects, and the factor
             structure more closely resembled the traditional grouping of
             symptoms. Concurrent validity was obtained against the SCID,
             with a diagnostic accuracy of 83% at a DTS score of 40. Good
             convergent and divergent validity was obtained. The DTS
             showed predictive validity against response to treatment, as
             well as being sensitive to treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS:
             The DTS showed good reliability and validity, and offers
             promised as a scale which is particularly suited to
             assessing symptom severity, treatment outcome and in
             screening for the likely diagnosis of PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0033291796004229},
   Key = {fds253630}
}

@article{fds304734,
   Author = {van der Kolk, BA and Pelcovitz, D and Roth, S and Mandel, FS and McFarlane, A and Herman, JL},
   Title = {Dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation: the
             complexity of adaptation of trauma.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {7 Suppl},
   Pages = {83-93},
   Publisher = {American Psychiatric Publishing},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.153.7.83},
   Abstract = {<h4>Objective</h4>A century of clinical research has noted a
             range of trauma-related psychological problems that are not
             captured in the DSM-IV framework of posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the relationships
             between exposure to extreme stress, the emergence of PTSD,
             and symptoms traditionally associated with "hysteria," which
             can be understood as problems with stimulus discrimination,
             self-regulation, and cognitive integration of
             experience.<h4>Method</h4>The DSM-IV field trial for PTSD
             studied 395 traumatized treatment-seeking subjects and 125
             non-treatment-seeking subjects who had also been exposed to
             traumatic experiences. Data on age at onset, the nature of
             the trauma, PTSD, dissociation, somatization, and affect
             dysregulation were collected.<h4>Results</h4>PTSD,
             dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation were
             highly interrelated. The subjects meeting the criteria for
             lifetime (but not current) PTSD scored significantly lower
             on these disorders than those with current PTSD, but
             significantly higher than those who never had PTSD. Subjects
             who developed PTSD after interpersonal trauma as adults had
             significantly fewer symptoms than those with childhood
             trauma, but significantly more than victims of
             disasters.<h4>Conclusions</h4>PTSD, dissociation,
             somatization, and affect dysregulation represent a spectrum
             of adaptations to trauma. They often occur together, but
             traumatized individuals may suffer from various combinations
             of symptoms over time. In treating these patients, it is
             critical to attend to the relative contributions of loss of
             stimulus discrimination, self-regulation, and cognitive
             integration of experience to overall impairment and provide
             systematic treatment that addresses both unbidden intrusive
             recollections and these other symptoms associated with
             having been overwhelmed by exposure to traumatic
             experiences.},
   Doi = {10.1176/ajp.153.7.83},
   Key = {fds304734}
}

@article{fds304733,
   Author = {Turner, K and DeRosa, R and Roth, S and Batson, R and Davidson,
             J},
   Title = {A multi-modal treatment for incest survivors: Preliminary
             outcome data},
   Journal = {Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {208-219},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199609)3:3<208::AID-CPP103>3.0.CO;2-},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a pilot study of a 1-year multi-modal
             treatment for incest survivors, incorporating individual
             psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. The
             treatment was designed to provide a therapeutic context in
             which the affective intensity and meaning originally
             attached to the traumatic experience could be tolerated, and
             in which a thoughtful, reflective construction of the impact
             of the trauma could be developed. PTSD symptoms decreased in
             all participants, with all but one no longer meeting the
             diagnosis at post-treatment and follow-up. Using a narrative
             methodology, maladaptive schemas and overwhelming affects,
             'trauma themes', were also assessed to understand the
             survivors' views about themselves, others and the world
             around them. Participants demonstrated a steady pattern of
             improvement in the resolution of trauma themes. A discussion
             of the complex posttraumatic response to incest is included,
             as is a brief description of the treatment. © 1996 by John
             Wiley & Sons, Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1099-0879(199609)3:3<208::AID-CPP103>3.0.CO;2-},
   Key = {fds304733}
}

