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Publications of Christina L. Williams    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds337727,
   Author = {Moffatt, S and Venturini, S and Williams, C and Charlton, M and Thompson, J},
   Title = {An audit of post-operative pain and related outcomes
             following oesophagectomy at the leicester royal
             infirmary},
   Journal = {International Journal of Surgery (London,
             England)},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.05.568},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ijsu.2018.05.568},
   Key = {fds337727}
}

@article{fds341959,
   Author = {Maurer, SV and Williams, CL},
   Title = {The Cholinergic System Modulates Memory and Hippocampal
             Plasticity via Its Interactions with Non-Neuronal
             Cells.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Immunology},
   Volume = {8},
   Pages = {1489},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01489},
   Abstract = {Degeneration of central cholinergic neurons impairs memory,
             and enhancement of cholinergic synapses improves cognitive
             processes. Cholinergic signaling is also anti-inflammatory,
             and neuroinflammation is increasingly linked to adverse
             memory, especially in Alzheimer's disease. Much of the
             evidence surrounding cholinergic impacts on the neuroimmune
             system focuses on the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh)
             receptor, as stimulation of this receptor prevents many of
             the effects of immune activation. Microglia and astrocytes
             both express this receptor, so it is possible that some
             cholinergic effects may be via these non-neuronal cells.
             Though the presence of microglia is required for memory,
             overactivated microglia due to an immune challenge
             overproduce inflammatory cytokines, which is adverse for
             memory. Blocking these exaggerated effects, specifically by
             decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α),
             interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and interleukin 6 (IL-6), has been
             shown to prevent inflammation-induced memory impairment.
             While there is considerable evidence that cholinergic
             signaling improves memory, fewer studies have linked the
             "cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway" to memory processes.
             This review will summarize the current understanding of the
             cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as it relates to
             memory and will argue that one mechanism by which the
             cholinergic system modulates hippocampal memory processes is
             its influence on neuroimmune function via the α7 nicotinic
             ACh receptor.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fimmu.2017.01489},
   Key = {fds341959}
}

@article{fds254519,
   Author = {Pedersen, CA and Chang, SWC and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Evolutionary perspectives on the role of oxytocin in human
             social behavior, social cognition and psychopathology.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1580},
   Pages = {1-7},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.033},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.033},
   Key = {fds254519}
}

@article{fds254520,
   Author = {Crowgey, T and Peters, KB and Hornsby, WE and Lane, A and McSherry, F and Herndon, JE and West, MJ and Williams, CL and Jones,
             LW},
   Title = {Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory
             fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer
             patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a
             pilot study.},
   Journal = {Appl Physiol Nutr Metab},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {724-729},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1715-5312},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2013-0380},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship
             between self-reported exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory
             fitness (CRF), and cognitive function in early breast cancer
             patients. Thirty-seven breast cancer patients following
             completion of chemotherapy (median 16 months) and 14
             controls were studied. Cognitive function was assessed using
             the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs software (CNS
             Vital Signs, LLC, Morrisville, N.C., USA), a computerized
             test battery consisting of 9 cognitive subtests. Exercise
             behavior was evaluated using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise
             Questionnaire, and CRF was assessed via a cardiopulmonary
             exercise test to assess peak oxygen consumption. Patients'
             mean total exercise was 184 ± 141 min·week(-1) compared
             with 442 ± 315 min·week(-1) in controls (p < 0.001).
             Significantly fewer patients (32%) were meeting exercise
             guidelines (i.e., ≥150 min of moderate-intensity or
             vigorous exercise per week) compared with 57% of controls (p
             = 0.014). Patients' peak oxygen consumption averaged 23.5 ±
             6.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) compared with 30.6 ± 7.0
             mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (p < 0.01). Scores on the
             cognitive subdomains were generally lower in patients
             compared with controls, although only the difference in
             verbal memory was significant (unadjusted p = 0.041). In
             patients, weak to moderate correlations were indicated
             between exercise, peak oxygen consumption, and the majority
             of cognitive subdomain scores; however, there was a
             significant positive correlation between exercise and visual
             memory (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). In conclusion, breast cancer
             patients following the completion of primary adjuvant
             chemotherapy exhibit, in general, worse cognitive
             performance than healthy women from the general population,
             and such performance may be related to their level of
             exercise behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1139/apnm-2013-0380},
   Key = {fds254520}
}

@article{fds341960,
   Author = {Aagten-Murphy, D and Iversen, JR and Williams, CL and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {Novel Inversions in Auditory Sequences Provide Evidence for
             Spontaneous Subtraction of Time and Number},
   Journal = {Timing & Time Perception},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {188-209},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134468-00002028},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Copyright 2014 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The
             Netherlands. Animals, including fish, birds, rodents,
             non-human primates, and pre-verbal infants are able to
             discriminate the duration and number of events without the
             use of language. In this paper, we present the results of
             six experiments exploring the capability of adult rats to
             count 2-6 sequentially presented white-noise stimuli. The
             investigation focuses on the animal's ability to exhibit
             spontaneous subtraction following the presentation of novel
             stimulus inversions in the auditory signals being counted.
             Results suggest that a subtraction operation between two
             opposite sensory representations may be a general processing
             strategy used for the comparison of stimulus magnitudes.
             These findings are discussed within the context of a
             mode-control model of timing and counting that relies on an
             analog temporal-integration process for the addition and
             subtraction of sequential events.},
   Doi = {10.1163/22134468-00002028},
   Key = {fds341960}
}

@article{fds254521,
   Author = {Agostino, PV and Cheng, R-K and Williams, CL and West, AE and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {Acquisition of response thresholds for timed performance is
             regulated by a calcium-responsive transcription factor,
             CaRF.},
   Journal = {Genes Brain Behav},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {633-644},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848551},
   Abstract = {Interval timing within the seconds-to-minutes range involves
             the interaction of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
             via dopaminergic-glutamatergic pathways. Because the
             secreted protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is
             able to modulate dopamine release as well as glutamatergic
             activity, we hypothesized that BDNF may be important for
             these timing mechanisms. Recently, the calcium-responsive
             transcription factor (CaRF) was identified as an important
             modulator of BDNF expression in the cerebral cortex. In this
             study, a strain of Carf knockout mice was evaluated for
             their ability to acquire the 'Start' and 'Stop' response
             thresholds under sequential and simultaneous training
             conditions, using multiple (15-second and 45-second) or
             single (30-second) target durations in the peak-interval
             procedure. Both Carf(+/-) and Carf(-/-) mice were impaired
             in their ability to acquire timed response thresholds
             relative to Carf(+/+) mice. Additionally, control mice given
             microinjections of BDNF antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to
             inhibit protein expression in the prefrontal cortex showed
             timing impairments during acquisition similar to Carf mice.
             Together, these results suggest that the inhibitory
             processes required to update response thresholds and exert
             temporal control of behavior during acquisition may be
             dependent on CaRF regulation of genes including Bdnf in
             cortico-striatal circuits.},
   Doi = {10.1111/gbb.12059},
   Key = {fds254521}
}

@article{fds341961,
   Author = {Buhusi, M and Scripa, I and Williams, CL and Buhusi,
             CV},
   Title = {Impaired interval timing and spatial-temporal integration in
             mice deficient in CHL1, a gene associated with
             schizophrenia.},
   Journal = {Timing & Time Perception},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {21-38},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/22134468-00002003},
   Abstract = {Interval timing is crucial for decision-making and motor
             control and is impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders,
             including schizophrenia - a neurodevelopmental disorder with
             a strong genetic component. Several gene mutations,
             polymorphisms or rare copy number variants have been
             associated with schizophrenia. L1 cell adhesion molecules
             (L1CAMs) are involved in neurodevelopmental processes, and
             in synaptic function and plasticity in the adult brain. Mice
             deficient in the Close Homolog to L1 (CHL1) adhesion
             molecule show alterations of hippocampal and
             thalamo-cortical neuroanatomy as well as deficits in
             sensorimotor gating and exploratory behavior. We analyzed
             interval timing and attentional control of temporal and
             spatial information in male CHL1 deficient (KO) mice and
             wild type (WT) controls. In a 20-s peak-interval timing
             procedure (standard and reversed), KO mice showed a
             maintained leftward shift of the response function relative
             to WT, indicative of a deficit in memory encoding/decoding.
             In trials with 2, 5, or 10-s gaps, KO mice shifted their
             peak times less than WT controls at longer gap durations,
             suggesting a decreased (attentional) effect of
             interruptions. In the spatial-temporal task, KO mice made
             more working and reference memory errors than controls,
             suggestive of impaired use of spatial and/or temporal
             information. When the duration spent on the central platform
             of the maze was manipulated, WT mice showed fewer spatial
             errors at the trained duration than at shorter or longer
             durations, indicative of discrimination based upon
             spatial-temporal integration. In contrast, performance was
             similar at all tested durations in KO mice, indicative of
             control by spatial cues, but not by temporal cues. These
             results suggest that CHL1 KO mice selectively attend to the
             more relevant cues of the task, and fail to integrate more
             complex spatial-temporal information, possibly as a result
             of reduced memory capacity related to hippocampal
             impairment, and altered temporal-integration mechanisms
             possibly due to thalamo-cortical anomalies.},
   Doi = {10.1163/22134468-00002003},
   Key = {fds341961}
}

@article{fds254555,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Sex differences in counting and timing},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Number = {DECEMBER},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1662-5145},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2011.00088},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnint.2011.00088},
   Key = {fds254555}
}

@article{fds254553,
   Author = {Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Tognoni, CM and Mellott, TJ and Glenn, MJ and Blusztajn, JK and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal
             vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in
             adulthood.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1413},
   Pages = {84-97},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.042},
   Abstract = {Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development
             for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline
             deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while
             more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes
             deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring
             that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task
             demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation
             confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a
             variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized
             that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability
             to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat
             dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in
             choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given
             multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic
             acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later.
             Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more
             susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels
             of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD
             expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth
             factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal
             proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal
             choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity
             in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the
             neuropathological response to seizures in the adult
             hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic
             injury.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.042},
   Key = {fds254553}
}

@article{fds254554,
   Author = {Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Glenn, MJ and Mellott, TJ and Liu, YB and Blusztajn, JK and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation
             differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from
             seizures in adulthood.},
   Journal = {Hippocampus},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {584-608},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20232399},
   Abstract = {Status epilepticus (SE) in adulthood dramatically alters the
             hippocampus and produces spatial learning and memory
             deficits. Some factors, like environmental enrichment and
             exercise, may promote functional recovery from SE. Prenatal
             choline supplementation (SUP) also protects against spatial
             memory deficits observed shortly after SE in adulthood, and
             we have previously reported that SUP attenuates the
             neuropathological response to SE in the adult hippocampus
             just 16 days after SE. It is unknown whether SUP can
             ameliorate longer-term cognitive and neuropathological
             consequences of SE, whether repeatedly engaging the injured
             hippocampus in a cognitive task might facilitate recovery
             from SE, and whether our prophylactic prenatal dietary
             treatment would enable the injured hippocampus to more
             effectively benefit from cognitive rehabilitation. To
             address these issues, adult offspring from rat dams that
             received either a control (CON) or SUP diet on embryonic
             days 12-17 first received training on a place learning water
             maze task (WM) and were then administered saline or kainic
             acid (KA) to induce SE. Rats then either remained in their
             home cage, or received three additional WM sessions at 3,
             6.5, and 10 weeks after SE to test spatial learning and
             memory retention. Eleven weeks after SE, the brains were
             analyzed for several hippocampal markers known to be altered
             by SE. SUP attenuated SE-induced spatial learning deficits
             and completely rescued spatial memory retention by 10 weeks
             post-SE. Repeated WM experience prevented SE-induced
             declines in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and dentate
             gyrus neurogenesis, and attenuated increased glial fibrilary
             acidic protein (GFAP) levels. Remarkably, SUP alone was
             similarly protective to an even greater extent, and SUP rats
             that were water maze trained after SE showed reduced hilar
             migration of newborn neurons. These findings suggest that
             prophylactic SUP is protective against the long-term
             cognitive and neuropathological effects of KA-induced SE,
             and that rehabilitative cognitive enrichment may be
             partially beneficial.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hipo.20783},
   Key = {fds254554}
}

