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Publications of Marty G. Woldorff    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds341036,
   Author = {Truong, T-K and Roberts, KC and Woldorff, MG and Song,
             AW},
   Title = {Toward direct MRI of neuro-electro-magnetic oscillations in
             the human brain.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {81},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {3462-3475},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27654},
   Abstract = {PURPOSE:Neuroimaging techniques are widely used to
             investigate the function of the human brain, but none are
             currently able to accurately localize neuronal activity with
             both high spatial and temporal specificity. Here, a new in
             vivo MRI acquisition and analysis technique based on the
             spin-lock mechanism is developed to noninvasively image
             local magnetic field oscillations resulting from
             neuroelectric activity in specifiable frequency bands.
             METHODS:Simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo
             experiments using an eyes-open/eyes-closed task in 8 healthy
             volunteers were performed to demonstrate its sensitivity and
             specificity for detecting oscillatory neuroelectric activity
             in the alpha-band (8-12 Hz). A comprehensive postprocessing
             procedure was designed to enhance the neuroelectric signal,
             while minimizing any residual hemodynamic and physiological
             confounds. RESULTS:The phantom results show that this
             technique can detect 0.06-nT magnetic field oscillations,
             while the in vivo results demonstrate that it can image
             task-based modulations of neuroelectric oscillatory activity
             in the alpha-band. Multiple control experiments and a
             comparison with conventional BOLD functional MRI suggest
             that the activation was likely not due to any residual
             hemodynamic or physiological confounds. CONCLUSION:These
             initial results provide evidence suggesting that this new
             technique has the potential to noninvasively and directly
             image neuroelectric activity in the human brain in vivo.
             With further development, this approach offers the promise
             of being able to do so with a combination of spatial and
             temporal specificity that is beyond what can be achieved
             with existing neuroimaging methods, which can advance our
             ability to study the functions and dysfunctions of the human
             brain.},
   Doi = {10.1002/mrm.27654},
   Key = {fds341036}
}

@article{fds340488,
   Author = {Bugden, S and Woldorff, MG and Brannon, EM},
   Title = {Shared and distinct neural circuitry for nonsymbolic and
             symbolic double-digit addition.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1328-1343},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.24452},
   Abstract = {Symbolic arithmetic is a complex, uniquely human ability
             that is acquired through direct instruction. In contrast,
             the capacity to mentally add and subtract nonsymbolic
             quantities such as dot arrays emerges without instruction
             and can be seen in human infants and nonhuman animals. One
             possibility is that the mental manipulation of nonsymbolic
             arrays provides a critical scaffold for developing symbolic
             arithmetic abilities. To explore this hypothesis, we
             examined whether there is a shared neural basis for
             nonsymbolic and symbolic double-digit addition. In parallel,
             we asked whether there are brain regions that are associated
             with nonsymbolic and symbolic addition independently. First,
             relative to visually matched control tasks, we found that
             both nonsymbolic and symbolic addition elicited greater
             neural signal in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS),
             bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and the right superior
             parietal lobule. Subsequent representational similarity
             analyses revealed that the neural similarity between
             nonsymbolic and symbolic addition was stronger relative to
             the similarity between each addition condition and its
             visually matched control task, but only in the bilateral
             IPS. These findings suggest that the IPS is involved in
             arithmetic calculation independent of stimulus
             format.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.24452},
   Key = {fds340488}
}

@article{fds341290,
   Author = {Berger, M and Oyeyemi, D and Olurinde, MO and Whitson, HE and Weinhold,
             KJ and Woldorff, MG and Lipsitz, LA and Moretti, E and Giattino, CM and Roberts, KC and Zhou, J and Bunning, T and Ferrandino, M and Scheri, RP and Cooter, M and Chan, C and Cabeza, R and Browndyke, JN and Murdoch, DM and Devinney, MJ and Shaw, LM and Cohen, HJ and Mathew, JP and INTUIT
             Investigators},
   Title = {The INTUIT Study: Investigating Neuroinflammation Underlying
             Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Geriatrics Society},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15770},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Every year, up to 40% of the more than
             16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery
             develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or
             delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated
             with decreased quality of life, increased mortality, and a
             possible increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. One
             pathologic process hypothesized to underlie both delirium
             and POCD is neuroinflammation. The INTUIT study described
             here will determine the extent to which postoperative
             increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocyte
             chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels and monocyte
             numbers are associated with delirium and/or POCD and their
             underlying brain connectivity changes. DESIGN:Observational
             prospective cohort. SETTING:Duke University Medical Center,
             Duke Regional Hospital, and Duke Raleigh Hospital.
             PARTICIPANTS:Patients 60 years of age or older (N = 200)
             undergoing noncardiac/nonneurologic surgery.
             MEASUREMENTS:Participants will undergo cognitive testing
             before, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. Delirium
             screening will be performed on postoperative days 1 to 5.
             Blood and CSF samples are obtained before surgery, and 24
             hours, 6 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. CSF MCP-1 levels
             are measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and CSF
             monocytes are assessed by flow cytometry. Half the patients
             will also undergo pre- and postoperative functional magnetic
             resonance imaging scans. 32-channel intraoperative
             electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings will be performed to
             identify intraoperative EEG correlates of neuroinflammation
             and/or postoperative cognitive resilience. Eighty patients
             will also undergo home sleep apnea testing to determine the
             relationships between sleep apnea severity,
             neuroinflammation, and impaired postoperative cognition.
             Additional assessments will help evaluate relationships
             between delirium, POCD, and other geriatric syndromes.
             CONCLUSION:INTUIT will use a transdisciplinary approach to
             study the role of neuroinflammation in postoperative
             delirium and cognitive dysfunction and their associated
             functional brain connectivity changes, and it may identify
             novel targets for treating and/or preventing delirium and
             POCD and their sequelae.},
   Doi = {10.1111/jgs.15770},
   Key = {fds341290}
}

@article{fds341291,
   Author = {van den Berg, B and Geib, BR and San Martin and R and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {A key role for stimulus-specific updating of the sensory
             cortices in the learning of stimulus-reward
             associations.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsy116},
   Abstract = {Successful adaptive behavior requires the learning of
             associations between stimulus-specific choices and rewarding
             outcomes. Most research on the mechanisms underlying such
             processes has focused on subcortical reward-processing
             regions, in conjunction with frontal circuits. Given the
             extensive stimulus-specific coding in the sensory cortices,
             we hypothesized they would play a key role in the learning
             of stimulus-specific reward associations. We recorded
             electrical brain activity (EEG) during a learning-based,
             decision-making, gambling task where, on each trial,
             participants chose between a face and a house and then
             received feedback (gain or loss). Within each 20-trial set,
             either faces or houses were more likely to predict a gain.
             Results showed that early feedback processing (~200-1200ms)
             was independent of the choice made. In contrast, later
             feedback processing (~1400-1800ms) was stimulus-specific,
             reflected by decreased alpha power (reflecting increased
             cortical activity) over face-selective regions. For
             winning-versus-losing after a face choice, but not after a
             house choice. Finally, as the reward association was learned
             in a set, there was increasingly stronger attentional bias
             towards the more likely winning stimulus, reflected by
             increasing attentional-orienting-related brain activity and
             increasing likelihood of choosing that stimulus. These
             results delineate the processes underlying the updating of
             stimulus-reward associations during feedback-guided
             learning, which then guides future attentional allocation
             and decision making.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsy116},
   Key = {fds341291}
}

@article{fds336101,
   Author = {DeWind, NK and Park, J and Woldorff, MG and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Numerical encoding in early visual cortex.},
   Journal = {Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System
             and Behavior},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2018.03.027},
   Abstract = {The ability to estimate numerosity in a visual array arose
             early in evolution, develops early in human development, and
             is correlated with mathematical ability. Previous work with
             visually presented arrays indicates that the intraparietal
             sulcus (IPS) represents number. However, it is not clear if
             the number signal originates in IPS or is propagated from
             earlier visual areas. Previous work from our group has
             demonstrated a rapidly instantiated representation of number
             in low-level regions of visual cortex using the high
             temporal resolution of event-related electro-encephalography
             (EEG). Here, we use a rapid event-related functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm and find
             convergent evidence for a number signal in low-level visual
             cortex (areas V1, V2, and V3). Employing a stringent set of
             stimulus controls, we demonstrate that this signal cannot be
             explained by the total extent of the array, the density of
             the items in the array, the aggregate visual area of the
             items, the size of individual items, the proportion of the
             array covered by items, nor the overall scale of the array
             and items. Our findings thus provide strong support for the
             hypothesis that number is rapidly and directly encoded early
             in the visual processing stream.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cortex.2018.03.027},
   Key = {fds336101}
}

@article{fds332920,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Donohue, SE and Ilse, A and Ariel Schoenfeld and M and Heinze, H-J and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {EEG measures of brain activity reveal that smoking-related
             images capture the attention of smokers outside of
             awareness.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {111},
   Pages = {324-333},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.005},
   Abstract = {The capture of attention by substance-related stimuli in
             dependent users is a major factor in the maintenance and/or
             cessation of substance use. The present study examined the
             automaticity of this process in smokers, as well as the
             effects of craving. Event-related potential (ERP) measures
             of spatial-attention allocation (N2pc) and extended target
             processing (SPCN) were isolated during an
             object-substitution masking (OSM) task that disrupted the
             perceptual visibility of smoking-related and office-related
             targets. Each participant completed two experimental
             sessions: one in which they were deprived of nicotine for a
             period of several hours prior to the session (craving), and
             one before which they were allowed to smoke (non-craving).
             Results were consistent with an account of automatic
             attentional capture by smoking-related images outside of
             awareness, with masked trials yielding a selective
             enhancement of the attention-sensitive N2pc in response to
             these images, but in the absence of a corresponding
             behavioral enhancement on those trials. Finally, the
             manipulation of craving appeared to increase the overall
             task demand, yielding an enhancement of the SPCN component
             across target type and masking conditions. Together, these
             results suggest that smoking-related visual stimuli in the
             environment can capture the attention of smokers outside of
             awareness, in what seems to be an automatic
             process.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.02.005},
   Key = {fds332920}
}

@article{fds328873,
   Author = {Green, JJ and Boehler, CN and Roberts, KC and Chen, L-C and Krebs, RM and Song, AW and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Cortical and Subcortical Coordination of Visual Spatial
             Attention Revealed by Simultaneous EEG-fMRI
             Recording.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {33},
   Pages = {7803-7810},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0326-17.2017},
   Abstract = {Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with
             both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the
             intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone,
             our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying
             attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined
             trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and
             fMRI in a cued visual spatial attention task in humans,
             which allowed delineation of both the generators and
             modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory
             brain activity underlying attentional control function. The
             fMRI activity in visual cortical regions contralateral to
             the cued direction of attention covaried positively with
             occipital gamma-band EEG, consistent with activation of
             cortical regions representing attended locations in space.
             In contrast, fMRI activity in ipsilateral visual cortical
             regions covaried inversely with occipital alpha-band
             oscillations, consistent with attention-related suppression
             of the irrelevant hemispace. Moreover, the pulvinar nucleus
             of the thalamus covaried with both of these spatially
             specific, attention-related, oscillatory EEG modulations.
             Because the pulvinar's neuroanatomical geometry makes it
             unlikely to be a direct generator of the scalp-recorded EEG,
             these covariational patterns appear to reflect the
             pulvinar's role as a regulatory control structure, sending
             spatially specific signals to modulate visual cortex
             excitability proactively. Together, these combined EEG/fMRI
             results illuminate the dynamically interacting cortical and
             subcortical processes underlying spatial attention,
             providing important insight not realizable using either
             method alone.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Noninvasive recordings
             of changes in the brain's blood flow using functional
             magnetic resonance imaging and electrical activity using
             electroencephalography in humans have individually shown
             that shifting attention to a location in space produces
             spatially specific changes in visual cortex activity in
             anticipation of a stimulus. The mechanisms controlling these
             attention-related modulations of sensory cortex, however,
             are poorly understood. Here, we recorded these two
             complementary measures of brain activity simultaneously and
             examined their trial-to-trial covariations to gain insight
             into these attentional control mechanisms. This
             multi-methodological approach revealed the attention-related
             coordination of visual cortex modulation by the subcortical
             pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus while also disentangling
             the mechanisms underlying the attentional enhancement of
             relevant stimulus input and those underlying the concurrent
             suppression of irrelevant input.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0326-17.2017},
   Key = {fds328873}
}

@article{fds327558,
   Author = {Fornaciai, M and Brannon, EM and Woldorff, MG and Park,
             J},
   Title = {Numerosity processing in early visual cortex.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {157},
   Pages = {429-438},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.069},
   Abstract = {While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for
             representing numerical magnitudes, we recently reported an
             event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrating selective
             neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital
             sites very early in the time course, suggesting the
             involvement of early visual cortex in numerosity processing.
             However, which specific brain area underlies such early
             activation is not known. Here, we tested whether
             numerosity-sensitive neural signatures arise specifically
             from the initial stages of visual cortex, aiming to localize
             the generator of these signals by taking advantage of the
             distinctive folding pattern of early occipital cortices
             around the calcarine sulcus, which predicts an inversion of
             polarity of ERPs arising from these areas when stimuli are
             presented in the upper versus lower visual field. Dot
             arrays, including 8-32dots constructed systematically across
             various numerical and non-numerical visual attributes, were
             presented randomly in either the upper or lower visual
             hemifields. Our results show that neural responses at about
             90ms post-stimulus were robustly sensitive to numerosity.
             Moreover, the peculiar pattern of polarity inversion of
             numerosity-sensitive activity at this stage suggested its
             generation primarily in V2 and V3. In contrast,
             numerosity-sensitive ERP activity at occipito-parietal
             channels later in the time course (210-230ms) did not show
             polarity inversion, indicating a subsequent processing stage
             in the dorsal stream. Overall, these results demonstrate
             that numerosity processing begins in one of the earliest
             stages of the cortical visual stream.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.069},
   Key = {fds327558}
}

@article{fds328360,
   Author = {Giattino, CM and Alam, ZM and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Neural processes underlying the orienting of attention
             without awareness.},
   Journal = {Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System
             and Behavior},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2017.07.010},
   Abstract = {Despite long being of interest to both philosophers and
             scientists, the relationship between attention and
             perceptual awareness is not well understood, especially to
             what extent they are even dissociable. Previous studies have
             shown that stimuli of which we are unaware can orient
             spatial attention and affect behavior. Yet, relatively
             little is understood about the neural processes underlying
             such unconscious orienting of attention, and how they
             compare to conscious orienting. To directly compare the
             cascade of attentional processes with and without awareness
             of the orienting stimulus, we employed a spatial-cueing
             paradigm and used object-substitution masking to manipulate
             subjects' awareness of the cues. We recorded EEG during the
             task, from which we extracted hallmark event-related-potential
             (ERP) indices of attention. Behaviorally, there was a 61 ms
             validity effect (invalidly minus validly cued target RTs) on
             cue-aware trials. On cue-unaware trials, subjects also had a
             robust validity effect of 20 ms, despite being unaware of
             the cue. An N2pc to the cue, a hallmark ERP index of the
             lateralized orienting of attention, was observed for
             cue-aware but not cue-unaware trials, despite the latter
             showing a clear behavioral validity effect. Finally, the P1
             sensory-ERP response to the targets was larger when validly
             versus invalidly cued, even when subjects were unaware of
             the preceding cue, demonstrating enhanced sensory processing
             of targets following subliminal cues. These results suggest
             that subliminal stimuli can orient attention and lead to
             subsequent enhancements to both stimulus sensory processing
             and behavior, but through different neural mechanisms (such
             as via a subcortical pathway) than stimuli we
             perceive.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cortex.2017.07.010},
   Key = {fds328360}
}

@article{fds327557,
   Author = {Park, J and van den Berg, B and Chiang, C and Woldorff, MG and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Developmental trajectory of neural specialization for letter
             and number visual processing.},
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/desc.12578},
   Abstract = {Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable
             neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response
             to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals),
             which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and
             mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental
             trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP) patterns
             evoked by visual processing of letters, numbers, and false
             fonts were examined in four different age groups (7-, 10-,
             15-year-olds, and young adults). The 15-year-olds and adults
             showed greater neural sensitivity to letters over numbers in
             the left visual cortex and the reverse pattern in the right
             visual cortex, extending previous findings in adults to
             teenagers. In marked contrast, 7- and 10-year-olds did not
             show this dissociable neural pattern. Furthermore, the
             contrast of familiar stimuli (letters or numbers) versus
             unfamiliar ones (false fonts) showed stark ERP differences
             between the younger (7- and 10-year-olds) and the older
             (15-year-olds and adults) participants. These results
             suggest that both coarse (familiar versus unfamiliar) and
             fine (letters versus numbers) tuning for letters and numbers
             continue throughout childhood and early adolescence,
             demonstrating a profound impact of uniquely human cultural
             inventions on visual cognition and its development.},
   Doi = {10.1111/desc.12578},
   Key = {fds327557}
}

@article{fds323862,
   Author = {Geib, BR and Stanley, ML and Dennis, NA and Woldorff, MG and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {From hippocampus to whole-brain: The role of integrative
             processing in episodic memory retrieval.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2242-2259},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23518},
   Abstract = {Multivariate functional connectivity analyses of
             neuroimaging data have revealed the importance of complex,
             distributed interactions between disparate yet
             interdependent brain regions. Recent work has shown that
             topological properties of functional brain networks are
             associated with individual and group differences in
             cognitive performance, including in episodic memory. After
             constructing functional whole-brain networks derived from an
             event-related fMRI study of memory retrieval, we examined
             differences in functional brain network architecture between
             forgotten and remembered words. This study yielded three
             main findings. First, graph theory analyses showed that
             successfully remembering compared to forgetting was
             associated with significant changes in the connectivity
             profile of the left hippocampus and a corresponding increase
             in efficient communication with the rest of the brain.
             Second, bivariate functional connectivity analyses indicated
             stronger interactions between the left hippocampus and a
             retrieval assembly for remembered versus forgotten items.
             This assembly included the left precuneus, left caudate,
             bilateral supramarginal gyrus, and the bilateral
             dorsolateral superior frontal gyrus. Integrative properties
             of the retrieval assembly were greater for remembered than
             forgotten items. Third, whole-brain modularity analyses
             revealed that successful memory retrieval was marginally
             significantly associated with a less segregated modular
             architecture in the network. The magnitude of the decreases
             in modularity between remembered and forgotten conditions
             was related to memory performance. These findings indicate
             that increases in integrative properties at the nodal,
             retrieval assembly, and whole-brain topological levels
             facilitate memory retrieval, while also underscoring the
             potential of multivariate brain connectivity approaches for
             providing valuable new insights into the neural bases of
             memory processes. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2242-2259, 2017. © 2017
             Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.23518},
   Key = {fds323862}
}

@article{fds323729,
   Author = {McKay, CC and van den Berg, B and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Neural cascade of conflict processing: Not just
             time-on-task.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {96},
   Pages = {184-191},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.12.022},
   Abstract = {In visual conflict tasks (e.g., Stroop or flanker), response
             times (RTs) are generally longer on incongruent trials
             relative to congruent ones. Two event-related-potential
             (ERP) components classically associated with the processing
             of stimulus conflict are the fronto-central,
             incongruency-related negativity (Ninc) and the posterior
             late-positive complex (LPC), which are derived from the ERP
             difference waves for incongruent minus congruent trials. It
             has been questioned, however, whether these effects, or
             other neural measures of incongruency (e.g., fMRI responses
             in the anterior cingulate), reflect true conflict
             processing, or whether such effects derive mainly from
             differential time-on-task. To address this question, we
             leveraged high-temporal-resolution ERP measures of brain
             activity during two behavioral tasks. The first task, a
             modified Erikson flanker paradigm (with congruent and
             incongruent trials), was used to evoke the classic RT and
             ERP effects associated with conflict. The second was a
             non-conflict control task in which, participants visually
             discriminated a single stimulus (with easy and hard
             discrimination conditions). Behaviorally, the parameters
             were titrated to yield similar RT effects of conflict and
             difficulty (27ms). Neurally, both within-task contrasts
             showed an initial fronto-central negative-polarity wave
             (N2-latency effect), but they then diverged. In the
             difficulty difference wave, the initial negativity led
             directly into the posterior LPC, whereas in the incongruency
             contrast the initial negativity was followed a by a second
             fronto-central negative peak (Ninc), which was then followed
             by a considerably longer-latency LPC. These results provide
             clear evidence that the longer processing for incongruent
             stimulus inputs do not just reflect time-on-task or
             difficulty, but include a true conflict-processing
             component.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.12.022},
   Key = {fds323729}
}

@article{fds327140,
   Author = {Giattino, CM and Gardner, JE and Sbahi, FM and Roberts, KC and Cooter,
             M and Moretti, E and Browndyke, JN and Mathew, JP and Woldorff, MG and Berger, M and MADCO-PC Investigators},
   Title = {Intraoperative Frontal Alpha-Band Power Correlates with
             Preoperative Neurocognitive Function in Older
             Adults.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience},
   Volume = {11},
   Pages = {24},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2017.00024},
   Abstract = {Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general
             anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative
             delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and
             POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life,
             early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term
             cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus
             suggested that anesthesia and surgery place severe stress on
             the aging brain, and that patients with less ability to
             withstand this stress will be at increased risk for
             developing postoperative delirium and POCD. Delirium and
             POCD risk are increased in patients with lower preoperative
             cognitive function, yet preoperative cognitive function is
             not routinely assessed, and no intraoperative physiological
             predictors have been found that correlate with lower
             preoperative cognitive function. Since general anesthesia
             causes alpha-band (8-12 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) power
             to decrease occipitally and increase frontally (known as
             "anteriorization"), and anesthetic-induced frontal alpha
             power is reduced in older adults, we hypothesized that lower
             intraoperative frontal alpha power might correlate with
             lower preoperative cognitive function. Here, we provide
             evidence that such a correlation exists, suggesting that
             lower intraoperative frontal alpha power could be used as a
             physiological marker to identify older adults with lower
             preoperative cognitive function. Lower intraoperative
             frontal alpha power could thus be used to target these
             at-risk patients for possible therapeutic interventions to
             help prevent postoperative delirium and POCD, or for
             increased postoperative monitoring and follow-up. More
             generally, these results suggest that understanding
             interindividual differences in how the brain responds to
             anesthetic drugs can be used as a probe of neurocognitive
             function (and dysfunction), and might be a useful measure of
             neurocognitive function in older adults.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnsys.2017.00024},
   Key = {fds327140}
}

@article{fds323863,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Woldorff, MG and Hopf, J-M and Harris, JA and Heinze,
             H-J and Schoenfeld, MA},
   Title = {An electrophysiological dissociation of craving and
             stimulus-dependent attentional capture in
             smokers.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1114-1126},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-016-0457-9},
   Abstract = {It has been suggested that over the course of an addiction,
             addiction-related stimuli become highly salient in the
             environment, thereby capturing an addict's attention. To
             assess these effects neurally in smokers, and how they
             interact with craving, we recorded electroencephalography
             (EEG) in two sessions: one in which participants had just
             smoked (non-craving), and one in which they had abstained
             from smoking for 3 h (craving). In both sessions,
             participants performed a visual-search task in which two
             colored squares were presented to the left and right of
             fixation, with one color being the target to which they
             should shift attention and discriminate the locations of two
             missing corners. Task-irrelevant images, both
             smoking-related and non-smoking-related, were embedded in
             both squares, enabling the shift of spatial attention to the
             target to be examined as a function of the addiction-related
             image being present or absent in the target, the distractor,
             or both. Behaviorally, participants were slower to respond
             to targets containing a smoking-related image. Furthermore,
             when the target contained a smoking-related image, the
             neural responses indicated that attention had been shifted
             less strongly to the target; when the distractor contained a
             smoking-related image, the shift of attention to the
             contralateral target was stronger. These effects occurred
             independently of craving and suggest that participants were
             actively avoiding the smoking-related images. Together,
             these results provide an electrophysiological dissociation
             between addiction-related visual-stimulus processing and the
             neural activity associated with craving.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-016-0457-9},
   Key = {fds323863}
}

@article{fds323351,
   Author = {van den Berg, B and Appelbaum, LG and Clark, K and Lorist, MM and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Visual search performance is predicted by both prestimulus
             and poststimulus electrical brain activity.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {37718},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37718},
   Abstract = {An individual's performance on cognitive and perceptual
             tasks varies considerably across time and circumstances. We
             investigated neural mechanisms underlying such performance
             variability using regression-based analyses to examine
             trial-by-trial relationships between response times (RTs)
             and different facets of electrical brain activity. Thirteen
             participants trained five days on a color-popout
             visual-search task, with EEG recorded on days one and five.
             The task was to find a color-popout target ellipse in a
             briefly presented array of ellipses and discriminate its
             orientation. Later within a session, better preparatory
             attention (reflected by less prestimulus Alpha-band
             oscillatory activity) and better poststimulus early visual
             responses (reflected by larger sensory N1 waves) correlated
             with faster RTs. However, N1 amplitudes decreased by half
             throughout each session, suggesting adoption of a more
             efficient search strategy within a session. Additionally,
             fast RTs were preceded by earlier and larger lateralized
             N2pc waves, reflecting faster and stronger attentional
             orienting to the targets. Finally, SPCN waves associated
             with target-orientation discrimination were smaller for fast
             RTs in the first but not the fifth session, suggesting
             optimization with practice. Collectively, these results
             delineate variations in visual search processes that change
             over an experimental session, while also pointing to
             cortical mechanisms underlying performance in visual
             search.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep37718},
   Key = {fds323351}
}

@article{fds323864,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Harris, JA and Heinze, H-J and Woldorff, MG and Schoenfeld, MA},
   Title = {An electrophysiological marker of the desire to quit in
             smokers.},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2735-2741},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13386},
   Abstract = {For many smokers, the motivational state of craving is a
             central feature of their dependence on nicotine, and is
             often at odds with a general desire to quit. How this desire
             to quit may influence the craving for a cigarette, however,
             is unclear. In the current study, we manipulated the level
             of craving in 24 regular smokers, and recorded EEG measures
             of brain activity during a rare target detection task
             utilizing addiction-unrelated stimuli. In response to the
             non-targets, we observed that smokers wanting to quit showed
             an enhanced late frontal activation when they were craving
             vs. not craving, whereas smokers not wanting to quit showed
             the opposite pattern of activity. A dissociation was also
             present in the target-related P300 response as a function of
             craving and desire to quit, with smokers who did not want to
             quit processing targets differentially between the states of
             craving and non-craving. The data suggest that distinct
             top-down control mechanisms during craving may be
             implemented by people who wish to quit smoking, as compared
             to those who do not wish to quit. This pattern of findings
             establishes this ERP activity as a potential biomarker that
             may help to differentiate people who want to quit their
             addiction from those who wish to continue to use their
             substance of choice.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ejn.13386},
   Key = {fds323864}
}

@article{fds323865,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Donohue, SE and Schoenfeld, MA and Hopf, J-M and Heinze,
             H-J and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Reward-associated features capture attention in the absence
             of awareness: Evidence from object-substitution
             masking.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {137},
   Pages = {116-123},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.010},
   Abstract = {Reward-associated visual features have been shown to capture
             visual attention, evidenced in faster and more accurate
             behavioral performance, as well as in neural responses
             reflecting lateralized shifts of visual attention to those
             features. Specifically, the contralateral N2pc
             event-related-potential (ERP) component that reflects
             attentional shifting exhibits increased amplitude in
             response to task-relevant targets containing a
             reward-associated feature. In the present study, we examined
             the automaticity of such reward-association effects using
             object-substitution masking (OSM) in conjunction with MEG
             measures of visual attentional shifts. In OSM, a
             visual-search array is presented, with the target item to be
             detected indicated by a surrounding mask (here, four
             surrounding squares). Delaying the offset of the
             target-surrounding four-dot mask relative to the offset of
             the rest of the target/distracter array disrupts the
             viewer's awareness of the target (masked condition), whereas
             simultaneous offsets do not (unmasked condition). Here we
             manipulated whether the color of the OSM target was or was
             not of a previously reward-associated color. By tracking
             reward-associated enhancements of behavior and the N2pc in
             response to masked targets containing a previously rewarded
             or unrewarded feature, the automaticity of attentional
             capture by reward could be probed. We found an enhanced N2pc
             response to targets containing a previously
             reward-associated color feature. Moreover, this enhancement
             of the N2pc by reward did not differ between masking
             conditions, nor did it differ as a function of the apparent
             visibility of the target within the masked condition.
             Overall, these results underscore the automaticity of
             attentional capture by reward-associated features, and
             demonstrate the ability of feature-based reward associations
             to shape attentional capture and allocation outside of
             perceptual awareness.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.05.010},
   Key = {fds323865}
}

@article{fds323866,
   Author = {Demeter, E and De Alburquerque and D and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The effects of ongoing distraction on the neural processes
             underlying signal detection.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {89},
   Pages = {335-343},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.06.038},
   Abstract = {Distraction can impede our ability to detect and effectively
             process task-relevant stimuli in our environment. Here we
             leveraged the high temporal resolution of event-related
             potentials (ERPs) to study the neural consequences of a
             global, continuous distractor on signal-detection processes.
             Healthy, young adults performed the dSAT task, a
             translational sustained-attention task that has been used
             across different species and in clinical groups, in the
             presence and absence of ongoing distracting stimulation. We
             found the presence of distracting stimuli impaired
             participants' ability to behaviorally detect task-relevant
             signal stimuli and greatly affected the neural cascade of
             processes underlying signal detection. Specifically, we
             found distraction reduced an anterior and a posterior
             early-latency N2 ERP component (~140-220ms) and modulated
             long-latency, detection-related P3 components (P3a:
             ~200-330ms, P3b: 300-700ms), even to correctly detected
             targets. These data provide evidence that distraction can
             induce powerful alterations in the neural processes related
             to signal detection, even when stimuli are behaviorally
             detected.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.06.038},
   Key = {fds323866}
}

@article{fds323867,
   Author = {Langford, ZD and Krebs, RM and Talsma, D and Woldorff, MG and Boehler,
             CN},
   Title = {Strategic down-regulation of attentional resources as a
             mechanism of proactive response inhibition.},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {2095-2103},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13303},
   Abstract = {Efficiently avoiding inappropriate actions in a changing
             environment is central to cognitive control. One mechanism
             contributing to this ability is the deliberate slowing down
             of responses in contexts where full response cancellation
             might occasionally be required, referred to as proactive
             response inhibition. The present electroencephalographic
             (EEG) study investigated the role of attentional processes
             in proactive response inhibition in humans. To this end, we
             compared data from a standard stop-signal task, in which
             stop signals required response cancellation
             ('stop-relevant'), to data where possible stop signals were
             task-irrelevant ('stop-irrelevant'). Behavioral data clearly
             indicated the presence of proactive slowing in the standard
             stop-signal task. A novel single-trial analysis was used to
             directly model the relationship between response time and
             the EEG data of the go-trials in both contexts within a
             multilevel linear models framework. We found a relationship
             between response time and amplitude of the attention-related
             N1 component in stop-relevant blocks, a characteristic that
             was fully absent in stop-irrelevant blocks. Specifically, N1
             amplitudes were lower the slower the response time,
             suggesting that attentional resources were being
             strategically down-regulated to control response speed.
             Drift diffusion modeling of the behavioral data indicated
             that multiple parameters differed across the two contexts,
             likely suggesting the contribution from independent brain
             mechanisms to proactive slowing. Hence, the attentional
             mechanism of proactive response control we report here might
             coexist with known mechanisms that are more directly tied to
             motoric response inhibition. As such, our study opens up new
             research avenues also concerning clinical conditions that
             feature deficits in proactive response inhibition.},
   Doi = {10.1111/ejn.13303},
   Key = {fds323867}
}