@article{fds253633,
   Author = {Turner, K and DeRosa, R and Roth, S and Batson, R and Davidson,
             J},
   Title = {A multi-modal treatment for incest survivors: Preliminary
             outcome data},
   Journal = {Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy: an International
             Journal of Theory and Practice},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {220-229},
   Year = {1996},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a pilot study of a 1-year multi-modal
             treatment for incest survivors, incorporating individual
             psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, and pharmacotherapy. The
             treatment was designed to provide a therapeutic context in
             which the affective intensity and meaning originally
             attached to the traumatic experience could be tolerated, and
             in which a thoughtful, reflective construction of the impact
             of the trauma could be developed. PTSD symptoms decreased in
             all participants, with all but one no longer meeting the
             diagnosis at post-treatment and follow-up. Using a narrative
             methodology, maladaptive schemas and overwhelming affects,
             'trauma themes', were also assessed to understand the
             survivors' views about themselves, others and the world
             around them. Participants demonstrated a steady pattern of
             improvement in the resolution of trauma themes. A discussion
             of the complex posttraumatic response to incest is included,
             as is a brief description of the treatment. © 1996 by
             John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.},
   Key = {fds253633}
}

@article{fds253634,
   Author = {van der Kolk, BA and Pelcovitz, D and Roth, S and Mandel, FS and McFarlane, A and Herman, J},
   Title = {Dissociation, affect dysregulation and somatization: The
             complexity of adaptation to trauma},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {153},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {83-93},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   Abstract = {Objective: A century of clinical research has noted a range
             of trauma- related psychological problems that are not
             captured in the DSM-IV framework of posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the relationships
             between exposure to extreme stress, the emergence of PTSD,
             and symptoms traditionally associated with 'hysteria,' which
             can be understood as problems with stimulus discrimination,
             self-regulation, and cognitive integration of experience.
             Method: The DSM-IV field trial for PTSD studied 3.95
             traumatized treatment-seeking subjects and 125
             non-treatment-seeking subjects who had also been exposed to
             traumatic experiences. Data on age at onset, the nature of
             the trauma, PTSD, dissociation, somatization, and affect
             dysregulation were collected. Results: PTSD, dissociation,
             somatization, and affect dysregulation were highly
             interrelated. The subjects meeting the criteria for lifetime
             (but not current) PTSD scored significantly lower on these
             disorders than those with current PTSD, hut significantly
             higher than those who never had PTSD. Subjects who developed
             PTSD after interpersonal trauma as adults bad significantly
             fewer symptoms than those with childhood trauma, but
             significantly more than victims of disasters. Conclusions:
             PTSD, dissociation, somatization, and affect dysregulation
             represent a spectrum of adaptations to trauma. They often
             occur together, but traumatized individuals may suffer from
             various combinations of symptoms over time. In treating
             these patients, it is critical to attend to the relative
             contributions of loss of stimulus discrimination,
             self-regulation, and cognitive integration of experience to
             overall impairment and provide systematic treatment that
             addresses both unbidden intrusive recollections and these
             other symptoms associated with having been overwhelmed by
             exposure to traumatic experiences.},
   Key = {fds253634}
}

@article{fds253623,
   Author = {Roth, S and Batson, R},
   Title = {Roth and batson reply to "creative balance"
             commentary},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {489-490},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02102796},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF02102796},
   Key = {fds253623}
}

@article{fds253621,
   Author = {Lebowitz, L and Roth, S},
   Title = {"I felt like a slut": the cultural context and women's
             response to being raped.},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {363-390},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02102783},
   Abstract = {This paper examines how cultural beliefs (cultural
             constructions) about women influence how women survivors of
             rape make sense of their traumatic experience. A thematic
             content analysis of interviews with female survivors of rape
             was undertaken to provide a systematic description of the
             phenomenology of the experience. This paper reports on one
             major finding which highlighted the ways in which cultural
             beliefs about women, sexuality, and rape become salient to
             women, and are accessed by them as they struggle to bring
             meaning to the experience of being raped. The nature of
             these beliefs and their implications for response and
             recovery are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1007/bf02102783},
   Key = {fds253621}
}

@article{fds253636,
   Author = {Roth, S and Batson, R},
   Title = {The creative balance: The therapeutic relationship and
             thematic issues in trauma resolution},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {159-177},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00974114},
   Abstract = {A case example of the psychotherapeutic treatment by a male
             therapist of a female incest survivor is presented in the
             present paper. The case illustrates how the evolution of the
             therapeutic relationship critically contributed to the
             resolution of thematic issues that defined the therapeutic
             work. The case also illustrates the use of hypnosis in
             facilitating the integration of traumatic memories and
             themes. The importance of a creative balance between
             autonomy and connection in the therapeutic alliance is
             emphasized. Data for the case include narrative material
             written by the client over the course of the therapy. ©
             1993 Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00974114},
   Key = {fds253636}
}