@article{fds254577,
   Author = {McGowan, PO and Hope, TA and Meck, WH and Kelsoe, G and Williams,
             CL},
   Title = {Impaired social recognition memory in recombination
             activating gene 1-deficient mice.},
   Journal = {Brain Res},
   Volume = {1383},
   Pages = {187-195},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21354115},
   Abstract = {The recombination activating genes (RAGs) encode two enzymes
             that play key roles in the adaptive immune system. RAG1 and
             RAG2 mediate VDJ recombination, a process necessary for the
             maturation of B- and T-cells. Interestingly, RAG1 is also
             expressed in the brain, particularly in areas of high neural
             density such as the hippocampus, although its function is
             unknown. We tested evidence that RAG1 plays a role in brain
             function using a social recognition memory task, an
             assessment of the acquisition and retention of conspecific
             identity. In a first experiment, we found that
             RAG1-deficient mice show impaired social recognition memory
             compared to mice wildtype for the RAG1 allele. In a second
             experiment, by breeding to homogenize background genotype,
             we found that RAG1-deficient mice show impaired social
             recognition memory relative to heterozygous or
             RAG2-deficient littermates. Because RAG1 and RAG2 null mice
             are both immunodeficient, the results suggest that the
             memory impairment is not an indirect effect of immunological
             dysfunction. RAG1-deficient mice show normal habituation to
             non-socially derived odors and habituation to an open-field,
             indicating that the observed effect is not likely a result
             of a general deficit in habituation to novelty. These data
             trace the origin of the impairment in social recognition
             memory in RAG1-deficient mice to the RAG1 gene locus and
             implicate RAG1 in memory formation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2011.02.054},
   Key = {fds254577}
}

@article{fds254552,
   Author = {Pleil, KE and Glenn, MJ and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Estradiol alters Fos-immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and
             dorsal striatum during place and response learning in
             middle-aged but not young adult female rats.},
   Journal = {Endocrinology},
   Volume = {152},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {946-956},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21285311},
   Abstract = {Evidence from lesion and inactivation studies suggests that
             the hippocampus (HPC) and dorsal striatum compete for
             control over navigation behavior, and there is some evidence
             in males that the structure with greater relative activation
             controls behavior. Estradiol has been shown to enhance
             HPC-dependent place learning and impair dorsal
             striatum-dependent response learning in female rats,
             possibly by increasing hippocampal activation and/or
             decreasing striatal activation. We used Fos-immunoreactivity
             (Fos-IR) to examine the activation of several subregions of
             the HPC and striatum in ovariectomized female rats with or
             without estradiol replacement 30 min after place or response
             learning. In 4-month-old rats, neither task nor estradiol
             increased Fos-IR above explore control levels in any
             subregion analyzed, even though estradiol impaired response
             learning. In 12-month-old rats, estradiol increased Fos-IR
             in the dentate gyrus, dorsal medial striatum, and dorsal
             lateral striatum in place task learners, while the absence
             of estradiol increased Fos-IR in these regions in response
             task learners. However, learning rate was not affected by
             estradiol in either task. We also included a group of
             long-term ovariectomized 12-month-old rats that displayed
             impaired place learning and altered Fos-IR in CA1 of the
             HPC. These results suggest that task-specific effects of
             estradiol on hippocampal and striatal activation emerge
             across age but that relative hippocampal and striatal
             activation are not related to learning rate during spatial
             navigation learning.},
   Doi = {10.1210/en.2010-0715},
   Key = {fds254552}
}

@article{fds254556,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Sex differences in counting and timing.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {88},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22319476},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnint.2011.00088},
   Key = {fds254556}
}

@article{fds254576,
   Author = {Pleil, KE and Cordes, S and Meck, WH and Williams,
             CL},
   Title = {Rapid and acute effects of estrogen on time perception in
             male and female rats.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {63},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22016725},
   Abstract = {Sex differences in the rapid and acute effects of estradiol
             on time perception were investigated in adult male and
             female Sprague-Dawley rats. Because estradiol has been shown
             to increase striatal dopamine release, it may be able to
             modify time perception and timed performance by increasing
             the speed of an internal clock in a manner similar to
             indirect dopamine agonists such as amphetamine and cocaine.
             Two groups of females (neonatally estradiol-treated/adult
             ovariectomized and neonatally oil-treated/adult
             ovariectomized) and two groups of males (neonatally
             castrated and adult castrated) were trained in a 2 vs. 8-s
             duration bisection procedure and tested using intermediate
             signal durations. After obtaining oil-injected baseline
             psychometric functions over several days, rats were
             administered 5 μg of estradiol for 4 days and
             behaviorally evaluated 30 min following each injection.
             This oil-estradiol administration cycle was subsequently
             repeated three times following the re-establishment of
             baseline training. Results revealed significant sex
             differences in the initial baseline functions that were not
             modifiable by organizational hormones, with males' duration
             bisection functions shifted horizontally to the left of
             females'. Upon the first administration of estradiol,
             females, but not males, showed a significant, transient
             leftward shift in their bisection functions, indicative of
             an increase in clock speed. After extensive retraining in
             the duration bisection procedure, rats that were exposed to
             gonadal hormones during the first week of life showed a
             significant rightward shift in their bisection functions on
             the fourth day of estradiol administration during each
             cycle, suggesting a decrease in clock speed. Taken together,
             our results support the view that there are multiple
             mechanisms of estrogens' action in the striatum that
             modulate dopaminergic activity and are differentially
             organized by gonadal steroids during early brain
             development.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnint.2011.00063},
   Key = {fds254576}
}

@article{fds254578,
   Author = {Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Pfau, ML and Flores, CT and Fraser, JA and Williams, CL and Jones, LW},
   Title = {Voluntary running prevents progressive memory decline and
             increases adult hippocampal neurogenesis and growth factor
             expression after whole-brain irradiation.},
   Journal = {Cancer Research},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {9329-9338},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20884629},
   Abstract = {Whole-brain irradiation (WBI) therapy produces progressive
             learning and memory deficits in patients with primary or
             secondary brain tumors. Exercise enhances memory and adult
             hippocampal neurogenesis in the intact brain, so we
             hypothesized that exercise may be an effective treatment to
             alleviate consequences of WBI. Previous studies using animal
             models to address this issue have yielded mixed results and
             have not examined potential molecular mechanisms. We
             investigated the short- and long-term effects of WBI on
             spatial learning and memory retention and determined whether
             voluntary running after WBI aids recovery of brain and
             cognitive function. Forty adult female C57Bl/6 mice given a
             single dose of 5 Gy or sham WBI were trained 2.5 weeks and
             up to 4 months after WBI in a Barnes maze. Half of the mice
             received daily voluntary wheel access starting 1 month after
             sham or WBI. Daily running following WBI prevented the
             marked decline in spatial memory retention observed months
             after irradiation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) immunolabeling
             and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that this
             behavioral rescue was accompanied by a partial restoration
             of newborn BrdUrd+/NeuN+ neurons in the dentate gyrus and
             increased hippocampal expression of brain-derived vascular
             endothelial growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1,
             and occurred despite irradiation-induced elevations in
             hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines. WBI in adult mice
             produced a progressive memory decline consistent with what
             has been reported in cancer patients receiving WBI therapy.
             Our findings show that running can abrogate this memory
             decline and aid recovery of adult hippocampal plasticity,
             thus highlighting exercise as a potential therapeutic
             intervention.},
   Doi = {10.1158/0008-5472.can-10-1854},
   Key = {fds254578}
}

@article{fds254557,
   Author = {McDowell, KA and Hutchinson, AN and Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Presby,
             MM and Su, D and Rodriguiz, RM and Law, KC and Williams, CL and Wetsel, WC and West, AE},
   Title = {Reduced cortical BDNF expression and aberrant memory in Carf
             knock-out mice.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {7453-7465},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20519520},
   Abstract = {Transcription factors are a key point of convergence between
             the cell-intrinsic and extracellular signals that guide
             synaptic development and brain plasticity. Calcium-response
             factor (CaRF) is a unique transcription factor first
             identified as a binding protein for a calcium-response
             element in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic
             factor (Bdnf). We have now generated Carf knock-out (KO)
             mice to characterize the function of this factor in vivo.
             Intriguingly, Carf KO mice have selectively reduced
             expression of Bdnf exon IV-containing mRNA transcripts and
             BDNF protein in the cerebral cortex, whereas BDNF levels in
             the hippocampus and striatum remain unchanged, implicating
             CaRF as a brain region-selective regulator of BDNF
             expression. At the cellular level, Carf KO mice show altered
             expression of GABAergic proteins at striatal synapses,
             raising the possibility that CaRF may contribute to aspects
             of inhibitory synapse development. Carf KO mice show normal
             spatial learning in the Morris water maze and normal
             context-dependent fear conditioning. However they have an
             enhanced ability to find a new platform location on the
             first day of reversal training in the water maze and they
             extinguish conditioned fear more slowly than their wild-type
             littermates. Finally, Carf KO mice show normal short-term
             (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) in a novel object
             recognition task, but exhibit impairments during the remote
             memory phase of testing. Together, these data reveal novel
             roles for CaRF in the organization and/or function of neural
             circuits that underlie essential aspects of learning and
             memory.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3997-09.2010},
   Key = {fds254557}
}

@article{fds254551,
   Author = {Pleil, KE and Williams, CL},
   Title = {The development and stability of estrogen-modulated spatial
             navigation strategies in female rats.},
   Journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {360-367},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20079739},
   Abstract = {Adult female rats with high levels of circulating estradiol
             are biased to use a place strategy to solve an ambiguous
             spatial navigation task and those with low levels are biased
             to use a response strategy. We examined the development of
             this hormonal modulation of strategy use by training
             juvenile female rats on an ambiguous navigation task and
             probing them for strategy use at postnatal day (PD) 16, 21,
             or 26, after administration of 17 beta-estradiol or oil 48
             and 24 h prior to testing. We found that rats could use
             either strategy successfully by PD21 but that estradiol did
             not bias rats to use a place strategy until PD26. In order
             to evaluate the stability of this effect over multiple
             navigation experiences, we retested oil-treated juveniles
             three times during adulthood. On the first adult navigation
             experience, rats were significantly more likely to use the
             same navigation strategy they used as juveniles, regardless
             of current estrous cycle phase. On the second and third
             adult tests, after rats had more experience with the task,
             previous navigation experience did not predict strategy use.
             Rats in proestrus were significantly more likely to use a
             place strategy while rats in estrus and diestrus did not
             appear to have a group bias to use either strategy. These
             results suggest that estradiol can modulate spatial
             navigation strategy use before puberty but that this effect
             interacts with previous navigation experience. This study
             sheds light on when and under what circumstances estradiol
             gains control over spatial navigation behavior in the female
             rat.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.01.005},
   Key = {fds254551}
}

@article{fds254575,
   Author = {Lamoureux, JA and Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline availability alters the context sensitivity
             of Pavlovian conditioning in adult rats.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {866-875},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19050158},
   Abstract = {The effects of prenatal choline availability on Pavlovian
             conditioning were assessed in adult male rats (3-4 mo).
             Neither supplementation nor deprivation of prenatal choline
             affected the acquisition and extinction of simple Pavlovian
             conditioned excitation, or the acquisition and retardation
             of conditioned inhibition. However, prenatal choline
             availability significantly altered the contextual control of
             these learned behaviors. Both control and choline-deprived
             rats exhibited context specificity of conditioned excitation
             as exhibited by a loss in responding when tested in an
             alternate context after conditioning; in contrast,
             choline-supplemented rats showed no such effect. When
             switched to a different context following extinction,
             however, both choline-supplemented and control rats showed
             substantial contextual control of responding, whereas
             choline-deficient rats did not. These data support the view
             that configural associations that rely on hippocampal
             function are selectively sensitive to prenatal manipulations
             of dietary choline during prenatal development.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.1058708},
   Key = {fds254575}
}