@article{fds323868,
   Author = {Demeter, E and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Transient Distraction and Attentional Control during a
             Sustained Selective Attention Task.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {935-947},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00949},
   Abstract = {Distracting stimuli in the environment can pull our
             attention away from our goal-directed tasks. fMRI studies
             have implicated regions in right frontal cortex as being
             particularly important for processing distractors [e.g., de
             Fockert, J. W., & Theeuwes, J. Role of frontal cortex in
             attentional capture by singleton distractors. Brain and
             Cognition, 80, 367-373, 2012; Demeter, E., Hernandez-Garcia,
             L., Sarter, M., & Lustig, C. Challenges to attention: A
             continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study of the effects
             of distraction on sustained attention. Neuroimage, 54,
             1518-1529, 2011]. Less is known, however, about the timing
             and sequence of how right frontal or other brain regions
             respond selectively to distractors and how distractors
             impinge upon the cascade of processes related to detecting
             and processing behaviorally relevant target stimuli. Here we
             used EEG and ERPs to investigate the neural consequences of
             a perceptually salient but task-irrelevant distractor on the
             detection of rare target stimuli embedded in a rapid, serial
             visual presentation (RSVP) stream. We found that distractors
             that occur during the presentation of a target interfere
             behaviorally with detection of those targets, reflected by
             reduced detection rates, and that these missed targets show
             a reduced amplitude of the long-latency, detection-related
             P3 component. We also found that distractors elicited a
             right-lateralized frontal negativity beginning at 100 msec,
             whose amplitude negatively correlated across participants
             with their distraction-related behavioral impairment.
             Finally, we also quantified the instantaneous amplitude of
             the steady-state visual evoked potentials elicited by the
             RSVP stream and found that the occurrence of a distractor
             resulted in a transient amplitude decrement of the
             steady-state visual evoked potential, presumably reflecting
             the pull of attention away from the RSVP stream when
             distracting stimuli occur in the environment.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00949},
   Key = {fds323868}
}

@article{fds323869,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Kwak, Y and Pearson, JM and Woldorff, MG and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Altruistic traits are predicted by neural responses to
             monetary outcomes for self vs charity.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {863-876},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsw026},
   Abstract = {Human altruism is often expressed through charitable
             donation-supporting a cause that benefits others in society,
             at cost to oneself. The underlying mechanisms of this
             other-regarding behavior remain imperfectly understood. By
             recording event-related-potential (ERP) measures of brain
             activity from human participants during a social gambling
             task, we identified markers of differential responses to
             receipt of monetary outcomes for oneself vs for a charitable
             cause. We focused our ERP analyses on the frontocentral
             feedback-related negativity (FRN) and three subcomponents of
             the attention-related P300 (P3) brain wave: the
             frontocentral P2 and P3a and the parietal P3b. The FRN
             distinguished between gains and losses for both self and
             charity outcomes. Importantly, this effect of outcome
             valence was greater for self than charity for both groups
             and was independent of two altruism-related measures:
             participants' pre-declared intended donations and the actual
             donations resulting from their choices. In contrast,
             differences in P3 subcomponents for outcomes for self vs
             charity strongly predicted both of our laboratory measures
             of altruism-as well as self-reported engagement in real-life
             altruistic behaviors. These results indicate that individual
             differences in altruism are linked to individual differences
             in the relative deployment of attention (as indexed by the
             P3) toward outcomes affecting other people.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsw026},
   Key = {fds323869}
}

@article{fds323870,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Hopf, J-M and Bartsch, MV and Schoenfeld, MA and Heinze,
             H-J and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The Rapid Capture of Attention by Rewarded
             Objects.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {529-541},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00917},
   Abstract = {When a stimulus is associated with a reward, it becomes
             prioritized, and the allocation of attention to that
             stimulus increases. For low-level features, such as color,
             this reward-based allocation of attention can manifest early
             in time and as a faster and stronger shift of attention to
             targets with that color, as reflected by the N2pc (a
             parieto-occipital electrophysiological component peaking at
             ∼250 msec). It is unknown, however, if reward associations
             can similarly modulate attentional shifts to complex objects
             or object categories, or if reward-related modulation of
             attentional allocation to such stimuli would occur later in
             time or through a different mechanism. Here, we used
             magnetoencephalographic recordings in 24 participants to
             investigate how object categories with a reward association
             would modulate the shift of attention. On each trial, two
             colored squares were presented, one in a target color and
             the other in a distractor color, each with an embedded
             object. Participants searched for the target-colored square
             and performed a corner discrimination task. The embedded
             objects were from either a rewarded or non-rewarded
             category, and if a rewarded-category object were present
             within the target-colored square, participants could earn
             extra money for correct performance. We observed that when
             the target color contained an object from a rewarded versus
             a non-rewarded category, the neural shift of attention to
             the target was faster and of greater magnitude, although the
             rewarded objects were not relevant for correct task
             performance. These results suggest that reward associations
             of complex objects can rapidly modulate attentional
             allocation to a target.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00917},
   Key = {fds323870}
}

@article{fds323871,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Appelbaum, LG and McKay, CC and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The neural dynamics of stimulus and response conflict
             processing as a function of response complexity and task
             demands.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {84},
   Pages = {14-28},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.01.035},
   Abstract = {Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by
             slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although
             several neural activations have been associated with
             conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these
             are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of
             response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain
             activity, while manipulating the type of stimulus conflict
             in the task (spatial [Flanker] versus semantic [Stroop]) and
             the amount of response conflict (two versus four response
             choices). Behaviorally, responses were slower to incongruent
             versus congruent stimuli across all task and response types,
             along with overall slowing for higher response-mapping
             complexity. The earliest incongruency-related neural effect
             was a short-duration frontally-distributed negativity at
             ~200 ms that was only present in the Flanker
             spatial-conflict task. At longer latencies, the classic
             fronto-central incongruency-related negativity 'N(inc)' was
             observed for all conditions, but was larger and ~100 ms
             longer in duration with more response options. Further, the
             onset of the motor-related lateralized readiness potential
             (LRP) was earlier for the two vs. four response sets,
             indicating that smaller response sets enabled faster
             motor-response preparation. The late positive complex (LPC)
             was present in all conditions except the two-response Stroop
             task, suggesting this late conflict-related activity is not
             specifically related to task type or response-mapping
             complexity. Importantly, across tasks and conditions, the
             LRP onset at or before the conflict-related N(inc),
             indicating that motor preparation is a rapid, automatic
             process that interacts with the conflict-detection processes
             after it has begun. Together, these data highlight how
             different conflict-related processes operate in parallel and
             depend on both the cognitive demands of the task and the
             number of response options.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2016.01.035},
   Key = {fds323871}
}

@article{fds323872,
   Author = {Park, J and DeWind, NK and Woldorff, MG and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Rapid and Direct Encoding of Numerosity in the Visual
             Stream.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {748-763},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhv017},
   Abstract = {Humans are endowed with an intuitive number sense that
             allows us to perceive and estimate numerosity without
             relying on language. It is controversial, however, as to
             whether there is a neural mechanism for direct perception of
             numerosity or whether numerosity is perceived indirectly via
             other perceptual properties. In this study, we used a novel
             regression-based analytic method, which allowed an
             assessment of the unique contributions of visual properties,
             including numerosity, to explain visual evoked potentials of
             participants passively viewing dot arrays. We found that the
             human brain is uniquely sensitive to numerosity and more
             sensitive to changes in numerosity than to changes in other
             visual properties, starting extremely early in the visual
             stream: 75 ms over a medial occipital site and 180 ms over
             bilateral occipitoparietal sites. These findings provide
             strong evidence for the existence of a neural mechanism for
             rapidly and directly extracting numerosity information in
             the human visual pathway.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhv017},
   Key = {fds323872}
}

@article{fds323352,
   Author = {Marini, F and Demeter, E and Roberts, KC and Chelazzi, L and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for
             Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior
             Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI
             Study.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {988-1000},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2966-15.2016},
   Abstract = {Given the information overload often imparted to human
             cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and
             distracting information is essential for successful
             behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design, we
             characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for
             filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a
             flanker task, discriminating the direction of a target arrow
             in the presence versus absence of congruent or incongruent
             flanking distracting arrows during either Pure blocks
             (distracters always absent) or Mixed blocks (distracters on
             80% of trials). Each Mixed block had either 20% or 60%
             incongruent trials. Activations in the dorsal frontoparietal
             attention network during Mixed versus Pure blocks evidenced
             proactive (blockwise) recruitment of a distraction-filtering
             mechanism. Sustained activations in right middle frontal
             gyrus during 60% Incongruent blocks correlated positively
             with behavioral indices of distraction-filtering (slowing
             when distracters might occur) and negatively with
             distraction-related behavioral costs (incongruent vs
             congruent trials), suggesting a role in coordinating
             proactive filtering of potential distracters. Event-related
             analyses showed that incongruent trials elicited greater
             reactive activations in 20% (vs 60%) Incongruent blocks for
             counteracting distraction and conflict, including in the
             insula and anterior cingulate. Context-related effects in
             occipitoparietal cortex consisted of greater target-evoked
             activations for distracter-absent trials
             (central-target-only) in Mixed versus Pure blocks,
             suggesting enhanced attentional engagement.
             Functional-localizer analyses in V1/V2/V3 revealed less
             distracter-processing activity in 60% (vs 20%) Incongruent
             blocks, presumably reflecting tonic suppression by proactive
             filtering mechanisms. These results delineate brain
             mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive filtering of
             distraction and conflict, and how they are orchestrated
             depending on distraction probability, thereby aiding task
             performance. Significance statement: Irrelevant stimuli
             distract people and impair their attentional performance.
             Here, we studied how the brain deals with distracting
             stimuli using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design and a
             task that varied the probability of the occurrence of such
             distracting stimuli. The results suggest that when
             distraction is likely, a region in right frontal cortex
             proactively implements attentional control mechanisms to
             help filter out any distracting stimuli that might occur. In
             contrast, when distracting input occurs infrequently, this
             region is more reactively engaged to help limit the negative
             consequences of the distracters on behavioral performance.
             Our results thus help illuminate how the brain flexibly
             responds under differing attentional demands to engender
             effective behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2966-15.2016},
   Key = {fds323352}
}

@article{fds322227,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Appelbaum, LG and Huettel, SA and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing
             Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic
             Decision-Making Performance.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhu160},
   Abstract = {Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying
             and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized
             that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain
             outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by
             analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans
             during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants
             viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then
             chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or
             large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were
             bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the
             relative neural responses to each cue by using a
             contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an
             early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the
             attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude
             scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues
             as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently,
             we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across
             participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with
             the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue,
             suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely,
             loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc
             amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue,
             suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli.
             These results indicate that learned stimulus-reward
             associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and
             that differences in this process are associated with
             individual differences in economic decision-making
             performance.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhu160},
   Key = {fds322227}
}

@article{fds291346,
   Author = {Gamble, ML and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Rapid Context-based Identification of Target Sounds in an
             Auditory Scene.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1675-1684},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00814},
   Abstract = {To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory
             environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into
             usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the
             potentially distracting auditory information. Although it is
             unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task,
             Gamble and Woldorff [Gamble, M. L., & Woldorff, M. G. The
             temporal cascade of neural processes underlying target
             detection and attentional processing during auditory search.
             Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 2014] recently
             reported an ERP study of an auditory target-search task in a
             temporally and spatially distributed, rapidly presented,
             auditory scene. They reported an early, differential,
             bilateral activation (beginning at 60 msec) between
             feature-deviating target stimuli and physically equivalent
             feature-deviating nontargets, reflecting a rapid target
             detection process. This was followed shortly later (at 130
             msec) by the lateralized N2ac ERP activation, that reflects
             the focusing of auditory spatial attention toward the target
             sound and parallels the attentional-shifting processes
             widely studied in vision. Here we directly examined the
             early, bilateral, target-selective effect to better
             understand its nature and functional role. Participants
             listened to midline-presented sounds that included target
             and nontarget stimuli that were randomly either embedded in
             a brief rapid stream or presented alone. The results
             indicate that this early bilateral effect results from a
             template for the target that utilizes its feature deviancy
             within a stream to enable rapid identification. Moreover,
             individual-differences analysis showed that the size of this
             effect was larger for participants with faster RTs. The
             findings support the hypothesis that our auditory
             attentional systems can implement and utilize a
             context-based relational template for a target sound, making
             use of additional auditory information in the environment
             when needing to rapidly detect a relevant
             sound.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00814},
   Key = {fds291346}
}

@article{fds323353,
   Author = {Gamble, ML and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The Temporal Cascade of Neural Processes Underlying Target
             Detection and Attentional Processing During Auditory
             Search.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2456-2465},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhu047},
   Abstract = {The posterior visual event-related potential (ERP)
             component, the N2pc, has been widely used to study
             lateralized shifts of attention within visual arrays.
             Recently, Gamble and Luck (2011) reported an auditory analog
             of this activity (the fronto-central "N2ac"), reflecting the
             lateralized focusing of attention toward a Target sound
             among 2 simultaneous auditory stimuli. Here, we directed an
             electrophysiological approach toward understanding auditory
             Target search within a more complex auditory environment in
             which rapidly occurring sounds were distributed across both
             time and space. Trials consisted of ten 40-ms monaural
             sounds rapidly presented to the 2 ears: 8 medium-pitch tones
             and 2 deviant sounds (one high and one low). For each block,
             one deviant type was designated as the Target, which
             participants needed to identify within each trial to
             discriminate its tonal quality. The extracted
             electrophysiological results included a very early
             enhancement, starting at approximately 50 ms, of a bilateral
             negative-polarity auditory brain response to the designated
             Target Deviant (compared with the Nontarget Deviant),
             followed at approximately 130 ms by the N2ac activity
             reflecting the lateralized focusing of attention toward that
             Target. The results delineate the tightly orchestrated
             sequence of neural processes underlying the detection of,
             and focusing of attention toward, Target sounds in complex
             auditory scenes.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhu047},
   Key = {fds323353}
}

@article{fds277426,
   Author = {Clark, K and Appelbaum, LG and van den Berg, B and Mitroff, SR and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Improvement in visual search with practice: mapping
             learning-related changes in neurocognitive stages of
             processing.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {5351-5359},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10641 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Practice can improve performance on visual search tasks; the
             neural mechanisms underlying such improvements, however, are
             not clear. Response time typically shortens with practice,
             but which components of the stimulus-response processing
             chain facilitate this behavioral change? Improved search
             performance could result from enhancements in various
             cognitive processing stages, including (1) sensory
             processing, (2) attentional allocation, (3) target
             discrimination, (4) motor-response preparation, and/or (5)
             response execution. We measured event-related potentials
             (ERPs) as human participants completed a five-day
             visual-search protocol in which they reported the
             orientation of a color popout target within an array of
             ellipses. We assessed changes in behavioral performance and
             in ERP components associated with various stages of
             processing. After practice, response time decreased in all
             participants (while accuracy remained consistent), and
             electrophysiological measures revealed modulation of several
             ERP components. First, amplitudes of the early
             sensory-evoked N1 component at 150 ms increased bilaterally,
             indicating enhanced visual sensory processing of the array.
             Second, the negative-polarity posterior-contralateral
             component (N2pc, 170-250 ms) was earlier and larger,
             demonstrating enhanced attentional orienting. Third, the
             amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral
             negativity component (SPCN, 300-400 ms) decreased,
             indicating facilitated target discrimination. Finally,
             faster motor-response preparation and execution were
             observed after practice, as indicated by latency changes in
             both the stimulus-locked and response-locked lateralized
             readiness potentials (LRPs). These electrophysiological
             results delineate the functional plasticity in key
             mechanisms underlying visual search with high temporal
             resolution and illustrate how practice influences various
             cognitive and neural processing stages leading to enhanced
             behavioral performance.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1152-14.2015},
   Key = {fds277426}
}

@article{fds277425,
   Author = {Marini, F and van den Berg, B and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Reward-prospect interacts with trial-by-trial preparation
             for potential distraction.},
   Journal = {Visual Cognition},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {313-335},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1350-6285},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13506285.2015.1023387},
   Abstract = {When attending for impending visual stimuli, cognitive
             systems prepare to identify relevant information while
             ignoring irrelevant, potentially distracting input. Recent
             work (Marini et al., 2013) showed that a supramodal
             distracter-filtering mechanism is invoked in blocked designs
             involving expectation of possible distracter stimuli,
             although this entails a cost (distraction-filtering cost) on
             speeded performance when distracters are expected but not
             presented. Here we used an arrow-flanker task to study
             whether an analogous cost, potentially reflecting the
             recruitment of a specific distraction-filtering mechanism,
             occurs dynamically when potential distraction is cued
             trial-to-trial (cued distracter-expectation cost). In order
             to promote the maximal utilization of cue information by
             participants, in some experimental conditions the cue also
             signaled the possibility of earning a monetary reward for
             fast and accurate performance. This design also allowed us
             to investigate the interplay between anticipation for
             distracters and anticipation of reward, which is known to
             engender attentional preparation. Only in reward contexts
             did participants show a cued distracter-expectation cost,
             which was larger with higher reward prospect and when
             anticipation for both distracters and reward were
             manipulated trial-to-trial. Thus, these results indicate
             that reward prospect interacts with the distracter
             expectation during trial-by-trial preparatory processes for
             potential distraction. These findings highlight how reward
             guides cue-driven attentional preparation.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13506285.2015.1023387},
   Key = {fds277425}
}

@article{fds277424,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Green, JJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The effects of attention on the temporal integration of
             multisensory stimuli.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {32},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnint.2015.00032},
   Abstract = {In unisensory contexts, spatially-focused attention tends to
             enhance perceptual processing. How attention influences the
             processing of multisensory stimuli, however, has been of
             much debate. In some cases, attention has been shown to be
             important for processes related to the integration of
             audio-visual stimuli, but in other cases such processes have
             been reported to occur independently of attention. To
             address these conflicting results, we performed three
             experiments to examine how attention interacts with a key
             facet of multisensory processing: the temporal window of
             integration (TWI). The first two experiments used a novel
             cued-spatial-attention version of the bounce/stream
             illusion, wherein two moving visual stimuli with
             intersecting paths tend to be perceived as bouncing off
             rather than streaming through each other when a brief sound
             occurs near in time. When the task was to report whether the
             visual stimuli appeared to bounce or stream, attention
             served to narrow this measure of the TWI and bias perception
             toward "streaming". When the participants' task was to
             explicitly judge the simultaneity of the sound with the
             intersection of the moving visual stimuli, however, the
             results were quite different. Specifically, attention served
             to mainly widen the TWI, increasing the likelihood of
             simultaneity perception, while also substantially increasing
             the simultaneity judgment accuracy when the stimuli were
             actually physically simultaneous. Finally, in Experiment 3,
             where the task was to judge the simultaneity of a simple,
             temporally discrete, flashed visual stimulus and the same
             brief tone pip, attention had no effect on the measured TWI.
             These results highlight the flexibility of attention in
             enhancing multisensory perception and show that the effects
             of attention on multisensory processing are highly dependent
             on the task demands and observer goals.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnint.2015.00032},
   Key = {fds277424}
}

@article{fds323873,
   Author = {Park, J and Chiang, C and Brannon, EM and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Experience-dependent hemispheric specialization of letters
             and numbers is revealed in early visual processing.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2239-2249},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00621},
   Abstract = {Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and
             numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and
             hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left
             visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with
             numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially
             processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters and
             numbers are cultural inventions and are otherwise physically
             arbitrary, such a double dissociation is strong evidence for
             experiential effects on neural architecture. Here, we use
             the high temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate the
             temporal dynamics of the neural dissociation between letters
             and numbers. We show that the divergence between ERP traces
             to letters and numbers emerges very early in processing.
             Letters evoked greater N1 waves (latencies 140-170 msec)
             than did numbers over left occipital channels, whereas
             numbers evoked greater N1s than letters over the right,
             suggesting letters and numbers are preferentially processed
             in opposite hemispheres early in visual encoding. Moreover,
             strings of letters, but not single letters, elicited greater
             P2 ERP waves (starting around 250 msec) than numbers did
             over the left hemisphere, suggesting that the visual cortex
             is tuned to selectively process combinations of letters, but
             not numbers, further along in the visual processing stream.
             Additionally, the processing of both of these culturally
             defined stimulus types differentiated from similar but
             unfamiliar visual stimulus forms (false fonts) even earlier
             in the processing stream (the P1 at 100 msec). These
             findings imply major cortical specialization processes
             within the visual system driven by experience with reading
             and mathematics.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00621},
   Key = {fds323873}
}

@article{fds277430,
   Author = {Pinhas, M and Donohue, SE and Woldorff, MG and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of the
             approximate number system in preschoolers' processing of
             spoken number words.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1891-1904},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_00631},
   Abstract = {Little is known about the neural underpinnings of number
             word comprehension in young children. Here we investigated
             the neural processing of these words during the crucial
             developmental window in which children learn their meanings
             and asked whether such processing relies on the Approximate
             Number System. ERPs were recorded as 3- to 5-year-old
             children heard the words one, two, three, or six while
             looking at pictures of 1, 2, 3, or 6 objects. The auditory
             number word was incongruent with the number of visual
             objects on half the trials and congruent on the other half.
             Children's number word comprehension predicted their ERP
             incongruency effects. Specifically, children with the least
             number word knowledge did not show any ERP incongruency
             effects, whereas those with intermediate and high number
             word knowledge showed an enhanced, negative polarity
             incongruency response (N(inc)) over centroparietal sites
             from 200 to 500 msec after the number word onset. This
             negativity was followed by an enhanced, positive polarity
             incongruency effect (P(inc)) that emerged bilaterally over
             parietal sites at about 700 msec. Moreover, children with
             the most number word knowledge showed ratio dependence in
             the P(inc) (larger for greater compared with smaller
             numerical mismatches), a hallmark of the Approximate Number
             System. Importantly, a similar modulation of the P(inc) from
             700 to 800 msec was found in children with intermediate
             number word knowledge. These results provide the first
             neural correlates of spoken number word comprehension in
             preschoolers and are consistent with the view that children
             map number words onto approximate number representations
             before they fully master the verbal count
             list.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00631},
   Key = {fds277430}
}

@article{fds277429,
   Author = {van den Berg, B and Krebs, RM and Lorist, MM and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Utilization of reward-prospect enhances preparatory
             attention and reduces stimulus conflict.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {561-577},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1530-7026},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0281-z},
   Abstract = {The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play
             in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have
             particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is
             challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting
             stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of
             reward-prospect and attentional-preparation levels in a
             cued-Stroop stimulus conflict task, along with the high
             temporal resolution of electrical brain recordings, to
             provide insight into the mechanisms by which reward-prospect
             and attention interact and modulate cognitive task
             performance. In this task, the cue indicated whether or not
             the participant needed to prepare for an upcoming Stroop
             stimulus and, if so, whether there was the potential for
             monetary reward (dependent on performance on that trial).
             Both cued attention and cued reward-prospect enhanced
             preparatory neural activity, as reflected by increases in
             the hallmark attention-related negative-polarity ERP slow
             wave (contingent negative variation [CNV]) and reductions in
             oscillatory Alpha activity, which was followed by enhanced
             processing of the subsequent Stroop stimulus. In addition,
             similar modulations of preparatory neural activity (larger
             CNVs and reduced Alpha) predicted shorter versus longer
             response times (RTs) to the subsequent target stimulus,
             consistent with such modulations reflecting trial-to-trial
             variations in attention. Particularly striking were the
             individual differences in the utilization of reward-prospect
             information. In particular, the size of the reward effects
             on the preparatory neural activity correlated across
             participants with the degree to which reward-prospect both
             facilitated overall task performance (shorter RTs) and
             reduced conflict-related behavioral interference. Thus, the
             prospect of reward appears to recruit attentional
             preparation circuits to enhance processing of task-relevant
             target information.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-014-0281-z},
   Key = {fds277429}
}

@article{fds277431,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Boehler, CN and Davis, LA and Won, RJ and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The dynamics of proactive and reactive cognitive control
             processes in the human brain.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1021-1038},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24345171},
   Abstract = {In this study, we leveraged the high temporal resolution of
             EEG to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the flexible
             regulation of cognitive control that unfolds over different
             timescales. We measured behavioral and neural effects of
             color-word incongruency, as different groups of participants
             performed three different versions of color-word Stroop
             tasks in which the relative timing of the color and word
             features varied from trial to trial. For this purpose, we
             used a standard Stroop color identification task with equal
             congruent-to-incongruent proportions (50%/50%), along with
             two versions of the "Reverse Stroop" word identification
             tasks, for which we manipulated the incongruency proportion
             (50%/50% and 80%/20%). Two canonical ERP markers of neural
             processing of stimulus incongruency, the frontocentral
             negative polarity incongruency wave (NINC) and the late
             positive component (LPC), were evoked across the various
             conditions. Results indicated that color-word incongruency
             interacted with the relative feature timing, producing
             greater neural and behavioral effects when the
             task-irrelevant stimulus preceded the target, but still
             significant effects when it followed. Additionally, both
             behavioral and neural incongruency effects were reduced by
             nearly half in the word identification task (Reverse Stroop
             50/50) relative to the color identification task (Stroop
             50/50), with these effects essentially fully recovering when
             incongruent trials appeared only infrequently (Reverse
             Stroop 80/20). Across the conditions, NINC amplitudes
             closely paralleled RTs, indicating this component is
             sensitive to the overall level of stimulus conflict. In
             contrast, LPC amplitudes were largest with infrequent
             incongruent trials, suggesting a possible readjustment role
             when proactive control is reduced. These findings thus
             unveil distinct control mechanisms that unfold over time in
             response to conflicting stimulus input under different
             contexts.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00542},
   Key = {fds277431}
}