@article{fds253635,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {The Process of Coping with Incest for Adult Survivors:
             Measurement and Implications for Treatment and
             Research},
   Journal = {Journal of Interpersonal Violence},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {363-377},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0886-2605},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1993LQ60200005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The process of coping with sexual trauma is defined in terms
             of trauma themes—affect and schema categories—and a
             dimension along which trauma resolution can be measured in
             regard to these themes. The recovery process is a dynamic
             one that involves integration of traumatic material into
             one's personality. Thematic issues define the abusive
             dynamics that drive current behavior and become the focus of
             psychotherapeutic interventions. Integration of traumatic
             experiences proceeds by the processing of these thematic
             issues. Reliably and validly measuring the coping or
             recovery process that is facilitated by therapeutic
             interventions is a first step in understanding the treatment
             process and in creating effective and efficient
             interventions. © 1993, SAGE Periodicals Press. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1177/088626093008003005},
   Key = {fds253635}
}

@article{fds253637,
   Author = {Adler, NE and David, HP and Major, BN and Roth, SH and Russo, NF and Wyatt,
             GE},
   Title = {Psychological factors in abortion. A review.},
   Journal = {American Psychologist},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1194-1204},
   Year = {1992},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-066X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.47.10.1194},
   Abstract = {Psychological research is increasingly involved in debates
             regarding abortion. While recognizing the diversity of
             ethical and moral issues intertwined with abortion, the
             American Psychological Association (APA) has focused its
             involvement on psychological factors, most recently by
             appointing an expert panel to review the literature on
             psychological effects. This article notes the history of APA
             involvement and reports on the panel's conclusions. It
             presents evidence that abortion is not likely to be followed
             by severe psychological responses and that psychological
             aspects can best be understood within a framework of normal
             stress and coping rather than a model of psychopathology.
             Correlates of more negative responses following abortion are
             also discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0003-066x.47.10.1194},
   Key = {fds253637}
}

@article{fds253638,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {The role of helplessness in recovery from sexual
             trauma},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science},
   Volume = {24},
   Pages = {220-232},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds253638}
}

@article{fds326915,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {The role of helplessness in the recovery process for sexual
             trauma survivors.},
   Journal = {Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne Des
             Sciences Du Comportement},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {220-232},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1992},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0078712},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0078712},
   Key = {fds326915}
}

@article{fds253620,
   Author = {Wayland, K and Roth, S and Lochman, JE},
   Title = {The relation between physical assault and psychological
             functioning in a sample of university women, and the
             relative effects of physical and sexual assault},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {495-514},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00974586},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was threefold: to determine the
             prevalence and descriptive characteristics of physically
             abusive relationships in a sample of university women, to
             identify the psychological correlates of physical abuse and
             the relative effects of physical and sexual assault on
             psychological functioning, and to determine the relationship
             between psychosocial functioning and various abuse
             characteristics. Fifteen percent of respondents had been
             physically assaulted in the course of their lifetime, with
             4% of women assaulted in the last year. The risk of physical
             assault increased with closer relationship intimacy, and
             with a history of prior assault. Results indicate that
             physical assault constitutes a mild concurrent risk factor
             for psychological dysfunction among nonclinical women.
             Social cognitive variables appeared to moderate victims'
             response to physical assault, as the subjective perception
             of threat was related to poor social adjustment in several
             areas. Implications of these findings are discussed. © 1991
             Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00974586},
   Key = {fds253620}
}

@article{fds253619,
   Author = {Davidson, J and Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {Fluoxetine in post-traumatic stress disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {419-423},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00974559},
   Abstract = {Fluoxetine was given to five nonveteran patients with
             post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The maximum doses
             ranged from 20 to 80 mg/day, and treatment was continued for
             between 8 and 32 weeks. In contrast to published reports of
             other drugs, which were noted to improve only the intrusive
             symptoms of PTSD, fluoxetine was associated with marked
             improvement of both intrusive and avoidant symptoms.
             Facilitative effects of fluoxetine were noted on
             trauma-focused psychotherapy in two adult victims of
             childhood sexual trauma. In part, these effects were related
             to modulating effects of the drug upon the intensity of core
             PTSD symptoms. Serotonergic drugs appear to hold promise for
             the treatment of PTSD. © 1991 Plenum Publishing
             Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00974559},
   Key = {fds253619}
}