@article{fds254549,
   Author = {Glenn, MJ and Kirby, ED and Gibson, EM and Wong-Goodrich, SJ and Mellott, TJ and Blusztajn, JK and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Age-related declines in exploratory behavior and markers of
             hippocampal plasticity are attenuated by prenatal choline
             supplementation in rats.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1237},
   Pages = {110-123},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786518},
   Abstract = {Supplemental choline in the maternal diet produces a lasting
             enhancement in memory in offspring that resists age-related
             decline and is accompanied by neuroanatomical,
             neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the
             hippocampus. The present study was designed to examine: 1)
             if prenatal choline supplementation alters behaviors that
             contribute to risk or resilience in cognitive aging, and 2)
             whether, at old age (25 months), prenatally
             choline-supplemented rats show evidence of preserved
             hippocampal plasticity. A longitudinal design was used to
             look at exploration of an open field, with and without
             objects, at 1 and 24 months of age in male and female rats
             whose mothers were fed a diet supplemented with choline
             (SUP; 5 mg/kg choline chloride) or not supplemented (CON;
             1.1 mg/kg choline chloride) on embryonic days 12-17. Aging
             caused a significant decline in open field exploration that
             was more pronounced in males but interest in novel objects
             was maintained in both sexes. Prenatal choline
             supplementation attenuated, but did not prevent age-related
             decline in exploration in males and increased object
             exploration in young females. Following behavioral
             assessment, rats were euthanized to assess markers of
             hippocampal plasticity. Aged SUP males and females had more
             newly proliferated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus
             and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor
             (VEGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were significantly elevated
             in female SUP rats in comparison to all other groups. Taken
             together, these findings provide the first evidence that
             prenatal choline supplementation causes changes in
             exploratory behaviors over the lifespan and preserves some
             features of hippocampal plasticity that can be seen even at
             2 years of age.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.049},
   Key = {fds254549}
}

@article{fds254550,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Food for thought: brain, genes, and nutrition.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1237},
   Pages = {1-4},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18928791},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.09.039},
   Key = {fds254550}
}

@article{fds254572,
   Author = {Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Glenn, MJ and Mellott, TJ and Blusztajn, JK and Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially
             sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a
             function of choline supply in utero.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1237},
   Pages = {153-166},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18778697},
   Abstract = {Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to
             persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal
             plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early
             choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline
             intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity
             involved in cognitive function. To test this, male
             Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride
             deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP)
             diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a
             control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age,
             we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to
             locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats.
             When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats
             showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were
             unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a
             choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance
             was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less
             affected. These changes in performance were reversible when
             the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second
             experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on
             a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12
             weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline
             supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task,
             which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell
             proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated
             by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken
             together, these findings suggest that the in utero
             availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes
             differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the
             adult choline supply.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.074},
   Key = {fds254572}
}

@article{fds254573,
   Author = {Cheng, R-K and Scott, AC and Penney, TB and Williams, CL and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {Prenatal-choline supplementation differentially modulates
             timing of auditory and visual stimuli in aged
             rats.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1237},
   Pages = {167-175},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18801344},
   Abstract = {Choline supplementation of the maternal diet has a long-term
             facilitative effect on the interval-timing ability and
             temporal memory of the offspring. Here, we examined whether
             prenatal-choline supplementation has modality-specific
             effects on duration discrimination in aged (20 mo) male
             rats. Adult offspring of rats that were given sufficient
             choline in their chow (CON: 1.1 g/kg) or supplemental
             choline added to their drinking water (SUP: 3.5 g/kg) during
             embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were trained and tested on a
             two-modality (auditory and visual signals) duration
             bisection procedure (2 s vs. 8 s). Intensity (high vs. low)
             of the auditory and visual timing signals was systematically
             manipulated across test sessions such that all combinations
             of signal intensity by modality were tested. Psychometric
             response functions indicated that prenatal-choline
             supplementation systematically increased sensitivity to
             auditory signals relative to visual signals, thereby
             magnifying the modality effect that sounds are judged to be
             longer than lights of equivalent duration. In addition,
             sensitivity to signal duration was greater in rats given
             prenatal-choline supplementation, particularly at low
             intensities of both the auditory and visual signals.
             Overall, these results suggest that prenatal-choline
             supplementation impacts interval timing by enhancing the
             differences in temporal integration between auditory and
             visual stimuli in aged subjects.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.062},
   Key = {fds254573}
}

@article{fds254574,
   Author = {Cheng, R-K and Williams, CL and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Oscillatory bands, neuronal synchrony and hippocampal
             function: implications of the effects of prenatal choline
             supplementation for sleep-dependent memory
             consolidation.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1237},
   Pages = {176-194},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18793620},
   Abstract = {Choline supplementation of the maternal diet has long-term
             facilitative effects on spatial and temporal memory
             processes in the offspring. To further delineate the impact
             of early nutritional status on brain and behavior, we
             examined effects of prenatal-choline availability on
             hippocampal oscillatory frequency bands in 12 month-old male
             and female rats. Adult offspring of time-pregnant dams that
             were given a deficient level of choline (DEF=0.0 g/kg),
             sufficient choline (CON=1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline
             (SUP=3.5 g/kg) in their chow during embryonic days (ED)
             12-17 were implanted with an electroencephalograph (EEG)
             electrode in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in combination
             with an electromyograph (EMG) electrode patch implanted in
             the nuchal muscle. Five consecutive 8-h recording sessions
             revealed differential patterns of EEG activity as a function
             of awake, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye movement (REM)
             sleep states and prenatal choline status. The main finding
             was that SUP rats displayed increased power levels of gamma
             (30-100 Hz) band oscillations during all phases of the
             sleep/wake cycle. These findings are discussed within the
             context of a general review of neuronal oscillations (e.g.,
             delta, theta, and gamma bands) and synchronization across
             multiple brain regions in relation to sleep-dependent memory
             consolidation in the hippocampus.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.08.077},
   Key = {fds254574}
}

@article{fds254548,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Pleil, KE},
   Title = {Toy story: why do monkey and human males prefer trucks?
             Comment on "Sex differences in rhesus monkey toy preferences
             parallel those of children" by Hassett, Siebert and
             Wallen.},
   Journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {355-358},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18586246},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yhbeh.2008.05.003},
   Key = {fds254548}
}

@article{fds254547,
   Author = {Wong-Goodrich, SJE and Mellott, TJ and Glenn, MJ and Blusztajn, JK and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates
             neuropathological response to status epilepticus in the
             adult rat hippocampus.},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Disease},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {255-269},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18353663},
   Abstract = {Prenatal choline supplementation (SUP) protects adult rats
             against spatial memory deficits observed after
             excitotoxin-induced status epilepticus (SE). To examine the
             mechanism underlying this neuroprotection, we determined the
             effects of SUP on a variety of hippocampal markers known to
             change in response to SE and thought to underlie ensuing
             cognitive deficits. Adult offspring from rat dams that
             received either a control or SUP diet on embryonic days
             12-17 were administered saline or kainic acid (i.p.) to
             induce SE and were euthanized 16 days later. SUP markedly
             attenuated seizure-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration,
             dentate cell proliferation, and hippocampal GFAP mRNA
             expression levels, prevented the loss of hippocampal GAD65
             protein and mRNA expression, and altered growth factor
             expression patterns. SUP also enhanced pre-seizure
             hippocampal levels of BDNF, NGF, and IGF-1, which may confer
             a neuroprotective hippocampal microenvironment that dampens
             the neuropathological response to and/or helps facilitate
             recovery from SE to protect cognitive function.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nbd.2008.01.008},
   Key = {fds254547}
}

@article{fds254571,
   Author = {Cheng, R-K and MacDonald, CJ and Williams, CL and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {Prenatal choline supplementation alters the timing, emotion,
             and memory performance (TEMP) of adult male and female rats
             as indexed by differential reinforcement of low-rate
             schedule behavior.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {153-162},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18323570},
   Abstract = {Choline availability in the maternal diet has a lasting
             effect on brain and behavior of the offspring. To further
             delineate the impact of early nutritional status, we
             examined effects of prenatal-choline supplementation on
             timing, emotion, and memory performance of adult male and
             female rats. Rats that were given sufficient choline (CON:
             1.1 g/kg) or supplemental choline (SUP: 5.0 g/kg) during
             embryonic days (ED) 12-17 were trained with a differential
             reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) schedule that was gradually
             transitioned through 5-, 10-, 18-, 36-, and 72-sec criterion
             times. We observed that SUP-females emitted more reinforced
             responses than CON-females, which were more efficient than
             both groups of males. In addition, SUP-males and SUP-females
             exhibited a reduction in burst responding (response
             latencies <2 sec) compared with both groups of CON rats.
             Furthermore, despite a reduced level of burst responding,
             the SUP-males made more nonreinforced responses prior to the
             DRL criterion as a result of maintaining the previous DRL
             criterion following transition to a new criterion. In
             summary, long-lasting effects of prenatal-choline
             supplementation were exhibited by reduced frustrative DRL
             responding in conjunction with the persistence of temporal
             memory in SUP-males and enhanced temporal exploration and
             response efficiency in SUP-females.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.729408},
   Key = {fds254571}
}

@article{fds254579,
   Author = {Cordes, S and Williams, CL and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Common representations of abstract quantities},
   Journal = {Current Directions in Psychological Science},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {156-161},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0963-7214},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00495.x},
   Abstract = {Representations of abstract quantities such as time and
             number are essential for survival. A number of studies have
             revealed that both humans and nonhuman animals are able to
             nonverbally estimate time and number; striking similarities
             in the behavioral data suggest a common magnitude-representation
             system shared across species. It is unclear, however,
             whether these representations provide animals with a true
             concept of time and number, as posited by Gallistel and
             Gelman (2000). In this article, we review the prominent
             cognitive and neurobiological models of timing and counting
             and explore the current evidence suggesting that nonhuman
             animals represent these quantities in a modality-independent
             (i.e., abstract) and ordered manner. Avenues for future
             research in the area of temporal and mathematical cognition
             are also discussed. Copyright © 2007 Association for
             Psychological Science.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00495.x},
   Key = {fds254579}
}

@article{fds254582,
   Author = {Glenn, MJ and Gibson, EM and Kirby, ED and Mellott, TJ and Blusztajn,
             JK and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline availability modulates hippocampal
             neurogenesis and neurogenic responses to enriching
             experiences in adult female rats.},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2473-2482},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0953-816X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17445242},
   Abstract = {Increased dietary intake of choline early in life improves
             performance of adult rats on memory tasks and prevents their
             age-related memory decline. Because neurogenesis in the
             adult hippocampus also declines with age, we investigated
             whether prenatal choline availability affects hippocampal
             neurogenesis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and modifies their
             neurogenic response to environmental stimulation. On
             embryonic days (ED) 12-17, pregnant rats ate a
             choline-supplemented (SUP-5 g/kg), choline sufficient
             (SFF-1.1 g/kg), or choline-free (DEF) semisynthetic diet.
             Adult offspring either remained in standard housing or were
             given 21 daily visits to explore a maze. On the last ten
             exploration days, all rats received daily injections of
             5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU, 100 mg/kg). The number of
             BrdU+ cells was significantly greater in the dentate gyrus
             in SUP rats compared to SFF or DEF rats. While maze
             experience increased the number of BrdU+ cells in SFF rats
             to the level seen in the SUP rats, this enriching experience
             did not alter cell proliferation in DEF rats. Similar
             patterns of cell proliferation were obtained with
             immunohistochemical staining for neuronal marker
             doublecortin, confirming that diet and exploration affected
             hippocampal neurogenesis. Moreover, hippocampal levels of
             the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were increased
             in SUP rats as compared to SFF and DEF animals. We conclude
             that prenatal choline intake has enduring effects on adult
             hippocampal neurogenesis, possibly via up-regulation of BDNF
             levels, and suggest that these alterations of neurogenesis
             may contribute to the mechanism of life-long changes in
             cognitive function governed by the availability of choline
             during gestation.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.2007.05505.x},
   Key = {fds254582}
}