@article{fds277427,
   Author = {Van Den Berg and B and Krebs, RM and Lorist, MM and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Utilization of reward-prospect enhances preparatory
             attention and reduces stimulus conflict},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {561-577},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1530-7026},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-014-0281-z},
   Abstract = {The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play
             in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have
             particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is
             challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting
             stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of
             reward-prospect and attentional-preparation levels in a
             cued-Stroop stimulus conflict task, along with the high
             temporal resolution of electrical brain recordings, to
             provide insight into the mechanisms by which reward-prospect
             and attention interact and modulate cognitive task
             performance. In this task, the cue indicated whether or not
             the participant needed to prepare for an upcoming Stroop
             stimulus and, if so, whether there was the potential for
             monetary reward (dependent on performance on that trial).
             Both cued attention and cued reward-prospect enhanced
             preparatory neural activity, as reflected by increases in
             the hallmark attention-related negative-polarity ERP slow
             wave (contingent negative variation [CNV]) and reductions in
             oscillatory Alpha activity, which was followed by enhanced
             processing of the subsequent Stroop stimulus. In addition,
             similar modulations of preparatory neural activity (larger
             CNVs and reduced Alpha) predicted shorter versus longer
             response times (RTs) to the subsequent target stimulus,
             consistent with such modulations reflecting trial-to-trial
             variations in attention. Particularly striking were the
             individual differences in the utilization of reward-prospect
             information. In particular, the size of the reward effects
             on the preparatory neural activity correlated across
             participants with the degree to which reward-prospect both
             facilitated overall task performance (shorter RTs) and
             reduced conflict-related behavioral interference. Thus, the
             prospect of reward appears to recruit attentional
             preparation circuits to enhance processing of task-relevant
             target information. © 2014 Psychonomic Society,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-014-0281-z},
   Key = {fds277427}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Schevernels, H and Krebs, RM and Santens, P and Woldorff, MG and Boehler, CN},
   Title = {Task preparation processes related to reward prediction
             precede those related to task-difficulty
             expectation.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {84},
   Pages = {639-647},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24064071},
   Abstract = {Recently, attempts have been made to disentangle the neural
             underpinnings of preparatory processes related to reward and
             attention. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
             research showed that neural activity related to the
             anticipation of reward and to attentional demands invokes
             neural activity patterns featuring large-scale overlap,
             along with some differences and interactions. Due to the
             limited temporal resolution of fMRI, however, the temporal
             dynamics of these processes remain unclear. Here, we report
             an event-related potentials (ERP) study in which cued
             attentional demands and reward prospect were combined in a
             factorial design. Results showed that reward prediction
             dominated early cue processing, as well as the early and
             later parts of the contingent negative variation (CNV)
             slow-wave ERP component that has been associated with
             task-preparation processes. Moreover these reward-related
             electrophysiological effects correlated across participants
             with response time speeding on reward-prospect trials. In
             contrast, cued attentional demands affected only the later
             part of the CNV, with the highest amplitudes following cues
             predicting high-difficulty potential-reward targets, thus
             suggesting maximal task preparation when the task requires
             it and entails reward prospect. Consequently, we suggest
             that task-preparation processes triggered by reward can
             arise earlier, and potentially more directly, than strategic
             top-down aspects of preparation based on attentional
             demands.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.039},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Harris, JA and McMahon, AR and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Disruption of visual awareness during the attentional blink
             is reflected by selective disruption of late-stage neural
             processing.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1863-1874},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23859644},
   Abstract = {Any information represented in the brain holds the potential
             to influence behavior. It is therefore of broad interest to
             determine the extent and quality of neural processing of
             stimulus input that occurs with and without awareness. The
             attentional blink is a useful tool for dissociating neural
             and behavioral measures of perceptual visual processing
             across conditions of awareness. The extent of higher-order
             visual information beyond basic sensory signaling that is
             processed during the attentional blink remains
             controversial. To determine what neural processing at the
             level of visual-object categorization occurs in the absence
             of awareness, electrophysiological responses to images of
             faces and houses were recorded both within and outside the
             attentional blink period during a rapid serial visual
             presentation stream. Electrophysiological results were
             sorted according to behavioral performance (correctly
             identified targets vs. missed targets) within these blink
             and nonblink periods. An early index of face-specific
             processing (the N170, 140- to 220-msec poststimulus) was
             observed regardless of whether the participant demonstrated
             awareness of the stimulus, whereas a later face-specific
             effect with the same topographic distribution (500- to
             700-msec poststimulus) was only seen for accurate behavioral
             discrimination of the stimulus content. The present findings
             suggest a multistage process of object-category processing,
             with only the later phase being associated with explicit
             visual awareness.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00443},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{fds277428,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Barack, DL and McMahon, AR and Mitroff, SR and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Object-Category Processing, Perceptual Awareness, and the
             Role of Attention during Motion-Induced Blindness},
   Pages = {97-106},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-398451-7.00008-7},
   Abstract = {Perceptual information represented in the brain, whether a
             viewer is aware of it or not, holds the potential to
             influence subsequent behavior. Here we tracked a
             well-established event-related-potential (ERP) measure of
             visual-object-category processing, the face-specific
             ventrolateral-occipital N170 response, across conditions of
             perceptual awareness. To manipulate perceptual awareness, we
             employed the motion-induced-blindness (MIB) paradigm, in
             which covertly attended, static, visual-target stimuli that
             are superimposed on a globally moving array of distractors
             perceptually disappear and reappear. Subjects responded with
             a button press when the target images (faces and houses)
             actually physically occurred (and thus perceptually
             appeared) and when they perceptually reappeared after an MIB
             episode. A comparison of the face-specific N170 ERP activity
             (face-vs-house responses) revealed robust face-selective ERP
             activity for physically appearing images and no such
             activity for perceptual reappearances following MIB
             episodes, suggesting that face-specific processing had
             continued uninterrupted during MIB. In addition,
             electrophysiological activity preceding an actual appearance
             of a target image, collapsed across face and house image
             types, was compared to that preceding the perceptual
             reappearance of a continuously present image (following
             MIB). This comparison revealed a parietally distributed
             positive-polarity response that preceded only reappearances
             following MIB. Such a result suggests a possible role of
             parietally mediated attentional capture by the
             present-but-suppressed target in the reestablishment of
             perceptual awareness at the end of an MIB episode. The
             present results provide insight into the level of visual
             processing that can occur in the absence of awareness, as
             well as into the mechanisms underlying MIB and its influence
             on perceptual awareness. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-398451-7.00008-7},
   Key = {fds277428}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Ku, S and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Neural processing stages during object-substitution masking
             and their relationship to perceptual awareness.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1907-1917},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23751171},
   Abstract = {The extent of visual perceptual processing that occurs in
             the absence of awareness is as yet unclear. Here we examined
             event-related-potential (ERP) indices of visual and
             cognitive processes as awareness was manipulated through
             object-substitution masking (OSM), an awareness-disrupting
             effect that has been hypothesized to result from the
             disruption of reentrant signaling to low-level visual
             cortical areas. In OSM, a visual stimulus array is briefly
             presented that includes a parafoveal visual target denoted
             by a cue, typically consisting of several surrounding dots.
             When the offset of the target-surrounding cue dots is
             delayed relative to the rest of the array, a striking
             reduction in the perception of the target image surrounded
             by the dots is observed. Using faces and houses as the
             target stimuli, we found that successful OSM reduced or
             eliminated all the measured electrophysiological indices of
             visual processing stages after 130ms post-stimulus. More
             specifically, when targets were missed within the masked
             condition (i.e., on trials with effective OSM that disrupted
             awareness), we observed fully intact early feed-forward
             processing up through the visual extrastriate P1 ERP
             component peaking at 100ms, followed by reduced low-level
             activity over the occipital pole 130-170ms post-stimulus,
             reduced ERP indices of lateralized shifts of attention
             toward the parafoveal target, reduced object-generic visual
             processing, abolished object-category-specific
             (face-specific) processing, and reduced late visual
             short-term-memory processing activity. The results provide a
             comprehensive electrophysiological account of the
             neurocognitive underpinnings of effective OSM of
             visual-object images, including evidence for central roles
             of early reentrant signal disruption and insufficient visual
             attentional deployment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.05.023},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Appelbaum, LG and Pearson, JM and Huettel, SA and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Rapid brain responses independently predict gain
             maximization and loss minimization during economic decision
             making.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {7011-7019},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595758},
   Keywords = {Adolescent Adult Brain/*physiology Cues Decision
             Making/*physiology Evoked Potentials/physiology *Feedback,
             Psychological Female *Gambling Games, Experimental Humans
             Male Predictive Value of Tests Probability *Reward
             Statistics as Topic Young Adult},
   Abstract = {Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the
             ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an
             agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to
             losses, that agent could still make choices yielding
             suboptimal rewards. Here, by analyzing event-related
             potentials (ERPs) recorded in humans during a probabilistic
             gambling task, we show that individuals' behavioral
             tendencies to maximize gains and to minimize losses are
             associated with their ERP responses to the receipt of those
             gains and losses, respectively. We focused our analyses on
             ERP signals that predict behavioral adjustment: the
             frontocentral feedback-related negativity (FRN) and two P300
             (P3) subcomponents, the frontocentral P3a and the parietal
             P3b. We found that, across participants, gain maximization
             was predicted by differences in amplitude of the P3b for
             suboptimal versus optimal gains (i.e., P3b amplitude
             difference between the least good and the best gains).
             Conversely, loss minimization was predicted by differences
             in the P3b amplitude to suboptimal versus optimal losses
             (i.e., difference between the worst and the least bad
             losses). Finally, we observed that the P3a and P3b, but not
             the FRN, predicted behavioral adjustment on subsequent
             trials, suggesting a specific adaptive mechanism by which
             prior experience may alter ensuing behavior. These findings
             indicate that individual differences in gain maximization
             and loss minimization are linked to individual differences
             in rapid neural responses to monetary outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4242-12.2013},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Todisco, AE and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The rapid distraction of attentional resources toward the
             source of incongruent stimulus input during multisensory
             conflict.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {623-635},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23249355},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation Adolescent Analysis of Variance
             Attention/*physiology Brain/*physiology Brain Mapping
             *Conflict (Psychology) Discrimination (Psychology)/*physiology
             Electroencephalography Evoked Potentials/*physiology Female
             Humans Male Photic Stimulation Reaction Time Young
             Adult},
   Abstract = {Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the
             relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face
             of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing
             in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the
             attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant
             modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audiovisual
             conflict paradigm with a sensory probe in the
             task-irrelevant modality (vision) to gauge the attentional
             allocation to that modality. ERPs were recorded as
             participants attended to and discriminated spoken auditory
             letters while ignoring simultaneous bilateral visual letter
             stimuli that were either fully congruent, fully incongruent,
             or partially incongruent (one side incongruent, one
             congruent) with the auditory stimulation. Half of the
             audiovisual letter stimuli were followed 500-700 msec later
             by a bilateral visual probe stimulus. As expected, ERPs to
             the audiovisual stimuli showed an incongruency ERP effect
             (fully incongruent versus fully congruent) of an enhanced,
             centrally distributed, negative-polarity wave starting
             ∼250 msec. More critically here, the sensory ERP
             components to the visual probes were larger when they
             followed fully incongruent versus fully congruent
             multisensory stimuli, with these enhancements greatest on
             fully incongruent trials with the slowest RTs. In addition,
             on the slowest-response partially incongruent trials, the P2
             sensory component to the visual probes was larger
             contralateral to the preceding incongruent visual stimulus.
             These data suggest that, in response to conflicting
             multisensory stimulus input, the initial cognitive effect is
             a capture of attention by the incongruent
             irrelevant-modality input, pulling neural processing
             resources toward that modality, resulting in rapid
             enhancement, rather than rapid suppression, of that
             input.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00336},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Boehler, CN and Appelbaum, LG and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Reward associations reduce behavioral interference by
             changing the temporal dynamics of conflict
             processing.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e53894},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23326530},
   Keywords = {Adult Attention/*physiology Behavior/physiology
             Brain/*physiology Brain Mapping Cognition/physiology
             Conflict (Psychology) Evoked Potentials/*physiology Female
             Humans Male Photic Stimulation Psychomotor
             Performance/physiology Reaction Time/physiology Reward
             *Stroop Test},
   Abstract = {Associating stimuli with the prospect of reward typically
             facilitates responses to those stimuli due to an enhancement
             of attentional and cognitive-control processes. Such
             reward-induced facilitation might be especially helpful when
             cognitive-control mechanisms are challenged, as when one
             must overcome interference from irrelevant inputs. Here, we
             investigated the neural dynamics of reward effects in a
             color-naming Stroop task by employing event-related
             potentials (ERPs). We found that behavioral facilitation in
             potential-reward trials, as compared to no-reward trials,
             was paralleled by early ERP modulations likely indexing
             increased attention to the reward-predictive stimulus.
             Moreover, reward changed the temporal dynamics of
             conflict-related ERP components, which may be a consequence
             of an early access to the various stimulus features and
             their relationships. Finally, although word meanings
             referring to potential-reward colors were always
             task-irrelevant, they caused greater interference compared
             to words referring to no-reward colors, an effect that was
             accompanied by a relatively early fronto-central ERP
             modulation. This latter observation suggests that
             task-irrelevant reward information can undermine
             goal-directed behavior at an early processing stage,
             presumably reflecting priming of a goal-incompatible
             response. Yet, these detrimental effects of incongruent
             reward-related words were absent in potential-reward trials,
             apparently due to the prioritized processing of
             task-relevant reward information. Taken together, the
             present data demonstrate that reward associations can
             influence conflict processing by changing the temporal
             dynamics of stimulus processing and subsequent
             cognitive-control mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0053894},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{fds323874,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Donohue, SE and Park, CJ and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Is one enough? The case for non-additive influences of
             visual features on crossmodal Stroop interference.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {799},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00799},
   Abstract = {When different perceptual signals arising from the same
             physical entity are integrated, they form a more reliable
             sensory estimate. When such repetitive sensory signals are
             pitted against other competing stimuli, such as in a Stroop
             Task, this redundancy may lead to stronger processing that
             biases behavior toward reporting the redundant stimuli. This
             bias would therefore, be expected to evoke greater
             incongruency effects than if these stimuli did not contain
             redundant sensory features. In the present paper we report
             that this is not the case for a set of three crossmodal,
             auditory-visual Stroop tasks. In these tasks participants
             attended to, and reported, either the visual or the auditory
             stimulus (in separate blocks) while ignoring the other,
             unattended modality. The visual component of these stimuli
             could be purely semantic (words), purely perceptual
             (colors), or the combination of both. Based on previous work
             showing enhanced crossmodal integration and visual search
             gains for redundantly coded stimuli, we had expected that
             relative to the single features, redundant visual features
             would have induced both greater visual distracter
             incongruency effects for attended auditory targets, and been
             less influenced by auditory distracters for attended visual
             targets. Overall, reaction times were faster for visual
             targets and were dominated by behavioral facilitation for
             the cross-modal interactions (relative to interference), but
             showed surprisingly little influence of visual feature
             redundancy. Post-hoc analyses revealed modest and trending
             evidence for possible increases in behavioral interference
             for redundant visual distracters on auditory targets,
             however, these effects were substantially smaller than
             anticipated and were not accompanied by a redundancy effect
             for behavioral facilitation or for attended visual
             targets.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00799},
   Key = {fds323874}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Appelbaum, LG and Park, CJ and Roberts, KC and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Cross-modal stimulus conflict: the behavioral effects of
             stimulus input timing in a visual-auditory Stroop
             task.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e62802},
   Year = {2013},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23638149},
   Abstract = {Cross-modal processing depends strongly on the compatibility
             between different sensory inputs, the relative timing of
             their arrival to brain processing components, and on how
             attention is allocated. In this behavioral study, we
             employed a cross-modal audio-visual Stroop task in which we
             manipulated the within-trial stimulus-onset-asynchronies
             (SOAs) of the stimulus-component inputs, the grouping of the
             SOAs (blocked vs. random), the attended modality (auditory
             or visual), and the congruency of the Stroop color-word
             stimuli (congruent, incongruent, neutral) to assess how
             these factors interact within a multisensory context. One
             main result was that visual distractors produced larger
             incongruency effects on auditory targets than vice versa.
             Moreover, as revealed by both overall shorter response times
             (RTs) and relative shifts in the psychometric
             incongruency-effect functions, visual-information processing
             was faster and produced stronger and longer-lasting
             incongruency effects than did auditory. When attending to
             either modality, stimulus incongruency from the other
             modality interacted with SOA, yielding larger effects when
             the irrelevant distractor occurred prior to the attended
             target, but no interaction with SOA grouping. Finally,
             relative to neutral-stimuli, and across the wide range of
             the SOAs employed, congruency led to substantially more
             behavioral facilitation than did incongruency to
             interference, in contrast to findings that within-modality
             stimulus-compatibility effects tend to be more evenly split
             between facilitation and interference. In sum, the present
             findings reveal several key characteristics of how we
             process the stimulus compatibility of cross-modal sensory
             inputs, reflecting stimulus processing patterns that are
             critical for successfully navigating our complex
             multisensory world.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0062802},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{UNKNOWN,
   Author = {Green, JJ and Gamble, ML and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Resolving conflicting views: Gaze and arrow cues do not
             trigger rapid reflexive shifts of attention},
   Journal = {Visual Cognition},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-71},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1350-6285},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23626482},
   Abstract = {It has become widely accepted that the direction of another
             individual's eye gaze induces rapid, automatic, attentional
             orienting, due to it being such a vital cue as to where in
             our environment we should attend. This automatic orienting
             has also been associated with the directional-arrow cues
             used in studies of spatial attention. Here, we present
             evidence that the response-time cueing effects reported for
             spatially nonpredictive gaze and arrow cues are not the
             result of rapid, automatic shifts of attention. For both cue
             types, response-time effects were observed only for
             long-duration cue and target stimuli that overlapped
             temporally, were largest when the cues were presented
             simultaneously with the response-relevant target, and were
             driven by a slowing of responses for invalidly cued targets
             rather than speeding for validly cued ones. These results
             argue against automatic attention-orienting accounts and
             support a novel spatial-incongruency explanation for a whole
             class of rapid behavioural cueing effects. © 2013 Copyright
             Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/13506285.2013.775209},
   Key = {UNKNOWN}
}

@article{Marini2012,
   Author = {Marini, F. and Chelazzi, L. and Maravita,
             A.},
   Title = {The Costly Filtering of Potential Distraction: Evidence for
             a Supramodal Mechanism},
   Journal = {J Exp Psychol Gen},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0029905},
   Abstract = {When dealing with significant sensory stimuli, performance
             can be hampered by distracting events. Attention mechanisms
             lessen such negative effects, enabling selection of relevant
             information while blocking potential distraction. Recent
             work shows that preparatory brain activity, occurring before
             a critical stimulus, may reflect mechanisms of attentional
             control aimed to filter upcoming distracters. However, it is
             unknown whether the engagement of these filtering mechanisms
             to counteract distraction in itself taxes cognitive-brain
             systems, leading to performance costs. Here we address this
             question and, specifically, seek the behavioral signature of
             a mechanism for the filtering of potential distraction
             within and between sensory modalities. We show that, in
             potentially distracting contexts, a filtering mechanism is
             engaged to cope with forthcoming distraction, causing a
             dramatic behavioral cost in no-distracter trials during a
             speeded tactile discrimination task. We thus demonstrate an
             impaired processing caused by a potential, yet absent,
             distracter. This effect generalizes across different sensory
             modalities, such as vision and audition, and across
             different manipulations of the context, such as the
             distracter's sensory modality and pertinence to the task.
             Moreover, activation of the filtering mechanism relies on
             both strategic and reactive processes, as shown by its
             dynamic dependence on probabilistic and cross-trial
             contingencies. Crucially, across participants, the observed
             strategic cost is inversely related to the interference
             exerted by a distracter on distracter-present trials. These
             results attest to a mechanism for the monitoring and
             filtering of potential distraction in the human brain.
             Although its activation is indisputably beneficial when
             distraction occurs, it leads to robust costs when
             distraction is actually expected but currently absent.
             (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights
             reserved).},
   Language = {Eng},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0029905},
   Key = {Marini2012}
}

@article{Boehler2012,
   Author = {Boehler, C. N. and Appelbaum, L. G. and Krebs, R. M. and Hopf, J. M. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {The influence of different Stop-signal response time
             estimation procedures on behavior-behavior and
             brain-behavior correlations},
   Journal = {Behav Brain Res},
   Volume = {229},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {123--30},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             NC, USA. c.n.boehler@gmail.com},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245527},
   Keywords = {Brain/blood supply/*physiology • Brain Mapping •
             Decision Making/physiology • Female • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted •
             *Inhibition (Psychology) • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Oxygen/blood • Reaction
             Time/*physiology • Statistics as Topic • Time
             Perception/*physiology • Young Adult},
   Abstract = {The fundamental cognitive-control function of inhibitory
             control over motor behavior has been extensively
             investigated using the Stop-signal task. The critical
             behavioral parameter describing stopping efficacy is the
             Stop-signal response time (SSRT), and correlations with
             estimates of this parameter are commonly used to establish
             that other variables (e.g., other behavioral measures or
             brain activity measures) are closely related to inhibitory
             motor control. Recently, however, it has been argued that
             SSRT estimates can be strongly distorted if participants
             strategically slow down their responses over the course of
             the experiment, resulting in the SSRT no longer reliably
             representing response-inhibition efficacy. Here, we
             performed new analyses on behavioral and functional data
             from an fMRI version of the Stop-signal task to gauge the
             consequences of using different SSRT estimation approaches
             that are differentially prone to the influence of strategic
             response slowing. The results indicate that the SSRT
             estimation approach can dramatically change
             behavior-behavior correlations. Specifically, a correlation
             between the SSRT and Go-trial accuracy that was highly
             significant with one estimation approach, virtually
             disappeared for the other. Additional analyses indeed
             supported that this effect was related to strategic response
             slowing. Concerning brain-behavior correlations, only the
             left anterior insula was found to be significantly
             correlated with the SSRT within the set of areas tested
             here. Interestingly, this brain-behavior correlation
             differed little for the different SSRT-estimation
             procedures. In sum, the current results highlight that
             different SSRT-estimation procedures can strongly influence
             the distribution of SSRT values across subjects, which in
             turn can ramify into correlational analyses with other
             parameters.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bbr.2012.01.003},
   Key = {Boehler2012}
}

@article{Krebs2012a,
   Author = {Krebs, R. M. and Boehler, C. N. and Zhang, H. H. and Schoenfeld, M. A. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {Electrophysiological recordings in humans reveal reduced
             location-specific attentional-shift activity prior to
             recentering saccades},
   Journal = {J Neurophysiol},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1393--402},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             NC, USA. ruthmkrebs@gmail.com},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22157127},
   Abstract = {Being able to effectively explore the visual world is of
             fundamental importance, and it has been suggested that the
             straight-ahead gaze position within the egocentric reference
             frame (``primary position'') might play a special role in
             this context. In the present study we employed human
             electroencephalography (EEG) to examine neural activity
             related to the spatial guidance of saccadic eye movements.
             Moreover, we sought to investigate whether such activity
             would be modulated by the spatial relation of saccade
             direction to the primary gaze position (recentering
             saccades). Participants executed endogenously cued saccades
             between five equidistant locations along the horizontal
             meridian. This design allowed for the comparison of
             isoamplitude saccades from the same starting position that
             were oriented either toward the primary position
             (centripetal) or further away from it (centrifugal). By
             back-averaging time-locked to the saccade onset on each
             trial, we identified a parietally distributed,
             negative-polarity EEG deflection contralateral to the
             direction of the upcoming saccade. Importantly, this
             contralateral presaccadic negativity, which appeared to
             reflect the location-specific attentional guidance of the
             eye movement, was attenuated for recentering saccades
             relative to isoamplitude centrifugal saccades. This
             differential electrophysiological signature was paralleled
             by faster saccadic reaction times and was substantially more
             apparent when time-locking the data to the onset of the
             saccade rather than to the onset of the cue, suggesting a
             tight temporal association with saccade initiation. The
             diminished level of this presaccadic component for
             recentering saccades may reflect the preferential coding of
             the straight-ahead gaze position, in which both the
             eye-centered and head-centered reference frames are
             perfectly aligned and from which the visual world can be
             effectively explored.},
   Doi = {10.1152/jn.00912.2010},
   Key = {Krebs2012a}
}

@article{Donohue2012,
   Author = {Donohue, S. E. and Liotti, M. and Perez, R. 3rd and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {Is conflict monitoring supramodal?: Spatiotemporal dynamics
             of cognitive control processes in an auditory Stroop
             task},
   Journal = {Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1--15},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Box
             90999, Durham, NC 27708-0999, USA.},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964643},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Analysis of Variance • *Brain Mapping • *Conflict
             (Psychology) • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials, Auditory/*physiology • Female • Humans
             • Male • Mental Processes/*physiology •
             Middle Aged • *Models, Neurological •
             *Neuropsychological Tests • Pitch Perception/physiology
             • Reaction Time • Statistics as Topic • Time
             Factors • Young Adult},
   Abstract = {The electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing
             and cognitive control have been well characterized for the
             visual modality in paradigms such as the Stroop task. Much
             less is known about corresponding processes in the auditory
             modality. Here, electroencephalographic recordings of brain
             activity were measured during an auditory Stroop task, using
             three different forms of behavioral response (overt verbal,
             covert verbal, and manual), that closely paralleled our
             previous visual Stroop study. As was expected, behavioral
             responses were slower and less accurate for incongruent than
             for congruent trials. Neurally, incongruent trials showed an
             enhanced fronto-central negative polarity wave (N(inc)),
             similar to the N450 in visual Stroop tasks, with similar
             variations as a function of behavioral response mode, but
             peaking {\textasciitilde}150 ms earlier, followed by an
             enhanced positive posterior wave. In addition, sequential
             behavioral and neural effects were observed that supported
             the conflict-monitoring and cognitive adjustment hypothesis.
             Thus, while some aspects of the conflict detection
             processes, such as timing, may be modality dependent, the
             general mechanisms would appear to be supramodal.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-011-0060-z},
   Key = {Donohue2012}
}

@article{Krebs2012b,
   Author = {Krebs, R. M. and Boehler, C. N. and Roberts, K. C. and Song,
             A. W. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {The involvement of the dopaminergic midbrain and
             cortico-striatal-thalamic circuits in the integration of
             reward prospect and attentional task demands},
   Journal = {Cereb Cortex},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {607--15},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             NC 27708, USA. ruthmkrebs@gmail.com},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680848},
   Abstract = {Reward has been shown to promote human performance in
             multiple task domains. However, an important debate has
             developed about the uniqueness of reward-related neural
             signatures associated with such facilitation, as similar
             neural patterns can be triggered by increased attentional
             focus independent of reward. Here, we used functional
             magnetic resonance imaging to directly investigate the
             neural commonalities and interactions between the
             anticipation of both reward and task difficulty, by
             independently manipulating these factors in a cued-attention
             paradigm. In preparation for the target stimulus, both
             factors increased activity within the midbrain, dorsal
             striatum, and fronto-parietal areas, while inducing
             deactivations in default-mode regions. Additionally, reward
             engaged the ventral striatum, posterior cingulate, and
             occipital cortex, while difficulty engaged medial and
             dorsolateral frontal regions. Importantly, a network
             comprising the midbrain, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and
             anterior midcingulate cortex exhibited an interaction
             between reward and difficulty, presumably reflecting
             additional resource recruitment for demanding tasks with
             profitable outcome. This notion was consistent with a
             negative correlation between cue-related midbrain activity
             and difficulty-induced performance detriments in
             reward-predictive trials. Together, the data demonstrate
             that expected value and attentional demands are integrated
             in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuits in coordination with
             the dopaminergic midbrain to flexibly modulate resource
             allocation for an effective pursuit of behavioral
             goals.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhr134},
   Key = {Krebs2012b}
}

@article{Appelbaum2012,
   Author = {Appelbaum, L. G. and Boehler, C. N. and Won, R. and Davis,
             L. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {Strategic allocation of attention reduces temporally
             predictable stimulus conflict},
   Journal = {J Cogn Neurosci},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1834--48},
   Address = {Duke University.},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360623},
   Abstract = {Humans are able to continuously monitor environmental
             situations and adjust their behavioral strategies to
             optimize performance. Here we investigate the behavioral and
             brain adjustments that occur when conflicting stimulus
             elements are, or are not, temporally predictable. ERPs were
             collected while manual response variants of the Stroop task
             were performed in which the SOAs between the relevant color
             and irrelevant word stimulus components were either randomly
             intermixed or held constant within each experimental run.
             Results indicated that the size of both the neural and
             behavioral effects of stimulus incongruency varied with the
             temporal arrangement of the stimulus components, such that
             the random-SOA arrangements produced the greatest
             incongruency effects at the earliest irrelevant first SOA
             (-200 msec) and the constant-SOA arrangements produced the
             greatest effects with simultaneous presentation. These
             differences in conflict processing were accompanied by rapid
             ( approximately 150 msec) modulations of the sensory ERPs to
             the irrelevant distractor components when they occurred
             consistently first. These effects suggest that individuals
             are able to strategically allocate attention in time to
             mitigate the influence of a temporally predictable
             distractor. As these adjustments are instantiated by the
             participants without instruction, they reveal a form of
             rapid strategic learning for dealing with temporally
             predictable stimulus incongruency.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00209},
   Key = {Appelbaum2012}
}

@article{Green2012,
   Author = {Green, J. J. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {Arrow-elicited cueing effects at short intervals: Rapid
             attentional orienting or cue-target stimulus
             conflict?},
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {96--101},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Box
             90999, Durham, NC 27708, USA. jessica.j.green@duke.edu},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975079},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance •
             Attention/*physiology • *Conflict (Psychology) •
             *Cues • Electroencephalography • Female •
             Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation • Reaction
             Time/physiology • Space Perception/physiology •
             Young Adult},
   Abstract = {The observation of cueing effects (faster responses for cued
             than uncued targets) rapidly following centrally-presented
             arrows has led to the suggestion that arrows trigger rapid
             automatic shifts of spatial attention. However, these
             effects have primarily been observed during easy
             target-detection tasks when both cue and target remain on
             the screen until the behavioral response. We manipulated
             stimulus duration and task difficulty in an attention-cueing
             experiment to explore non-attentional explanations for rapid
             cueing effects. Contrary to attention-based predictions,
             short-interval cueing effects were observed only for
             long-duration cue and target stimuli, occurred even when the
             cue and target were presented simultaneously, and were
             driven by slowing of the uncued-target responses, rather
             than any facilitation for cued targets. We propose that,
             under these long-duration, short-interval conditions, the
             processing of the cue and target interact more extensively
             in the brain, and that when the cue and target convey
             incongruent spatial information (i.e., on invalidly cued
             trials) it leads to conflict-related slowing of
             responses.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2011.08.018},
   Key = {Green2012}
}

@article{fds277535,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Smith, DV and Boehler, CN and Chen, WD and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Rapid modulation of sensory processing induced by stimulus
             conflict.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {2620-2628},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1530-8898},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20849233},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Brain • Brain
             Mapping* • Conflict (Psychology)* •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Female • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Male • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time
             • Visual Pathways • Young Adult • methods
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Humans are constantly confronted with environmental stimuli
             that conflict with task goals and can interfere with
             successful behavior. Prevailing theories propose the
             existence of cognitive control mechanisms that can suppress
             the processing of conflicting input and enhance that of the
             relevant input. However, the temporal cascade of brain
             processes invoked in response to conflicting stimuli remains
             poorly understood. By examining evoked electrical brain
             responses in a novel, hemifield-specific, visual-flanker
             task, we demonstrate that task-irrelevant conflicting
             stimulus input is quickly detected in higher level executive
             regions while simultaneously inducing rapid, recurrent
             modulation of sensory processing in the visual cortex.
             Importantly, however, both of these effects are larger for
             individuals with greater incongruency-related RT slowing.
             The combination of neural activation patterns and behavioral
             interference effects suggest that this initial sensory
             modulation induced by conflicting stimulus inputs reflects
             performance-degrading attentional distraction because of
             their incompatibility rather than any rapid task-enhancing
             cognitive control mechanisms. The present findings thus
             provide neural evidence for a model in which attentional
             distraction is the key initial trigger for the temporal
             cascade of processes by which the human brain responds to
             conflicting stimulus input in the environment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2010.21575},
   Key = {fds277535}
}

@article{fds277532,
   Author = {Boehler, CN and Bunzeck, N and Krebs, RM and Noesselt, T and Schoenfeld,
             MA and Heinze, H-J and Münte, TF and Woldorff, MG and Hopf,
             J-M},
   Title = {Substantia nigra activity level predicts trial-to-trial
             adjustments in cognitive control.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {362-373},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1530-8898},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20465358},
   Keywords = {Adaptation, Physiological • Adult • Brain Mapping
             • Cognition • Female • Humans • Image
             Processing, Computer-Assisted • Inhibition (Psychology)
             • Learning • Male • Models, Statistical
             • Neuropsychological Tests • Oxygen •
             Predictive Value of Tests • Reaction Time •
             Reinforcement (Psychology) • Substantia Nigra •
             Young Adult • blood • blood supply* • methods
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Effective adaptation to the demands of a changing
             environment requires flexible cognitive control. The medial
             and the lateral frontal cortices are involved in such
             control processes, putatively in close interplay with the
             BG. In particular, dopaminergic projections from the
             midbrain (i.e., from the substantia nigra [SN] and the
             ventral tegmental area) have been proposed to play a pivotal
             role in modulating the activity in these areas for cognitive
             control purposes. In that dopaminergic involvement has been
             strongly implicated in reinforcement learning, these ideas
             suggest functional links between reinforcement learning,
             where the outcome of actions shapes behavior over time, and
             cognitive control in a more general context, where no direct
             reward is involved. Here, we provide evidence from
             functional MRI in humans that activity in the SN predicts
             systematic subsequent trial-to-trial RT prolongations that
             are thought to reflect cognitive control in a stop-signal
             paradigm. In particular, variations in the activity level of
             the SN in one trial predicted the degree of RT prolongation
             on the subsequent trial, consistent with a modulating output
             signal from the SN being involved in enhancing cognitive
             control. This link between SN activity and subsequent
             behavioral adjustments lends support to theoretical accounts
             that propose dopaminergic control signals that shape
             behavior both in the presence and in the absence of direct
             reward. This SN-based modulatory mechanism is presumably
             mediated via a wider network that determines response speed
             in this task, including frontal and parietal control
             regions, along with the BG and the associated subthalamic
             nucleus.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2010.21473},
   Key = {fds277532}
}

@article{Boehler2011,
   Author = {Boehler, C. N. and Appelbaum, L. G. and Krebs, R. M. and Chen, L. C. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {The role of stimulus salience and attentional capture across
             the neural hierarchy in a stop-signal task},
   Journal = {PLoS One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e26386},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             North Carolina, United States of America.
             c.n.boehler@gmail.com},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022611},
   Keywords = {Attention/*physiology • Behavior/physiology •
             Brain/anatomy \& histology/physiology • Brain Mapping
             • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Nerve Net/*physiology •
             Physical Stimulation • *Task Performance and Analysis
             • Young Adult},
   Abstract = {Inhibitory motor control is a core function of cognitive
             control. Evidence from diverse experimental approaches has
             linked this function to a mostly right-lateralized network
             of cortical and subcortical areas, wherein a signal from the
             frontal cortex to the basal ganglia is believed to trigger
             motor-response cancellation. Recently, however, it has been
             recognized that in the context of typical motor-control
             paradigms those processes related to actual response
             inhibition and those related to the attentional processing
             of the relevant stimuli are highly interrelated and thus
             difficult to distinguish. Here, we used fMRI and a modified
             Stop-signal task to specifically examine the role of
             perceptual and attentional processes triggered by the
             different stimuli in such tasks, thus seeking to further
             distinguish other cognitive processes that may precede or
             otherwise accompany the implementation of response
             inhibition. In order to establish which brain areas respond
             to sensory stimulation differences by rare Stop-stimuli, as
             well as to the associated attentional capture that these may
             trigger irrespective of their task-relevance, we compared
             brain activity evoked by Stop-trials to that evoked by
             Go-trials in task blocks where Stop-stimuli were to be
             ignored. In addition, region-of-interest analyses comparing
             the responses to these task-irrelevant Stop-trials, with
             those to typical relevant Stop-trials, identified separable
             activity profiles as a function of the task-relevance of the
             Stop-signal. While occipital areas were mostly blind to the
             task-relevance of Stop-stimuli, activity in temporo-parietal
             areas dissociated between task-irrelevant and task-relevant
             ones. Activity profiles in frontal areas, in turn, were
             activated mainly by task-relevant Stop-trials, presumably
             reflecting a combination of triggered top-down attentional
             influences and inhibitory motor-control processes.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0026386},
   Key = {Boehler2011}
}

@article{Krebs2011,
   Author = {Krebs, R. M. and Boehler, C. N. and Egner, T. and Woldorff,
             M. G.},
   Title = {The neural underpinnings of how reward associations can both
             guide and misguide attention},
   Journal = {J Neurosci},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {9752--9},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             North Carolina 27708, USA. ruthmkrebs@gmail.com},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715640},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Association
             Learning/*physiology • Attention/*physiology •
             Brain Mapping • Female • Frontal Lobe/*physiology
             • Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Nucleus
             Accumbens/*physiology • Photic Stimulation •
             Psychomotor Performance/physiology • Reaction
             Time/physiology • *Reward • Stroop
             Test},
   Abstract = {It is commonly accepted that reward is an effective
             motivator of behavior, but little is known about potential
             costs resulting from reward associations. Here, we used
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate
             the neural underpinnings of such reward-related
             performance-disrupting effects in a reward-modulated Stroop
             task in humans. While reward associations in the
             task-relevant dimension (i.e., ink color) facilitated
             performance, behavioral detriments were found when the
             task-irrelevant dimension (i.e., word meaning) implicitly
             referred to reward-predictive ink colors. Neurally, only
             relevant reward associations invoked a typical
             reward-anticipation response in the nucleus accumbens
             (NAcc), which was in turn predictive of behavioral
             facilitation. In contrast, irrelevant reward associations
             increased activity in a medial prefrontal
             motor-control-related region, namely the presupplementary
             motor area (pre-SMA), which likely reflects the preemption
             and inhibition of automatic response tendencies that are
             amplified by irrelevant reward-related words. This view was
             further supported by a positive relationship between pre-SMA
             activity and pronounced response slowing in trials
             containing reward-related as compared with reward-unrelated
             incongruent words. Importantly, the distinct neural
             processes related to the beneficial and detrimental
             behavioral effects of reward associations appeared to arise
             from preferential-coding mechanisms in visual-processing
             areas that were shared by the two stimulus dimensions,
             suggesting a transfer of reward-related saliency to the
             irrelevant dimension, but with highly differential
             behavioral and neural ramifications. More generally, the
             data demonstrate that even entirely irrelevant reward
             associations can influence stimulus-processing and
             response-selection pathways relatively automatically,
             thereby representing an important flipside of reward-driven
             performance enhancements.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0732-11.2011},
   Key = {Krebs2011}
}