@article{fds253617,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {The process of coping with sexual trauma},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {279-297},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00977008},
   Abstract = {In coping with sexual trauma, a survivor must come to
             understand the emotional impact of the trauma so that she is
             no longer preoccupied or driven by negative feelings, and
             must grapple with the meaning of the trauma until an
             adaptive resolution is achieved. In this paper, we present a
             conceptual system that we believe characterizes the coping
             process of recovery from sexual trauma. We present clinical
             examples of the use of the system from a psychotherapy group
             for female incest survivors, and the system's preliminary
             reliability results in measuring the coping process. © 1991
             Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00977008},
   Key = {fds253617}
}

@article{fds304732,
   Author = {Dye, E and Roth, S},
   Title = {Psychotherapy with Vietnam veterans and rape and incest
             survivors},
   Journal = {Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.)},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {103-120},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.28.1.103},
   Abstract = {The research and clinical literature on the treatment of two
             groups of trauma victims, Vietnam veterans and rape and
             incest survivors, is reviewed. A variety of trauma-focused
             interventions have been described and evaluated for these
             two populations; however, researchers and clinicians have
             not yet adequately examined the assumptions about the coping
             process upon which different treatment strategies are based.
             As a second goal, this article examines the assumptions
             about the coping process which underlie the diverse
             treatment approaches which currently exist. Their relevance
             to the research literature is evaluated.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0033-3204.28.1.103},
   Key = {fds304732}
}

@article{fds326916,
   Author = {Roth, S},
   Title = {Adult Users Only: The Dilemma of Violent Pornography.
             Susan Gubar , Joan HoffThe Female Fear. Margaret T.
             Gordon , Stephanie RigerDefining Rape. Linda
             Brookover BourqueJustifiable Homicide: Battered Women,
             Self-Defense, and the Law. Cynthia K.
             Gillespie},
   Journal = {Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {379-381},
   Publisher = {University of Chicago Press},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494666},
   Doi = {10.1086/494666},
   Key = {fds326916}
}

@article{fds253639,
   Author = {Roth, S and Newman, E},
   Title = {Measurement of the process of coping with sexual
             trauma},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {279-299},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds253639}
}

@article{fds253640,
   Author = {Dye, E and Roth, S},
   Title = {Psychotherapy with Vietnam and rape and incest victims: An
             evaluation of the treatment literature and an examination of
             underlying assumptions about the coping process},
   Journal = {Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {103-120},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {The research and clinical literature on the treatment of two
             groups of trauma victims, Vietnam veterans and rape and
             incest survivors, is reviewed. A variety of trauma-focused
             interventions have been described and evaluated for these
             two populations; however, researchers and clinicians have
             not yet adequately examined the assumptions about the coping
             process upon which different treatment strategies are based.
             As a second goal, this article examines the assumptions
             about the coping process which underlie the diverse
             treatment approaches which currently exist. Their relevance
             to the research literature is evaluated.},
   Key = {fds253640}
}

@article{fds253616,
   Author = {Dansky, BS and Roth, S and Kronenberger, WG},
   Title = {The trauma constellation identification scale: A measure of
             the psychological impact of a stressful life
             event},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {557-572},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02039588},
   Abstract = {This investigation reports the development of a self-report
             instrument designed to assess maladaptive cognitive schemata
             and negative affects associated with a stressful or
             traumatic life event. Participants included undergraduate
             university students (N=228) who completed a questionnaire
             packet including the Approach-Avoidance Scale (AAS), the
             Trauma Constellation Identification Scale (TCIS), the Impact
             of Event Scale (IES), and the SCL-90-R. The data were
             analyzed to determine the psychometric properties of the
             TCIS. The TCIS has high internal consistency reliability
             (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94), and its 15 subscales load on two
             higher-order factors. TCIS scores were significantly related
             to intrusions, denial, avoidance coping, and all SCL-90-R
             psychological outcome variables. There was also evidence for
             the subscales to have differential relationships with coping
             and outcome variables as well as type of stressor. The TCIS
             may be utilized for research or in a clinical setting to
             document an individual's affective and cognitive response
             profile. © 1990 Plenum Publishing Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF02039588},
   Key = {fds253616}
}

@article{fds253615,
   Author = {Lisak, D and Roth, S},
   Title = {Motives and psychodynamics of self-reported, unincarcerated
             rapists.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry},
   Volume = {60},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {268-280},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0002-9432},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2188510},
   Abstract = {Fifteen men, classified by self-report as rapists and
             attempted rapists, but who had never been arrested or
             convicted, were compared to a matched control group on
             standardized instruments and content-coded interviews.
             Differences in hostility toward women, power motivations,
             and hypermasculinity were similar to findings from studies
             of convicted rapists. However, results suggest a greater
             role for the father in the etiology of rape-associated
             dynamics than has previously been reported.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0079178},
   Key = {fds253615}
}