@article{fds254586,
   Author = {MacDonald, CJ and Cheng, R-K and Williams, CL and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {Combined organizational and activational effects of short
             and long photoperiods on spatial and temporal memory in
             rats.},
   Journal = {Behavioural Processes},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {226-233},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0376-6357},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16971053},
   Abstract = {The present study examined the effects of photoperiod on
             spatial and temporal memory in adult Sprague-Dawley rats
             that were conceived and reared in different day lengths,
             i.e., short day (SD-8:16 light/dark) and long day (LD-16:8
             light/dark). Both male and female LD rats demonstrated
             increased spatial memory capacity as evidenced by a lower
             number of choices to criterion in a 12-arm radial maze task
             relative to the performance of SD rats. SD rats also
             demonstrated a distortion in the content of temporal memory
             as evidenced by a proportional rightward shift in the 20 and
             60 s temporal criteria trained using the peak-interval
             procedure that is consistent with reduced cholinergic
             function. The conclusion is that both spatial and temporal
             memory are sensitive to photoperiod variation in laboratory
             rats in a manner similar to that previously observed for
             reproductive behaviour.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.beproc.2006.08.001},
   Key = {fds254586}
}

@article{fds254522,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL and Cermak, JM and Blusztajn,
             JK},
   Title = {Developmental periods of choline sensitivity provide an
             ontogenetic mechanism for regulating memory capacity and
             age-related dementia.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {7},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958235},
   Abstract = {In order to determine brain and behavioral sensitivity of
             nutrients that may serve as inductive signals during early
             development, we altered choline availability to rats during
             7 time frames spanning embryonic day (ED) 6 through
             postnatal day (PD) 75 and examined spatial memory ability in
             the perinatally-treated adults. Two sensitive periods were
             identified, ED 12-17 and PD 16-30, during which choline
             supplementation facilitated spatial memory and produced
             increases in dendritic spine density in CA1 and dentate
             gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus while also changing
             the dendritic fields of DG granule cells. Moreover, choline
             supplementation during ED 12-17 only, prevented the memory
             decline normally observed in aged rats. These behavioral
             changes were strongly correlated with the acetylcholine
             (ACh) content of hippocampal slices following stimulated
             release. Our data demonstrate that the availability of
             choline during critical periods of brain development
             influences cognitive performance in adulthood and old age,
             and emphasize the importance of perinatal nutrition for
             successful cognitive aging.},
   Doi = {10.3389/neuro.07.007.2007},
   Key = {fds254522}
}

@article{fds254581,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Commentary: Food for thought and for repair},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds254581}
}

@article{fds254585,
   Author = {Cheng, R-K and Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and temporal
             memory: synergistic effects of combining prenatal choline
             and nicotine on reinforcement-induced resetting of an
             interval clock.},
   Journal = {Learning & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {127-134},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1072-0502},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16547161},
   Abstract = {We previously showed that prenatal choline supplementation
             could increase the precision of timing and temporal memory
             and facilitate simultaneous temporal processing in mature
             and aged rats. In the present study, we investigated the
             ability of adult rats to selectively control the
             reinforcement-induced resetting of an internal clock as a
             function of prenatal drug treatments designed to affect the
             alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR). Male
             Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to prenatal choline (CHO),
             nicotine (NIC), methyllycaconitine (MLA), choline + nicotine
             (CHO + NIC), choline + nicotine + methyllycaconitine (CHO +
             NIC + MLA), or a control treatment (CON). Beginning at
             4-mo-of-age, rats were trained on a peak-interval timing
             procedure in which food was available at 10-, 30-, and
             90-sec criterion durations. At steady-state performance
             there were no differences in timing accuracy, precision, or
             resetting among the CON, MLA, and CHO + NIC + MLA
             treatments. It was observed that the CHO and NIC treatments
             produced a small, but significant increase in timing
             precision, but no change in accuracy or resetting. In
             contrast, the CHO + NIC prenatal treatment produced a
             dramatic increase in timing precision and selective control
             of the resetting mechanism with no change in overall timing
             accuracy. The synergistic effect of combining prenatal CHO
             and NIC treatments suggests an organizational change in
             alpha7 nAChR function that is dependent upon a combination
             of selective and nonselective nAChR stimulation during early
             development.},
   Doi = {10.1101/lm.31506},
   Key = {fds254585}
}

@article{fds254580,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Organizational effects of perinatal choline supplementation
             on spatial exploration as a function of sex, time of day,
             and aging},
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Aging},
   Volume = {in press},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds254580}
}

@article{fds254583,
   Author = {McGowan, PO and Hope, TA and Williams, CL and Kelsoe, G and Meck,
             WH},
   Title = {DNA Recombination Activating Gene 1 (RAG1) is required for
             recognition memory},
   Journal = {J. Neurosci.},
   Volume = {submitted},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds254583}
}

@article{fds254584,
   Author = {Kirby, ED and Glenn, MJ and Wong Goodrich and SJE and Williams,
             CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline supplementation protects against chronic
             stress-induced suppression of neurogenesis and hippocampal
             memory impairment},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {submitted},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds254584}
}

@article{fds254569,
   Author = {Mellott, TJ and Williams, CL and Meck, WH and Blusztajn,
             JK},
   Title = {Prenatal choline supplementation advances hippocampal
             development and enhances MAPK and CREB activation.},
   Journal = {Faseb Journal},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {545-547},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14715695},
   Abstract = {Choline is an essential nutrient for animals and humans.
             Previous studies showed that supplementing the maternal diet
             with choline during the second half of gestation in rats
             permanently enhances memory performance of the adult
             offspring. Here we show that prenatal choline
             supplementation causes a 3-day advancement in the ability of
             juvenile rats to use relational cues in a water maze task,
             indicating that the treatment accelerates hippocampal
             maturation. Moreover, phosphorylation and therefore
             activation of hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase
             (MAPK) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) in
             response to stimulation by glutamate, N-methyl-D-aspartate,
             or depolarizing concentrations of K+ were increased by
             prenatal choline supplementation and reduced by prenatal
             choline deficiency. These data provide the first evidence
             that developmental plasticity of the hippocampal MAPK and
             CREB signaling pathways is controlled by the supply of a
             single essential nutrient, choline, during fetal development
             and point to these pathways as candidate mechanisms for the
             developmental and long-term cognitive enhancement induced by
             prenatal choline supplementation.},
   Doi = {10.1096/fj.03-0877fje},
   Key = {fds254569}
}

@article{fds254546,
   Author = {Sandstrom, NJ and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Spatial memory retention is enhanced by acute and continuous
             estradiol replacement.},
   Journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {128-135},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2003.09.010},
   Abstract = {Estradiol replacement to ovariectomized female rats causes
             dramatic changes in hippocampal structure and function as
             well as in performance on hippocampally dependent tasks.
             Using a delayed matching-to-place version of the water maze,
             the present study examines the time course of
             estradiol-induced enhancements in memory retention as well
             as the effectiveness of acute and continuous patterns of
             replacement. One 10-microg injection of estradiol
             administered on each of two successive days resulted in
             significant improvements in memory retention that persisted
             for approximately 4 days following the second injection.
             When estradiol administration continued for 10 consecutive
             days, these improvements in memory retention persisted.
             These findings indicate that estradiol replacement can
             improve memory retention and that these improvements can be
             maintained by continuous replacement for at least 10
             days.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.yhbeh.2003.09.010},
   Key = {fds254546}
}

@article{fds254568,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Metabolic imprinting of choline by its availability during
             gestation: implications for memory and attentional
             processing across the lifespan.},
   Journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {385-399},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0149-7634},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12946691},
   Abstract = {A growing body of research supports the view that choline is
             an essential nutrient during early development that has
             long-lasting effects on memory and attentional processes
             throughout the lifespan. This review describes the known
             effects of alterations in dietary choline availability both
             in adulthood and during early development. Although modest
             effects of choline on cognitive processes have been reported
             when choline is administered to adult animals, we have found
             that the perinatal period is a critical time for cholinergic
             organization of brain function. Choline supplementation
             during this period increases memory capacity and precision
             of the young adult and appears to prevent age-related memory
             and attentional decline. Deprivation of choline during early
             development leads to compromised cognitive function and
             increased decline with age. We propose that this
             organizational effect of choline availability may be due to
             relatively permanent alterations in the functioning of the
             cholinergic synapse, which we have called 'metabolic
             imprinting'.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0149-7634(03)00069-1},
   Key = {fds254568}
}

@article{fds254544,
   Author = {McKeon-O'Malley, C and Siwek, D and Lamoureux, JA and Williams, CL and Kowall, NW},
   Title = {Prenatal choline deficiency decreases the cross-sectional
             area of cholinergic neurons in the medial septal
             nucleus.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {977},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {278-283},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02599-x},
   Abstract = {Levels of dietary choline in utero influence postnatal
             cognitive performance. To better understand this phenomenon,
             forebrain cholinergic neurons were studied in the 8-9 month
             old offspring of dams fed a control or choline-deficient
             diet from EDs 11-17. Serial sections were immunostained with
             antibodies against p75, a cholinergic marker. Neuronal
             morphology was analyzed in the basal forebrain, a
             heterogeneous area composed of several structures including
             the medial septal nucleus (MSN), nucleus of the diagonal
             band (DB), and the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NB). Neuronal
             cross-sectional areas were selectively reduced in the MSN of
             choline-deficient animals, compared to controls, but cell
             counts were not altered. Our findings suggest that
             cholinergic medial septal neurons may be selectively
             vulnerable to in utero choline deficiency.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0006-8993(03)02599-x},
   Key = {fds254544}
}

@article{fds254543,
   Author = {Matsubara, E and Bryant-Thomas, T and Pacheco Quinto and J and Henry,
             TL and Poeggeler, B and Herbert, D and Cruz-Sanchez, F and Chyan, Y-J and Smith, MA and Perry, G and Shoji, M and Abe, K and Leone, A and Grundke-Ikbal, I and Wilson, GL and Ghiso, J and Williams, C and Refolo,
             LM and Pappolla, MA and Chain, DG and Neria, E},
   Title = {Melatonin increases survival and inhibits oxidative and
             amyloid pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neurochemistry},
   Volume = {85},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1101-1108},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01654.x},
   Abstract = {Increased levels of a 40-42 amino-acid peptide called the
             amyloid beta protein (A beta) and evidence of oxidative
             damage are early neuropathological markers of Alzheimer's
             disease (AD). Previous investigations have demonstrated that
             melatonin is decreased during the aging process and that
             patients with AD have more profound reductions of this
             hormone. It has also been recently shown that melatonin
             protects neuronal cells from A beta-mediated oxidative
             damage and inhibits the formation of amyloid fibrils in
             vitro. However, a direct relationship between melatonin and
             the biochemical pathology of AD had not been demonstrated.
             We used a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's amyloidosis
             and monitored over time the effects of administering
             melatonin on brain levels of A beta, abnormal protein
             nitration, and survival of the mice. We report here that
             administration of melatonin partially inhibited the expected
             time-dependent elevation of beta-amyloid, reduced abnormal
             nitration of proteins, and increased survival in the treated
             transgenic mice. These findings may bear relevance to the
             pathogenesis and therapy of AD.},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01654.x},
   Key = {fds254543}
}

@article{fds254542,
   Author = {Albright, CD and Siwek, DF and Craciunescu, CN and Mar, M-H and Kowall,
             NW and Williams, CL and Zeisel, SH},
   Title = {Choline availability during embryonic development alters the
             localization of calretinin in developing and aging mouse
             hippocampus.},
   Journal = {Nutritional Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {129-134},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415031000084418},
   Abstract = {Choline availability in the diet during pregnancy alters
             fetal brain biochemistry with resulting behavioral changes
             that persist throughout the lifetime of the offspring. In
             the present study, the effects of dietary choline on the
             onset of GABAergic neuronal differentiation in developing
             fetal brain, as demarcated by the expression of calcium
             binding protein calretinin, are described. In these studies,
             timed-pregnant mice were fed choline supplemented, control
             or choline deficient AIN-76 diet from day 12-17 of pregnancy
             and the brains of their fetuses were studied on day 17 of
             gestation. In the primordial dentate gyrus, we found that
             pups from choline deficient-dams had more calretinin protein
             (330% increase), and pups from choline supplemented-dams had
             less calretinin protein (70% decrease), than did pups from
             control-dams. Importantly, decreased calretinin protein was
             still detectable in hippocampus in aged, 24-month-old mice,
             born of choline supplemented-dams and maintained since birth
             on a control diet. Thus, alterations in the level of
             calretinin protein in fetal brain hippocampus could underlie
             the known, life long effects of maternal dietary choline
             availability on brain development and behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1080/1028415031000084418},
   Key = {fds254542}
}