@article{Wilson2011,
   Author = {Wilson, B. S. and Dorman, M. F. and Woldorff, M. G. and Tucci, D. L.},
   Title = {Cochlear implants matching the prosthesis to the brain and
             facilitating desired plastic changes in brain
             function},
   Journal = {Prog Brain Res},
   Volume = {194},
   Pages = {117--29},
   Address = {Duke Hearing Center, Duke University Medical Center (DUMC),
             Durham, NC, USA. blake.wilson@duke.edu},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867799},
   Keywords = {Brain/anatomy \& histology/*physiology • Cochlear
             Implantation/methods • *Cochlear Implants •
             Deafness/*rehabilitation • Humans • User-Computer
             Interface},
   Abstract = {The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the great success
             stories of modern medicine. A high level of function is
             provided for most patients. However, some patients still do
             not achieve excellent or even good results using the
             present-day devices. Accumulating evidence is pointing to
             differences in the processing abilities of the ``auditory
             brain'' among patients as a principal contributor to this
             remaining and still large variability in outcomes. In this
             chapter, we describe a new approach to the design of CIs
             that takes these differences into account and thereby may
             improve outcomes for patients with compromised auditory
             brains.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-444-53815-4.00012-1},
   Key = {Wilson2011}
}

@article{Wu2011,
   Author = {Wu, C. T. and Libertus, M. E. and Meyerhoff, K. L. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {The temporal dynamics of object processing in visual cortex
             during the transition from distributed to focused spatial
             attention},
   Journal = {J Cogn Neurosci},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {4094--105},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Box
             90999, Durham, NC 27708, USA.},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21563884},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention/*physiology • Female •
             Humans • Male • Middle Aged • Pattern
             Recognition, Visual/*physiology • Photic
             Stimulation/*methods • Reaction Time/*physiology •
             Space Perception/*physiology • Visual
             Cortex/*physiology • Young Adult},
   Abstract = {Several major cognitive neuroscience models have posited
             that focal spatial attention is required to integrate
             different features of an object to form a coherent
             perception of it within a complex visual scene. Although
             many behavioral studies have supported this view, some have
             suggested that complex perceptual discrimination can be
             performed even with substantially reduced focal spatial
             attention, calling into question the complexity of object
             representation that can be achieved without focused spatial
             attention. In the present study, we took a cognitive
             neuroscience approach to this problem by recording
             cognition-related brain activity both to help resolve the
             questions about the role of focal spatial attention in
             object categorization processes and to investigate the
             underlying neural mechanisms, focusing particularly on the
             temporal cascade of these attentional and perceptual
             processes in visual cortex. More specifically, we recorded
             electrical brain activity in humans engaged in a specially
             designed cued visual search paradigm to probe the
             object-related visual processing before and during the
             transition from distributed to focal spatial attention. The
             onset times of the color popout cueing information,
             indicating where within an object array the subject was to
             shift attention, was parametrically varied relative to the
             presentation of the array (i.e., either occurring
             simultaneously or being delayed by 50 or 100 msec). The
             electrophysiological results demonstrate that some levels of
             object-specific representation can be formed in parallel for
             multiple items across the visual field under spatially
             distributed attention, before focal spatial attention is
             allocated to any of them. The object discrimination process
             appears to be subsequently amplified as soon as focal
             spatial attention is directed to a specific location and
             object. This set of novel neurophysiological findings thus
             provides important new insights on fundamental issues that
             have been long-debated in cognitive neuroscience concerning
             both object-related processing and the role of
             attention.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00045},
   Key = {Wu2011}
}

@article{Donohue2011,
   Author = {Donohue, S. E. and Roberts, K. C. and Grent-'t-Jong, T. and Woldorff, M. G.},
   Title = {The cross-modal spread of attention reveals differential
             constraints for the temporal and spatial linking of visual
             and auditory stimulus events},
   Journal = {J Neurosci},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {7982--90},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             North Carolina 27708-0999, USA.},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21632920},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation/methods • Adolescent •
             Attention/*physiology • Auditory Perception/*physiology
             • Brain Waves/*physiology • Electroencephalography/methods
             • Evoked Potentials/physiology • Female •
             Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation/methods •
             Psychomotor Performance/physiology • Time Factors
             • Visual Perception/*physiology • Young
             Adult},
   Abstract = {The integration of multisensory information has been shown
             to be guided by spatial and temporal proximity, as well as
             to be influenced by attention. Here we used neural measures
             of the multisensory spread of attention to investigate the
             spatial and temporal linking of synchronous versus
             near-synchronous auditory and visual events. Human
             participants attended selectively to one of two lateralized
             visual-stimulus streams while task-irrelevant tones were
             presented centrally. Electrophysiological measures of brain
             activity showed that tones occurring simultaneously or
             delayed by 100 ms were temporally linked to an attended
             visual stimulus, as reflected by robust cross-modal
             spreading-of-attention activity, but not when delayed by 300
             ms. The neural data also indicated a ventriloquist-like
             spatial linking of the auditory to the attended visual
             stimuli, but only when occurring simultaneously. These
             neurophysiological results thus provide unique insight into
             the temporal and spatial principles of multisensory feature
             integration and the fundamental role attention plays in such
             integration.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5298-10.2011},
   Key = {Donohue2011}
}

@article{Cabeza2011,
   Author = {Cabeza, R. and Mazuz, Y. S. and Stokes, J. and Kragel, J. E. and Woldorff, M. G. and Ciaramelli, E. and Olson, I. R. and Moscovitch, M.},
   Title = {Overlapping parietal activity in memory and perception:
             evidence for the attention to memory model},
   Journal = {J Cogn Neurosci},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {3209--17},
   Address = {Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. cabeza@duke.edu},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568633},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention/*physiology • Brain Mapping
             • Female • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Linear Models • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Mental
             Recall/*physiology • Neural Pathways/blood supply
             • *Orientation/physiology • Oxygen/blood •
             Paired-Associate Learning/physiology • Parietal
             Lobe/blood supply/*physiology • Photic Stimulation
             • Reaction Time/physiology • Visual
             Perception/*physiology • Vocabulary • Young
             Adult},
   Abstract = {The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic
             retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the
             Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex
             (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by
             retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC)
             mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the
             retrieval output or the retrieval cue. This model also
             hypothesizes that the attentional functions of DPC and VPC
             are similar for memory and perception. To investigate this
             last hypothesis, we scanned participants with event-related
             fMRI whereas they performed memory and perception tasks,
             each comprising an orienting phase (top-down attention) and
             a detection phase (bottom-up attention). The study yielded
             two main findings. First, consistent with the AtoM model,
             orienting-related activity for memory and perception
             overlapped in DPC, whereas detection-related activity for
             memory and perception overlapped in VPC. The DPC overlap was
             greater in the left intraparietal sulcus, and the VPC
             overlap in the left TPJ. Around overlapping areas, there
             were differences in the spatial distribution of memory and
             perception activations, which were consistent with trends
             reported in the literature. Second, both DPC and VPC showed
             stronger connectivity with medial-temporal lobe during the
             memory task and with visual cortex during the perception
             task. These findings suggest that, during memory tasks, some
             parietal regions mediate similar attentional control
             processes to those involved in perception tasks (orienting
             in DPC vs. detection in VPC), although on different types of
             information (mnemonic vs. sensory).},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00065},
   Key = {Cabeza2011}
}

@article{Harris2011,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Wu, C-T and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Sandwich masking eliminates both visual awareness of faces
             and face-specific brain activity through a feedforward
             mechanism},
   Journal = {Journal of Vision},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Address = {Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham,
             NC, USA.},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1534-7362},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21669859},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Awareness/*physiology •
             Brain/*physiology • Color Perception/physiology •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials • *Face
             • Female • Humans • Male • Perceptual
             Masking/*physiology • Reaction Time • Visual
             Perception/*physiology • Young Adult},
   Abstract = {It is generally agreed that considerable amounts of
             low-level sensory processing of visual stimuli can occur
             without conscious awareness. On the other hand, the degree
             of higher level visual processing that occurs in the absence
             of awareness is as yet unclear. Here, event-related
             potential (ERP) measures of brain activity were recorded
             during a sandwich-masking paradigm, a commonly used approach
             for attenuating conscious awareness of visual stimulus
             content. In particular, the present study used a combination
             of ERP activation contrasts to track both early
             sensory-processing ERP components and face-specific N170 ERP
             activations, in trials with versus without awareness. The
             electrophysiological measures revealed that the sandwich
             masking abolished the early face-specific N170 neural
             response (peaking at É170 ms post-stimulus), an effect that
             paralleled the abolition of awareness of face versus
             non-face image content. Furthermore, however, the masking
             appeared to render a strong attenuation of earlier
             feedforward visual sensory-processing signals. This early
             attenuation presumably resulted in insufficient information
             being fed into the higher level visual system pathways
             specific to object category processing, thus leading to
             unawareness of the visual object content. These results
             support a coupling of visual awareness and neural indices of
             face processing, while also demonstrating an early low-level
             mechanism of interference in sandwich masking. ©
             ARVO.},
   Doi = {10.1167/11.7.1},
   Key = {Harris2011}
}

@article{Libertus2011,
   Author = {Libertus, ME and Brannon, EM and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Parallels in stimulus-driven oscillatory brain responses to
             numerosity changes in adults and seven-month-old
             infants.},
   Journal = {Developmental Neuropsychology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {651-667},
   Address = {Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Johns
             Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, USA.
             melissa.libertus@jhu.edu},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21761991},
   Keywords = {Adult • Biological Markers • Brain/*physiology
             • Brain Mapping • Electroencephalography •
             Female • Functional Neuroimaging/psychology •
             Humans • Infant • Linear Models • Male •
             *Mathematical Concepts • Visual Perception/physiology},
   Abstract = {Previous studies provide indirect evidence for an
             ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System. We
             employed a rapid steady-state visual-presentation paradigm
             combined with electroencephalography to measure
             stimulus-driven neural oscillatory responses to numerosities
             in infants and adults. Steady-state repetition of the same
             numerosity across a 2.4-sec time block yielded an increase
             in the stimulus-locked neural entrainment in both groups.
             Entrainment changes following a numerosity switch varied by
             the ratio of the numerosities, consistent with Weber's Law.
             These similarities thus provide direct evidence for an
             ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System.
             Moreover, the degree of neural entrainment significantly
             predicted infants' number discrimination measured
             behaviorally two months later.},
   Doi = {10.1080/87565641.2010.549883},
   Key = {Libertus2011}
}

@article{fds277536,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Boehler, CN and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The influence of reward associations on conflict processing
             in the Stroop task.},
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {117},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {341-347},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1873-7838},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20864094},
   Keywords = {Color Perception • Conflict (Psychology)* •
             Extinction, Psychological • Female • Humans •
             Male • Psychomotor Performance • Reaction Time
             • Reward* • Stroop Test* • Young Adult •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {Performance in a behavioral task can be facilitated by
             associating stimulus properties with reward. In contrast,
             conflicting information is known to impede task performance.
             Here we investigated how reward associations influence the
             within-trial processing of conflicting information using a
             color-naming Stroop task in which a subset of ink colors
             (task-relevant dimension) was associated with monetary
             incentives. We found that color-naming performance was
             enhanced on trials with potential-reward versus those
             without. Moreover, in potential-reward trials, typical
             conflict-induced performance decrements were attenuated if
             the incongruent word (task-irrelevant dimension) was
             unrelated to reward. In contrast, incongruent words that
             were semantically related to reward-predicting ink colors
             interfered with performance in potential-reward trials and
             even more so in no-reward trials, despite the semantic
             meaning being entirely task-irrelevant. These observations
             imply that the prospect of reward enhances the processing of
             task-relevant stimulus information, whereas incongruent
             reward-related information in a task-irrelevant dimension
             can impede task performance.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2010.08.018},
   Key = {fds277536}
}

@article{fds277521,
   Author = {Paulsen, DJ and Woldorff, MG and Brannon, EM},
   Title = {Individual differences in nonverbal number discrimination
             correlate with event-related potentials and measures of
             probabilistic reasoning.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3687-3695},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1873-3514},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20817003},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Analysis of Variance •
             Discrimination (Psychology) • Electroencephalography
             • Evoked Potentials • Female • Humans •
             Individuality* • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Probability • Problem Solving • Psychomotor
             Performance • Reaction Time • Time Factors •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The current study investigated the neural activity patterns
             associated with numerical sensitivity in adults.
             Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while adults
             observed sequentially presented display arrays (S1 and S2)
             of non-symbolic numerical stimuli (dots) and made
             same/different judgments of these stimuli by pressing a
             button only when numerosities were the same (target trials).
             The main goals were to contrast the effects of numerical
             distance (close, medium, and far) and change direction
             (increasing, decreasing) between S1 and S2, both in terms of
             behavior and brain activity, and to examine the influence of
             individual differences in numeracy on the effects of these
             manipulations. Neural effects of distance were found to be
             significant between 360 and 600 ms after the onset of S2
             (greater negativity-wave activity for closer numerical
             distances), while direction effects were found between 320
             and 440 ms (greater negativity for decreasing direction).
             ERP change direction effects did not interact with numerical
             distance, suggesting that the two types of information are
             processed independently. Importantly, subjects' behavioral
             Weber fractions (w) for the same/different discrimination
             task correlated with distance-related ERP-activity
             amplitudes. Moreover, w also correlated with a separate
             objective measure of mathematical ability. Results thus draw
             a clear link between brain and behavior measures of number
             discrimination, while also providing support for the
             relationship between nonverbal magnitude discrimination and
             symbolic numerical processing.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.08.014},
   Key = {fds277521}
}

@article{fds277531,
   Author = {Boehler, CN and Appelbaum, LG and Krebs, RM and Hopf, JM and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Pinning down response inhibition in the brain--conjunction
             analyses of the Stop-signal task.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1621-1632},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20452445},
   Keywords = {Adult • Cerebral Cortex • Cognition • Cues*
             • Female • Humans • Male • Movement
             • Neural Inhibition • Visual Perception •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Successful behavior requires a finely-tuned interplay of
             initiating and inhibiting motor programs to react
             effectively to constantly changing environmental demands.
             One particularly useful paradigm for investigating
             inhibitory motor control is the Stop-signal task, where
             already-initiated responses to Go-stimuli are to be
             inhibited upon the rapid subsequent presentation of a
             Stop-stimulus (yielding successful and unsuccessful
             Stop-trials). Despite the extensive use of this paradigm in
             functional neuroimaging, there is no consensus on which
             functional comparison to use to characterize
             response-inhibition-related brain activity. Here, we utilize
             conjunction analyses of successful and unsuccessful
             Stop-trials that are each contrasted against a reference
             condition. This conjunction approach identifies processes
             common to both Stop-trial types while excluding processes
             specific to either, thereby capitalizing on the presence of
             some response-inhibition-related activity in both
             conditions. Using this approach on fMRI data from human
             subjects, we identify a network of brain structures that was
             linked to both types of Stop-trials, including
             lateral-inferior frontal and medial frontal cortical areas
             and the caudate nucleus. In addition, comparisons with a
             reference condition matched for visual stimulation
             identified additional activity in the right inferior
             parietal cortex that may play a role in enhancing the
             processing of the Stop-stimuli. Finally, differences in
             stopping efficacy across subjects were associated with
             variations in activity in the left anterior insula. However,
             this region was also associated with general task accuracy
             (which furthermore correlated directly with stopping
             efficacy), suggesting that it might actually reflect a more
             general mechanism of performance control that supports
             response inhibition in a relatively nonspecific
             way.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.276},
   Key = {fds277531}
}

@article{fds277534,
   Author = {Talsma, D and Senkowski, D and Soto-Faraco, S and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The multifaceted interplay between attention and
             multisensory integration.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {400-410},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1879-307X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20675182},
   Keywords = {Animals • Attention • Electroencephalography
             • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Models, Neurological • Perception •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Multisensory integration has often been characterized as an
             automatic process. Recent findings indicate that
             multisensory integration can occur across various stages of
             stimulus processing that are linked to, and can be modulated
             by, attention. Stimulus-driven, bottom-up mechanisms induced
             by crossmodal interactions can automatically capture
             attention towards multisensory events, particularly when
             competition to focus elsewhere is relatively low.
             Conversely, top-down attention can facilitate the
             integration of multisensory inputs and lead to a spread of
             attention across sensory modalities. These findings point to
             a more intimate and multifaceted interplay between attention
             and multisensory integration than was previously thought. We
             review developments in the current understanding of the
             interactions between attention and multisensory processing,
             and propose a framework that unifies previous, apparently
             discordant, findings.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2010.06.008},
   Key = {fds277534}
}

@article{fds277519,
   Author = {Zimmer, U and Roberts, KC and Harshbarger, TB and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Multisensory conflict modulates the spread of visual
             attention across a multisensory object.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {606-616},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420924},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Auditory
             Cortex • Auditory Perception • Brain • Female
             • Functional Laterality • Gyrus Cinguli •
             Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male •
             Neuropsychological Tests • Psychophysics • Visual
             Cortex • Visual Perception • Young Adult •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Spatial attention to a visual stimulus that occurs
             synchronously with a task-irrelevant sound from a different
             location can lead to increased activity not only in the
             visual cortex, but also the auditory cortex, apparently
             reflecting the object-related spreading of attention across
             both space and modality (Busse et al., 2005). The processing
             of stimulus conflict, including multisensory stimulus
             conflict, is known to activate the anterior cingulate cortex
             (ACC), but the interactive influence on the sensory cortices
             remains relatively unexamined. Here we used fMRI to examine
             whether the multisensory spread of visual attention across
             the sensory cortices previously observed will be modulated
             by whether there is conceptual or object-related conflict
             between the relevant visual and irrelevant auditory inputs.
             Subjects visually attended to one of two lateralized visual
             letter-streams while synchronously occurring,
             task-irrelevant, letter sounds were presented centrally,
             which could be either congruent or incongruent with the
             visual letters. We observed significant enhancements for
             incongruent versus congruent letter-sound combinations in
             the ACC and in the contralateral visual cortex when the
             visual component was attended, presumably reflecting the
             conflict detection and the need for boosted attention to the
             visual stimulus during incongruent trials. In the auditory
             cortices, activity increased bilaterally if the spatially
             discordant auditory stimulation was incongruent, but only in
             the left, language-dominant side when congruent. We conclude
             that a conflicting incongruent sound, even when
             task-irrelevant, distracts more strongly than a congruent
             one, leading to greater capture of attention. This greater
             capture of attention in turn results in increased activity
             in the auditory cortex.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.245},
   Key = {fds277519}
}

@article{fds277520,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Woldorff, MG and Mitroff, SR},
   Title = {Video game players show more precise multisensory temporal
             processing abilities.},
   Journal = {Attention, Perception & Psychophysics},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1120-1129},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1943-393X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20436205},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Aptitude* •
             Attention • Auditory Perception • Contrast
             Sensitivity* • Differential Threshold •
             Discrimination (Psychology) • Humans • Judgment*
             • Learning • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Psychomotor Performance • Questionnaires • Space
             Perception • Video Games* • Visual Perception
             • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Recent research has demonstrated enhanced visual attention
             and visual perception in individuals with extensive
             experience playing action video games. These benefits
             manifest in several realms, but much remains unknown about
             the ways in which video game experience alters perception
             and cognition. In the present study, we examined whether
             video game players' benefits generalize beyond vision to
             multisensory processing by presenting auditory and visual
             stimuli within a short temporal window to video game players
             and non-video game players. Participants performed two
             discrimination tasks, both of which revealed benefits for
             video game players: In a simultaneity judgment task, video
             game players were better able to distinguish whether simple
             visual and auditory stimuli occurred at the same moment or
             slightly offset in time, and in a temporal-order judgment
             task, they revealed an enhanced ability to determine the
             temporal sequence of multisensory stimuli. These results
             suggest that people with extensive experience playing video
             games display benefits that extend beyond the visual
             modality to also impact multisensory processing.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3758/APP.72.4.1120},
   Key = {fds277520}
}

@article{fds277533,
   Author = {Zimmer, U and Itthipanyanan, S and Grent-'t-Jong, T and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The electrophysiological time course of the interaction of
             stimulus conflict and the multisensory spread of
             attention.},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1744-1754},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1460-9568},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20584178},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Data Interpretation, Statistical •
             Electroencephalography • Electrophysiology •
             Evoked Potentials • Female • Functional Laterality
             • Humans • Male • Middle Aged • Photic
             Stimulation • Reaction Time • Reading • Young
             Adult • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Previously, we have shown that spatial attention to a visual
             stimulus can spread across both space and modality to a
             synchronously presented but task-irrelevant sound arising
             from a different location, reflected by a late-onsetting,
             sustained, negative-polarity event-related potential (ERP)
             wave over frontal-central scalp sites, probably originating
             in part from the auditory cortices. Here we explore the
             influence of cross-modal conflict on the amplitude and
             temporal dynamics of this multisensory spreading-of-attention
             activity. Subjects attended selectively to one of two
             concurrently presented lateral visually-presented letter
             streams to perform a sequential comparison task, while
             ignoring task-irrelevant, centrally presented spoken letters
             that could occur synchronously with either the attended or
             unattended lateral visual letters and could be either
             congruent or incongruent with them. Extracted auditory ERPs
             revealed that, collapsed across congruency conditions,
             attentional spreading across modalities started at
             approximately 220 ms, replicating our earlier findings. The
             interaction between attentional spreading and conflict
             occurred beginning at approximately 300 ms, with
             attentional-spreading activity being larger for incongruent
             trials. Thus, the increased processing of an incongruent,
             task-irrelevant sound in a multisensory stimulation appeared
             to occur some time after attention has spread from the
             attended visual part to the ignored auditory part,
             presumably reflecting the conflict detection and associated
             attentional capture requiring accrual of some multisensory
             interaction processes at a higher-level semantic processing
             stage.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07229.x},
   Key = {fds277533}
}

@article{fds277518,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Woldorff, MG and Tempelmann, C and Bodammer, N and Noesselt, T and Boehler, CN and Scheich, H and Hopf, J-M and Duzel, E and al, E},
   Title = {High-field FMRI reveals brain activation patterns underlying
             saccade execution in the human superior colliculus.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e8691},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20084170},
   Keywords = {Adult • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Saccades* • Superior
             Colliculi • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The superior colliculus (SC) has been shown to
             play a crucial role in the initiation and coordination of
             eye- and head-movements. The knowledge about the function of
             this structure is mainly based on single-unit recordings in
             animals with relatively few neuroimaging studies
             investigating eye-movement related brain activity in humans.
             METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study employed
             high-field (7 Tesla) functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) to investigate SC responses during endogenously cued
             saccades in humans. In response to centrally presented
             instructional cues, subjects either performed saccades away
             from (centrifugal) or towards (centripetal) the center of
             straight gaze or maintained fixation at the center position.
             Compared to central fixation, the execution of saccades
             elicited hemodynamic activity within a network of cortical
             and subcortical areas that included the SC, lateral
             geniculate nucleus (LGN), occipital cortex, striatum, and
             the pulvinar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Activity in the SC
             was enhanced contralateral to the direction of the saccade
             (i.e., greater activity in the right as compared to left SC
             during leftward saccades and vice versa) during both
             centrifugal and centripetal saccades, thereby demonstrating
             that the contralateral predominance for saccade execution
             that has been shown to exist in animals is also present in
             the human SC. In addition, centrifugal saccades elicited
             greater activity in the SC than did centripetal saccades,
             while also being accompanied by an enhanced deactivation
             within the prefrontal default-mode network. This pattern of
             brain activity might reflect the reduced processing effort
             required to move the eyes toward as compared to away from
             the center of straight gaze, a position that might serve as
             a spatial baseline in which the retinotopic and craniotopic
             reference frames are aligned.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0008691},
   Key = {fds277518}
}

@article{fds277516,
   Author = {Libertus, ME and Pruitt, LB and Woldorff, MG and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Induced alpha-band oscillations reflect ratio-dependent
             number discrimination in the infant brain.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2398-2406},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016603},
   Keywords = {Alpha Rhythm* • Brain • Brain Mapping •
             Discrimination (Psychology) • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Female • Humans • Infant • Male •
             Mathematics* • Pattern Recognition, Visual •
             Photic Stimulation • Psychophysics • Recognition
             (Psychology) • Spectrum Analysis • methods •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Behavioral studies show that infants are capable of
             discriminating the number of objects or events in their
             environment, while also suggesting that number
             discrimination in infancy may be ratio-dependent. However,
             due to limitations of the dependent measures used with
             infant behavioral studies, the evidence for ratio dependence
             falls short of the vast psychophysical datasets that have
             established ratio dependence, and thus, adherence to Weber's
             Law in adults and nonhuman animals. We addressed this issue
             in two experiments that presented 7-month-old infants with
             familiar and novel numerosities while electroencephalogram
             measures of their brain activity were recorded. These data
             provide convergent evidence that the brains of 7-month-old
             infants detected numerical novelty. Alpha-band and
             theta-band oscillations both differed for novel and familiar
             numerical values. Most importantly, spectral power in the
             alpha band over midline and right posterior scalp sites was
             modulated by the ratio between the familiar and novel
             numerosities. Our findings provide neural evidence that
             numerical discrimination in infancy is ratio dependent and
             follows Weber's Law, thus indicating continuity of these
             cognitive processes over development. Results are also
             consistent with the idea that networks in the frontal and
             parietal cortices support ratio-dependent number
             discrimination in the first year of human life, consistent
             with what has been reported in neuroimaging studies in
             adults and older children.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2008.21162},
   Key = {fds277516}
}

@article{fds277530,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Warner, LM and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Momentary reductions of attention permit greater processing
             of irrelevant stimuli.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {609-615},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1095-9572},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19596451},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Perception • Brain • Brain Mapping •
             Female • Gyrus Cinguli • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Neuropsychological
             Tests • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time •
             Task Performance and Analysis • Visual Perception
             • Young Adult • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Momentary reductions of attention can have extremely adverse
             outcomes, but it remains unclear whether increased
             distraction from irrelevant stimuli contributes to such
             outcomes. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined
             trial-by-trial relationships between brain activity and
             response time in twenty healthy adults while they performed
             a cross-modal selective attention task. In each trial,
             participants identified a relevant visual letter while
             ignoring an irrelevant auditory letter, which was mapped
             either to the same response as the visual letter (congruent
             trials) or to a different response (incongruent trials). As
             predicted, reductions of attention (i.e., increases of
             response time) were associated not only with decreased
             activity in sensory regions that processed the relevant
             visual stimuli, suggesting a failure to enhance the
             processing of those stimuli, but also with increased
             activity in sensory regions that processed the irrelevant
             auditory stimuli, suggesting a failure to suppress the
             processing of those stimuli. Reductions of attention were
             also linked to larger increases of activity in incongruent
             than in congruent trials in anterior cingulate regions that
             detect response conflict, suggesting that failing to
             suppress the sensory processing of the irrelevant auditory
             stimuli during attentional reductions allowed those stimuli
             to more readily activate conflicting responses in
             incongruent trials. These findings indicate that heightened
             levels of distraction during momentary reductions of
             attention likely stem, at least in part, from increased
             processing of irrelevant stimuli.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.06.081},
   Key = {fds277530}
}

@article{fds277528,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Meyerhoff, KL and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Priming and backward influences in the human brain:
             processing interactions during the stroop interference
             effect.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2508-2521},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1460-2199},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19321654},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain •
             Brain Mapping • Choice Behavior • Conflict
             (Psychology)* • Contingent Negative Variation •
             Female • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Problem Solving • Stroop Test • Young Adult •
             methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {This study investigated neural processing interactions
             during Stroop interference by varying the temporal
             separation of relevant and irrelevant features of congruent,
             neutral, and incongruent colored-bar/color-word stimulus
             components. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) and
             behavioral performance were measured as participants
             reported the bar color as quickly as possible, while
             ignoring the color words. The task-irrelevant color words
             could appear at 1 of 5 stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)
             relative to the task-relevant bar-color occurrence: -200 or
             -100 ms before, +100 or +200 ms after, or simultaneously.
             Incongruent relative to congruent presentations elicited
             slower reaction times and higher error rates (with neutral
             in between), and ERP difference waves containing both an
             early, negative-polarity, central-parietal deflection, and a
             later, more left-sided, positive-polarity component. These
             congruency-related differences interacted with SOA, showing
             the greatest behavioral and electrophysiological effects
             when irrelevant stimulus information preceded the
             task-relevant target and reduced effects when the irrelevant
             information followed the relevant target. We interpret these
             data as reflecting 2 separate processes: 1) a 'priming
             influence' that enhances the magnitude of conflict-related
             facilitation and conflict-related interference when a
             task-relevant target is preceded by an irrelevant
             distractor; and 2) a reduced 'backward influence' of
             stimulus conflict when the irrelevant distractor information
             follows the task-relevant target.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhp036},
   Key = {fds277528}
}

@article{fds277529,
   Author = {Talsma, D and Senkowski, D and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Intermodal attention affects the processing of the temporal
             alignment of audiovisual stimuli.},
   Journal = {Experimental Brain Research},
   Volume = {198},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {313-328},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1432-1106},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19495733},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Perception • Brain • Electroencephalography
             • Evoked Potentials • Female • Humans •
             Male • Multivariate Analysis • Neuropsychological
             Tests • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time •
             Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted • Task Performance
             and Analysis • Time Factors • Visual Perception
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The temporal asynchrony between inputs to different sensory
             modalities has been shown to be a critical factor
             influencing the interaction between such inputs. We used
             scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to
             investigate the effects of attention on the processing of
             audiovisual multisensory stimuli as the temporal asynchrony
             between the auditory and visual inputs varied across the
             audiovisual integration window (i.e., up to 125 ms).
             Randomized streams of unisensory auditory stimuli,
             unisensory visual stimuli, and audiovisual stimuli
             (consisting of the temporally proximal presentation of the
             visual and auditory stimulus components) were presented
             centrally while participants attended to either the auditory
             or the visual modality to detect occasional target stimuli
             in that modality. ERPs elicited by each of the contributing
             sensory modalities were extracted by signal processing
             techniques from the combined ERP waveforms elicited by the
             multisensory stimuli. This was done for each of the five
             different 50-ms subranges of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA:
             e.g., V precedes A by 125-75 ms, by 75-25 ms, etc.). The
             extracted ERPs for the visual inputs of the multisensory
             stimuli were compared among each other and with the ERPs to
             the unisensory visual control stimuli, separately when
             attention was directed to the visual or to the auditory
             modality. The results showed that the attention effects on
             the right-hemisphere visual P1 was largest when auditory and
             visual stimuli were temporally aligned. In contrast, the N1
             attention effect was smallest at this latency, suggesting
             that attention may play a role in the processing of the
             relative temporal alignment of the constituent parts of
             multisensory stimuli. At longer latencies an occipital
             selection negativity for the attended versus unattended
             visual stimuli was also observed, but this effect did not
             vary as a function of SOA, suggesting that by that latency a
             stable representation of the auditory and visual stimulus
             components has been established.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00221-009-1858-6},
   Key = {fds277529}
}