@article{fds253651,
   Author = {Adler, NE and David, HP and Major, BN and Roth, SH and Russo, NF and Wyatt,
             GE},
   Title = {Psychological responses after abortion.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {248},
   Number = {4951},
   Pages = {41-44},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2181664},
   Abstract = {A review of methodologically sound studies of the
             psychological responses of U.S. women after they obtained
             legal, nonrestrictive abortions indicates that distress is
             generally greatest before the abortion and that the
             incidence of severe negative responses is low. Factors
             associated with increased risk of negative response are
             consistent with those reported in research on other
             stressful life events.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.2181664},
   Key = {fds253651}
}

@article{fds253614,
   Author = {Roth, S and Wayland, K and Woolsey, M},
   Title = {Victimization history and victim-assailant relationship as
             factors in recovery from sexual assault},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {169-180},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00975142},
   Abstract = {The present study investigated the psychological aftermath
             of sexual assault in a probability sample of university
             women, with an emphasis on how various aspects of a victim's
             lifetime sexual assault history and their relationship with
             their assailant(s) mediate posttraumatic recovery. Victims
             were almost twice as likely as nonvictims to meet given
             criteria for a psychiatric case. Surprisingly, date rape
             victims were as distressed as victims of chronic childhood
             assault, possibly because of the ambiguous nature of the
             assault circumstance. Also, repeated victimization was
             related to denial, a symptom of posttraumatic stress. Denial
             was discussed in regard to the likelihood of its increasing
             the risk of revictimization. © 1990 Plenum Publishing
             Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00975142},
   Key = {fds253614}
}

@article{fds253641,
   Author = {Dye, E and Roth, S},
   Title = {PSYCHOTHERAPISTS’KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
             SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIM CLIENTS},
   Journal = {Psychology of Women Quarterly},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {191-212},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0361-6843},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1990DP63900004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The present research investigated the question of how
             therapists’attitudes toward sexual assault victims predict
             their inferences about and treatment of clients. In
             addition, this study asked the following questions: (a) What
             percentage of female psychotherapy clients have been victims
             of sexual assault? (b) What treatment approaches are
             therapists using with victims and what attitudes toward
             victims do these therapists hold? (c) On the average, which
             demographic groups of therapists hold the most positive
             views of victims and are the most knowledgeable about
             working with victims? The results of the study indicated
             that therapists who held negative attitudes toward victims
             were more likely to endorse victim‐blaming themes and
             therapeutic treatments which blame victims for sexual
             assault. Of therapists’current female clients, 18.5% (n=
             257) had been sexually assaulted at some point in their
             lives. On the average, therapists were knowledgeable about
             working with victims and showed positive attitudes toward
             victims. Copyright © 1990, Wiley Blackwell. All rights
             reserved},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00014.x},
   Key = {fds253641}
}

@article{fds253652,
   Author = {Lisak, D and Roth, S},
   Title = {Motives and psychodynamics of nonincarcerated
             rapists},
   Journal = {American Journal of Orthopsychiatry},
   Volume = {60},
   Pages = {268-281},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds253652}
}

@article{fds253642,
   Author = {Lisak, D and Roth, S},
   Title = {Motivational factors in nonincarcerated sexually aggressive
             men.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {795-802},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3210146},
   Abstract = {Research on convicted rapists has demonstrated the
             importance of several key motivational factors in male
             sexual aggression. In particular, anger at women and the
             need to dominate or control them have been repeatedly
             implicated. Although anger and power have also been shown to
             be important in understanding college men who report
             sexually aggressive behavior, there has been little research
             on what underlies these motives. This research combined
             questions assessing these underlying motivational factors,
             as well as questions dealing with underlying sexual
             motivation and disinhibition, with a slightly modified
             version of the Sexual Experiences Survey (Koss & Oros,
             1982). In Study 1, subjects were 184 male undergraduates.
             Factor analysis of the questions composing the four scales
             yielded four slightly modified scales. Scales measuring
             underlying anger, underlying power, and disinhibition
             significantly differentiated sexually aggressive from
             nonaggressive men but did not distinguish between men who
             were coercive, manipulative, or nonaggressive. In a
             replication on a smaller sample (n = 70), underlying anger,
             underlying power, and disinhibition again differentiated
             sexually aggressive from nonaggressive men.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-3514.55.5.795},
   Key = {fds253642}
}