@article{fds254545,
   Author = {Matsubara, E and Bryant-Thomas, T and Pacheco, J and Henry, TL and Poeggeler, B and Herbert, D and Cruz-Sanchez, F and Chyan, YJ and Smith,
             MA and Perry, G and Chain, DG and Neria, E and Shoji, M and Abe, K and Leone,
             A and Grundke-Iqbal, I and Wilson, GL and Ghiso, J and Williams, C and Refolo, LM and Pappolla, MA},
   Title = {Erratum: Melatonin increases survival and inhibits oxidative
             and amyloid pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's
             disease (Journal of Neurochemistry 85 (1101-1108))},
   Journal = {Journal of Neurochemistry},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1312},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01997.x},
   Doi = {10.1046/j.1471-4159.2003.01997.x},
   Key = {fds254545}
}

@article{fds254594,
   Author = {Sandstrom, NJ and Loy, R and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Prenatal choline supplementation increases NGF levels in the
             hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult
             rats.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {947},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {9-16},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02900-1},
   Abstract = {Female Sprague-Dawley rats received approximately 300 mg/kg
             per day of choline chloride through their drinking water on
             days 11 of pregnancy through birth and the level of nerve
             growth factor (NGF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of
             their male offspring was measured at 20 and 90 days of age.
             Prenatal choline supplementation caused significant
             increases in hippocampal NGF levels at 20 and 90 days of
             age, while levels of NGF in the frontal cortex were elevated
             in choline-supplemented rats at 20 days of age, but not 90
             days of age. These results suggest that increases in NGF
             levels during development or adulthood may be one mechanism
             underlying improvements in spatial and temporal memory of
             adult rats exposed to elevated levels of choline chloride
             perinatally.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0006-8993(02)02900-1},
   Key = {fds254594}
}

@article{fds254592,
   Author = {Sandstrom, NJ and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Memory retention is modulated by acute estradiol and
             progesterone replacement.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {115},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {384-393},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11345963},
   Abstract = {Ovarian hormones alter spine density of hippocampal granule
             and pyramidal cells in young adult and aging female rats (P.
             Miranda, C. L. Williams, & G. Einstein, 1999; C. S. Woolley,
             1998). The present study used a delayed matching-to-place
             version of the water maze to investigate a behavioral
             correlate of these hormone-induced changes in hippocampal
             connectivity in 3- and 8-month-old female rats. When primed
             with 10-microg injections of estradiol 72 and 48 hr before
             testing, the memory retention of ovariectomized rats was
             improved compared with retention after priming with oil. A
             single injection of progesterone maintained this enhancement
             if testing occurred within 8 hr of the progesterone
             injection but not if testing occurred more than 24 hr after
             the progesterone injection. These findings indicate that
             estradiol and progesterone alter memory retention and
             suggest that these changes may be the result of
             hormone-induced increases in hippocampal
             connectivity.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0735-7044.115.2.384},
   Key = {fds254592}
}

@article{fds29598,
   Author = {McGowan, P.O. and Chun, D.E. and Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {Role of Estrogen in Social and Object Recognition},
   Volume = {16},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29598}
}

@article{fds29599,
   Author = {C.L. Williams and Lamoureux, J.A. and Meck, W.H.},
   Title = {Variations in Maternal Dietary Intake of Choline Alter
             Pavlovian Occasion Setting Learning of the
             Offspring},
   Volume = {19},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29599}
}

@article{fds29600,
   Author = {Lamoureux, J.A. and Meck, W.H. and Williams,
             C.L.},
   Title = {Variations in Prenatal Choline Availability Alter Contextual
             Processing during Pavolovian Conditioning in Adult
             Rats},
   Volume = {18},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds29600}
}

@article{fds254593,
   Author = {Mohler, EG and Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Sustained Attention in Adult Mice is Modulated by Prenatal
             Choline Availability},
   Journal = {International Journal of Comparative Psychology},
   Volume = {14},
   Pages = {136-150},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds254593}
}

@article{fds254591,
   Author = {Montoya, DA and White, AM and Williams, CL and Blusztajn, JK and Meck,
             WH and Swartzwelder, HS},
   Title = {Prenatal choline exposure alters hippocampal responsiveness
             to cholinergic stimulation in adulthood.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-32},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0165-3806},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11020547},
   Abstract = {Manipulation of dietary choline levels during gestation
             results in enduring neurobehavioral changes in offspring
             that last into adulthood. Alterations of hippocampal
             function and memory are among the most striking changes.
             Depending upon the measures assessed, prenatal choline
             supplementation tends to promote excitatory synaptic
             efficacy in hippocampal circuits while prenatal choline
             deficiency diminishes it. However, the mechanisms underlying
             these changes remain unclear. Transverse hippocampal slices
             were prepared from adult offspring of dams fed choline
             supplemented, choline deficient, or control diets. We
             assessed paired-pulse inhibition, and excitatory synaptic
             responsiveness before and after activation of cholinergic
             receptors with Carbachol. Prenatally choline deficient
             animals yielded significantly fewer electrophysiological
             viable hippocampal slices than did animals from either of
             the other two treatment groups. Among the slices tested,
             there were no differences in paired pulse inhibition between
             the treatment groups. However, transient cholinergic
             activation resulted in a prolonged enhancement of the
             amplitude of the population EPSP (pEPSP) response in slices
             from prenatally choline supplemented animals. These results
             suggest that GABA receptor-mediated inhibition remains
             intact after prenatal choline manipulations, and that
             enhancement of the excitatory responsiveness of hippocampal
             circuits in slices from prenatally choline supplemented rats
             may be related in part to an increase in cholinergic tone
             within the CA1 circuit.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-3806(00)00075-4},
   Key = {fds254591}
}

@article{fds254589,
   Author = {Jones, JP and Meck, WH and Williams, CL and Wilson, WA and Swartzwelder,
             HS},
   Title = {Choline availability to the developing rat fetus alters
             adult hippocampal long-term potentiation.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {159-167},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0165-3806},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611515},
   Abstract = {Supplementation with choline during pregnancy in rats causes
             a long-lasting improvement of visuospatial memory of the
             offspring. To determine if the behavioral effects of choline
             are related to physiological changes in hippocampus, the
             effect of perinatal choline supplementation or deficiency on
             long-term potentiation (LTP) was examined in hippocampal
             slices of 6-8 and 12-14 month old rats born to dams
             consuming a control, choline-supplemented, or a choline-free
             diet during pregnancy. Stimulating and recording electrodes
             were placed in stratum radiatum of area CA1 to record
             extracellular population excitatory postsynaptic potentials
             (pEPSPs). To induce LTP, a theta-like stimulus train was
             generated. The amplitude of the stimulus pulses was set at
             either 10% or 50% of the stimulus intensity which had
             induced the maximal pEPSP slope on the input/output curve.
             We found that at both ages, a significantly smaller
             percentage of slices from perinatally choline-deficient rats
             displayed LTP after 10% stimulus intensity (compared with
             control and choline-supplemented rats), and a significantly
             larger percentage of slices from choline-supplemented rats
             displayed LTP at 50% stimulus intensity (compared with
             control and choline-deficient rats). Results reveal that
             alterations in the availability of dietary choline during
             discrete periods of development lead to changes in
             hippocampal electrophysiology that last well into adulthood.
             These changes in LTP threshold may underlie the observed
             enhancement of visuospatial memory seen after prenatal
             choline supplementation and point to the importance of
             choline intake during pregnancy for development of brain and
             memory function.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-3806(99)00103-0},
   Key = {fds254589}
}

@article{fds254588,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Choline supplementation during prenatal development reduces
             proactive interference in spatial memory.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {51-59},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0165-3806},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10611503},
   Abstract = {Previous research has demonstrated that increasing dietary
             choline during early development can have long-lasting
             effects on cholinergic (Ch) function that are correlated
             with improvement of spatial memory ability in rats. The
             present study is designed to further our understanding of
             these organizational changes in brain and behavior by
             examining the effects of spaced vs. massed trials. A third
             of the rats (n=10) were supplemented with choline chloride
             prenatally by adding it to the drinking water of their dams.
             Another third were made deficient of choline during early
             development by removing choline from the dams diet. The
             remaining rats served as untreated controls. Postnatally,
             the offspring were maintained on a choline-sufficient diet
             and at 120 days of age they began 12-arm radial maze
             training. The maze data revealed two major effects of early
             choline availability: (1) Both choline-supplemented and
             choline-deficient rats performed more accurately than
             control littermates when trials were spaced. These
             differences in spatial ability did not appear to be a
             function of differential response or cue-use strategies. (2)
             Choline-supplemented rats showed little proactive
             interference when trials were massed; whereas control rats
             demonstrated moderate levels and choline-deficient rats
             exhibited high levels of proactive interference as a
             function of massed trials. These data suggest that the
             behavioral consequences of early dietary availability of
             choline may involve the modification of the discriminative
             abilities used to attend to stimuli that demarcate the end
             of one trial and the start of another as well as the
             capacity for remembering the locations that have been
             visited during a trial.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-3806(99)00105-4},
   Key = {fds254588}
}

@article{fds254541,
   Author = {Miranda, P and Williams, CL and Einstein, G},
   Title = {Granule cells in aging rats are sexually dimorphic in their
             response to estradiol.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {3316-3325},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10212291},
   Abstract = {Normal aging comprises cognitive decline, including
             deterioration of memory. It has been suggested that this
             decline in memory is sexually dimorphic because of the
             cessation in gonadal steroid secretion that occurs during
             reproductive aging in female, but not male, mammals. We
             wondered whether neurons in brain regions associated with
             learning and memory underwent morphological changes that
             were dimorphic as well and whether cessation of the
             secretion of gonadal steroids influenced these morphological
             changes. To explore these questions, we deprived and
             restored estrogens to young and old gonadectomized females
             and males and studied the morphology of dentate granule
             cells by intracellular dye filling in a lightly fixed slice
             preparation. We found the following: (1) Aged female dentate
             granule cells deprived of gonadal steroids long-term have a
             paucity of dendritic spines compared with young females
             deprived short-term; however, aged male dentate granule
             cells deprived of gonadal steroids long-term have no
             decrease in dendritic spines compared with young males
             deprived short-term. (2) Aged female dentate granule cells
             with long-term estrogen replacement at either high or low
             levels still had a decline in spine density. (3) Aged female
             dentate granule cells with short-term estradiol replacement
             had spine density increased to levels normally observed in
             young adults, whereas aged males with short-term estradiol
             replacement had decreased spine density. These data suggest
             that the response of rat dentate granule cells to aging and
             estradiol is sexually dimorphic and that, in females, the
             responsiveness of granule cells depends on the temporal
             pattern of estradiol replacement.},
   Doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.19-09-03316.1999},
   Key = {fds254541}
}