@article{fds277517,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Liotti, M and Perez, R and Fox, SP and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The temporal dynamics of implicit processing of non-letter,
             letter, and word-forms in the human visual
             cortex.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {56},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20046826},
   Keywords = {Adult • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Saccades* • Superior
             Colliculi • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The decoding of visually presented line segments into
             letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent
             reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics
             of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on
             right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the
             hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually
             presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic
             strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants
             detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot
             strings) embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning
             at 130 ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were
             distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital
             recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were
             dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity
             activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at
             around 180 ms. This right-sided effect was followed by
             bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but
             not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this
             later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with
             the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who
             had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic
             stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g.,
             interhemispheric) processing of those stimuli shortly later.
             Additional early (130-150 ms) negative-polarity activity
             over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally
             distributed responses (>300 ms) were present, likely
             reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported
             'visual-word-form' area and N400-related responses,
             respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close
             look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal
             flow of information processing in the brain related to the
             implicit processing of potentially linguistic information
             and provide valuable information about the interactions
             between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic
             processing.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3389/neuro.09.056.2009},
   Key = {fds277517}
}

@article{fds277514,
   Author = {Goyer, JP and Woldorff, MG and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Rapid electrophysiological brain responses are influenced by
             both valence and magnitude of monetary rewards.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2058-2069},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18416673},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain • Brain Mapping* • Choice
             Behavior • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials • Female • Gambling • Humans
             • Male • Models, Biological • Motivation*
             • Reward* • Time Factors • Young Adult •
             methods • physiology • physiology* •
             psychology},
   Abstract = {Abstract Negative outcomes, as identified from external
             feedback, cause a short-latency negative deflection in the
             event-related potential (ERP) waveform over medial frontal
             electrode sites. This brain response, which has been called
             an "error related negativity" (ERN) or "medial frontal
             negativity" (MFN), may reflect a coarse evaluation of
             performance outcomes, such as the valence of a reward within
             a monetary gambling task. Yet, for feedback to lead to the
             adaptive control of behavior, other information concerning
             reward outcomes besides experienced valence may also be
             important. Here, we used a gambling task in which subjects
             chose between two options that could vary in both outcome
             valence (gain or loss) and outcome magnitude (larger or
             smaller). We measured changes in brain ERP responses
             associated with the presentation of the outcomes. We found,
             as shown in prior studies, that valence of the chosen
             outcome has an early effect upon frontal ERPs, with maximal
             difference observed at approximately 250 msec. However, our
             results demonstrated that the early ERP responses to outcome
             feedback were driven not just by valence but by the
             combination of valence and magnitude for both chosen and
             unchosen options. Beginning even earlier, at around 150
             msec, responses to high-consequence outcomes resulted in a
             greater, more centrally distributed, positive potential than
             those involving low-consequence outcomes, independent of
             valence. Furthermore, the amplitude of these early effects
             was significantly modulated by the sequence of outcomes in
             previous trials. These results indicate that early
             evaluation of feedback goes beyond simple identification of
             valence-it involves the consideration of multiple factors,
             including outcome magnitude, context of unchosen options,
             and prior history.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2008.20134},
   Key = {fds277514}
}

@article{fds277512,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Perkins, AS and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Cognitive control in social situations: a role for the
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {955-962},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18234518},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Cognition • Female
             • Humans • Interpersonal Relations* •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Male • Prefrontal
             Cortex • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we
             investigated brain activity elicited by a computer-animated
             child's actions that appeared consistent and inconsistent
             with a computer-animated adult's instructions. Participants
             observed a computer-animated adult verbally instructing a
             computer-animated child to touch one of two objects. The
             child performed correctly in half of the trials and
             incorrectly in the other half. We observed significantly
             greater activity when the child performed incorrectly
             compared to correctly in regions of the dorsolateral
             prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that have been implicated in
             maintaining our intentions in working memory and
             implementing cognitive control. However, no such effects
             were found in regions of the posterior superior temporal
             sulcus (posterior STS) that have been posited to interpret
             other people's behavior. These findings extend the role of
             the DLPFC in cognitive control to evaluating the social
             outcomes of other people's behavior and provide important
             new constraints for theories of how the posterior STS
             contributes to social cognition.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.12.021},
   Key = {fds277512}
}

@article{fds277513,
   Author = {Brannon, EM and Libertus, ME and Meck, WH and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Electrophysiological measures of time processing in infant
             and adult brains: Weber's Law holds.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {193-203},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18275328},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Differential
             Threshold • Discrimination (Psychology) • Evoked
             Potentials • Female • Humans • Infant •
             Male • Models, Theoretical • Orientation •
             Reference Values • Time Perception •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Behavioral studies have demonstrated that time perception in
             adults, children, and nonhuman animals is subject to Weber's
             Law. More specifically, as with discriminations of other
             features, it has been found that it is the ratio between two
             durations rather than their absolute difference that
             controls the ability of an animal to discriminate them.
             Here, we show that scalp-recorded event-related electrical
             brain potentials (ERPs) in both adults and 10-month-old
             human infants, in response to changes in interstimulus
             interval (ISI), appear to obey the scalar property found in
             time perception in adults, children, and nonhuman animals.
             Using a timing-interval oddball paradigm, we tested adults
             and infants in conditions where the ratio between the
             standard and deviant interval in a train of homogeneous
             auditory stimuli varied such that there was a 1:4 (only for
             the infants), 1:3, 1:2, and 2:3 ratio between the standard
             and deviant intervals. We found that the amplitude of the
             deviant-triggered mismatch negativity ERP component
             (deviant-ISI ERP minus standard-ISI ERP) varied as a
             function of the ratio of the standard to deviant interval.
             Moreover, when absolute values were varied and ratio was
             held constant, the mismatch negativity did not
             vary.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2008.20016},
   Key = {fds277513}
}

@article{fds277527,
   Author = {Slagter, HA and Giesbrecht, B and Kok, A and Weissman, DH and Kenemans,
             JL and Woldorff, MG and Mangun, GR},
   Title = {fMRI evidence for both generalized and specialized
             components of attentional control.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1177},
   Pages = {90-102},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17916338},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Cerebral Cortex • Color
             Perception • Cues • Electrooculography • Eye
             Movements • Female • Fixation, Ocular •
             Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Parietal Lobe
             • Photic Stimulation • Psychomotor Performance
             • Space Perception • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {A central question in the study of selective attention is
             whether top-down attentional control mechanisms are
             generalized or specialized for the type of information that
             is to be attended. The current study examined this question
             using a voluntary orienting task that cued observers to
             attend to either one of two locations or to one of two
             colors. Location (spatial) and color (nonspatial) conditions
             were presented either randomly intermixed within the same
             block of trials or in separate blocks. Functional magnetic
             resonance imaging revealed that directing attention to a
             location or to a color activated a network of overlapping
             dorsal frontal and parietal areas, previously implicated in
             attentional control. The pattern of observed overlap was not
             affected by the intermixed versus blocked presentation of
             location and color conditions. Although portions of the
             frontal-parietal network were more active in response to
             location cues than to color cues, a secondary analysis also
             revealed that medial dorsal frontal and parietal cortex were
             specifically engaged in shifting visual attention regardless
             of the cued dimension (location or color). Together, the
             present results support the conclusion that attentional
             control is the combination of a generalized network that
             works in concert with subregions of the frontoparietal
             network that are highly specialized for directing attention
             based on the content of the to-be-attended
             information.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2007.07.097},
   Key = {fds277527}
}

@article{fds277450,
   Author = {Wu, CT and Weissman, DH and Roberts, KC and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Erratum to "The neural circuitry underlying the executive
             control of auditory spatial attention" [Brain Res. 1134
             (2007) 187-198] (DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.088)},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1147},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {284},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2007.02.009},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2007.02.009},
   Key = {fds277450}
}

@article{fds277560,
   Author = {Roberts, KC and Tran, TT and Song, AW and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Component structure of event-related fMRI responses in the
             different neurovascular compartments.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {328-334},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0730-725X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17371721},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain Mapping • Cerebral Arteries •
             Cerebral Veins • Cerebrovascular Circulation •
             Evoked Potentials, Visual • Female • Humans •
             Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Neurons • Oxygen
             • Tissue Distribution • Visual Cortex • blood
             supply* • metabolism • metabolism* • methods
             • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {In most functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
             studies, brain activity is localized by observing changes in
             the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal that are
             believed to arise from capillaries, venules and veins in and
             around the active neuronal population. However, the
             contribution from veins can be relatively far downstream
             from active neurons, thereby limiting the ability of BOLD
             imaging methods to precisely pinpoint neural generators.
             Hemodynamic measures based on apparent diffusion
             coefficients (ADCs) have recently been used to identify more
             upstream functional blood flow changes in the capillaries,
             arterioles and arteries. In particular, we recently showed
             that, due to the complementary vascular sensitivities of ADC
             and BOLD signals, the voxels conjointly activated by both
             measures may identify the capillary networks of the active
             neuronal areas. In this study, we first used simultaneously
             acquired ADC and BOLD functional imaging signals to identify
             brain voxels activated by ADC only, by both ADC and BOLD and
             by BOLD only, thereby delineating voxels relatively
             dominated by the arterial, capillary, and draining venous
             neurovascular compartments, respectively. We then examined
             the event-related fMRI BOLD responses in each of these
             delineated neurovascular compartments, hypothesizing that
             their event-related responses would show different temporal
             componentries. In the regions activated by both the BOLD and
             ADC contrasts, but not in the BOLD-only areas, we observed
             an initial transient signal reduction (an initial dip),
             consistent with the local production of deoxyhemoglobin by
             the active neuronal population. In addition, the BOLD-ADC
             overlap areas and the BOLD-only areas showed a clear
             poststimulus undershoot, whereas the compartment activated
             by only ADC did not show this component. These results
             indicate that using ADC contrast in conjunction with BOLD
             imaging can help delineate the various neurovascular
             compartments, improve the localization of active neural
             populations, and provide insight into the physiological
             mechanisms underlying the hemodynamic signals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.mri.2006.08.010},
   Key = {fds277560}
}

@article{fds277558,
   Author = {Talsma, D and Doty, TJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Selective attention and audiovisual integration: is
             attending to both modalities a prerequisite for early
             integration?},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {679-690},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16707740},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Brain Mapping • Cognition •
             Discrimination (Psychology) • Evoked Potentials,
             Auditory • Evoked Potentials, Visual • Female
             • Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Reaction Time • Scalp • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Interactions between multisensory integration and attention
             were studied using a combined audiovisual streaming design
             and a rapid serial visual presentation paradigm.
             Event-related potentials (ERPs) following audiovisual
             objects (AV) were compared with the sum of the ERPs
             following auditory (A) and visual objects (V). Integration
             processes were expressed as the difference between these AV
             and (A + V) responses and were studied while attention was
             directed to one or both modalities or directed elsewhere.
             Results show that multisensory integration effects depend on
             the multisensory objects being fully attended--that is, when
             both the visual and auditory senses were attended. In this
             condition, a superadditive audiovisual integration effect
             was observed on the P50 component. When unattended, this
             effect was reversed; the P50 components of multisensory ERPs
             were smaller than the unisensory sum. Additionally, we found
             an enhanced late frontal negativity when subjects attended
             the visual component of a multisensory object. This effect,
             bearing a strong resemblance to the auditory processing
             negativity, appeared to reflect late attention-related
             processing that had spread to encompass the auditory
             component of the multisensory object. In conclusion, our
             results shed new light on how the brain processes
             multisensory auditory and visual information, including how
             attention modulates multisensory integration
             processes.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhk016},
   Key = {fds277558}
}

@article{fds277553,
   Author = {Senkowski, D and Talsma, D and Grigutsch, M and Herrmann, CS and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Good times for multisensory integration: Effects of the
             precision of temporal synchrony as revealed by gamma-band
             oscillations.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {561-571},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542688},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Analysis of
             Variance • Auditory Perception • Biological Clocks
             • Brain Mapping* • Cerebral Cortex •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials •
             Female • Functional Laterality • Humans •
             Male • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time •
             Visual Perception • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The synchronous occurrence of the unisensory components of a
             multisensory stimulus contributes to their successful
             merging into a coherent perceptual representation.
             Oscillatory gamma-band responses (GBRs, 30-80 Hz) have been
             linked to feature integration mechanisms and to multisensory
             processing, suggesting they may also be sensitive to the
             temporal alignment of multisensory stimulus components. Here
             we examined the effects on early oscillatory GBR brain
             activity of varying the precision of the temporal synchrony
             of the unisensory components of an audio-visual stimulus.
             Audio-visual stimuli were presented with stimulus onset
             asynchronies ranging from -125 to +125 ms. Randomized
             streams of auditory (A), visual (V), and audio-visual (AV)
             stimuli were presented centrally while subjects attended to
             either the auditory or visual modality to detect occasional
             targets. GBRs to auditory and visual components of
             multisensory AV stimuli were extracted for five subranges of
             asynchrony (e.g., A preceded by V by 100+/-25 ms, by 50+/-25
             ms, etc.) and compared with GBRs to unisensory control
             stimuli. Robust multisensory interactions were observed in
             the early GBRs when the auditory and visual stimuli were
             presented with the closest synchrony. These effects were
             found over medial-frontal brain areas after 30-80 ms and
             over occipital brain areas after 60-120 ms. A second
             integration effect, possibly reflecting the perceptual
             separation of the two sensory inputs, was found over
             occipital areas when auditory inputs preceded visual by
             100+/-25 ms. No significant interactions were observed for
             the other subranges of asynchrony. These results show that
             the precision of temporal synchrony can have an impact on
             early cross-modal interactions in human cortex.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2006.01.013},
   Key = {fds277553}
}

@article{fds277559,
   Author = {Wu, C-T and Weissman, DH and Roberts, KC and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The neural circuitry underlying the executive control of
             auditory spatial attention.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1134},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {187-198},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17204249},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Pathways • Auditory Perception • Brain
             • Brain Mapping • Cues • Female •
             Frontal Lobe • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Nerve
             Net • Neural Pathways • Neuropsychological Tests
             • Parietal Lobe • Reaction Time • Sound
             Localization • Space Perception • Visual Pathways
             • anatomy & histology • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Although a fronto-parietal network has consistently been
             implicated in the control of visual spatial attention, the
             network that guides spatial attention in the auditory domain
             is not yet clearly understood. To investigate this issue, we
             measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance
             imaging while participants performed a cued auditory spatial
             attention task. We found that cued orienting of auditory
             spatial attention activated a medial-superior distributed
             fronto-parietal network. In addition, we found cue-triggered
             increases of activity in the auditory sensory cortex prior
             to the occurrence of an auditory target, suggesting that
             auditory attentional control operates in part by biasing
             processing in sensory cortex in favor of expected target
             stimuli. Finally, an exploratory cross-study comparison
             further indicated several common frontal and parietal
             regions as being involved in the control of both visual and
             auditory spatial attention. Thus, the present findings not
             only reveal the network of brain areas underlying endogenous
             spatial orienting in the auditory modality, but also suggest
             that the control of spatial attention in different sensory
             modalities is enabled in part by some common, supramodal
             neural mechanisms.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2006.11.088},
   Key = {fds277559}
}

@article{fds304940,
   Author = {Libertus, ME and Woldorff, MG and Brannon, EM},
   Title = {Electrophysiological evidence for notation independence in
             numerical processing.},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Functions : Bbf},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {1},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17214890},
   Abstract = {A dominant view in numerical cognition is that numerical
             comparisons operate on a notation independent representation
             (Dehaene, 1992). Although previous human neurophysiological
             studies using scalp-recorded event-related potentials (ERPs)
             on the numerical distance effect have been interpreted as
             supporting this idea, differences in the
             electrophysiological correlates of the numerical distance
             effect in symbolic notations (e.g. Arabic numerals) and
             non-symbolic notations (e.g. a set of visually presented
             dots of a certain number) are not entirely consistent with
             this view.Two experiments were conducted to resolve these
             discrepancies. In Experiment 1, participants performed a
             symbolic and a non-symbolic numerical comparison task
             ("smaller or larger than 5?") with numerical values 1-4 and
             6-9 while ERPs were recorded. Consistent with a previous
             report (Temple & Posner, 1998), in the symbolic condition
             the amplitude of the P2p ERP component (210-250 ms
             post-stimulus) was larger for values near to the standard
             than for values far from the standard whereas this pattern
             was reversed in the non-symbolic condition. However, closer
             analysis indicated that the reversal in polarity was likely
             due to the presence of a confounding stimulus effect on the
             early sensory ERP components for small versus larger
             numerical values in the non-symbolic condition. In
             Experiment 2 exclusively large numerosities (8-30) were
             used, thereby rendering sensory differences negligible, and
             with this control in place the numerical distance effect in
             the non-symbolic condition mirrored the symbolic condition
             of Experiment 1.Collectively, the results support the claim
             of an abstract semantic processing stage for numerical
             comparisons that is independent of input
             notation.},
   Doi = {10.1186/1744-9081-3-1},
   Key = {fds304940}
}

@article{fds277515,
   Author = {Crist, RE and Wu, C-T and Karp, C and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Face Processing is Gated by Visual Spatial
             Attention.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {1},
   Pages = {10},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18958224},
   Keywords = {Alpha Rhythm* • Brain • Brain Mapping •
             Discrimination (Psychology) • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Female • Humans • Infant • Male •
             Mathematics* • Pattern Recognition, Visual •
             Photic Stimulation • Psychophysics • Recognition
             (Psychology) • Spectrum Analysis • methods •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Human perception of faces is widely believed to rely on
             automatic processing by a domain-specific, modular component
             of the visual system. Scalp-recorded event-related potential
             (ERP) recordings indicate that faces receive special
             stimulus processing at around 170 ms poststimulus onset, in
             that faces evoke an enhanced occipital negative wave, known
             as the N170, relative to the activity elicited by other
             visual objects. As predicted by modular accounts of face
             processing, this early face-specific N170 enhancement has
             been reported to be largely immune to the influence of
             endogenous processes such as task strategy or attention.
             However, most studies examining the influence of attention
             on face processing have focused on non-spatial attention,
             such as object-based attention, which tend to have
             longer-latency effects. In contrast, numerous studies have
             demonstrated that visual spatial attention can modulate the
             processing of visual stimuli as early as 80 ms poststimulus
             - substantially earlier than the N170. These temporal
             characteristics raise the question of whether this initial
             face-specific processing is immune to the influence of
             spatial attention. This question was addressed in a
             dual-visual-stream ERP study in which the influence of
             spatial attention on the face-specific N170 could be
             directly examined. As expected, early visual sensory
             responses to all stimuli presented in an attended location
             were larger than responses evoked by those same stimuli when
             presented in an unattended location. More importantly, a
             significant face-specific N170 effect was elicited by faces
             that appeared in an attended location, but not in an
             unattended one. In summary, early face-specific processing
             is not automatic, but rather, like other objects, strongly
             depends on endogenous factors such as the allocation of
             spatial attention. Moreover, these findings underscore the
             extensive influence that top-down attention exercises over
             the processing of visual stimuli, including those of high
             natural salience.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3389/neuro.09.010.2007},
   Key = {fds277515}
}

@article{fds277566,
   Author = {Grent-'t-Jong, T and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Timing and sequence of brain activity in top-down control of
             visual-spatial attention.},
   Journal = {Plos Biology},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {e12},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1544-9173},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17199410},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain •
             Cues • Electrophysiology • Female • Humans
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Photic
             Stimulation • Space Perception • Time Factors
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Recent brain imaging studies using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI) have implicated a frontal-parietal
             network in the top-down control of attention. However,
             little is known about the timing and sequence of activations
             within this network. To investigate these timing questions,
             we used event-related electrical brain potentials (ERPs) and
             a specially designed visual-spatial attentional-cueing
             paradigm, which were applied as part of a
             multi-methodological approach that included a closely
             corresponding event-related fMRI study using an identical
             paradigm. In the first 400 ms post cue, attention-directing
             and control cues elicited similar general cue-processing
             activity, corresponding to the more lateral subregions of
             the frontal-parietal network identified with the fMRI.
             Following this, the attention-directing cues elicited a
             sustained negative-polarity brain wave that was absent for
             control cues. This activity could be linked to the more
             medial frontal-parietal subregions similarly identified in
             the fMRI as specifically involved in attentional orienting.
             Critically, both the scalp ERPs and the fMRI-seeded source
             modeling for this orienting-related activity indicated an
             earlier onset of frontal versus parietal contribution (
             approximately 400 versus approximately 700 ms). This was
             then followed ( approximately 800-900 ms) by pretarget
             biasing activity in the region-specific visual-sensory
             occipital cortex. These results indicate an activation
             sequence of key components of the attentional-control brain
             network, providing insight into their functional roles. More
             specifically, these results suggest that voluntary
             attentional orienting is initiated by medial portions of
             frontal cortex, which then recruit medial parietal areas.
             Together, these areas then implement biasing of
             region-specific visual-sensory cortex to facilitate the
             processing of upcoming visual stimuli.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.0050012},
   Key = {fds277566}
}

@article{fds277557,
   Author = {Libertus, ME and Woldorff, MG and Brannon, EM},
   Title = {Electrophysiological evidence for notation independence in
             numerical processing.},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Functions : Bbf},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {1744-9081},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17214890},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Attention •
             Brain • Brain Mapping • Cognition • Cues
             • Female • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Male • Oxygen • Photic
             Stimulation • Set (Psychology)* • blood •
             blood supply* • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: A dominant view in numerical cognition is that
             numerical comparisons operate on a notation independent
             representation (Dehaene, 1992). Although previous human
             neurophysiological studies using scalp-recorded
             event-related potentials (ERPs) on the numerical distance
             effect have been interpreted as supporting this idea,
             differences in the electrophysiological correlates of the
             numerical distance effect in symbolic notations (e.g. Arabic
             numerals) and non-symbolic notations (e.g. a set of visually
             presented dots of a certain number) are not entirely
             consistent with this view. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two
             experiments were conducted to resolve these discrepancies.
             In Experiment 1, participants performed a symbolic and a
             non-symbolic numerical comparison task ("smaller or larger
             than 5?") with numerical values 1-4 and 6-9 while ERPs were
             recorded. Consistent with a previous report (Temple &
             Posner, 1998), in the symbolic condition the amplitude of
             the P2p ERP component (210-250 ms post-stimulus) was larger
             for values near to the standard than for values far from the
             standard whereas this pattern was reversed in the
             non-symbolic condition. However, closer analysis indicated
             that the reversal in polarity was likely due to the presence
             of a confounding stimulus effect on the early sensory ERP
             components for small versus larger numerical values in the
             non-symbolic condition. In Experiment 2 exclusively large
             numerosities (8-30) were used, thereby rendering sensory
             differences negligible, and with this control in place the
             numerical distance effect in the non-symbolic condition
             mirrored the symbolic condition of Experiment 1. CONCLUSION:
             Collectively, the results support the claim of an abstract
             semantic processing stage for numerical comparisons that is
             independent of input notation.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1744-9081-3-1},
   Key = {fds277557}
}

@article{fds277556,
   Author = {Talsma, D and Doty, TJ and Strowd, R and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Attentional capacity for processing concurrent stimuli is
             larger across sensory modalities than within a
             modality.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {541-549},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17076810},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials • Female • Humans • Male •
             Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time • Sensation
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {One finding in attention research is that visual and
             auditory attention mechanisms are linked together. Such a
             link would predict a central, amodal capacity limit in
             processing visual and auditory stimuli. Here we show that
             this is not the case. Letter streams were accompanied by
             asynchronously presented streams of auditory, visual, and
             audiovisual objects. Either the letter streams or the
             visual, auditory, or audiovisual parts of the object streams
             were attended. Attending to various aspects of the objects
             resulted in modulations of the letter-stream-elicited
             steady-state evoked potentials (SSVEPs). SSVEPs were larger
             when auditory objects were attended than when either visual
             objects alone or when auditory and visual object stimuli
             were attended together. SSVEP amplitudes were the same in
             the latter conditions, indicating that attentional capacity
             between modalities is larger than attentional capacity
             within one and the same modality.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.2006.00452.x},
   Key = {fds277556}
}

@article{fds277552,
   Author = {Dillon, DG and Cooper, JJ and Grent-'t-Jong, T and Woldorff, MG and LaBar, KS},
   Title = {Dissociation of event-related potentials indexing arousal
             and semantic cohesion during emotional word
             encoding.},
   Journal = {Brain and Cognition},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {43-57},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0278-2626},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16678953},
   Keywords = {Adult • Affect • Analysis of Variance •
             Arousal • Cortical Synchronization • Dominance,
             Cerebral • Emotions • Evoked Potentials •
             Female • Frontal Lobe • Humans • Language
             • Male • Mental Processes • Reference Values
             • Semantics* • Speech Perception • Verbal
             Learning • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that
             emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late
             positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli.
             This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional
             stimuli are also more semantically coherent than
             uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during
             encoding of positive, negative, uncategorized neutral, and
             categorized neutral words. Differences in LPP amplitude
             elicited by emotional versus uncategorized neutral stimuli
             were evident from 450 to 1000 ms. From 450 to 700 ms, LPP
             effects at midline and right hemisphere frontal electrodes
             indexed arousal, whereas LPP effects at left hemisphere
             centro-parietal electrodes indexed semantic cohesion. This
             dissociation helps specify the processes underlying
             emotional stimulus encoding, and suggests the need to
             control for semantic cohesion in emotional information
             processing studies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bandc.2006.03.008},
   Key = {fds277552}
}

@article{fds277471,
   Author = {Slagter, HA and Weissman, DH and Giesbrecht, B and Kenemans, JL and Mangun, GR and Kok, A and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Brain regions activated by endogenous preparatory set
             shifting as revealed by fMRI.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {175-189},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1530-7026},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17243354},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Attention •
             Brain • Brain Mapping • Cognition • Cues
             • Female • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Male • Oxygen • Photic
             Stimulation • Set (Psychology)* • blood •
             blood supply* • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {An ongoing controversy concerns whether executive control
             mechanisms can actively reconfigure the cognitive system in
             preparation for switching to a new task set. To address this
             question, we recorded brain activity from 14 healthy
             participants, using event-related functional magnetic
             resonance imaging, while they performed a cued attention
             task. Critically, in any particular trial, the cued task set
             was either the same as that in the previous trial or
             switched. As was hypothesized, cue-related, switch-specific
             preparatory activity was observed in a network of dorsal
             frontal and parietal brain areas that are typically
             associated with cognitive control processes. Moreover, the
             magnitude of switch-specific preparatory activity varied
             with the number of possible task sets that could be
             presented in a given trial block. These findings provide
             compelling support for the existence of top-down,
             preparatory control processes that enable set switching.
             Furthermore, they demonstrate that global task structure is
             a critical determinant of whether switch-specific
             preparatory activity is observed.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3758/cabn.6.3.175},
   Key = {fds277471}
}

@article{fds277565,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Roberts, KC and Visscher, KM and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The neural bases of momentary lapses in attention.},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {971-978},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1097-6256},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16767087},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Analysis of Variance •
             Attention • Brain Mapping* • Cerebral Cortex
             • Female • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Nerve Net • Oxygen
             • Pattern Recognition, Visual • Photic Stimulation
             • Psychomotor Performance • Reaction Time •
             Time Factors • anatomy & histology • blood •
             blood supply • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Momentary lapses in attention frequently impair
             goal-directed behavior, sometimes with serious consequences.
             Nevertheless, we lack an integrated view of the brain
             mechanisms underlying such lapses. By investigating
             trial-by-trial relationships between brain activity and
             response time in humans, we determined that attentional
             lapses begin with reduced prestimulus activity in anterior
             cingulate and right prefrontal regions involved in
             controlling attention. Less efficient stimulus processing
             during attentional lapses was also characterized by less
             deactivation of a 'default-mode' network, reduced
             stimulus-evoked sensory activity, and increased activity in
             widespread regions of frontal and parietal cortex. Finally,
             consistent with a mechanism for recovering from attentional
             lapses, increased stimulus-evoked activity in the right
             inferior frontal gyrus and the right temporal-parietal
             junction predicted better performance on the next trial. Our
             findings provide a new, system-wide understanding of the
             patterns of brain activity that are associated with brief
             attentional lapses, which informs both theoretical and
             clinical models of goal-directed behavior.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn1727},
   Key = {fds277565}
}

@article{fds277555,
   Author = {Hasnain, MK and Fox, PT and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Hemispheric asymmetry of sulcus-function correspondence:
             quantization and developmental implications.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {277-287},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16092132},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Algorithms • Brain
             Mapping • Functional Laterality • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Photic
             Stimulation • Positron-Emission Tomography •
             Visual Cortex • Visual Pathways • Visual
             Perception • anatomy & histology* • growth &
             development • methods • physiology* •
             radionuclide imaging},
   Abstract = {Spatial covariances between the geometric centers of human
             occipital sulci and visual functional areas were calculated
             to reduce the spatial variance of functional-area locations
             between subjects. Seven visual areas in each occipital
             hemisphere were retinotopically mapped, using horizontal-
             and vertical-meridian stimuli and (15)O PET in 11 subjects.
             Sulcal locations were determined using anatomic brain models
             derived from high-resolution MRI images. Location
             variability for sulci and functional areas was similar in
             magnitude, with average standard deviations of (2.7x, 5.3y,
             5.7z) mm and (4.3x, 5.4y, 5.3z) mm, respectively. Sulcal
             locations were predictive of functional-area locations
             (i.e., significant spatial covariance) in the minority of
             structure-function pairings tested (25 of 168). Location
             variability was reduced by an average of 27% for functional
             areas showing significant covariation with sulcal features.
             Early-developing sulci were stronger predictors of
             functional-area location than late-developing sulci.
             Sulcus-function covariance was stronger in the left
             occipital lobe than in the right occipital lobe. Notably,
             the left calcarine fissure demonstrated powerful covariances
             with functional areas in both hemispheres, suggesting that
             it serves as a developmental "anchor" for functional areas
             in the occipital cortex. These findings support the
             hypothesis that hemispheric lateralization of function is
             reflected in the strength of correspondence between cortical
             surface anatomy and function.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.20183},
   Key = {fds277555}
}

@article{fds277551,
   Author = {Khoe, W and Freeman, E and Woldorff, MG and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Interactions between attention and perceptual grouping in
             human visual cortex.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1078},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {101-111},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500628},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Analysis of Variance •
             Attention • Brain Mapping • Discrimination
             (Psychology) • Evoked Potentials, Visual • Female
             • Functional Laterality • Humans • Male
             • Orientation • Photic Stimulation • Reaction
             Time • Time Factors • Visual Cortex • Visual
             Perception • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Freeman et al. demonstrated that detection sensitivity for a
             low contrast Gabor stimulus improved in the presence of
             flanking, collinearly oriented grating stimuli, but only
             when observers attended to them. By recording visual
             event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by a Gabor
             stimulus, we investigated whether this contextual cueing
             effect involves changes in the short-latency afferent visual
             signal from V1 that have a stimulus onset latency between 60
             and 80 ms and/or longer-latency changes from visual cortex.
             Under dual-task conditions, the subjects performed contrast
             discrimination for a central Gabor and an orientation
             judgment for a pre-specified subset of the flanking Gabors.
             On random trials, the central Gabor could be collinearly or
             orthogonally oriented with respect to the attended flankers.
             Subjects showed improvements in discriminating the contrast
             of the central grating when it was oriented collinearly with
             the attended flankers. The ERP difference between attending
             to collinear versus orthogonal flankers manifested as a
             positive polarity response at occipital electrodes with a
             latency of 180-250 ms after stimulus onset. No
             shorter-latency contextual cueing differences were observed
             in the ERPs. The ERP latency profile of the contextual
             cueing effect argues against the hypothesis that
             short-latency afferent activity from V1 is the stage of
             processing at which attention can influence neuronal lateral
             interactions. However, the scalp voltage distribution of the
             longer-latency contextual cueing effect is similar to the
             one generated by the early phasic stimulus onset activity
             from V1. These findings leave open the possibility that V1
             is involved in the attentional modulation of lateral
             interactions but that this has a longer time course, likely
             being mediated by re-afferent inputs from later stages of
             the visual pathway.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2005.12.083},
   Key = {fds277551}
}