@article{fds253643,
   Author = {Roth, S and Dye, E and Lebowitz, L},
   Title = {Group therapy for sexual-assault victims},
   Journal = {Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.)},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {82-93},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085326},
   Abstract = {The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness
             of one year of group psychotherapy in reducing the long-term
             psychological aftereffects of sexual assault. The treatment
             subjects were seven white, adult female victims who
             responded to standardized measures of psychological
             functioning at seven points throughout treatment. Evidence
             for treatment-related improvement of intrusions, fears, and
             depression were found. Variability in subject response,
             methodological weaknesses, and the change process are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0085326},
   Key = {fds253643}
}

@article{fds253644,
   Author = {Roth, S and Lebowitz, L},
   Title = {The experience of sexual trauma},
   Journal = {Journal of Traumatic Stress},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {79-107},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0894-9867},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00974907},
   Abstract = {The present research was designed to describe women's
             experience of sexual trauma and its aftermath as it relates
             to difficulties in coping with the trauma. A small, but
             heterogeneous, sample of survivors seeking treatment was
             interviewed in an unstructured format and encouraged to
             present their story of what had happened and what it had
             meant to them. The definition and examples of 14 themes are
             presented. They provide evidence that sexual trauma
             confronts the individual with affects and meanings which are
             extremely difficult to manage and which may have long-term
             effects. The themes are discussed in reference to general
             psychological processes involved in the response to acute
             stress, the cultural context of sexual trauma, and the
             implications for the psychotherapeutic treatment of sexual
             trauma victims. © 1988 Plenum Publishing
             Corporation.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF00974907},
   Key = {fds253644}
}

@article{fds253645,
   Author = {Cohen, LJ and Roth, S},
   Title = {The Psychological Aftermath of Rape: Long-Term Effects and
             Individual Differences in Recovery},
   Journal = {Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {525-534},
   Publisher = {Guilford Publications},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0736-7236},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:A1987L675300013&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1521/jscp.1987.5.4.525},
   Key = {fds253645}
}

@article{fds253629,
   Author = {Manuel, GM and Roth, S and Keefe, FJ and Brantley,
             BA},
   Title = {Coping with cancer.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Stress},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {149-158},
   Year = {1987},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0097840X.1987.9936808},
   Abstract = {This study examined coping strategies in head and neck
             cancer patients. The relationships between the use of
             approach and avoidant coping strategies and the physical and
             emotional distress of 35 newly diagnosed head and neck
             cancer patients during the early stages of cancer treatment
             were evaluated. Patients were categorized on the basis of
             coping strategy at the time of diagnosis and then evaluated
             twice during the course of their treatment at four- to
             six-week intervals. Cancer patients who predominantly
             employed either approach or avoidant strategies had lower
             initial levels of emotional distress than patients who did
             not use either of these strategies. Although symptoms of
             distress decreased in patients using approach or avoidance,
             symptoms increased for those patients who did not use these
             strategies. The level of stress for this cancer population
             is highest at the point of confirmed diagnosis and recedes
             during the course of treatment. The theoretical and clinical
             implications of these findings are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0097840X.1987.9936808},
   Key = {fds253629}
}

@article{fds253646,
   Author = {Roth, S and Cohen, L},
   Title = {Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress},
   Journal = {American Psychologist},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {813-819},
   Year = {1986},
   ISSN = {0003-066X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.41.7.813},
   Abstract = {The study of stress and coping points to two concepts
             central to an understanding of the response to trauma:
             approach and avoidance. This pair of concepts refers to two
             basic modes of coping with stress. Approach and avoidance
             are simply metaphors for cognitive and emotional activity
             that is oriented either toward or away from threat. An
             approach-avoidance model of coping is presented in the
             context of contemporary theoretical approaches to coping.
             The research literature on coping effectiveness, including
             evidence from our laboratory, is discussed, and speculations
             are made about the implications for future research. © 1986
             American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0003-066x.41.7.813},
   Key = {fds253646}
}

@article{fds253647,
   Author = {Cohen, L and Roth, S},
   Title = {Coping with abortion.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Stress},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {140-145},
   Year = {1984},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0097840x.1984.9934968},
   Abstract = {This study evaluated individual differences in coping style
             in response to an abortion procedure. The 55 subjects
             displayed a wide range of responses, although the average
             level of distress was fairly high. These women were quite
             similar to other stressed populations in their response to
             the Impact of Event Scale, providing evidence for a
             generalized stress response syndrome. When divided into
             groups based on coping style, "avoiders" were found to
             experience more distress that "nonavoiders," and
             "approachers" decreased in distress over time while
             "nonapproachers" did not. The implications of these findings
             are discussed in the context of the interaction between
             coping styles and counseling strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0097840x.1984.9934968},
   Key = {fds253647}
}