@article{fds254587,
   Author = {Cermak, JM and Blusztajn, JK and Meck, WH and Williams, CL and Fitzgerald, CM and Rosene, DL and Loy, R},
   Title = {Prenatal availability of choline alters the development of
             acetylcholinesterase in the rat hippocampus.},
   Journal = {Developmental Neuroscience},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {94-104},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0378-5866},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10449981},
   Abstract = {Choline (Ch) supplementation during embryonic days (ED)
             12-17 enhances spatial and temporal memory in adult and aged
             rats, whereas prenatal Ch deficiency impairs attention
             performance and accelerates age-related declines in temporal
             processing. To characterize the neurochemical and
             neuroanatomical mechanisms that may mediate these behavioral
             effects in rats, we studied the development [postnatal days
             (PD) 1, 3, 7, 17, 27, 35, 90, and 26 months postnatally] of
             acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus,
             neocortex and striatum as a function of prenatal Ch
             availability. We further measured the density of
             AChE-positive laminae (PD27 and PD90) and interneurons
             (PD20) in the hippocampus as a function of prenatal Ch
             availability. During ED11-ED17 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats
             received a Ch-deficient, control or Ch-supplemented diet
             (average Ch intake 0, 1.3 and 4.6 mmol/kg/day,
             respectively). Prenatal Ch deficiency increased hippocampal
             AChE activity as compared to control animals in both males
             and females from the 2nd to 5th week postnatally. Moreover,
             prenatal Ch supplementation reduced hippocampal AChE
             activity as compared to control animals over the same
             developmental period. There was no effect of prenatal Ch
             status on either cortical or striatal AChE activity at any
             age measured, and by PD90 the effect of Ch on hippocampal
             AChE was no longer observed. In order to localize the early
             changes in hippocampal AChE activity anatomically, frozen
             coronal brain sections (PD20, PD27, PD90) were stained
             histochemically for AChE. Consistent with biochemical
             results, the AChE staining intensity was reduced in PD27
             hippocampal laminae in the Ch-supplemented group and
             increased in the Ch-deficient group compared to control
             animals. There was no effect of the diet on hippocampal AChE
             staining intensity on PD90. In addition, the prenatal Ch
             availability was found to alter the size and density of
             AChE-positive PD20 interneurons. These results show that
             prenatal Ch availability has long-term consequences on the
             development of the hippocampal cholinergic
             system.},
   Doi = {10.1159/000017371},
   Key = {fds254587}
}

@article{fds12268,
   Author = {Meck, W.H. and Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {Choline Supplementation during Pre-and Postnatal Development
             Reduces Proactive Interference in Spatial
             Memory},
   Journal = {Developmental Brain Research},
   Volume = {118},
   Pages = {51-59},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds12268}
}

@article{fds254590,
   Author = {Miranda, P and Williams, CL and Einstein, G},
   Title = {Aging Rat Hippocampal Dentate Granule Cells Respond to Short
             Term Replacement of Estradiol},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {19},
   Pages = {3316-3325},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds254590}
}

@article{fds254540,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Estrogen effects on cognition across the
             lifespan.},
   Journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {80-84},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0018-506X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9799619},
   Doi = {10.1006/hbeh.1998.1480},
   Key = {fds254540}
}

@article{fds254539,
   Author = {Sandstrom, NJ and Arnold, HM and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Reactivation treatment prevents the memory-impairing effects
             of scopolamine in preweanling rats.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {112},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {909-919},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9733197},
   Abstract = {The authors report that the expression of a conditioned odor
             aversion is impaired in preweanling rats when they are
             conditioned on Postnatal Day 12 and tested under the
             influence of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.2 or 0.5 mg/kg,
             intraperitoneal) after a 48-hr, but not after a 2-hr,
             retention interval (Experiment 1). This effect of
             scopolamine is not dependent on maturation of the
             cholinergic system between Days 12 and 14 (Experiment 2),
             nor is it due to peripheral mechanisms (Experiment 3). When
             pups are reexposed to the unconditioned stimulus (footshock)
             before drug administration, performance on the 48-hr
             retention test is not impaired by scopolamine (Experiment
             4). These findings demonstrate that the cholinergic system
             may be critical for the retrieval and expression of
             long-term or weak memories in young rats. However, the
             expression of active memories (recent or recently
             reactivated) may not be dependent on the cholinergic system
             to the same extent as is the expression of inactive
             memories.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.112.4.909},
   Key = {fds254539}
}

@article{fds254567,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Meck, WH and Heyer, DD and Loy, R},
   Title = {Hypertrophy of basal forebrain neurons and enhanced
             visuospatial memory in perinatally choline-supplemented
             rats.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {794},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {225-238},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9622639},
   Abstract = {The effects of choline supplementation during two
             time-frames of early development on radial-arm maze
             performance and the morphology of basal forebrain neurons
             immunoreactive for the P75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR) in
             male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were examined. In the
             first experiment, rats were supplemented with choline
             chloride from conception until weaning. At 80 days of age,
             subjects were trained once a day on a 12-arm radial maze for
             30 days. Compared to control littermates, supplemented rats
             made fewer working and reference memory errors; however, the
             memory enhancing effects of choline supplementation were
             greater in males than females. A morphometric analysis of
             NTR-immunoreactive cell bodies at three levels through the
             medial septum/diagonal band (MS/DBv) of these rats revealed
             that perinatal choline supplementation caused the somata of
             cells in the MS/DBv to be larger by 8-15%. In a second
             experiment, choline supplementation was restricted to
             embryonic days 12-17. A developmental profile of NTR
             immunoreactive cell bodies in the MS/DBv of 0-, 8-, 16-, 30-
             and 90-day old male and female rats again revealed that cell
             bodies were larger in choline-supplemented rats than
             controls. As in the behavioral studies, the effect of
             choline supplementation was greater in male than female
             rats. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that
             supplementation with choline chloride during early
             development leads to an increase in the size of cell bodies
             of NTR-immunoreactive cells in the basal forebrain and that
             this change may contribute to long-term improvement in
             spatial memory.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0006-8993(98)00229-7},
   Key = {fds254567}
}

@article{fds254566,
   Author = {Pyapali, GK and Turner, DA and Williams, CL and Meck, WH and Swartzwelder, HS},
   Title = {Prenatal dietary choline supplementation decreases the
             threshold for induction of long-term potentiation in young
             adult rats.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1790-1796},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0022-3077},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9535948},
   Abstract = {Choline supplementation during gestation in rats leads to
             augmentation of spatial memory in adulthood. We hypothesized
             that prenatal (E12-E17) choline supplementation in the rat
             would lead to an enhancement of hippocampal synaptic
             plasticity as assessed by long-term potentiation (LTP) at
             3-4 mo of age. LTP was assessed blindly in area CA1 of
             hippocampal slices with first suprathreshold (above
             threshold for LTP generation in control slices) theta-burst
             stimulus trains. The magnitude of potentiation after these
             stimuli was not different between slices from control and
             prenatally choline supplemented animals. Next, threshold
             (reliably leading to LTP generation in control slices) or
             subthreshold theta-burst stimulus trains were applied to
             slices from control, prenatally choline-supplemented, and
             prenatally choline-deprived rats. Threshold level stimulus
             trains induced LTP in slices from both the control and
             choline-supplemented rats but not in those from the
             choline-deficient rats. Subthreshold stimulus trains led to
             LTP induction in slices from prenatally choline-supplemented
             rats only. These observations indicate that prenatal dietary
             manipulation of the amino acid, choline, leads to subsequent
             significant alterations of LTP induction threshold in adult
             animals.},
   Doi = {10.1152/jn.1998.79.4.1790},
   Key = {fds254566}
}

@article{fds254563,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Perinatal choline supplementation increases the threshold
             for chunking in spatial memory.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {3053-3059},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9331913},
   Abstract = {Chunking and perinatal choline supplementation each provide
             rats with alternative memory processing advantages. Evidence
             from radial-arm maze performance of adult (2- to
             5-month-old) rats indicates that chunking of multiple food
             types (sunflower seeds, Noyes pellets and rice puffs)
             emerges for stable, differentiable baiting patterns as a
             function of the memory load (6, 12, 18 or 24 maze arms). The
             number of maze arms appeared to determine both the level of
             task difficulty at which rats began to implement a chunking
             strategy as well as when they were unable to successfully
             implement such a strategy due to the excess memorial demands
             of the task. In comparison to control rats, rats treated
             perinatally with choline supplementation displayed a
             horizontal rightward shift of the response function that
             related level of clustering of like-food types to the number
             of maze arms. These results indicate a higher threshold for
             implementing a chunking strategy in rats treated perinatally
             with choline supplementation, possibly due to a
             choline-induced increase in memory capacity.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-199709290-00010},
   Key = {fds254563}
}

@article{fds254564,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Characterization of the facilitative effects of perinatal
             choline supplementation on timing and temporal
             memory.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2831-2835},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9376513},
   Abstract = {Perinatal choline supplementation can improve performance on
             a variety of spatial memory tasks in adulthood. In order to
             extend these studies, we have investigated the effects of
             perinatal choline supplementation on the performance of a
             peak-interval timing task in which a 20 s temporal criterion
             was trained for a visual signal in adult (3-6 months old)
             rats. Following 5 weeks of baseline training, rats received
             systemic injections of nicotine (0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 mg/kg,
             s.c.) or saline prior to testing on the peak-interval timing
             task. The results indicated that perinatal choline
             supplementation increased rats' sensitivity to the 20 s
             temporal criterion during baseline training and facilitated
             the clock speed enhancing effects of nicotine during drug
             testing. The present study extends the types of long-term
             cognitive enhancement produced by perinatal choline
             supplementation to include the temporal processing domain
             and relates these effects to modifications in cholinergic
             function.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-199709080-00005},
   Key = {fds254564}
}

@article{fds254565,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Simultaneous temporal processing is sensitive to prenatal
             choline availability in mature and aged rats.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {3045-3051},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9331912},
   Abstract = {Rats were trained at 2-4 months and at 24-26 months of age
             on a peak-interval timing procedure in which auditory and
             visual stimuli signaled two different fixed-interval
             schedules of reinforcement (15 and 30 s) that were presented
             simultaneously in a hierarchical fashion. Compared with
             control rats, increases in the probability of attention to
             the 15 s signal were observed for both the
             choline-supplemented and the choline-deficient rats. In
             contrast, an increase in attention to the 30 s signal was
             only observed for the choline-supplemented rats, whereas
             choline-deficient rats exhibited a decrease in attention
             that increased with age. Proportional rightward shifts in
             the remembered times of reinforcement emerged for the
             24-26-month-old rats in the choline-deficient and control
             groups, but not in the choline-supplemented group. These
             results indicate that prenatal choline supplementation
             facilitates cognitive function across the lifespan, whereas
             prenatal choline deficiency impairs divided attention and
             accelerates age-related declines in temporal
             processing.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-199709290-00009},
   Key = {fds254565}
}

@article{fds254538,
   Author = {Benedict, GS and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Hormonal modulation of the cutaneous initiation of lordosis
             in infant and adult rats.},
   Journal = {Hormones and Behavior},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {449-469},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/hbeh.1993.1033},
   Abstract = {The purpose of these experiments is to compare the regional
             specificity (Experiment 1) and the hormonal modulation
             (Experiment 2) of the cutaneous initiation of lordosis in 4-
             to 6-day-old male and female rats (infants) and in 60- to
             90-day-old female rats (adults). In Experiment 1, subjects
             were primed with 100 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) and
             0.5 mg progesterone (P) and were denervated on the Waist
             (dermatomes L1-L3), Midriff (dermatomes T10-L3), Flanks
             (dermatomes L4-L6), or Sides (dermatomes T10-L6). In
             infants, there were no significant differences between males
             and females. Denervation of the Waist, Midriff, or Sides but
             not of the Flanks significantly decreased the percentage of
             subjects displaying lordosis, lordosis quotient (LQ), and
             mean lordosis duration; no significant differences were
             obtained among Waist-, Midriff, or Sides-denervated infants.
             In contrast, denervation of the Sides but not of the Waist
             significantly decreased LQ and mean lordosis intensity among
             adults. In Experiment 2, Waist-denervated infants and their
             surgical Controls were treated either with 100 micrograms EB
             and 0.5 mg P or with the oil vehicle; Waist-denervated
             adults and their surgical Controls received either 100 or 10
             micrograms EB (no P). Regardless of hormone treatment,
             denervation of the Waist significantly decreased LQ and
             lordosis duration in infants and decreased LQ and lordosis
             intensity in adults. In infants, the only effect of priming
             with EB and P was to increase the percentage of pups showing
             lordosis and lordosis duration among the surgical Controls.
             In contrast, priming with 100 micrograms EB significantly
             increased the percentage of rats displaying lordosis, LQ,
             and lordosis intensity among Waist-denervated adults. These
             data suggest that cutaneous input from the Waist is
             important for eliciting lordosis in both infant and adult
             rats, and that the importance of this input is modulated by
             hormone priming in adult but not infant rats.},
   Doi = {10.1006/hbeh.1993.1033},
   Key = {fds254538}
}

@article{fds323138,
   Author = {KIMM, SYS and WILLIAMS, CL},
   Title = {Introduction},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {699},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {xi-xii},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18830.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1749-6632.1993.tb18830.x},
   Key = {fds323138}
}