@article{fds277554,
   Author = {Giesbrecht, B and Weissman, DH and Woldorff, MG and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Pre-target activity in visual cortex predicts behavioral
             performance on spatial and feature attention
             tasks.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1080},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-72},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16412994},
   Keywords = {Action Potentials • Adult • Arousal •
             Attention • Brain Mapping* • Cues* • Female
             • Form Perception • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Reference Values •
             Space Perception • Visual Cortex • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Physiological studies in humans and monkeys have revealed
             that, in response to an instruction to attend, areas of
             sensory cortex that code the attributes of the expected
             stimulus exhibit increases in neural activity prior to the
             arrival of the stimulus. Models of selective visual
             attention posit that these increases in activity give
             attended stimuli a processing advantage over distracting
             stimuli. Here, we test two key predictions of this view by
             using functional magnetic resonance imaging to record human
             brain activity during a cued voluntary orienting task.
             First, we tested whether pre-stimulus modulations are
             observed during both cued spatial and cued feature
             attention. Secondly, we tested whether the magnitude of
             pre-stimulus modulations predicts behavioral performance.
             Our results indicate that cue-triggered expectation of
             targets with particular spatial or nonspatial features
             activates areas of the visual cortex selective for these
             features. Furthermore, the magnitude of the cue-triggered
             modulations correlated with behavioral measures, such that
             those subjects who exhibited relatively large pre-stimulus
             modulations of activity performed better on the behavioral
             task. These findings support the view that top-down control
             systems bias activity in sensory cortices to favor the
             processing of expected target features and that this bias is
             related to behavior.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2005.09.068},
   Key = {fds277554}
}

@article{fds277448,
   Author = {Murray, JP and Liotti, M and Ingmundson, PT and Mayberg, HS and Pu, Y and Zamarripa, F and Liu, Y and Woldorff, MG and Gao, JH and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Children's brain activations while viewing televised
             violence revealed by fMRI},
   Journal = {Media Psychology},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {25-37},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1521-3269},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532785XMEP0801_3},
   Abstract = {Though social and behavioral effects of TV violence have
             been studied extensively, the brain systems involved in TV
             violence viewing in children are, at present, not known. In
             this study, 8 children viewed televised violent and
             nonviolent video sequences while brain activity was measured
             with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Both violent and
             nonviolent viewing activated regions involved in visual
             motion, visual object and scenes, and auditory listening.
             However, viewing TV violence selectively recruited a network
             of right hemisphere regions including precuneus, posterior
             cingulate, amygdala, inferior parietal, and prefrontal and
             premotor cortex. Bilateral activations were apparent in
             hippocampus, parahippo-campus, and pulvinar. TV violence
             viewing transiently recruits a network of brain regions
             involved in the regulation of emotion, arousal and
             attention, episodic memory encoding and retrieval, and motor
             programming. This pattern of brain activations may explain
             the behavioral effects observed in many studies, especially
             the finding that children who are frequent viewers of TV
             violence are more likely to behave aggressively. Such
             extensive viewing may result in a large number of aggressive
             scripts stored in long-term memory in the posterior
             cingulate, which facilitates rapid recall of aggressive
             scenes that serve as a guide for overt social behavior.
             Copyright © 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1207/S1532785XMEP0801_3},
   Key = {fds277448}
}

@article{fds277550,
   Author = {Schmajuk, M and Liotti, M and Busse, L and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Electrophysiological activity underlying inhibitory control
             processes in normal adults.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {384-395},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16095637},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain Mapping • Cerebral
             Cortex • Discrimination Learning • Dominance,
             Cerebral • Electroencephalography* • Evoked
             Potentials • Female • Frontal Lobe • Humans
             • Male • Neural Inhibition • Pattern
             Recognition, Visual • Psychomotor Performance •
             Reaction Time • Reference Values • Signal
             Processing, Computer-Assisted* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {In a recent ERP study of inhibitory control using the
             Stop-Signal Task [Pliszka, S., Liotti, M., Woldorff, M.
             (2000). Inhibitory control in children with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related
             potentials identify the processing component and timing of
             an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism.
             Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238-246], we showed that in
             normal children (age 10-12 years) the Stop Signals elicited
             a robust, right-frontal-maximal N200 (latency approximately
             200 ms) that was strongly reduced in children with ADHD. To
             further investigate the mechanisms of response inhibition,
             this paradigm was applied to 11 healthy young adults. To
             better distinguish response-inhibition-related activity from
             early attentional effects, a "Stop-Signal-Irrelevant"
             condition was added, in which subjects performed the task
             while ignoring the Stop Signals. In the Stop-Signal-Relevant
             condition, the right frontal N200 to the Stop Signals was
             larger for Successful inhibition (SI) than for Failed
             inhibition (FI) trials. The timing and distribution of this
             effect was strikingly similar to that of the right-frontal
             ADHD deficit reported in Pliszka et al. (2000), supporting
             this activity being related to successful normal inhibitory
             control processes. In contrast, a posterior N200 was larger
             for Stop-Relevant than for Stop-Irrelevant trials, likely
             reflecting enhanced early sensory attention to the Stop
             Signals when relevant. Two longer-latency failure-specific
             ERP effects were also observed: a greater frontopolar
             negative wave (370-450 ms) to Failed than Successful
             inhibitions, and a greater parietal positive slow wave
             (450-650 ms) for Failed inhibitions than ignore-stop trials,
             likely reflecting differential recruitment of error
             detection and correction mechanisms following Failed
             attempts to inhibit a response.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.06.005},
   Key = {fds277550}
}

@article{fds277564,
   Author = {Busse, L and Roberts, KC and Crist, RE and Weissman, DH and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The spread of attention across modalities and space in a
             multisensory object.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {51},
   Pages = {18751-18756},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339900},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Attention • Auditory
             Perception • Brain • Evoked Potentials •
             Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Photic
             Stimulation • Visual Perception • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Attending to a stimulus is known to enhance the neural
             responses to that stimulus. Recent experiments on visual
             attention have shown that this modulation can have
             object-based characteristics, such that, when certain parts
             of a visual object are attended, other parts automatically
             also receive enhanced processing. Here, we investigated
             whether visual attention can modulate neural responses to
             other components of a multisensory object defined by
             synchronous, but spatially disparate, auditory and visual
             stimuli. The audiovisual integration of such multisensory
             stimuli typically leads to mislocalization of the sound
             toward the visual stimulus (ventriloquism illusion). Using
             event-related potentials and functional MRI, we found that
             the brain's response to task-irrelevant sounds occurring
             synchronously with a visual stimulus from a different
             location was larger when that accompanying visual stimulus
             was attended versus unattended. The event-related potential
             effect consisted of sustained, frontally distributed, brain
             activity that emerged relatively late in processing, an
             effect resembling attention-related enhancements seen at
             earlier latencies during intramodal auditory attention.
             Moreover, the functional MRI data confirmed that the effect
             included specific enhancement of activity in auditory
             cortex. These findings indicate that attention to one
             sensory modality can spread to encompass simultaneous
             signals from another modality, even when they are
             task-irrelevant and from a different location. This
             cross-modal attentional spread appears to reflect an
             object-based, late selection process wherein spatially
             discrepant auditory stimulation is grouped with synchronous
             attended visual input into a multisensory object, resulting
             in the auditory information being pulled into the
             attentional spotlight and bestowed with enhanced
             processing.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.0507704102},
   Key = {fds277564}
}

@article{fds277549,
   Author = {Senkowski, D and Talsma, D and Herrmann, CS and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Multisensory processing and oscillatory gamma responses:
             effects of spatial selective attention.},
   Journal = {Experimental Brain Research},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {411-426},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0014-4819},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16151775},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Brain Mapping • Electroencephalography* •
             Electrophysiology • Evoked Potentials • Female
             • Functional Laterality • Humans • Male
             • Mental Processes • Photic Stimulation •
             Reaction Time • Space Perception • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Here we describe an EEG study investigating the interactions
             between multisensory (audio-visual) integration and spatial
             attention, using oscillatory gamma-band responses (GBRs).
             The results include a comparison with previously reported
             event-related potential (ERP) findings from the same
             paradigm. Unisensory-auditory (A), unisensory-visual (V),
             and multisensory (AV) stimuli were presented to the left and
             right hemispaces while subjects attended to a designated
             side to detect deviant target stimuli in either sensory
             modality. For attended multisensory stimuli we observed
             larger evoked GBRs approximately 40-50 ms post-stimulus over
             medial-frontal brain areas compared with those same
             multisensory stimuli when unattended. Further analysis
             indicated that the integration effect and its attentional
             enhancement may be caused in part by a stimulus-triggered
             phase resetting of ongoing gamma-band responses.
             Interestingly, no such early interaction effects (<90 ms)
             could be found in the ERP waveforms, suggesting that
             oscillatory GBRs may be more sensitive than ERPs to these
             early latency attention effects. Moreover, no GBR attention
             effects could be found for the unisensory auditory or
             unisensory visual stimuli, suggesting that attention
             particularly affects the integrative processing of
             audiovisual stimuli at these early latencies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/s00221-005-2381-z},
   Key = {fds277549}
}

@article{fds277548,
   Author = {Talsma, D and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Selective attention and multisensory integration: multiple
             phases of effects on the evoked brain activity.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1098-1114},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16102239},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain •
             Brain Mapping* • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials • Female • Functional Laterality •
             Humans • Male • Perception • Physical
             Stimulation • Reaction Time • Time Factors •
             classification • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the role
             of attention in the integration of visual and auditory
             features of multisensory objects. This was done by
             contrasting the ERPs to multisensory stimuli (AV) to the sum
             of the ERPs to the corresponding auditory-only (A) and
             visual-only (V) stimuli [i.e., AV vs. (A + V)]. V, A, and VA
             stimuli were presented in random order to the left and right
             hemispaces. Subjects attended to a designated side to detect
             infrequent target stimuli in either modality there. The
             focus of this report is on the ERPs to the standard (i.e.,
             nontarget) stimuli. We used rapid variable stimulus onset
             asynchronies (350-650 msec) to mitigate anticipatory
             activity and included "no-stim" trials to estimate and
             remove ERP overlap from residual anticipatory processes and
             from adjacent stimuli in the sequence. Spatial attention
             effects on the processing of the unisensory stimuli
             consisted of a modulation of visual P1 and N1 components (at
             90-130 msec and 160-200 msec, respectively) and of the
             auditory N1 and processing negativity (100-200 msec).
             Attended versus unattended multisensory ERPs elicited a
             combination of these effects. Multisensory integration
             effects consisted of an initial frontal positivity around
             100 msec that was larger for attended stimuli. This was
             followed by three phases of centro-medially distributed
             effects of integration and/or attention beginning at around
             160 msec, and peaking at 190 (scalp positivity), 250
             (negativity), and 300-500 msec (positivity) after stimulus
             onset. These integration effects were larger in amplitude
             for attended than for unattended stimuli, providing neural
             evidence that attention can modulate multisensory-integration
             processes at multiple stages.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/0898929054475172},
   Key = {fds277548}
}

@article{fds277474,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Pliszka, SR and Perez, R and Kothmann, D and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Abnormal brain activity related to performance monitoring
             and error detection in children with ADHD.},
   Journal = {Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System
             and Behavior},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {377-388},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0010-9452},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15871602},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Brain
             • Child • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials • Gyrus Cinguli • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Signal
             Detection, Psychological* • physiology •
             physiopathology • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {Brain electrical activity associated with inhibitory control
             was recorded in ten ADHD and ten healthy children using high
             density event related potentials (ERPs) during the Stop
             Signal Task (SST). SST is a two-choice reaction time (RT)
             paradigm, in which subjects are required, on 25% of the
             trials, to withdraw their response upon presentation of a
             "Stop Signal". In the healthy children, the ERP evoked by
             the Stop Signal differed for successful inhibitions (SI)
             compared to failed inhibitions (FI), with greater amplitude
             of a positive wave peaking around 320 msec over anterior
             medial frontal scalp (P3a). Such success-related P3a
             activity was significantly reduced in amplitude in the ADHD
             group. In addition, the error related negativity (ERN), a
             sharp negative wave that is present selectively on error
             trials in choice RT experiments, peaking 100 ms after motor
             onset, and distributed over anterior medial frontal scalp,
             was also markedly reduced in the ADHD group. The scalp
             distribution of the group differences in P3a and the ERN is
             consistent with a reduction of activity of sources in dorsal
             anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), suggesting a global
             deficit in cognitive control operations subserved by dACC in
             ADHD.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0010-9452(08)70274-0},
   Key = {fds277474}
}

@article{fds277547,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Hemispheric asymmetries for different components of
             global/local attention occur in distinct temporo-parietal
             loci.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {870-876},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15459080},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain
             Mapping • Dominance, Cerebral • Female •
             Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Male •
             Parietal Lobe • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time
             • Temporal Lobe • Visual Cortex • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Data from brain-damaged and neurologically intact
             populations indicate hemispheric asymmetries in the
             temporo-parietal cortex for discriminating an object's
             global form (e.g. the overall shape of a bicycle) versus its
             local parts (e.g. the spokes in a bicycle tire). However, it
             is not yet clear whether such asymmetries reflect processes
             that (i) bias attention toward upcoming global versus local
             stimuli and/or (ii) attend/identify global versus local
             stimuli after they are presented. To investigate these
             possibilities, we asked sixteen healthy participants to
             perform a cued global/local attention task while their brain
             activity was recorded using event-related functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results indicated a
             novel double dissociation. Hemispheric asymmetries for
             deploying attention toward expected global versus local
             object features were specific to the intraparietal sulcus
             (iPs). However, hemispheric asymmetries for identifying
             global versus local features after they were presented were
             specific to the inferior parietal lobe/superior temporal
             gyrus (IPL/STG). This double dissociation provides the first
             direct evidence that hemispheric asymmetries associated with
             different components of global/local attention occur in
             distinct temporo-parietal loci. Furthermore, it parallels an
             analogous dissociation reported in a recent fMRI study of
             spatial orienting, suggesting that global/local attention
             and spatial attention might rely on similar cognitive/neural
             mechanisms.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhh187},
   Key = {fds277547}
}

@article{fds277546,
   Author = {Wilson, KD and Woldorff, MG and Mangun, GR},
   Title = {Control networks and hemispheric asymmetries in parietal
             cortex during attentional orienting in different spatial
             reference frames.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {668-683},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15808968},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Blood Flow
             Velocity • Brain Mapping • Cerebral Cortex •
             Discrimination Learning • Dominance, Cerebral •
             Evoked Potentials, Visual • Female • Field
             Dependence-Independence* • Humans • Image
             Enhancement • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted*
             • Imaging, Three-Dimensional* • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Male • Nerve Net • Orientation
             • Oxygen • Parietal Lobe • Pattern
             Recognition, Visual • Regional Blood Flow • blood
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Neuropsychological research has consistently demonstrated
             that spatial attention can be anchored in one of several
             coordinate systems, including those defined with respect to
             an observer (viewer-centered), to the gravitational vector
             (environment-centered), or to individual objects
             (object-centered). In the present study, we used hemodynamic
             correlates of brain function to investigate the neural
             systems that mediate attentional control in two competing
             reference frames. Healthy volunteers were cued to locations
             defined in either viewer-centered or object-centered space
             to discriminate the shape of visual targets subsequently
             presented at the cued locations. Brain responses to
             attention-directing cues were quantified using event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging. A fronto-parietal
             control network was activated by attention-directing cues in
             both reference frames. Voluntary shifts of attention
             produced increased neural activity bilaterally in several
             cortical regions including the intraparietal sulcus,
             anterior cingulate cortex, and the frontal eye fields. Of
             special interest was the observation of hemispheric
             asymmetries in parietal cortex; there was significantly
             greater activity in left parietal cortex than in the right,
             but this asymmetry was more pronounced for object-centered
             shifts of attention, relative to viewer-centered shifts of
             attention. Measures of behavioral performance did not differ
             significantly between the two reference frames. We conclude
             that a largely overlapping, bilateral, cortical network
             mediates our ability to orient spatial attention in multiple
             coordinate systems, and that the left intraparietal sulcus
             plays an additional role for orienting in object-centered
             space. These results provide neuroimaging support for
             related claims based on findings of deficits in object-based
             orienting in patients with left parietal
             lesions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.07.075},
   Key = {fds277546}
}

@article{fds277545,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Gopalakrishnan, A and Hazlett, CJ and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex resolves conflict from
             distracting stimuli by boosting attention toward relevant
             events.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {229-237},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15238434},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Conflict
             (Psychology) • Female • Gyrus Cinguli •
             Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Male •
             Reaction Time • Speech Perception • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {In everyday life, we often focus greater attention on
             behaviorally relevant stimuli to limit the processing of
             distracting events. For example, when distracting voices
             intrude upon a conversation at a noisy social gathering, we
             concentrate more attention on the speaker of interest to
             better comprehend his or her speech. In the present study,
             we investigated whether dorsal/caudal regions of the
             anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), thought to make a major
             contribution to cognitive control, boost attentional
             resources toward behaviorally relevant stimuli as a means
             for limiting the processing of distracting events. Sixteen
             healthy participants performed a cued global/local selective
             attention task while brain activity was recorded with
             event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging.
             Consistent with our hypotheses, greater dACC activity during
             distracting events predicted reduced behavioral measures of
             interference from those same events. dACC activity also
             differed for cues to attend to global versus local features
             of upcoming visual objects, further indicating a role in
             directing attention toward task-relevant stimuli. Our
             findings indicate a role for dACC in focusing attention on
             behaviorally relevant stimuli, especially when the
             achievement of our behavioral goals is threatened by
             distracting events.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhh125},
   Key = {fds277545}
}

@article{fds277544,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Warner, LM and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The neural mechanisms for minimizing cross-modal
             distraction.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {48},
   Pages = {10941-10949},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1529-2401},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15574744},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Cortex • Brain Mapping* • Conflict
             (Psychology)* • Female • Goals • Gyrus
             Cinguli • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Neural Pathways • Pattern
             Recognition, Physiological • Pattern Recognition,
             Visual • Photic Stimulation • Prefrontal Cortex
             • Visual Cortex • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The neural circuitry that increases attention to
             goal-relevant stimuli when we are in danger of becoming
             distracted is a matter of active debate. To address several
             long-standing controversies, we asked participants to
             identify a letter presented either visually or auditorily
             while we varied the amount of cross-modal distraction from
             an irrelevant letter in the opposite modality. Functional
             magnetic resonance imaging revealed three novel results.
             First, activity in sensory cortices that processed the
             relevant letter increased as the irrelevant letter became
             more distracting, consistent with a selective increase of
             attention to the relevant letter. In line with this view, an
             across-subjects correlation indicated that the larger the
             increase of activity in sensory cortices that processed the
             relevant letter, the less behavioral interference there was
             from the irrelevant letter. Second, regions of the
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) involved in orienting
             attention to the relevant letter also participated in
             increasing attention to the relevant letter when conflicting
             stimuli were present. Third, we observed a novel pattern of
             regional specialization within the cognitive division of the
             anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for focusing attention on
             the relevant letter (dorsal ACC) versus detecting conflict
             from the irrelevant letter (rostral ACC). These findings
             indicate novel roles for sensory cortices, the DLPFC, and
             the ACC in increasing attention to goal-relevant stimulus
             representations when distracting stimuli conflict with
             behavioral objectives. Furthermore, they potentially resolve
             a long-standing controversy regarding the key contribution
             of the ACC to cognitive control.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1523/jneurosci.3669-04.2004},
   Key = {fds277544}
}

@article{fds277543,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Obembe, OO and Song, AW and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The BOLD fMRI refractory effect is specific to stimulus
             attributes: evidence from a visual motion
             paradigm.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {402-408},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15325388},
   Keywords = {Adult • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Male • Motion Perception •
             Occipital Lobe • Orientation • Oxygen •
             Pattern Recognition, Visual • Reference Values •
             Refractory Period, Electrophysiological • Regional
             Blood Flow • Temporal Lobe • blood supply •
             blood* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have
             demonstrated that the blood oxygenation level-dependent
             (BOLD) hemodynamic response (HDR) to a stimulus is reduced
             by the previous presentation of a similar stimulus. We
             investigated the dependence of this refractory effect upon
             stimulus characteristics using a novel adaptation paradigm
             while scanning subjects using fMRI at 4 T. The stimuli were
             composed of horizontal stripes that scrolled up, scrolled
             down, or remained static, randomly presented for 1-s
             duration with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 2-7 s.
             We identified regions of interest (ROI) in lateral
             temporal--occipital cortex that were activated by motion
             stimuli, regardless of direction or SOA. We found strong
             evidence for direction specificity in motion-sensitive
             lateral temporal-occipital (LTO) cortex. For stimuli whose
             direction of motion reprised that of the previous stimulus
             (e.g., up preceded by up), the fMRI response was attenuated
             at short SOAs (2-4 s) compared to long SOAs (5-7 s).
             However, for stimuli whose direction of motion was opposite
             that of the previous stimulus (e.g., up preceded by down),
             little or no refractory effect was observed. Additionally,
             examination of activity in pericalcarine cortex indicated a
             similar pattern. We conclude that the fMRI refractory effect
             predominantly reflects local stimulus-specific neuronal or
             neurovascular adaptation and is unlikely to be a nonspecific
             response of large vessels that support broad functional
             regions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.04.031},
   Key = {fds277543}
}

@article{fds277542,
   Author = {Hazlett, CJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Mechanisms of moving the mind's eye: planning and execution
             of spatial shifts of attention.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {742-750},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15200702},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Cues •
             Decision Making* • Female • Humans • Male
             • Mental Processes • Models, Psychological •
             Reaction Time • Space Perception • Time Factors
             • Visual Fields • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The usefulness of attentional orienting, both in the real
             world and in the laboratory, depends not only on the ability
             to attend to objects or other inputs but also on the ability
             to shift attention between them. Although understanding the
             basic characteristics of these shifts is a critical step
             toward understanding the brain mechanisms that produce them,
             the literature remains unresolved on a very basic and
             potentially revealing characteristic of these shifts-namely,
             whether attention takes longer to shift a farther distance
             across the visual field. We addressed this question using a
             series of behavioral tasks involving the voluntary orienting
             of attention to locations in the visual field. The findings
             support a model in which attentional shifts include separate
             "planning" and "execution" stages and in which only the
             planning stage requires more time for shifts of a greater
             distance. These results offer resolution to the longstanding
             debate concerning the effect of attentional shift distance
             on shift time and provide insight into the fundamental
             mechanisms of attentional shifting.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892904970735},
   Key = {fds277542}
}

@article{fds180577,
   Author = {MG Woldorff and CJ Hazlett and HM Fichtenholtz and DH Weissman and AM
             Dale, AW Song},
   Title = {Functional parcellation of attentional control regions of
             the brain.},
   Journal = {Journal of cognitive neuroscience},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {149-65},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892904322755638},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain Mapping* • Cues*
             • Evoked Potentials • Female • Frontal Lobe
             • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male
             • Mental Processes • Nerve Net • Parietal
             Lobe • Reference Values • Space Perception •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Recently, a number of investigators have examined the neural
             loci of psychological processes enabling the control of
             visual spatial attention using cued-attention paradigms in
             combination with event-related functional magnetic resonance
             imaging. Findings from these studies have provided strong
             evidence for the involvement of a fronto-parietal network in
             attentional control. In the present study, we build upon
             this previous work to further investigate these attentional
             control systems. In particular, we employed additional
             controls for nonattentional sensory and interpretative
             aspects of cue processing to determine whether distinct
             regions in the fronto-parietal network are involved in
             different aspects of cue processing, such as cue-symbol
             interpretation and attentional orienting. In addition, we
             used shorter cue-target intervals that were closer to those
             used in the behavioral and event-related potential cueing
             literatures. Twenty participants performed a cued spatial
             attention task while brain activity was recorded with
             functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found functional
             specialization for different aspects of cue processing in
             the lateral and medial subregions of the frontal and
             parietal cortex. In particular, the medial subregions were
             more specific to the orienting of visual spatial attention,
             while the lateral subregions were associated with more
             general aspects of cue processing, such as cue-symbol
             interpretation. Additional cue-related effects included
             differential activations in midline frontal regions and
             pretarget enhancements in the thalamus and early visual
             cortical areas.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892904322755638},
   Key = {fds180577}
}

@article{fds277561,
   Author = {Khoe, W and Freeman, E and Woldorff, MG and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Electrophysiological correlates of lateral interactions in
             human visual cortex.},
   Journal = {Vision Research},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {1659-1673},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0042-6989},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15136002},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Contrast
             Sensitivity • Discrimination (Psychology) • Evoked
             Potentials, Visual • Female • Humans •
             Learning • Male • Occipital Lobe • Photic
             Stimulation • Reaction Time • Scalp • Sensory
             Thresholds • Visual Cortex • Visual Fields •
             Visual Pathways • Visual Perception • methods
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Detection thresholds for visually presented targets can be
             influenced by the nature of information in adjacent regions
             of the visual field. For example, detection thresholds for
             low-contrast Gabor patches decrease when flanked by patches
             that are oriented collinearly rather than orthogonally with
             the target. Such results are consistent with the known
             microanatomy of primary visual cortex, where long-range
             horizontal connections link cortical columns with common
             orientation preferences. To investigate the neural bases of
             collinearity effects, we recorded event-related brain
             potentials (ERPs) together with psychophysical measures for
             targets flanked by collinear vs. orthogonal gratings. Human
             volunteers performed a contrast discrimination task on a
             target grating presented at a perifoveal location. For
             targets flanked by collinear stimuli, we observed an
             increased positive polarity voltage deflection in the
             occipital scalp-recorded ERPs between 80 to 140 ms after
             stimulus onset. Such a midline occipital scalp voltage
             distribution of this ERP collinearity effect is consistent
             with a generator in primary visual cortex. Two later
             negative voltage ERP deflections (latencies of 245-295 and
             300-350 ms) were focused at lateral occipital scalp sites, a
             pattern consistent with activity in extrastriate visual
             cortex. These ERP effects were correlated with improved
             contrast discrimination for central targets presented with
             collinear flanks. These results demonstrate that the
             integration of local flanking elements with a central
             stimulus can occur as early as 80 ms in human visual cortex,
             but this includes processes occurring at longer latencies
             and appears to involve both striate and extrastriate visual
             areas.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.visres.2004.02.011},
   Key = {fds277561}
}

@article{fds277475,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Giesbrecht, B and Song, AW and Mangun, GR and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Conflict monitoring in the human anterior cingulate cortex
             during selective attention to global and local object
             features.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1361-1368},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12948694},
   Keywords = {Adult • Arousal • Attention • Brain Mapping
             • Conflict (Psychology)* • Discrimination Learning
             • Evoked Potentials • Female • Field
             Dependence-Independence* • Frontal Lobe • Gyrus
             Cinguli • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Middle Aged • Pattern Recognition, Visual
             • Prefrontal Cortex • Problem Solving •
             Psychomotor Performance • Semantics • Size
             Perception • methods • methods* • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Parallel processing affords the brain many advantages, but
             processing multiple bits of information simultaneously
             presents formidable challenges. For example, while one is
             listening to a speaker at a noisy social gathering,
             processing irrelevant conversations may lead to the
             activation of irrelevant perceptual, semantic, and response
             representations that conflict with those evoked by the
             speaker. In these situations, specialized brain systems may
             be recruited to detect and resolve conflict before it leads
             to incorrect perception and/or behavior. Consistent with
             this view, recent findings indicate that dorsal/caudal
             anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), on the medial walls of the
             frontal lobes, detects conflict between competing motor
             responses primed by relevant versus irrelevant stimuli.
             Here, we used a cued global/local selective attention task
             to investigate whether the dACC plays a general role in
             conflict detection that includes monitoring for conflicting
             perceptual or semantic representations. Using event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that
             the dACC was activated by response conflict in both the
             global and the local task, consistent with results from
             prior studies. However, dACC was also activated by
             perceptual and semantic conflict arising from global
             distracters during the local task. The results from the
             local task have implications for recent theories of
             attentional control in which the dACC's contribution to
             conflict monitoring is limited to response stages of
             processing, as well as for our understanding of clinical
             disorders in which disruptions of attention are associated
             with dACC dysfunction.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(03)00167-8},
   Key = {fds277475}
}

@article{fds277476,
   Author = {Giesbrecht, B and Woldorff, MG and Song, AW and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Neural mechanisms of top-down control during spatial and
             feature attention.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {496-512},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12880783},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Color Perception • Cues
             • Echo-Planar Imaging • Electrooculography •
             Eye Movements • Female • Form Perception •
             Frontal Lobe • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Male • Nerve Net •
             Parietal Lobe • Space Perception • anatomy &
             histology • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Theories of visual selective attention posit that both
             spatial location and nonspatial stimulus features (e.g.,
             color) are elementary dimensions on which top-down
             attentional control mechanisms can selectively influence
             visual processing. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging
             studies have demonstrated that regions of superior frontal
             and parietal cortex are critically involved in the control
             of visual-spatial attention. This frontoparietal control
             network has also been found to be activated when attention
             is oriented to nonspatial stimulus features (e.g., motion).
             To test the generality of the frontoparietal network in
             attentional control, we directly compared spatial and
             nonspatial attention in a cuing paradigm. Event-related fMRI
             methods permitted the isolation of attentional control
             activity during orienting to a location or to a nonspatial
             stimulus feature (color). Portions of the frontoparietal
             network were commonly activated to the spatial and
             nonspatial cues. However, direct statistical comparisons of
             cue-related activity revealed subregions of the
             frontoparietal network that were significantly more active
             during spatial than nonspatial orienting when all other
             stimulus, task, and attentional factors were equated. No
             regions of the frontal-parietal network were more active for
             nonspatial cues in comparison to spatial cues. These
             findings support models suggesting that subregions of the
             frontal-parietal network are highly specific for controlling
             spatial selective attention.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(03)00162-9},
   Key = {fds277476}
}

@article{fds277477,
   Author = {Busse, L and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {The ERP omitted stimulus response to "no-stim" events and
             its implications for fast-rate event-related fMRI
             designs.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {856-864},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725762},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Analysis of
             Variance • Brain Mapping • Electroencephalography*
             • Evoked Potentials • Female • Fixation,
             Ocular • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Reaction Time • Reference Values
             • Research Design • Time Factors • methods*
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {A major difficulty in fast-rate event-related fMRI
             experiments is the extensive overlap from adjacent trials in
             the stimulus sequence. One approach to address this problem
             is to include "no-stim" or "null" events as a trial type.
             These are randomized as if they were true stimulus events
             but no stimulus actually occurs. Assuming that no response
             is elicited by the null events, their time-locked average
             reflects only the averaged overlap. Thus, contrasting the
             averages for the other trial types versus the null-event
             average subtracts out the overlap, enabling the extraction
             of the response functions for these other trial types. ERP
             studies, however, have indicated that an endogenous brain
             response, the omitted stimulus response (OSR), can be evoked
             by a missing event in a stream of regularly occurring
             stimuli. To the extent that this response is elicited by
             null events in an event-related fMRI experiment, the
             null-event subtraction or contrast would falsely introduce
             the inverse of the OSR into the averaged responses to the
             other trial types. Using high-density ERP recordings, we
             investigated the effect of different percentages of omitted
             stimuli (11, 22, and 33%) on the auditory OSR at stimulus
             rates of one event per second or one event per 2 s.
             Significant OSRs were found for each percentage in the 1-s
             condition as well as in the 11% 2-s condition. The responses
             consisted of an early posterior negative wave (180-280 ms)
             followed by a larger anterior positive wave. These results
             have important implications for fast-rate fMRI designs,
             while also providing new data on the brain's response to
             omitted stimuli.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(03)00012-0},
   Key = {fds277477}
}