@article{fds253613,
   Author = {Rosenstiel, AK and Roth, S},
   Title = {Relationship between cognitive activity and adjustment in
             four spinal-cord-injured individuals: a longitudinal
             investigation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Human Stress},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {35-43},
   Year = {1981},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0097840x.1981.9934542},
   Abstract = {Although most of the stress one faces in life occurs in
             anticipation of a stressful period, very little research has
             been done on what anticipatory cognitive activities are
             related to subsequent adjustment. The present study
             investigated the relationship between measures of
             anticipatory cognitive activity and subsequent adjustment in
             four spinal-cord-injured individuals. Measures of
             anticipatory cognitive activity, which were assessed before
             subjects left the rehabilitation center, were related to
             measures of adjustment, which were assessed when subjects
             returned to the rehabilitation center for a medical checkup
             anywhere from 7 to 13 1/2 weeks following discharge.
             Seven-month follow-ups were conducted with two of the
             subjects. Although the small sample size precluded any
             statistical analysis of the data, the rank orderings of
             subjects across the variables of interest revealed a number
             of interesting trends. The most striking trend was that the
             best adjusted subject predominantly employed rationalization
             and denial in anticipating going home. A theory to explain
             why these strategies may be effective for
             spinal-cord-injured individuals is proposed. Other trends
             revealed that individuals who avoid catastrophizing and
             worrying about what their life will be like, who think more
             about the various goals they may have once they leave the
             rehabilitation center, and who employ internal forms of
             mental rehearsal in anticipating going home tend to be
             better adjusted. Although any conclusions that can be drawn
             from this study are only suggestive, given the small sample
             size, the fruitfulness of conducting this type of research
             is demonstrated.},
   Doi = {10.1080/0097840x.1981.9934542},
   Key = {fds253613}
}

@article{fds253648,
   Author = {Roth, S},
   Title = {A revised model of learned helplessness in
             humans.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {103-133},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1980.tb00969.x},
   Abstract = {The present paper presents a revised model of learned
             helplessness in humans. The conditions under which
             performance deficits (helplessness) or enhanced performance
             (facilitation) will result from exposure to objective
             noncontingency are defined by a number of variables that
             have been shown to have an impact on human helplessness. The
             reformulated model specifies the operation of moderating
             variables as they affect a number of relationships: that
             between the perception of noncontingency and the future
             expectancy of response-reinforcement independence; and
             finally that between the expectancy of response-reinforcement
             independence and the behavioral deficits associated with
             learned helplessness. It is argued that exposure to
             noncontingency can affect both the value of future reward
             and the perceived probability of obtaining it. Performance
             deficits or enhanced performance will result from the
             perception of noncontingency depending on the nature of this
             double-edged effect of exposure to noncontingent delivery of
             reward.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-6494.1980.tb00969.x},
   Key = {fds253648}
}

@article{fds253649,
   Author = {Kilpatrick-Tabak, B and Roth, S},
   Title = {An attempt to reverse performance deficits associated with
             depression and experimentally induced helplessness.},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Psychology},
   Volume = {87},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {141-154},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0021-843X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0021-843x.87.1.141},
   Abstract = {The learned helplessness model of depression predicts that
             any effective treatment for reactive depression should also
             reverse performance deficits associated with experimentally
             induced helplessness, and vice versa. A study was conducted
             to test this prediction. Ss were 62 college students who
             were exposed to experimental manipulations designed to
             induce helplessness or who scored above a group mean on the
             Beck Depression Inventory. Depressed and helpless Ss were
             randomly assigned to 4 groups. The 2 treatment groups
             received either E. Velten's (1968) mood statements for the
             induction of elation or a set of simple anagrams to solve.
             The 2 remaining groups were exposed to no-treatment
             conditions. All Ss were tested for helplessness on a series
             of concept formation problems. Results fail to confirm the
             predictions of the learned helplessness model of depression.
             Although treatment was effective with helpless Ss, the
             performance of treated depressed Ss was not enhanced. Also,
             depressed Ss given anagrams performed more poorly than
             depressed Ss given mood statements. Several possible
             explanations for the findings are considered. (27 ref)
             (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights
             reserved). © 1978 American Psychological
             Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0021-843x.87.1.141},
   Key = {fds253649}
}