@article{fds254561,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Meck, WH},
   Title = {The organizational effects of gonadal steroids on sexually
             dimorphic spatial ability.},
   Journal = {Psychoneuroendocrinology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {155-176},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0306-4530},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1961837},
   Abstract = {Numerous studies have provided evidence that both human and
             nonhuman males reliably outperform females on tasks that
             require spatial ability. Because most of the research on
             this topic has utilized hormonally normal adults as
             subjects, it is still not known to what extent, if any, sex
             differences in spatial ability can be attributed to
             hormonally organized dimorphisms in neural structures
             subserving cognitive function. The purpose of this paper is
             to address this critical issue in three areas: (1) Research
             that demonstrates that male rodents initially outperform
             females on maze tasks that utilize visuospatial
             representation will be reviewed. (2) New data which provide
             strong evidence for the organizational effects of gonadal
             steroids will be described. The timing of the sensitive
             period for hormone action, the specific hormones involved
             and their possible sites of action will be discussed. (3)
             The question of what behavioral processes hormones might be
             affecting to cause differential performance on spatial tasks
             will be examined. The studies described in this review
             suggest that gonadal steroids, probably the testosterone
             metabolite estradiol, cause organizational effects during
             perinatal development which have multiple effects on the
             associational-perceptual-motor biases that guide
             visuospatial navigation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0306-4530(91)90076-6},
   Key = {fds254561}
}

@article{fds254562,
   Author = {Loy, R and Heyer, D and Williams, CL and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Choline-induced spatial memory facilitation correlates with
             altered distribution and morphology of septal
             neurons.},
   Journal = {Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology},
   Volume = {295},
   Pages = {373-382},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0065-2598},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1776578},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4757-0145-6_21},
   Key = {fds254562}
}

@article{fds254536,
   Author = {Medici, F and Puder, D and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Cholesterol screening in the pediatric office.},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {623},
   Pages = {200-204},
   Year = {1991},
   Key = {fds254536}
}

@article{fds254560,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Barnett, AM and Meck, WH},
   Title = {Organizational effects of early gonadal secretions on sexual
             differentiation in spatial memory.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {84-97},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2317288},
   Abstract = {Neonatally castrated (MNC) and control male rats (MC) and
             female rats treated neonatally with estradiol benzoate (FNE)
             and female controls (FC) were studied. In Exp. 1 spatial
             memory was assessed using a 12-arm radial maze. During
             acquisition, MC and FNE groups were more accurate in choice
             behavior than FC and MNC groups. In Exp. 2 the
             discriminative control exerted by different types of cues
             was evaluated. Alteration of the geometry of the room but
             not movable landmarks disrupted performance of MC and FNE
             groups. For the FC and MNC groups, alteration of either
             geometry or landmarks did not disrupt performance. In Exp. 3
             the effect of a 15-min delay was determined. MC and FNE
             groups were more disrupted by a delay than MNC and FC
             groups. Together, these data suggest that early exposure to
             gonadal steroids (probably estradiol) improves acquisition
             of spatial tasks by reorganizing and simplifying
             associational-perceptual processes that guide spatial
             ability.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.104.1.84},
   Key = {fds254560}
}

@article{fds254559,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Smith, RA and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Organizational changes in cholinergic activity and enhanced
             visuospatial memory as a function of choline administered
             prenatally or postnatally or both.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1234-1241},
   Year = {1989},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2610916},
   Abstract = {This experiment was an examination of the effects of
             supplemental dietary choline chloride given prenatally (to
             the diet of pregnant rats) and postnatally (intubed directly
             into the stomachs of rat pups) on memory function and
             neurochemical measures of brain cholinergic activity of male
             albino rats when they became adults. The data demonstrate
             that perinatal choline supplementation causes (a) long-term
             facilitative effects on working and reference memory
             components of a 12-arm radial maze task, and (b)
             alternations of muscarinic receptor density as indexed by
             [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding and choline
             acetyltransferase (ChAT) levels in the hippocampus and
             frontal cortex of adult rats. An analysis of the
             relationship between these organizational changes in brain
             and memory function indicated that the ChAT-to-QNB ratio in
             the hippocampus is highly correlated with working memory
             errors, and this ratio in the frontal cortex is highly
             correlated with reference memory errors.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.103.6.1234},
   Key = {fds254559}
}

@article{fds254535,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Blaustein, JD},
   Title = {Steroids induce hypothalamic progestin receptors and
             facilitate female sexual behavior in neonatal
             rats.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {449},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {403-407},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-8993(88)91064-5},
   Abstract = {This report provides the first evidence that two
             activational actions of estrogen can occur within the first
             week of life in the rat. Priming 4-day-old rats with
             exogenous estradiol benzoate facilitates lordosis and ear
             wiggling-like behavior, and induces cytosol progestin
             receptors in the medial basal hypothalamus and preoptic
             region (Hyp-PoA) 44 h later. Moreover, unprimed male infants
             show more intense lordosis and higher concentrations of
             cytosol progestin receptors in Hyp-PoA than infant females.
             Neonatal castration of male infants decreases their
             concentration of cytosol progestin receptors in Hyp-PoA to
             the levels normally seen in infant females. In addition,
             priming 6-day-old infants with progesterone alone
             facilitates lordosis in male but not female infants.
             Together, these data demonstrate that in the male infant,
             endogenous steroids of testicular origin have activational
             as well as organizational actions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0006-8993(88)91064-5},
   Key = {fds254535}
}

@article{fds254558,
   Author = {Meck, WH and Smith, RA and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Pre- and postnatal choline supplementation produces
             long-term facilitation of spatial memory.},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychobiology},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {339-353},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0012-1630},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3378679},
   Abstract = {Although research has demonstrated that short-term
             improvement in memory function of adult rats can occur when
             the availability of precursors for the neurotransmitter
             acetylcholine is increased, little is known about whether
             memory function of adult rats can be permanently altered by
             precursor supplementation during early development. In the
             present study, male albino rats were exposed to choline
             chloride supplementation both prenatally (through the diet
             of pregnant rats) and postnatally (subcutaneous injections).
             At 60 days of age rats were tested on a 12- and 18-arm
             radial maze task. Results indicated that compared to control
             littermates, perinatal choline-treated rats showed more
             accurate performance on both working and reference memory
             components of the task. This performance difference was
             apparent on the first block of sessions and continued
             throughout training. Further analysis revealed that the
             difference between choline and control rats is not due to
             use of differential response or cue-use strategies. Instead,
             it appears that choline induced performance differences are
             due to long-term enhancement of spatial memory capacity and
             precision.},
   Doi = {10.1002/dev.420210405},
   Key = {fds254558}
}

@article{fds254537,
   Author = {Ramaswamy, SB},
   Title = {Introduction},
   Journal = {Journal of Insect Physiology},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {5},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {1988},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(88)90044-3},
   Doi = {10.1016/0022-1910(88)90044-3},
   Key = {fds254537}
}

@article{fds254534,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Lorang, D},
   Title = {Brain transections differentially alter lordosis and ear
             wiggling of 6-day-old rats.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {819-826},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0735-7044.101.6.819},
   Abstract = {Six-day-old male and female rats display lordosis and ear
             wiggling in response to tactile stimulation of the flanks
             and rump, without priming by exogenous estrogen. The
             involvement of various brain regions in these behaviors,
             which resemble components of adult female sexual behavior,
             was examined by making acute transections along the neuraxis
             from the olfactory tract to the medulla in 6-day-old rats.
             Four to 5 hr after the transection procedure, pups were
             tested for lordosis and ear wiggling. Lordosis was severely
             reduced or eliminated in pups with cuts through the
             hindbrain or diencephalon (above the level of the mammillary
             bodies) but was relatively unaffected by cuts through the
             posterior hypothalamus and rostral tegmentum and by cuts
             rostral to the anterior hypothalamus. Ear wiggling was
             disrupted by transections throughout the hindbrain and was
             facilitated only in females by transections throughout the
             forebrain (anterior to the mammillary bodies). These data
             suggest that facilitation from the hypothalamus is required
             for lordosis in the infant rat and the forebrain inhibitory
             systems for ear wiggling are functional in female infants by
             6 days of age. Similarities and differences between the
             neural control of lordosis and ear wiggling in infant and
             adult rats suggest that the infant sex-like behaviors may be
             precursors of adult female sexual behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.101.6.819},
   Key = {fds254534}
}

@article{fds254533,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {Estradiol benzoate facilitates lordosis and ear wiggling of
             4- to 6-day-old rats.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {101},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {718-723},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0735-7044},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0735-7044.101.5.718},
   Abstract = {The effects of exogenous and endogenous steroids on
             components of female sexual behavior of neonatal male and
             female rats were investigated. In Experiment 1, 4-day-old
             rats were treated with 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 micrograms/10
             g body weight estradiol benzoate (EB) and were tested 44 hr
             later. In Experiment 2, male rats castrated within 24 to 48
             hr of birth were compared with sham operated controls and
             castrates given steroid replacement. The results indicated
             that most 6-day-old pups will display lordosis and ear
             wiggling; therefore, the display of these responses is not
             dependent upon exogenous steroids. However, a fine-grained
             behavioral analysis revealed that EB treatment increased the
             frequency, duration, and intensity of lordosis and the
             frequency of ear wiggling in infant females, and it
             increased lordosis duration in males. Castration of infant
             males decreased the likelihood that male infants would
             display lordosis, whereas testosterone replacement restored
             behavior to control levels. These data question the concept
             that organizational and activational actions of estrogens
             occur during completely separable times in development and
             should provide new insights into the development of estrogen
             receptor function and the process of sexual differentiation
             of brain and behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0735-7044.101.5.718},
   Key = {fds254533}
}

@article{fds254531,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Blass, EM},
   Title = {Development of postglucoprivic insulin-induced suckling and
             feeding in rats.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Physiology},
   Volume = {253},
   Number = {1 Pt 2},
   Pages = {R121-R127},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1987.253.1.r121},
   Abstract = {Increased food or milk intake in response to insulin-induced
             hypoglycemia cannot be demonstrated in the rat until pups
             reach weaning age. However, when food and suckling are
             withheld from insulin-treated 5- to 25-day-old rats until
             their altered blood glucose levels return to normal, their
             rate of milk intake via suckling from their anesthetized dam
             is increased over saline-treated control pups. This
             postglucoprivic action of insulin could not be demonstrated
             in rats consuming wet mash until pups reached 25-30 days of
             age. Nonnutritive oral stimulation from dry suckling during
             the glucoprivic episode is sufficient to disrupt
             postglucoprivic suckling in 20-day-old rats. In contrast
             consuming a small quantity of wet mash became an effective
             inhibitor of postglucoprivic suckling only when pups reached
             25 days of age. These data demonstrate the existence of an
             insulin-sensitive neural system for suckling and feeding in
             infant rats and point to the involvement of multiple and
             changing oral factors during development in insulin-induced
             postglucoprivic feeding.},
   Doi = {10.1152/ajpregu.1987.253.1.r121},
   Key = {fds254531}
}

@article{fds254532,
   Author = {Sullivan, RM and Brake, SC and Hofer, MA and Williams,
             CL},
   Title = {Huddling and independent feeding of neonatal rats can be
             facilitated by a conditioned change in behavioral
             state.},
   Journal = {Developmental Psychobiology},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {625-635},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.420190613},
   Abstract = {Infant rat pups were exposed to a novel odor (orange or
             cedar) while they received tactile stimulation (stroking of
             the body) or were presented with odor or stroking alone. The
             effects of these treatments were assessed on pups'
             performance in a huddling test (Experiment 1 and 2) and an
             independent feeding test (Experiment 3). During these tests,
             only pups that had received the simultaneous presentation of
             the odor and stroking exhibited an increase in huddling and
             feeding. The increase in these behaviors was dependent on
             the presence of the conditioned odor during
             testing.},
   Doi = {10.1002/dev.420190613},
   Key = {fds254532}
}

@article{fds254530,
   Author = {Williams, CL},
   Title = {A reevaluation of the concept of separable periods of
             organizational and activational actions of estrogens in
             development of brain and behavior.},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {474},
   Pages = {282-292},
   Year = {1986},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb28019.x},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1749-6632.1986.tb28019.x},
   Key = {fds254530}
}