@article{fds277568,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, MA and Woldorff, M and Düzel, E and Scheich, H and Heinze,
             H-J and Mangun, GR},
   Title = {Form-from-motion: MEG evidence for time course and
             processing sequence.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-172},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12676054},
   Abstract = {The neural mechanisms and role of attention in the
             processing of visual form defined by luminance or motion
             cues were studied using magnetoencephalography. Subjects
             viewed bilateral stimuli composed of moving random dots and
             were instructed to covertly attend to either left or right
             hemifield stimuli in order to detect designated target
             stimuli that required a response. To generate
             form-from-motion (FFMo) stimuli, a subset of the dots could
             begin to move coherently to create the appearance of a
             simple form (e.g., square). In other blocks, to generate
             form-from-luminance (FFLu) stimuli that served as a control,
             a gray stimulus was presented superimposed on the randomly
             moving dots. Neuromagnetic responses were observed to both
             the FFLu and FFMo stimuli and localized to multiple visual
             cortical stages of analysis. Early activity in low-level
             visual cortical areas (striate/early extrastriate) did not
             differ for FFLu versus FFMo stimuli, nor as a function of
             spatial attention. Longer latency responses elicited by the
             FFLu stimuli were localized to the ventral-lateral occipital
             cortex (LO) and the inferior temporal cortex (IT). The FFMo
             stimuli also generated activity in the LO and IT, but only
             after first eliciting activity in the lateral occipital
             cortical region corresponding to MT/V5, resulting in a 50-60
             msec delay in activity. All of these late responses (MT/V5,
             LO, and IT) were significantly modulated by spatial
             attention, being greatly attenuated for ignored FFLu and
             FFMo stimuli. These findings argue that processing of form
             in IT that is defined by motion requires a serial processing
             of information, first in the motion analysis pathway from V1
             to MT/V5 and thereafter via the form analysis stream in the
             ventral visual pathway to IT.},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892903321208105},
   Key = {fds277568}
}

@article{fds277478,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Woldorff, MG and Hazlett, CJ and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Effects of practice on executive control investigated with
             fMRI.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {47-60},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433382},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Attention •
             Brain Mapping • Cerebral Cortex • Cues •
             Female • Functional Laterality • Humans •
             Inhibition (Psychology) • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Photic Stimulation • Practice
             (Psychology)* • Reaction Time • Visual Perception
             • cytology • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Various models of executive control predict that practice
             should modulate the recruitment of executive brain
             mechanisms. To investigate this issue, we asked 15
             participants to perform a cued global/local attention task
             while brain activity was recorded with event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Practice
             significantly reduced the recruitment of left inferior
             parietal regions that were engaged when participants
             oriented attention in response to global and local cue
             stimuli. In contrast, practice increased the recruitment of
             midline frontal regions that were engaged by interference
             between global and local forms during target processing.
             These findings support models of executive control in which
             practice increases the tendency for stimuli to automatically
             evoke task-relevant processes and responses.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0926-6410(02)00215-x},
   Key = {fds277478}
}

@article{fds277479,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, MA and Noesselt, T and Poggel, D and Tempelmann, C and Hopf,
             J-M and Woldorff, MG and Heinze, H-J and Hillyard,
             SA},
   Title = {Analysis of pathways mediating preserved vision after
             striate cortex lesions.},
   Journal = {Annals of Neurology},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {814-824},
   Publisher = {WILEY-LISS},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0364-5134},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12447936},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain Mapping • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Magnetoencephalography • Male
             • Stroke • Vision, Ocular • Visual Cortex
             • Visual Pathways • methods • methods* •
             pathology • pathology* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {This study investigated the neural substrates of preserved
             visual functioning in a patient with homonymous hemianopsia
             and Riddoch syndrome after a posterior cerebral artery
             stroke affecting the primary visual cortex (area V1). The
             limited visual abilities of this patient included
             above-chance verbal reports of movement and color change as
             well as discrimination of movement direction in the
             hemianopic field. Functional magnetic resonance imaging
             showed that motion and color-change stimuli presented to the
             hemianopic field produced activation in several extrastriate
             areas of the lesioned hemisphere that were defined using
             retinotopic mapping. Magnetoencephalographic recordings
             indicated that evoked activity occurred earlier in the
             higher-tier visual areas V4/V8 and V5 than in the lower-tier
             areas V2/V3 adjacent to the lesion. In addition, the
             functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis showed an
             increased functional connectivity between areas V4/V8 and V5
             of the lesioned hemisphere in comparison with the same areas
             in the intact hemisphere during the presentation of color
             changes. These results suggest that visual perception after
             the V1 lesion in Riddoch syndrome is mediated by subcortical
             pathways that bypass V1 and project first to higher-tier
             visual areas V5 and V4/V8 and subsequently to lower-tier
             areas V2/V3.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/ana.10394},
   Key = {fds277479}
}

@article{fds277481,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Liotti, M and Seabolt, M and Busse, L and Lancaster,
             JL and Fox, PT},
   Title = {The temporal dynamics of the effects in occipital cortex of
             visual-spatial selective attention.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-15},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12433379},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain
             Mapping • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials, Visual • Functional Laterality •
             Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Models,
             Neurological • Occipital Lobe • Photic Stimulation
             • Space Perception • Time Factors •
             Tomography, Emission-Computed • Visual Fields •
             Visual Perception • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The temporal dynamics of the effects of lateralized visual
             selective attention within the lower visual field were
             studied with the combined application of event-related
             potentials (ERPs) and positron emission tomography (15O
             PET). Bilateral stimuli were rapidly presented to the lower
             visual field while subjects either passively viewed them or
             covertly attended to a designated side to detect occasional
             targets. Lateralized attention resulted in strongly enhanced
             PET activity in contralateral dorsal occipital cortex, while
             ERPs showed an enhanced positivity (P1 effect, 80-160 ms)
             for all stimuli (both non-targets and targets) over
             contralateral occipital scalp. Dipole modeling seeded by the
             dorsal occipital PET foci yielded an excellent fit for the
             peak P1 attention effect. However, more detailed ERP
             modeling throughout the P1 latency window (90-160 ms)
             suggested a spatial-temporal movement of the
             attention-related enhancement that roughly paralleled the
             shape of the dorsal occipital PET attention-related
             activations-likely reflecting the sequential
             attention-related enhancement of early visual cortical
             areas. Lateralized spatial attention also resulted in a
             longer-latency contralateral enhanced negativity (N2 effect,
             230-280 ms) with a highly similar distribution to the
             earlier P1 effect. Dipole modeling seeded by the same dorsal
             occipital PET foci also yielded an excellent fit. This
             pattern of results provides evidence for re-entrance of
             attention-enhanced activation to the same retinotopically
             organized region of dorsal extrastriate cortex. Finally,
             target stimuli in the attended location elicited an
             additional prolonged enhancement of the longer-latency
             negativity over contralateral occipital cortex. The
             combination of PET activation and dipole modeling suggested
             contribution from a ventral-occipital generator to this
             target-related activity.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/ana.10394},
   Key = {fds277481}
}

@article{fds277480,
   Author = {Weissman, DH and Mangun, GR and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {A role for top-down attentional orienting during
             interference between global and local aspects of
             hierarchical stimuli.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1266-1276},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12414266},
   Keywords = {Adult • Arousal • Attention • Brain Mapping*
             • Cerebral Cortex • Female • Humans •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted* • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Male • Orientation •
             Psychomotor Performance • Psychophysics •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Various models of selective attention propose that greater
             attention is allocated toward target stimuli when
             conflicting distracters make selection more difficult, but
             compelling evidence to support this view is scarce. In the
             present experiment, 15 participants performed a cued
             global/local selective attention task while brain activity
             was recorded with event-related functional magnetic
             resonance imaging. The presence of conflicting versus
             nonconflicting distracters during target processing
             activated regions of frontal, parietal, and visual cortices
             that were also activated when participants oriented
             attention in response to global- and local-task cues. These
             findings support models in which conflict between target and
             distracter stimuli is resolved by more selectively focusing
             attention upon target stimuli.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2002.1284},
   Key = {fds277480}
}

@article{fds277482,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, MA and Heinze, HJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Unmasking motion-processing activity in human brain area
             V5/MT+ mediated by pathways that bypass primary visual
             cortex.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {769-779},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12377152},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain Mapping • Discrimination
             (Psychology) • Electroencephalography •
             Electrophysiology • Evoked Potentials, Visual •
             Female • Humans • Magnetoencephalography •
             Male • Motion Perception • Photic Stimulation
             • Refractory Period, Electrophysiological • Visual
             Cortex • Visual Pathways • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Most models of the human visual system argue that
             higher-order motion-processing cortical regions receive
             their inputs only via the primary visual cortex (striate
             cortex), rather than also via direct projections from the
             thalamus that bypass primary visual cortex. However, recent
             evidence in non-human primates, along with some evidence in
             humans with damaged primary visual cortex (e.g.,
             "blindsight" for motion in the blind visual hemifield), have
             argued for the existence of a direct thalamic-to-extrastriate
             projection for motion processing. This evidence remains
             controversial. Here we tested the idea that direct thalamic
             input to extrastriate motion processing areas exists in
             humans but might be masked in scalp recordings by activity
             from early visual areas. To do this, we employed stimuli
             that induced strong refractory effects in primary visual
             cortex--thereby creating a brief "reversable lesion" in
             primary visual cortex--immediately before the presentation
             of a motion stimulus. Under these conditions, we then
             assessed whether motion areas of cortex were still able to
             process the motion stimuli by recording event-related
             potentials (ERPs) and event-related magnetic fields
             (ERFs/MEG). We found robust motion-related activity in
             extrastriate motion processing areas in the ERP and MEG
             signals even when primary visual cortex was heavily
             suppressed by our manipulation. This finding provides
             evidence for a direct thalamic functional pathway to
             extrastriate visual cortical motion processing areas in the
             human that bypasses primary visual cortex.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(02)91204-8},
   Key = {fds277482}
}

@article{fds277541,
   Author = {Song, AW and Woldorff, MG and Gangstead, S and Mangun, GR and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Enhanced spatial localization of neuronal activation using
             simultaneous apparent-diffusion-coefficient and
             blood-oxygenation functional magnetic resonance
             imaging.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {742-750},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12377149},
   Keywords = {Adult • Algorithms • Arteries • Brain •
             Brain Mapping • Cerebrovascular Circulation • Data
             Interpretation, Statistical • Diffusion •
             Echo-Planar Imaging • Female • Humans • Image
             Interpretation, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Motion • Neurons •
             Oxygen • Veins • anatomy & histology • blood*
             • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Functional MRI (fMRI) can detect blood oxygenation level
             dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic responses secondary to local
             neuronal activity. The most commonly used method for
             detecting fMRI signals is the gradient-echo echo-planar
             imaging (EPI) technique because of its sensitivity and
             speed. However, it is known that much of the signal obtained
             with this approach arises from large veins, with additional
             contribution from the capillaries and venules. Early
             experiments using diffusion-weighted gradient-echo EPI have
             suggested that intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) weighting
             can selectively attenuate contributions from large vessels
             based on the differences in the mobility of the blood within
             them, thereby revealing the contributions from hemodynamic
             changes in capillaries, which are in close spatial proximity
             to the activated neural tissue. Using this differential
             sensitivity of the various neurovascular compartments to
             IVIM weighting, we present a new approach for deriving
             functional maps of neural activity. This method is based on
             task-induced changes of the apparent diffusion coefficients
             (ADC), a signal that we demonstrate is generated in vascular
             compartments that only partially overlap with those
             generating the BOLD signal. The approach allows both the
             ADC-based maps and the more commonly used BOLD-based maps to
             be acquired simultaneously. The spatial overlap between
             these maps can be used to create composite maps that permit
             improved localization of the underlying neuronal activity
             patterns by identifying signals generated in those vascular
             components that are in closest proximity to the active
             neuronal populations of interest.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s1053-8119(02)91217-6},
   Key = {fds277541}
}

@article{fds277483,
   Author = {Noesselt, T and Hillyard, SA and Woldorff, MG and Schoenfeld, A and Hagner, T and Jäncke, L and Tempelmann, C and Hinrichs, H and Heinze,
             H-J},
   Title = {Delayed striate cortical activation during spatial
             attention.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {575-587},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165478},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain Mapping •
             Cerebrovascular Circulation • Cues • Evoked
             Potentials, Visual • Feedback • Female •
             Functional Laterality • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Magnetoencephalography • Male
             • Nerve Net • Neural Inhibition •
             Neuropsychological Tests • Photic Stimulation •
             Reaction Time • Space Perception • Visual Cortex
             • Visual Fields • Visual Pathways • anatomy &
             histology • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Recordings of event-related potentials (ERPs) and
             event-related magnetic fields (ERMFs) were combined with
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study visual
             cortical activity in humans during spatial attention. While
             subjects attended selectively to stimulus arrays in one
             visual field, fMRI revealed stimulus-related activations in
             the contralateral primary visual cortex and in multiple
             extrastriate areas. ERP and ERMF recordings showed that
             attention did not affect the initial evoked response at
             60-90 ms poststimulus that was localized to primary cortex,
             but a similarly localized late response at 140-250 ms was
             enhanced to attended stimuli. These findings provide
             evidence that the primary visual cortex participates in the
             selective processing of attended stimuli by means of delayed
             feedback from higher visual-cortical areas.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/ana.10394},
   Key = {fds277483}
}

@article{fds277484,
   Author = {Sanders, LD and Neville, HJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Speech segmentation by native and non-native speakers: the
             use of lexical, syntactic, and stress-pattern
             cues.},
   Journal = {Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research :
             Jslhr},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {519-530},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1092-4388},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12069004},
   Keywords = {Adult • Cues* • Female • Humans •
             Language* • Male • Phonetics* • Semantics*
             • Speech • Vocabulary* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Varying degrees of plasticity in different subsystems of
             language have been demonstrated by studies showing that some
             aspects of language are processed similarly by native
             speakers and late-learners whereas other aspects are
             processed differently by the two groups. The study of speech
             segmentation provides a means by which the ability to
             process different types of linguistic information can be
             measured within the same task, because lexical, syntactic,
             and stress-pattern information can all indicate where one
             word ends and the next begins in continuous speech. In this
             study, native Japanese and native Spanish late-learners of
             English (as well as near-monolingual Japanese and Spanish
             speakers) were asked to determine whether specific sounds
             fell at the beginning or in the middle of words in English
             sentences. Similar to native English speakers, late-learners
             employed lexical information to perform the segmentation
             task. However, nonnative speakers did not use syntactic
             information to the same extent as native English speakers.
             Although both groups of late-learners of English used stress
             pattern as a segmentation cue, the extent to which this cue
             was relied upon depended on the stress-pattern
             characteristics of their native language. These findings
             support the hypothesis that learning a second language later
             in life has differential effects on subsystems within
             language.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1044/1092-4388(2002/041)},
   Key = {fds277484}
}

@article{fds277563,
   Author = {Song, AW and Fitchtenholtz, H and Woldorff, M},
   Title = {Compartmentalization of the BOLD Signal Based on the
             Apparent Mobilities},
   Journal = {Magn Reson Imaging},
   Volume = {20},
   Pages = {521-525},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds277563}
}

@article{fds277540,
   Author = {Hasnain, MK and Fox, PT and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Structure--function spatial covariance in the human visual
             cortex.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {702-716},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11459760},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Brain Mapping • Color
             Perception • Echo-Planar Imaging • Functional
             Laterality • Humans • Male • Models, Anatomic
             • Occipital Lobe • Space Perception •
             Tomography, Emission-Computed • Visual Cortex •
             anatomy & histology • anatomy & histology* •
             growth & development • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The value of sulcal landmarks for predicting functional
             areas was quantitatively examined. Medial occipital sulci
             were identified using anatomical magnetic resonance images
             to create individual cortical-surface models. Functional
             visual areas were identified using retinotopically organized
             visual stimuli, and positron emission tomography subtraction
             imaging with intra-subject averaging. Functional areas were
             assigned labels by placement along the cortical surface from
             V1. Structure-function spatial covariances between sulci and
             functional areas, and spatial covariances among functional
             areas, were determined by projecting sulcal landmarks and
             functional areas into a standardized stereotaxic space and
             computing the 'r' statistics. A functional area was
             considered to spatially covary with a sulcus or another
             functional area if their geometric centers correlated
             significantly (P < 0.05) in two or more axes. Statistically
             significant spatial covariances were found for some, but not
             all comparisons. The finding of significant spatial
             covariances within a standardized stereotaxic space
             indicates that nine-parameter spatial normalization does not
             account for all the predictive value of structural or
             functional locations, and may be improved upon by using
             selected sulcal and functional landmarks. The present
             findings quantify for the first time the strength of
             structure--function spatial covariance and comment directly
             on developmental theories addressing the etiology of
             structure--function correspondence.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892900564082},
   Key = {fds277540}
}

@article{fds277485,
   Author = {Hopfinger, JB and Woldorff, MG and Fletcher, EM and Mangun,
             GR},
   Title = {Dissociating top-down attentional control from selective
             perception and action.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1277-1291},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11566311},
   Keywords = {Attention • Brain • Cognition • Cues •
             Evoked Potentials • Frontal Lobe • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Parietal Lobe •
             Random Allocation • Space Perception • Temporal
             Lobe • Time Perception • Tomography,
             Emission-Computed • Visual Cortex • anatomy &
             histology • anatomy & histology* • blood supply
             • blood supply* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Research into the neural mechanisms of attention has
             revealed a complex network of brain regions that are
             involved in the execution of attention-demanding tasks.
             Recent advances in human neuroimaging now permit
             investigation of the elementary processes of attention being
             subserved by specific components of the brain's attention
             system. Here we describe recent studies of spatial selective
             attention that made use of positron emission tomography
             (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and
             event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the
             spatio-temporal dynamics of the attention-related neural
             activity. We first review the results from an event-related
             fMRI study that examined the neural mechanisms underlying
             top-down attentional control versus selective sensory
             perception. These results defined a fronto-temporal-parietal
             network involved in the control of spatial attention.
             Activity in these areas biased the neural activity in
             sensory brain structures coding the spatial locations of
             upcoming target stimuli, preceding a modulation of
             subsequent target processing in visual cortex. We then
             present preliminary evidence from a fast-rate event-related
             fMRI study of spatial attention that demonstrates how to
             disentangle the potentially overlapping hemodynamic
             responses elicited by temporally adjacent stimuli in studies
             of attentional control. Finally, we present new analyses
             from combined neuroimaging (PET) and event-related brain
             potential (ERP) studies that together reveal the timecourse
             of activation of brain regions implicated in attentional
             control and selective perception.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0028-3932(01)00117-8},
   Key = {fds277485}
}

@article{fds277567,
   Author = {Xiong, J and Rao, S and Jerabek, P and Zamarripa, F and Woldorff, M and Lancaster, J and Fox, PT},
   Title = {Intersubject variability in cortical activations during a
             complex language task.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {326-339},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10944415},
   Abstract = {Intersubject variability in the functional organization of
             the human brain has theoretical and practical importance for
             basic and clinical neuroscience. In the present study,
             positron emission tomography (PET) and anatomical magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) were used to study the functional
             anatomy of language processes. Intersubject variability in
             task-induced activations in six brain regions was assessed
             in 20 normal subjects (10 men and 10 women) for frequency of
             occurrence, location, intensity, and extent. A complex, but
             well-studied task (overt verb generation) was compared to a
             simple baseline (visual fixation) to induce activations in
             brain areas serving perceptual, motoric, and cognitive
             functions. The frequency of occurrence was high for all
             selected brain areas (80-95%). The variability in response
             location in Talairach space, expressed as the standard
             deviation along each axis (x, y, z), ranged from 5.2 to 9.9
             mm. This variability appears to be uniformly distributed
             across the brain, uninfluenced by regional differences in
             the complexity of gyral anatomy or mediated behavior. The
             variability in response location, expressed as the average
             Euclidean distances (averaged across subjects) about mean
             locations of activations, varied from 9.40 to 13.36 mm and
             had no significant differences by region (P>0.05, beta =
             0.20). Intensity variability was also relatively small and
             homogenous across brain regions. In contrast, response
             extent was much more variable both across subjects and
             across brain regions (0.79 to 1.77, coefficient of
             variation). These findings are in good agreement with
             previous PET studies of intersubject variability and bode
             well for the possibility of using functional neuroimaging to
             study neural plasticity subsequent to congenital and
             acquired brain lesions.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0621},
   Key = {fds277567}
}

@article{fds277489,
   Author = {Pliszka, SR and Liotti, M and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder: event-related potentials identify the processing
             component and timing of an impaired right-frontal
             response-inhibition mechanism.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {238-246},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10924667},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Child
             • Evoked Potentials • Frontal Lobe •
             Functional Laterality • Humans • Inhibition
             (Psychology)* • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male
             • Reaction Time • Time Factors •
             abnormalities • diagnosis* • physiology* •
             physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: A core deficit in inhibitory control may account
             for a wide range of dysfunctional behaviors in
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS:
             Event-related potentials were measured in 10 children with
             ADHD and 10 healthy children during a task specifically
             involving response inhibition (Stop signal task). RESULTS:
             In response to all Stop signals, control participants
             produced a large negative wave at 200 msec (N200) over right
             inferior frontal cortex, which was markedly reduced in ADHD
             children. The N200 amplitude was significantly correlated
             across subjects with response-inhibition performance. In
             response to the Go stimuli, ADHD children showed a reduced
             slow positive wave (250-500 msec) in anticipation of failed
             inhibitions over right frontal scalp regions. CONCLUSIONS:
             ADHD children appear to have an abnormality in an
             early-latency, right inferior frontal processing component
             critical to the initiation of normal response-inhibition
             operations. They also appear to have a right frontal
             abnormality associated to the covert processing of Go
             stimuli preceding failed inhibitions. By providing timing
             and processing component specificity, these results extend
             the findings of recent functional MRI studies of inhibitory
             control reporting right frontal abnormalities in
             ADHD.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0006-3223(00)00890-8},
   Key = {fds277489}
}

@article{fds277488,
   Author = {Lancaster, JL and Woldorff, MG and Parsons, LM and Liotti, M and Freitas, CS and Rainey, L and Kochunov, PV and Nickerson, D and Mikiten,
             SA and Fox, PT},
   Title = {Automated Talairach atlas labels for functional brain
             mapping.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {120-131},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10912591},
   Keywords = {Anatomy, Artistic* • Brain • Brain Mapping* •
             Cerebral Cortex • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Medical Illustration* • Task Performance and Analysis
             • Tomography, Emission-Computed • Tomography,
             Emission-Computed, Single-Photon • anatomy & histology
             • anatomy & histology* • instrumentation •
             methods • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {An automated coordinate-based system to retrieve brain
             labels from the 1988 Talairach Atlas, called the Talairach
             Daemon (TD), was previously introduced [Lancaster et al.,
             1997]. In the present study, the TD system and its 3-D
             database of labels for the 1988 Talairach atlas were tested
             for labeling of functional activation foci. TD system labels
             were compared with author-designated labels of activation
             coordinates from over 250 published functional brain-mapping
             studies and with manual atlas-derived labels from an expert
             group using a subset of these activation coordinates.
             Automated labeling by the TD system compared well with
             authors' labels, with a 70% or greater label match averaged
             over all locations. Author-label matching improved to
             greater than 90% within a search range of +/-5 mm for most
             sites. An adaptive grey matter (GM) range-search utility was
             evaluated using individual activations from the M1 mouth
             region (30 subjects, 52 sites). It provided an 87% label
             match to Brodmann area labels (BA 4 & BA 6) within a search
             range of +/-5 mm. Using the adaptive GM range search, the TD
             system's overall match with authors' labels (90%) was better
             than that of the expert group (80%). When used in concert
             with authors' deeper knowledge of an experiment, the TD
             system provides consistent and comprehensive labels for
             brain activation foci. Additional suggested applications of
             the TD system include interactive labeling, anatomical
             grouping of activation foci, lesion-deficit analysis, and
             neuroanatomy education.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/1097-0193(200007)10:3<120::aid-hbm30>3.0.co;2-8},
   Key = {fds277488}
}

@article{fds323876,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Mayberg, HS and Jones, VM and Agan, LC and Cook, CI and Woldorff, MG and Jerabek, PA and Fox, PT},
   Title = {Interactive effects in the anterior cingulate of sadness and
             selective attention: A pet study},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {125S-126S},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00680-6},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00680-6},
   Key = {fds323876}
}

@article{fds277486,
   Author = {Hinrichs, H and Scholz, M and Tempelmann, C and Woldorff, MG and Dale,
             AM and Heinze, HJ},
   Title = {Deconvolution of event-related fMRI responses in fast-rate
             experimental designs: tracking amplitude
             variations.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {12 Suppl 2},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {76-89},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11506649},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Attention • Brain Mapping •
             Cerebrovascular Circulation • Discrimination
             (Psychology) • Evoked Potentials, Visual •
             Hemodynamics • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Models, Neurological • Models, Psychological
             • Pattern Recognition, Visual • Reaction Time
             • Research Design • Space Perception • Visual
             Cortex • blood supply • methods • methods*
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Recent developments towards event-related functional
             magnetic resonance imaging has greatly extended the range of
             experimental designs. If the events occur in rapid
             succession, the corresponding time-locked responses overlap
             significantly and need to be deconvolved in order to
             separate the contributions of different events. Here we
             present a deconvolution approach, which is especially aimed
             at the analysis of fMRI data where sequence- or
             context-related responses are expected. For this purpose, we
             make the assumption of a hemodynamic response function (HDR)
             with constant yet not predefined shape but with possibly
             variable amplitudes. This approach reduces the number of
             variables to be estimated but still keeps the solutions
             flexible with respect to the shape. Consequently,
             statistical efficiency is improved. Temporal variations of
             the HDR strength are directly indicated by the amplitudes
             derived by the algorithm. Both the estimation efficiency and
             statistical inference are further supported by an improved
             estimation of the noise covariance. Using synthesized data
             sets, both differently shaped HDRs and varying amplitude
             factors were correctly identified. The gain in statistical
             sensitivity led to improved ratios of false- and
             true-positive detection rates for synthetic activations in
             these data. In an event-related fMRI experiment with a human
             subject, different HDR amplitudes could be derived
             corresponding to stimulation at different visual stimulus
             contrasts. Finally, in a visual spatial attention experiment
             we obtained different fMRI response amplitudes depending on
             the sequences of attention conditions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892900564082},
   Key = {fds277486}
}

@article{fds277487,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Woldorff, MG and Perez, R and Mayberg,
             HS},
   Title = {An ERP study of the temporal course of the Stroop color-word
             interference effect.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {701-711},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10689046},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Color Perception
             • Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials
             • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Neuropsychological Tests* •
             Photic Stimulation • Psychomotor Performance •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The electrophysiological correlates of the Stroop color-word
             interference effect were studied in eight healthy subjects
             using high-density Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). Three
             response modalities were compared: Overt Verbal, Covert
             Verbal, and Manual. Both Overt Verbal and Manual versions of
             the Stroop yielded robust Stroop color-word interference as
             indexed by longer RT for incongruent than congruent color
             words. The Incongruent vs Congruent ERP difference wave
             presented two effects. A first effect was a medial dorsal
             negativity between 350-500 ms post-stimulus (peak at 410
             ms). This effect had a significantly different scalp
             distribution in the Verbal and Manual Stroop versions, with
             an anterior-medial focus for overt or covert speech, and a
             broader medial-dorsal distribution for the manual task.
             Dipole source analysis suggested two independent generators
             in anterior cingulate cortex. Later on in time, a prolonged
             positivity developed between 500-800 ms post-stimulus over
             left superior temporo-parietal scalp. This effect was
             present for all the three response modalities. A possible
             interpretation of these results is that Stroop color-word
             interference first activates anterior cingulate cortex
             (350-500 ms post-stimulus), followed by activation of the
             left temporo-parietal cortex, possibly related to the need
             of additional processing of word meaning.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0028-3932(99)00106-2},
   Key = {fds277487}
}

@article{fds277446,
   Author = {Gaschler-Markefski, B and Baumgart, F and Tempelmann, C and Woldorff,
             MG and Scheich, H},
   Title = {Activation of human auditory cortex in memory retrieval
             experiments},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6 PART II},
   Pages = {S946},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   Key = {fds277446}
}

@article{fds277539,
   Author = {Baumgart, F and Gaschler-Markefski, B and Woldorff, MG and Heinze,
             HJ and Scheich, H},
   Title = {A movement-sensitive area in auditory cortex.},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {400},
   Number = {6746},
   Pages = {724-726},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0028-0836},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10466721},
   Keywords = {Auditory Cortex • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Motion Perception • physiology*},
   Abstract = {A number of experiments requiring attention or other complex
             cognitive functions have found substantial activation in the
             anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Some of these studies have
             suggested that this area may be involved in "selection for
             action," such as for selecting to respond to a target
             stimulus. Here, positron emission tomography (PET) and
             event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to study the
             effects of target probability during a demanding visual
             spatial attention task, in which the target percentage was
             either low (2%, 1 per approximately 26 sec) or high (16%, 1
             per approximately 3.5 sec). As expected, ERPs to detected
             targets evoked large, bilaterally distributed P300 waves.
             The PET showed strong activation of the ACC, particularly
             dorsally, during all the attend conditions relative to
             passive. However, these PET activations did not
             significantly differ between the few-target and many-target
             conditions, showing only a small trend to be larger in the
             many-target case. Such results indicate that the bulk of the
             ACC activation does not reflect selection for action per se,
             while also suggesting that the ACC is not a likely source of
             the P300 effect. The current data, however, do not argue
             against the ACC serving a role in maintaining a vigilant or
             anticipatory state in which one may need to select for
             action, or in continually or repeatedly (i.e., for each
             stimulus) needing to resolve whether to select to act or to
             not act.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1038/23385},
   Key = {fds277539}
}

@article{fds277459,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Tempelmann, C and Fell, J and Tegeler, C and Gaschler-Markefski, B and Hinrichs, H and Heinz, HJ and Scheich,
             H},
   Title = {Lateralized auditory spatial perception and the
             contralaterality of cortical processing as studied with
             functional magnetic resonance imaging and
             magnetoencephalography.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {49-66},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9882090},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Auditory Perception
             • Brain Mapping* • Cerebral Cortex •
             Functional Laterality • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Magnetoencephalography •
             Reaction Time • Sound Localization • Space
             Perception • methods • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and
             magnetoencephalography (MEG) were used to study the
             relationships between lateralized auditory perception in
             humans and the contralaterality of processing in auditory
             cortex. Subjects listened to rapidly presented streams of
             short FM-sweep tone bursts to detect infrequent, slightly
             deviant tone bursts. The stimulus streams consisted of
             either monaural stimuli to one ear or the other or binaural
             stimuli with brief interaural onset delays. The onset delay
             gives the binaural sounds a lateralized auditory perception
             and is thought to be a key component of how our brains
             localize sounds in space. For the monaural stimuli, fMRI
             revealed a clear contralaterality in auditory cortex, with a
             contralaterality index (contralateral activity divided by
             the sum of contralateral and ipsilateral activity) of 67%.
             In contrast, the fMRI activations from the laterally
             perceived binaural stimuli indicated little or no
             contralaterality (index of 51%). The MEG recordings from the
             same subjects performing the same task converged
             qualitatively with the fMRI data, confirming a clear
             monaural contralaterality, with no contralaterality for the
             laterally perceived binaurals. However, the MEG monaural
             contralaterality (55%) was less than the fMRI and decreased
             across the several hundred millisecond poststimulus time
             period, going from 57% in the M50 latency range (20-70 ms)
             to 53% in the M200 range (170-250 ms). These data sets
             provide both quantification of the degree of
             contralaterality in the auditory pathways and insight into
             the locus and mechanism of the lateralized perception of
             spatially lateralized sounds.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1097-0193(1999)7:1<49::aid-hbm5>3.0.co;2-j},
   Key = {fds277459}
}