@article{fds326917,
   Author = {ROTH, S},
   Title = {ISSUES AND APPROACHES IN PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES -
             BANNISTER,D},
   Journal = {Contemporary Psychology: a Journal of Reviews},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {434-435},
   Publisher = {AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {January},
   Key = {fds326917}
}

@article{fds253612,
   Author = {Roth, S and Kubal, L},
   Title = {Effects of noncontingent reinforcement on tasks of differing
             importance: Facilitation and learned helplessness},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {680-691},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1975},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.32.4.680},
   Abstract = {Following the learned helplessness paradigm, the present
             study with 63 undergraduates assessed the hypothesized
             existence of a curvilinear relationship between experiences
             of no control and helpless behavior. Two factors thought to
             affect the impact of experiences with noncontingent
             reinforcement were investigated: the amount of helplessness
             training and the importance attributed to the training task.
             Helplessness training consisted of varying intensities of
             experience with noncontingent reinforcement on
             concept-formation-type problems in situations differing in
             perceived importance. Results demonstrate both facilitation
             and helplessness effects, and task importance and amount of
             training increased the likelihood of helplessness effects.
             Results are discussed in terms of possible qualifications of
             the effects of noncontingent reinforcement. (PsycINFO
             Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1975
             American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-3514.32.4.680},
   Key = {fds253612}
}

@article{fds253650,
   Author = {Roth, S and Bootzin, RR},
   Title = {Effects of experimentally induced expectancies of external
             control: An investigation of learned helplessness},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {253-264},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1974},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036022},
   Abstract = {Used the learned helplessness paradigm to assess the effects
             of experimentally induced expectancies of external control
             in 28 undergraduates. Expectancies of external control were
             induced by the administration of random reinforcement for
             performance on concept learning tasks. Contrary to
             expectation, "helpless" Ss initiated more controlling
             behavior over an aversive event in a subsequent
             problem-solving situation than control Ss. The existence of
             a curvilinear relationship between experiences producing
             external expectancies and behavioral manifestations of
             helplessness is offered as an explanation for the results,
             and a discussion of variables influencing this relationship
             is presented. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006
             APA, all rights reserved). © 1974 American Psychological
             Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0036022},
   Key = {fds253650}
}


%% Books   
@book{fds43659,
   Author = {Roth, S. and Batson, R.},
   Title = {Naming the Shadows: A New Approach to Individual and Group
             Psychotherapy for Adult Survivors of Childhood
             Incest},
   Publisher = {New York, NY: Free Press},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds43659}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds43663,
   Author = {Krause, E.D. and DeRosa, R.R. and Roth, S.},
   Title = {Gender, trauma themes, and PTSD: Narratives of male and
             female survivors},
   Booktitle = {Gender and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder},
   Publisher = {New York: Guilford Publications, Inc.},
   Editor = {Kimerling, R. and Ouimette, P. and Wolfe, J},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds43663}
}

@misc{fds43662,
   Author = {Kilpatrick, D.G. and Resnick, H.S. and Freedy, J.R. and Pelcovitz, D. and Resick, P. and Roth, S. and van der Kolk,
             B.},
   Title = {Posttraumatic stress disorder field trial: Evaluation of the
             PTSD construct: Criteria A through E},
   Volume = {IV},
   Booktitle = {DSM-IV sourcebook, volume IV},
   Publisher = {Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press},
   Editor = {Widiger, T.A. and Frances, A.J. and Pincus, H.A. and Ross, R. and First, M.B. and Davis, W. and Kline, M},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds43662}
}

@misc{fds43658,
   Author = {Roth, S. and Lebowitz, L. and DeRosa, R.},
   Title = {Thematic assessment of post-traumatic stress
             reactions},
   Booktitle = {Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD: A handbook for
             practitioners},
   Publisher = {New York: Guilford Press},
   Editor = {Wilson, J.P. and Keane, T.M},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds43658}
}

@misc{fds43655,
   Author = {Roth, S. and DeRosa, R.R. and Turner, K.},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral interventions for post-traumatic stress
             disorder},
   Booktitle = {Emerging concepts in the treatment of post traumatic stress
             disorders},
   Publisher = {London: Bailliere Tindall},
   Editor = {Giller, E. Jr. and Weisaeth, L},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds43655}
}


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