@article{fds254529,
   Author = {Hall, WG and Williams, CL},
   Title = {Suckling Isn't Feeding, or Is It? A Search for Developmental
             Continuities},
   Journal = {Advances in the Study of Behavior},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {219-254},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {1983},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0065-3454},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-3454(08)60290-9},
   Abstract = {This chapter describes the suckling behavior of infant rats
             and some of the recently developed techniques used to study
             it. It provides a basis for discussion of the relationship
             between suckling and later ingestive behavior. It is assumed
             that at least two possible states of affairs could exist:
             (1) either the suckling system and later ingestion are
             continuous and based on the same underlying neural
             structures and organization, with suckling merely undergoing
             changes that turn it into the adult ingestive system by the
             time of weaning; or (2) the adult ingestive system is built
             on a separate ingestive structure and has little in common
             with that of suckling. The chapter discusses the ways in
             which suckling behavior differs from later ingestive
             behavior and points out suggestive differences in the
             physiological controls and neural substrates of suckling and
             later ingestion. It shows that another ingestive system does
             exist in rat pups concurrently with suckling, and while it
             is not used by the infant during normal development, this
             system may represent the true forerunner of later ingestive
             behavior. © 1983, Academic Press, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0065-3454(08)60290-9},
   Key = {fds254529}
}

@article{fds254527,
   Author = {Pedersen, PE and Williams, CL and Blass, EM},
   Title = {Activation and odor conditioning of suckling behavior in
             3-day-old albino rats.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior
             Processes},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {329-341},
   Year = {1982},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0097-7403},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0097-7403.8.4.329},
   Abstract = {The circumstances under which a novel odor could elicit
             nipple attachment behavior in 3-day-old albino rats were
             investigated. In Experiment 1, rats suckled washed nipples
             scented with citral (a lemon odor) only if they either had
             received tactile stimulation (by stroking with a soft
             artist's brush) or had been administered amphetamine in the
             presence of citral prior to the suckling test. Pups
             stimulated in citral's absence or simply exposed to citral
             without stimulation failed to suckle such nipples. In
             Experiment 2, rats stimulated in a benzaldehyde (an almond
             odor) ambience suckled washed nipples scented with
             benzaldehyde but not those with citral scent. The opposite
             held for rats stimulated in a citral-rich environment. The
             stimulus conditions that support this conditioning were
             investigated in Experiment 3. Simultaneously increasing
             citral concentration and raising ambient temperature
             markedly attenuated the phenomenon. Experiment 4
             demonstrated that not all classes of stimulation produced
             conditioning. Caffeine, in a wide range of doses, did not
             allow citral to elicit suckling on washed nipples. These
             findings are discussed within a framework of higher order
             conditioning. They may provide a mechanism by which
             naturally occurring stimuli come to elicit the species- and
             age-typical behavior of suckling.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0097-7403.8.4.329},
   Key = {fds254527}
}

@article{fds254528,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Hall, WG and Rosenblatt, JS},
   Title = {Changing oral cues in suckling of weaning-age rats: Possible
             contributions to weaning},
   Journal = {Journal of Comparative and Physiological
             Psychology},
   Volume = {94},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {472-483},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {1980},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0021-9940},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077682},
   Abstract = {Four experiments assessed the relative contribution of oral
             and nutritional stimuli in the control of suckling in 20-
             and 25-day-old Sprague-Dawley CD rat pups. Oral factors were
             critical to suckling satiety, since the initiation of a
             suckling bout in weanling pups was not retarded by food
             infused directly into the stomach. As late as 20 days of
             age, suckling deprivation induced suckling largely through
             its stimulus-deprivation effects (olfactory, gustatory,
             somesthetic, and proprioceptive sensations) rather than
             through its food-deprivation effects. By 25 days of age, the
             type of oral stimulation that led to suckling satiety
             expanded; oral stimulation provided by independent feeding
             acquired characteristics that allowed it also to inhibit
             suckling. This developmental change in the stimuli that
             modulated suckling did not appear to be critically dependent
             on sensory changes in the dam or experiential events within
             the litter. The behavioral change, therefore, may represent
             a maturation of neural systems that facilitate the
             transition from suckling to independent feeding. (38 ref)
             (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights
             reserved). © 1980 American Psychological
             Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0077682},
   Key = {fds254528}
}

@article{fds254525,
   Author = {Williams, CL and Rosenblatt, JS and Hall, WG},
   Title = {Inhibition of suckling in weaning-age rats: a possible
             serotonergic mechanism.},
   Journal = {Journal of Comparative and Physiological
             Psychology},
   Volume = {93},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {414-429},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077592},
   Abstract = {The nature, development, and specificity of serotonergic
             involvement in the control of suckling behavior in rat pups
             from 10 to 35 days of age were studied. During development,
             suckling normally declines after 10 days and is abandoned
             after 30 days. It was found that (a) methysergide, a
             serotonin (5-HT) receptor blocker, reinstated suckling
             behavior in pups 15 days of age and older but had no effect
             on the suckling of 10-day old pups, (b) quipazine, a 5-HT
             receptor agonist, inhibited suckling of pups 10 days of age
             and older, (c) methysergide pretreatment blocked the
             quipazine inhibition of suckling, and (d) metergoline,
             another 5-HT blocker, also stimulated suckling, and
             fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, blocked suckling in deprived
             pups. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a
             serotonergic inhibitory mechanism modulates the suckling of
             weaning-age rats. These pharmacological manipulations of
             5-HT appear to alter specific components of suckling
             behavior involved in its initiation and maintenance but do
             not appear to alter a general hunger system.},
   Doi = {10.1037/h0077592},
   Key = {fds254525}
}

@article{fds254524,
   Author = {Nock, B and Williams, CL and Hall, WG},
   Title = {Suckling behavior of the infant rat: modulation by a
             developing neurotransmitter system.},
   Journal = {Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {277-280},
   Year = {1978},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0091-3057},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-3057(78)90316-7},
   Abstract = {Drugs which alter serotonin receptor activity modified the
             suckling behavior of 20-day-old rat pups. Suckling could be
             reinstated in nondeprived pups, which normally do not
             suckle, by blockade of serotonin receptors with
             methysergide. Stimulation of serotonin receptors with
             quipazine inhibited suckling in deprived pups, and this
             effect was prevented by methysergide pretreatment. This
             evidence suggests that suckling in weaning age pups is
             controlled by a serotonergic inhibitory mechanism.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0091-3057(78)90316-7},
   Key = {fds254524}
}

@article{fds254526,
   Author = {McGill, TE and Albelda, SM and Bible, HH and Williams,
             CL},
   Title = {Inhibition of the ejaculatory reflex in B6D2F mice by
             testosterone propionate.},
   Journal = {Behavioral Biology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {373-378},
   Year = {1976},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0091-6773},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0091-6773(76)91512-1},
   Abstract = {Testosterone propionate was administered in adulthood to
             neonatally androgenized female house mice and castrated male
             house mice of the B6D2F1 genotype. Lengthening of
             Ejaculation Latency (a measure of mating time) occurred in
             both groups. Castrated males showed a proportional increase
             in Ejaculation Latency with increasing dose. This result,
             which we believe to be the first of its kind, suggests that
             testosterone propionate inhibits the ejaculatory reflex in
             this genotype. © 1976 Academic Press, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0091-6773(76)91512-1},
   Key = {fds254526}
}

@article{fds254523,
   Author = {Kristal, MB and Williams, CL},
   Title = {The effects of strain, reproductive condition, and strain of
             placenta donor on placentophagia in nonpregnan
             mice},
   Journal = {Physiological Psychology},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {354-356},
   Year = {1973},
   Abstract = {The effects on placentophagia of strain, reproductive
             condition, and strain of placenta donor were observed in
             nonpregnant mice. Mice of the C57BL7/6By and BALB/cBy
             strains were exposed to placentas of either strain after
             either no previous parturitional experience, one
             parturitional experience without nursing experience, or one
             parturitional experience with nursing experience. There was
             a significant effect of strain, a significant effect of
             reproductive condition, but no significant effect of strain
             of placenta donor. There was a significant interaction
             between strain and reproductive condition, but no
             significant interactions with placenta strain. It was
             inferred that the ability of a mouse to acquire and utilize
             relevant stimuli during and after parturition, in order to
             produce an emancipation of placentophagia from the
             physiological controls associated with parturition, is
             influenced by genotype.},
   Key = {fds254523}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds26272,
   Author = {Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {Hormones and Cognition},
   Pages = {527-577},
   Booktitle = {Behavioral Endocrinology},
   Publisher = {Boston, MA, MIT Press},
   Editor = {Becker, J.B. and Breedlove, S.M. and Crews, D.},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds26272}
}

@misc{fds26273,
   Author = {C.L. Williams and Mohler, E.G.},
   Title = {Prenatal Choline Supplementation Modifies Brain Development:
             Improved Cognition and Neuroprotection},
   Pages = {1-14},
   Booktitle = {Diet-Brain Connections: Impact on Memory, Aging and
             Disease},
   Publisher = {Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic},
   Editor = {M. Mattson},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds26273}
}


%% Articles Submitted   
@article{fds221976,
   Author = {Kristen E. Pleil and Marsha R. Penner and Rosalie Y. Yan and Christina L. Williams},
   Title = {Estradiol state modulates the reliability of Arc mRNA
             expression in the intact female rat hippocampus and dorsal
             striatum during spatial navigation},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience, submitted},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds221976}
}

@article{fds221979,
   Author = {Tognoni CM and Flores CT and Chavez-Wulsin A and Babb EA and Kurtzberg
             J, Friedman HS and Jones LW and Williams CL},
   Title = {Voluntary running recovers hippocampal neuroplasticity
             following whole-brain irradiation in immunodeficient
             mice},
   Journal = {Brain, Behavior and Immunity},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds221979}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds11622,
   Author = {Albright, C.D. and Siwek, D.F. and Craciuneuscu, C.N. and Mar, M.H. and Williams, C.L. and Kowall, N.W. and Blusztajn, N.},
   Title = {"Maternal Dietary Choline Availability Results in
             Alterations in the Localization of Calretinin in Fetal Mouse
             Hippocampus that are Retained in Adult Mouse
             Brain"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {28},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11622}
}

@misc{fds11623,
   Author = {Lamoureux, J.A. and Buhusi, C.V. and Williams, C.L. and Meck,
             W.H.},
   Title = {"Variations in Prenatal Choline Availability alter
             Attentional Processing of Temporal Information in Adult
             Rats"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {28},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11623}
}

@misc{fds11624,
   Author = {McGowan, P.O. and Hope, T.A and Williams, C.L. and Kelsoe, G. and Meck, W.H.},
   Title = {"Impairment of Social Recognition Memory in RAG-1-But not
             RAG-2-Deficient Mice"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {28},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11624}
}

@misc{fds11625,
   Author = {Mohler, E.G. and Meck, W.H. and Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {"Prenatal Choline Supplementation Rescues Memory Deficits
             Caused by Apolipoprotein e Deficiency in Female c57bl/6j
             Mice"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {28},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11625}
}

@misc{fds11617,
   Author = {Lamoureux, J.A. and Meck, W.H. and Williams,
             C.L.},
   Title = {"Variations in Prenatal Choline Availability Alter
             Contextual Processing during Pavlovian Conditiong in Adult
             Rats"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {Prog. #79},
   Pages = {18},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11617}
}

@misc{fds11618,
   Author = {McGowan, P.O. and Chun, D.E. and Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {"Role of Estrogen in Social and Object Recognition Memory in
             Mice"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {Program #188},
   Pages = {16},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11618}
}

@misc{fds11626,
   Author = {C.L. Williams and Lamoureux, J.A. and Meck, W.H.},
   Title = {"Variations in Maternal Dietary Intake of Choline Alter
             Pavlovian Occasion Setting Learning of the
             Offspring"},
   Journal = {Society for Neuroscience Abstracts},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {Program #79},
   Pages = {19},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11626}
}

@misc{fds11627,
   Author = {McGowen, P. and Williams, C.L.},
   Title = {"Estradiol Modulation and Sex Differences in Social
             Recognition Memory in Mice"},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11627}
}


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