@article{fds277490,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Matzke, M and Zamarripa, F and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Hemodynamic and electrophysiological study of the role of
             the anterior cingulate in target-related processing and
             selection for action.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {121-127},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10524603},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials •
             Female • Gyrus Cinguli • Hemodynamics •
             Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Psychomotor Performance • Tomography, Emission-Computed
             • physiology • physiology* • radionuclide
             imaging},
   Abstract = {A number of experiments requiring attention or other complex
             cognitive functions have found substantial activation in the
             anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Some of these studies have
             suggested that this area may be involved in "selection for
             action," such as for selecting to respond to a target
             stimulus. Here, positron emission tomography (PET) and
             event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to study the
             effects of target probability during a demanding visual
             spatial attention task, in which the target percentage was
             either low (2%, 1 per approximately 26 sec) or high (16%, 1
             per approximately 3.5 sec). As expected, ERPs to detected
             targets evoked large, bilaterally distributed P300 waves.
             The PET showed strong activation of the ACC, particularly
             dorsally, during all the attend conditions relative to
             passive. However, these PET activations did not
             significantly differ between the few-target and many-target
             conditions, showing only a small trend to be larger in the
             many-target case. Such results indicate that the bulk of the
             ACC activation does not reflect selection for action per se,
             while also suggesting that the ACC is not a likely source of
             the P300 effect. The current data, however, do not argue
             against the ACC serving a role in maintaining a vigilant or
             anticipatory state in which one may need to select for
             action, or in continually or repeatedly (i.e., for each
             stimulus) needing to resolve whether to select to act or to
             not act.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1097-0193(1999)8:2/3<121::aid-hbm9>3.0.co;2-b},
   Key = {fds277490}
}

@article{fds277444,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Murray, JP and Ingmundson, P and Pu, Y and Zamarripa, F and Mayberg, HS and Woldorff, MG and Gao, J-H and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Effects of TV violence viewing on learning and memory in
             children},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6 PART II},
   Pages = {S909},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   Key = {fds277444}
}

@article{fds277455,
   Author = {Lemen, LC and Fox, PT and Woldorff, MG and McGinnis, S and Jerabek, PA and Gao, JH},
   Title = {Sustained visual stimulation: Neuronal and hemodynamic
             responses},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S263},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277455}
}

@article{fds277456,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Woldorff, MG and Xiong, J and Parsons, LM and Gao, JH and Pu,
             Y and Zamarripa, F and Cook, CI and Jerabek, PA and Martin, CC and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Activations in visual cortex by language and non-language
             tasks in the congenitally blind: A PET study},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S21},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277456}
}

@article{fds277457,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Pridgen, SC and Liotti, M and Rao, S and Perez, R and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {The verb generation task: The timing of activations},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S160},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277457}
}

@article{fds277458,
   Author = {Burock, MA and Buckner, RL and Woldorff, MG and Rosen, BR and Dale,
             AM},
   Title = {Randomized event-related experimental designs allow for
             extremely rapid presentation rates using functional
             MRI.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {3735-3739},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9858388},
   Keywords = {Cerebrovascular Circulation • Cognition • Evoked
             Potentials • Functional Laterality • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Photic Stimulation •
             Reaction Time • Visual Cortex • Visual Fields
             • Visual Perception • blood supply* •
             methods* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have shown that hemodynamic response
             overlap severely limits the maximum presentation rate with
             event-related functional MRI (fMRI) using fixed intertrial
             experimental designs. Here we demonstrate that the use of
             randomized experimental designs can largely overcome this
             limitation, thereby allowing for event-related fMRI
             experiments with extremely rapid presentation rates. In the
             first experiment, fMRI time courses were simulated using a
             fixed intertrial interval design with intervals of 16, 3,
             and 1 s, and using a randomized design having the same mean
             intertrial intervals. We found that using fixed intertrial
             interval designs the transient information decreased with
             decreasing intertrial intervals, whereas using randomized
             designs the transient information increased with decreasing
             mean intertrial intervals. In a second experiment, fMRI data
             were collected from two subjects using a randomized paradigm
             with visual hemifield stimuli presented randomly every 500
             ms. Robust event-related activation maps and hemodynamic
             response estimates were obtained. These results demonstrate
             the feasibility of performing event-related fMRI experiments
             with rapid, randomized paradigms identical to those used in
             electrophysiological and behavioral studies, thereby
             expanding the applicability of event-related fMRI to a whole
             new range of cognitive neurosciences questions and
             paradigms.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1155/NP.1998.69},
   Key = {fds277458}
}

@article{fds277538,
   Author = {Gaschler-Markefski, B and Baumgart, F and Tempelmann, C and Woldorff,
             MG and Scheich, H},
   Title = {Activation of human auditory cortex in retrieval
             experiments: an fMRI study.},
   Journal = {Neural Plasticity},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {69-75},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {2090-5904},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9920684},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Auditory Cortex
             • Female • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Memory • Middle
             Aged • Music • Noise • adverse effects •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {In a previous functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study, a
             subdivision of the human auditory cortex into four distinct
             territories was achieved. One territory (T1a) exhibited
             functional specialization in terms of a foreground-background
             decomposition task involving matching-to-sample monitoring
             on tone sequences. The present study more specifically
             determined whether memory-guided analysis of tone sequences
             is part of the T1a specialization. During the encoding
             periods, an arbitrary and unfamiliar four-tone-sequence
             (melody) played by one instrument was presented. The
             melody-instrument-combination was different in each period.
             During subsequent retrieval periods, learned and additional
             combinations were presented, and the tasks were either to
             detect the target melodies (experiment I) or the target
             instruments (experiment II). T1a showed larger activation
             during the melody retrieval. The results generally suggest
             that (1) activation of T1a during retrieval is determined
             less by the sound material than by the executed task, and
             (2) more specifically, that memory-guided sequential
             analysis in T1a is dominant over recognition of
             characteristic complex sounds.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1155/NP.1998.69},
   Key = {fds277538}
}

@article{fds277461,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Hillyard, SA and Gallen, CC and Hampson, SR and Bloom,
             FE},
   Title = {Magnetoencephalographic recordings demonstrate attentional
             modulation of mismatch-related neural activity in human
             auditory cortex.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {283-292},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9564748},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Cortex • Dichotic Listening Tests •
             Evoked Potentials, Auditory • Humans •
             Magnetoencephalography* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {It is widely agreed that the negative brain potential
             elicited at 150-200 ms by a deviant, less intense sound in a
             repetitive series can be modulated by attention. To
             investigate whether this modulation represents a genuine
             attention effect on the mismatch negativity (MMN) arising
             from auditory cortex or attention-related activity from
             another brain region, we recorded both the MMN and the
             mismatch magnetic field (MMF) elicited by such deviants in a
             dichotic listening task. Deviant tones in the attended ear
             elicited a sizable MMF that was well modeled as a dipolar
             source in auditory cortex. Both the MMN and MMF to
             unattended-ear deviants were highly attenuated. These
             findings support the view that the MMN/MMF elicited in
             auditory cortex by intensity deviants, and thus the
             underlying feature-analysis and mismatch-detection
             processes, are not strongly automatic but rather can be
             gated or suppressed if attention is strongly focused
             elsewhere.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1155/NP.1998.69},
   Key = {fds277461}
}

@article{fds277462,
   Author = {Liotti, M and Ryder, K and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Auditory attention in the congenitally blind: where, when
             and what gets reorganized?},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1007-1012},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9601658},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Attention •
             Auditory Perception • Blindness • Case-Control
             Studies • Dichotic Listening Tests •
             Discrimination Learning • Evoked Potentials, Auditory
             • Female • Humans • Male • Mental
             Processes • Middle Aged • Neuronal Plasticity
             • congenital • physiology • physiology*
             • physiopathology*},
   Abstract = {Functional reorganization of auditory attention was studied
             in 12 congenitally blind subjects and 12 controls using
             high-density event-related potentials during a highly
             focused dichotic listening task. Reaction times for the
             attend-ear intensity-deviant targets were markedly faster
             for the blind. Brain activity associated with sustained
             attention (N1 effect, Nd), and with the automatic detection
             of deviants in an unattended channel (MMN), did not exhibit
             reorganization. In contrast, marked plasticity changes were
             reflected in late auditory attentional processing
             (attend-ear targets), in the form of a prolonged negativity
             (200-450 ms post-stimulus) that was absent in the sighted
             subjects. The plasticity changes in the blind had a time
             course indicating progressive recruitment of parietal and
             then occipital regions, providing new evidence for
             cross-modal sensory reorganization in the
             blind.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1155/NP.1998.69},
   Key = {fds277462}
}

@article{fds277460,
   Author = {Hasnain, MK and Fox, PT and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Intersubject variability of functional areas in the human
             visual cortex.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {301-315},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9704267},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Brain Mapping* •
             Cerebrovascular Circulation • Fixation, Ocular •
             Functional Laterality • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Reference Values •
             Regional Blood Flow • Reproducibility of Results •
             Tomography, Emission-Computed • Visual Cortex •
             anatomy & histology • methods • physiology •
             physiology* • radionuclide imaging},
   Abstract = {Intersubject variability of striate and extrastriate areas
             was mapped by conjoined use of positron emission tomography
             (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We used two
             dynamic bowtie-shaped random-dot patterns centered
             symmetrically around the vertical- and horizontal-meridian,
             respectively, presented during sequential PET scans in 11
             subjects. Control condition was simple fixation on a central
             dot in absence of a surrounding random dot pattern. V1, V2,
             VP, V3, V3a, V4, V5, and "wordform" areas were identified.
             After spatial normalization to Talairach atlas space, mean
             locations and standard deviations about these mean locations
             for x-, y-, and z-axes were calculated for each area in both
             hemispheres and compared for differences. The mean standard
             deviation for all axes across all areas tested was found to
             be small (4.9 mm). No significant differences were found in
             the mean standard deviations for the x-, y-, and z-axes in
             the left hemisphere vs. their counterparts in the right
             hemisphere. However, when mean standard deviations in both
             hemispheres were polled together by axis, the mean standard
             deviation for the y-axis (5.3 mm) was found to be
             significantly different from the mean standard deviation for
             the x-axis (4.3 mm). Furthermore, in the left hemisphere,
             the mean standard deviation for the z-axis (5.7 mm) was
             significantly greater than the mean standard deviation for
             the x-axis (3.9 mm). The values reported in this study for
             mean location and standard deviation of visual areas can be
             used to establish confidence intervals for distinguishing
             normal variations from pathology and consequent brain
             reorganization.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(sici)1097-0193(1998)6:4<301::aid-hbm8>3.0.co;2-7},
   Key = {fds277460}
}

@article{fds277443,
   Author = {Xiong, J and Rao, S and Woldorff, MG and Jerabek, P and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Inter-subject variability in task-induced activations during
             verb generation},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S156},
   Year = {1998},
   Key = {fds277443}
}

@article{fds277453,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Tempelmann, C and Fell, J and Tegeler, C and Gaschler,
             B and Hinrichs, H and Heinze, HJ and Scheich, H},
   Title = {Lateralized auditory spatial perception and cortical
             processing contralaterality as studied with fMRI and
             MEG},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S173},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277453}
}

@article{fds277454,
   Author = {Lemen, LC and Woldorff, MG and Seabolt, M and Gao, JH and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Neuronal stability in prolonged visual stimulation},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4 PART II},
   Pages = {S37},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277454}
}

@article{fds277537,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Fox, PT and Matzke, M and Lancaster, JL and Veeraswamy,
             S and Zamarripa, F and Seabolt, M and Glass, T and Gao, JH and Martin, CC and Jerabek, P},
   Title = {Retinotopic organization of early visual spatial attention
             effects as revealed by PET and ERPs},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {280-286},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20408229},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adult • Attention •
             Auditory Cortex • Dichotic Listening Tests •
             Evoked Potentials, Auditory • Humans •
             Magnetoencephalography* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Cerebral blood flow PET scans and high-density event-related
             potentials (ERPs) were recorded (separate sessions) while
             subjects viewed rapidly- presented, lower-visual-field,
             bilateral stimuli. Active attention to a designated side of
             the stimuli (relative to passive-viewing conditions)
             resulted in an enhanced ERP positivity (P1 effect) from
             80-150 msec over occipital scalp areas contralateral to the
             direction of attention. In PET scans, active attention vs.
             passive showed strong activation in the contralateral dorsal
             occipital cortex, thus following the retinotopic
             organization of the early extrastriate visual sensory areas,
             with some weaker activation in the contralateral fusiform.
             Dipole modeling seeded by the dorsal occipital PET foci
             yielded an excellent fit for the P1 attention effect. In
             contrast, dipoles constrained to the fusiform foci fit the
             P1 effect poorly, and, when the location constraints were
             released, moved upward to the dorsal occipital locations
             during iterative dipole fitting. These results argue that
             the early ERP P1 attention effects for lower-visual-field
             stimuli arise mainly from these dorsal occipital areas and
             thus also follow the retinotopic organization of the visual
             sensory input pathways. These combined PET/ERP data
             therefore provide strong evidence that sustained visual
             spatial attention results in a preset, top-down biasing of
             the early sensory input channels in a retinotopically
             organized way.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds277537}
}

@article{fds304118,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Fox, PT and Matzke, M and Lancaster, JL and Veeraswamy,
             S and Zamarripa, F and Seabolt, M and Glass, T and Gao, JH and Martin, CC and Jerabek, P},
   Title = {Retinotopic organization of early visual spatial attention
             effects as revealed by PET and ERPs.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {280-286},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20408229},
   Abstract = {Cerebral blood flow PET scans and high-density event-related
             potentials (ERPs) were recorded (separate sessions) while
             subjects viewed rapidly-presented, lower-visual-field,
             bilateral stimuli. Active attention to a designated side of
             the stimuli (relative to passive-viewing conditions)
             resulted in an enhanced ERP positivity (P1 effect) from
             80-150 msec over occipital scalp areas contralateral to the
             direction of attention. In PET scans, active attention vs.
             passive showed strong activation in the contralateral dorsal
             occipital cortex, thus following the retinotopic
             organization of the early extrastriate visual sensory areas,
             with some weaker activation in the contralateral fusiform.
             Dipole modeling seeded by the dorsal occipital PET foci
             yielded an excellent fit for the P1 attention effect. In
             contrast, dipoles constrained to the fusiform foci fit the
             P1 effect poorly, and, when the location constraints were
             released, moved upward to the dorsal occipital locations
             during iterative dipole fitting. These results argue that
             the early ERP P1 attention effects for lower-visual-field
             stimuli arise mainly from these dorsal occipital areas and
             thus also follow the retinotopic organization of the visual
             sensory input pathways. These combined PET/ERP data
             therefore provide strong evidence that sustained visual
             spatial attention results in a preset, top-down biasing of
             the early sensory input channels in a retinotopically
             organized way.},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds304118}
}

@article{fds277463,
   Author = {Gao, JH and Xiong, J and Lai, S and Haacke, EM and Woldorff, MG and Li, J and Fox, PT},
   Title = {Improving the temporal resolution of functional MR imaging
             using keyhole techniques.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance in Medicine},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {854-860},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0740-3194},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8744013},
   Keywords = {Adult • Artifacts • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Motor Cortex •
             anatomy & histology • methods* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Using a keyhole technique, it is shown that the data
             acquisition rate of gradient-echo imaging for functional MRI
             (fMRI) studies can be increased substantially. The resulting
             enhancement of the temporal resolution of fMRIs was
             accomplished without modifying the hardware of a
             conventional MRI system. High spatial resolution fMRI images
             were first collected with conventional full k-space
             acquisition and image reconstruction. Using the same data
             set, simulation reconstruction using the keyhole principle
             and zero-padding were performed for comparison with the full
             k-space reconstruction. No significant changes were found
             for fMRI images generated from the keyhole technique with a
             data sharing profile of 50% of the k-space. As k-space data
             sharing profiles increased to 75 and 87.5%, the keyhole fMRI
             images began to show only modest changes in activation
             intensity and area compared with the standard images. In
             contrast, zero-padding fMRI images produced a significant
             disparity both in activation intensity and area relative to
             the truly high-resolution fMRI images. The keyhole
             technique's ability to retain the intensity and area of fMRI
             information, while substantially reducing acquisition time,
             makes it a promising method for fMRI studies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds277463}
}

@article{fds277467,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Selective listening at fast stimulus rates: so much to hear,
             so little time.},
   Journal = {Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.
             Supplement},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {32-51},
   Year = {1995},
   ISSN = {0424-8155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7649040},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Attention • Brain •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials, Auditory
             • Humans • Reaction Time • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Using a keyhole technique, it is shown that the data
             acquisition rate of gradient-echo imaging for functional MRI
             (fMRI) studies can be increased substantially. The resulting
             enhancement of the temporal resolution of fMRIs was
             accomplished without modifying the hardware of a
             conventional MRI system. High spatial resolution fMRI images
             were first collected with conventional full k-space
             acquisition and image reconstruction. Using the same data
             set, simulation reconstruction using the keyhole principle
             and zero-padding were performed for comparison with the full
             k-space reconstruction. No significant changes were found
             for fMRI images generated from the keyhole technique with a
             data sharing profile of 50% of the k-space. As k-space data
             sharing profiles increased to 75 and 87.5%, the keyhole fMRI
             images began to show only modest changes in activation
             intensity and area compared with the standard images. In
             contrast, zero-padding fMRI images produced a significant
             disparity both in activation intensity and area relative to
             the truly high-resolution fMRI images. The keyhole
             technique's ability to retain the intensity and area of fMRI
             information, while substantially reducing acquisition time,
             makes it a promising method for fMRI studies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds277467}
}

@article{fds277466,
   Author = {Luck, SJ and Hillyard, SA and Mouloua, M and Woldorff, MG and Clark, VP and Hawkins, HL},
   Title = {Effects of spatial cuing on luminance detectability:
             psychophysical and electrophysiological evidence for early
             selection.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and
             Performance},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {887-904},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0096-1523},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8083642},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Brain •
             Choice Behavior* • Discrimination Learning •
             Electroencephalography* • Humans • Perceptual
             Masking • Space Perception • Spatial Behavior*
             • Visual Perception* • physiology},
   Abstract = {Three experiments were conducted to determine whether
             attention-related changes in luminance detectability reflect
             a modulation of early sensory processing. Experiments 1 and
             2 used peripheral cues to direct attention and found
             substantial effects of cue validity on target detectability;
             these effects were consistent with a sensory-level locus of
             selection but not with certain memory- or decision-level
             mechanisms. In Experiment 3, event-related brain potentials
             were recorded in a similar paradigm using central cues, and
             attention was found to produce changes in sensory-evoked
             brain activity beginning within the 1st 100 ms of stimulus
             processing. These changes included both an enhancement of
             sensory responses to attended stimuli and a suppression of
             sensory responses to unattended stimuli; the enhancement and
             suppression effects were isolated to different neural
             responses, indicating that they may arise from independent
             attentional mechanisms.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037//0096-1523.20.4.887},
   Key = {fds277466}
}

@article{fds277468,
   Author = {Fox, PT and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Integrating human brain maps.},
   Journal = {Current Opinion in Neurobiology},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {151-156},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0959-4388},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8038570},
   Keywords = {Brain Mapping* • Humans • Information Systems
             • Meta-Analysis as Topic • Models, Neurological
             • Neurology • methods • trends},
   Abstract = {Perception, action, cognition, and emotion can now be mapped
             in the brain by a growing family of techniques. Positron
             emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging,
             event-related electrical potentials, event-related magnetic
             fields, and other non-invasive imaging techniques are
             rapidly evolving and providing an increasingly rich
             literature on the functional organization of the human
             brain. Although no two techniques map identical
             physiological processes or physical parameters, replications
             of functionally specific maps by different techniques
             indicate sufficient common ground for multimodality
             integration. The process of integration is multi-tiered.
             Recent advances in integration range from simple image
             fusion, to model-based synthetic analyses, to collective
             databases for neural-system modeling. Spatially, temporally,
             physiologically, and cognitively accurate computational
             models of the neural systems of human behavior are the
             ultimate objective of functional brain mapping. This
             objective will be reached only through integrating the
             diversity of modern brain-mapping methods.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds277468}
}

@article{fds277465,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Gallen, CC and Hampson, SA and Hillyard, SA and Pantev,
             C and Sobel, D and Bloom, FE},
   Title = {Modulation of early sensory processing in human auditory
             cortex during auditory selective attention.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {90},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {8722-8726},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0027-8424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8378354},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Analysis of Variance •
             Attention* • Auditory Cortex • Auditory
             Perception* • Brain Mapping* • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Magnetics • Time
             Factors • anatomy & histology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Neuromagnetic fields were recorded from human subjects as
             they listened selectively to sequences of rapidly presented
             tones in one ear while ignoring tones of a different pitch
             in the opposite ear. Tones in the attended ear evoked larger
             magnetic brain responses than did unattended tones in the
             latency ranges 20-50 msec and 80-130 msec poststimulus.
             Source localization techniques in conjunction with magnetic
             resonance imaging placed the neural generators of these
             early attention-sensitive brain responses in auditory cortex
             on the supratemporal plane. These data demonstrate that
             focused auditory attention in humans can selectively
             modulate sensory processing in auditory cortex beginning as
             early as 20 msec poststimulus, thereby providing strong
             evidence for an "early selection" mechanism of auditory
             attention that can regulate auditory input at or before the
             initial stages of cortical analysis.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.90.18.8722},
   Key = {fds277465}
}

@article{fds277464,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Distortion of ERP averages due to overlap from temporally
             adjacent ERPs: analysis and correction.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {98-119},
   Year = {1993},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8416067},
   Keywords = {Algorithms* • Arousal • Artifacts • Attention
             • Cerebral Cortex • Dominance, Cerebral •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials, Auditory
             • Humans • Pitch Discrimination • Signal
             Processing, Computer-Assisted • instrumentation* •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {In studies of event-related potentials (ERPs), short
             interstimulus intervals (ISIs) are often employed to
             investigate certain neural or psychological phenomena. At
             short ISIs, however, the ERP responses to successive stimuli
             may overlap, thereby distorting the ERP averages. This paper
             describes a signal processing approach for analyzing the
             distortion of ERP averages due to such overlap. In general,
             the distortion is modeled in terms of mathematical
             convolutions of the ERP waveform elicited by each type of
             adjacent stimulus with the corresponding distribution in
             time of those stimuli relative to the averaging epoch. Using
             this framework, a number of implications of ERP overlap for
             experimental design and interpretation are examined, with
             special emphasis given to selective attention paradigms. It
             is shown that the possibility of confound due to ERP overlap
             is widespread in short-ISI experiments, and even the widely
             used procedure of stimulus randomization does not
             necessarily control for differential distortion of the ERPs
             to attended versus unattended stimuli. Problems due to ERP
             overlap can be particularly serious in short-ISI studies
             that examine how ERPs (and associated perceptual processes)
             are influenced by the nature of the preceding stimulus
             (i.e., stimulus sequence effects). A set of algorithms is
             presented for estimating and removing the residual
             distortion due to response overlap from recorded ERP
             averages. The use of these algorithms, collectively termed
             the Adjacent Response (Adjar) Technique, can alleviate many
             of the overlap-related problems that arise when short ISIs
             are used, thereby enhancing the power of the ERP
             technique.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1997)5:4<280::AID-HBM13>3.0.CO;2-I},
   Key = {fds277464}
}

@article{fds323877,
   Author = {WOLDORFF, M},
   Title = {Modulation of early sensory processing in human auditory
             cortex during auditory selective attention},
   Journal = {Proc. Nat'l Acad. Sci. USA.},
   Volume = {90},
   Pages = {8722-8726},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds323877}
}

@article{fds277473,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Hillyard, SA},
   Title = {Modulation of early auditory processing during selective
             listening to rapidly presented tones.},
   Journal = {Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {170-191},
   Year = {1991},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0013-4694},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1714809},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Brain • Dichotic Listening Tests
             • Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials,
             Auditory • Female • Functional Laterality •
             Hearing • Humans • Reaction Time • Reference
             Values • Task Performance and Analysis • Temporal
             Lobe • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Two dichotic listening experiments were performed in which
             stimulus and task conditions were optimized for the early
             selection of inputs. Subjects listened selectively to
             sequences of rapidly presented tone pips in one ear while
             ignoring tone pips of a different pitch in the opposite ear.
             In both experiments, an enhanced positivity between 20 and
             50 msec (the 'P20-50') was observed over central and frontal
             sites in the ERPs to the attended-channel tone pips. At
             longer latencies, the effects of attention appeared to
             include an amplitude modulation of several exogenous ERPs,
             including subcomponents of the central N1 (60-150 msec) and
             P2 (170-230 msec) waves and the temporal T complex (80-150
             msec). In contrast, the attention effect prefrontally
             consisted of a broad negativity that appeared to be largely
             endogenous. A signal processing technique (Adjar) was
             employed to correct for distortion of mutually overlapping
             ERPs elicited by successive stimuli presented at short
             interstimulus intervals (ISIs). It was confirmed that the
             P20-50 attention effect was not the result of differential
             overlap from previous ERPs. In addition, this technique
             allowed an analysis to be made of the effects of the
             preceding stimulus type and ISI on the attention-sensitive
             ERPs, which provided further support for the view that
             highly focused selective attention can directly modulate
             exogenous components of the auditory ERP. Moreover, these
             sequence-dependent ERP modulations were paralleled by
             variations in target discrimination performance. Taken
             together, these results provide strong support for the early
             selection hypothesis that attention can serve to selectively
             bias or gate stimulus processing before full perceptual
             analysis has occurred.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/0013-4694(91)90136-r},
   Key = {fds277473}
}

@article{fds277470,
   Author = {WOLDORFF, M},
   Title = {The effects of channel-selective attention on the mismatch
             negativity wave elicited by deviant tone},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {30-42},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1886962},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation* • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials, Auditory • Female • Humans •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related brain
             potential elicited by infrequent, physically deviant sounds
             in a sequence of repetitive auditory stimuli. Two dichotic
             listening experiments that were designed to optimize the
             selective focusing of attention provided a strong test of
             Näätänen's proposal that the MMN is unaffected by
             attention and reflects the operation of a strongly automatic
             mismatch detection system. In Experiment 1, tones were
             presented at intervals of 120-320 ms, and the deviant tones
             (intensity decrements) in both the attended and unattended
             ears elicited negative waves consistent in waveshape,
             latency, and distribution with previously described MMNs. In
             contrast to previous reports, however, the MMN elicited by
             the unattended-channel deviant was markedly reduced (peak
             amplitude of less than 1 microV) relative to the
             corresponding negative wave elicited by the attended-channel
             deviants (3-4 microV), as well as relative to previously
             reported MMNs (3-6 microV) elicited by comparable deviations
             in stimulus intensity. In Experiment 2, which employed
             interstimulus intervals of 65-205 ms, the unattended-channel
             MMN elicited by the deviant fainter tones was barely
             discernible, whereas the corresponding attended-channel
             negativity was again about 3-4 microV. These findings call
             into question the assertion that the auditory mismatch
             detection process and the associated MMN wave are wholly
             independent of attentional influence. Rather, these data
             provide evidence that the processing of stimuli in
             unattended channels can be attenuated or gated at an early
             sensory level under conditions of highly focused auditory
             selective attention.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-8986.1991.tb03384.x},
   Key = {fds277470}
}

@article{fds323878,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Hillyard, SA},
   Title = {Attentional influence on the mismatch negativity},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {258-260},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00078699},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0140525X00078699},
   Key = {fds323878}
}

@article{fds277441,
   Author = {Temerin, M and Woldorff, M and Mozer, FS},
   Title = {Nonlinear steepening of the electrostatic ion cyclotron
             wave},
   Journal = {Physical Review Letters},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {1941-1943},
   Publisher = {American Physical Society (APS)},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0031-9007},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.1941},
   Abstract = {Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves observed in space at
             altitudes between 5000 and 8000 km often have a sinusoidal
             form. Occasionally, however, wave forms having a spiky or
             sawtooth form indicative of steepening are observed. The
             nonlinear fluid equations which characterize the
             electrostatic ion cyclotron wave have traveling-wave
             solutions with sinusoidal, spiky, and sawtooth forms. The
             wave form depends on the amplitude and phase velocity of the
             wave. © 1979 The American Physical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.43.1941},
   Key = {fds277441}
}

@article{fds277442,
   Author = {Mozer, FS and Cattell, CA and Temerin, M and Torbert, RB and Von
             Glinski, S and Woldorff, M and Wygant, J},
   Title = {dc AND ac ELECTRIC FIELD, PLASMA DENSITY, PLASMA
             TEMPERATURE, AND FIELD-ALIGNED CURRENT EXPERIMENTS ON THE
             S3-3 SATELLITE.},
   Journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research},
   Volume = {84},
   Number = {A10},
   Pages = {5875-5884},
   Publisher = {American Geophysical Union (AGU)},
   Year = {1979},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JA084iA10p05875},
   Abstract = {Measurements of dc electric fields, field-aligned currents,
             the plasma density, and wave electric fields and density
             fluctuations have been made for the first time at auroral
             zone altitudes between 1000 and 8000 km on the S3-3
             satellite. The design and operation of the various detectors
             that made these measurements is described, and some typical
             scientific results are presented. These include the
             observations that the high altitude auroral zone plasma
             density is typically 5-50 particles/cm**3 , that
             field-aligned currents exceeding the electrostatic ion
             cyclotron instability threshold are often observed in
             regions of ion cyclotron wave emission and accelerated
             upgoing ions, that the auroral zone electric field
             penetrates the plasmapause to cause deviations from
             corotation of the plamasphere, and that the energetic
             electron high latitude trapping boundary is sometimes
             equatorward of the last closed magnetic field line, as
             determined by the reversal in the poleward electric field
             component.},
   Doi = {10.1029/JA084iA10p05875},
   Key = {fds277442}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds277507,
   Author = {Appelbaum, LG and Boehler, CN and Won, R and Davis, L and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Strategic allocation of attention reduces temporally
             predictable stimulus conflict.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1834-1848},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1530-8898},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22360623},
   Abstract = {Humans are able to continuously monitor environmental
             situations and adjust their behavioral strategies to
             optimize performance. Here we investigate the behavioral and
             brain adjustments that occur when conflicting stimulus
             elements are, or are not, temporally predictable. ERPs were
             collected while manual response variants of the Stroop task
             were performed in which the SOAs between the relevant color
             and irrelevant word stimulus components were either randomly
             intermixed or held constant within each experimental run.
             Results indicated that the size of both the neural and
             behavioral effects of stimulus incongruency varied with the
             temporal arrangement of the stimulus components, such that
             the random-SOA arrangements produced the greatest
             incongruency effects at the earliest irrelevant first SOA
             (-200 msec) and the constant-SOA arrangements produced the
             greatest effects with simultaneous presentation. These
             differences in conflict processing were accompanied by rapid
             (∼150 msec) modulations of the sensory ERPs to the
             irrelevant distractor components when they occurred
             consistently first. These effects suggest that individuals
             are able to strategically allocate attention in time to
             mitigate the influence of a temporally predictable
             distractor. As these adjustments are instantiated by the
             participants without instruction, they reveal a form of
             rapid strategic learning for dealing with temporally
             predictable stimulus incongruency.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00209},
   Key = {fds277507}
}

@article{fds277508,
   Author = {Boehler, CN and Appelbaum, LG and Krebs, RM and Hopf, J-M and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The influence of different Stop-signal response time
             estimation procedures on behavior-behavior and
             brain-behavior correlations.},
   Journal = {Behavioural Brain Research},
   Volume = {229},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {123-130},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1872-7549},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22245527},
   Abstract = {The fundamental cognitive-control function of inhibitory
             control over motor behavior has been extensively
             investigated using the Stop-signal task. The critical
             behavioral parameter describing stopping efficacy is the
             Stop-signal response time (SSRT), and correlations with
             estimates of this parameter are commonly used to establish
             that other variables (e.g., other behavioral measures or
             brain activity measures) are closely related to inhibitory
             motor control. Recently, however, it has been argued that
             SSRT estimates can be strongly distorted if participants
             strategically slow down their responses over the course of
             the experiment, resulting in the SSRT no longer reliably
             representing response-inhibition efficacy. Here, we
             performed new analyses on behavioral and functional data
             from an fMRI version of the Stop-signal task to gauge the
             consequences of using different SSRT estimation approaches
             that are differentially prone to the influence of strategic
             response slowing. The results indicate that the SSRT
             estimation approach can dramatically change
             behavior-behavior correlations. Specifically, a correlation
             between the SSRT and Go-trial accuracy that was highly
             significant with one estimation approach, virtually
             disappeared for the other. Additional analyses indeed
             supported that this effect was related to strategic response
             slowing. Concerning brain-behavior correlations, only the
             left anterior insula was found to be significantly
             correlated with the SSRT within the set of areas tested
             here. Interestingly, this brain-behavior correlation
             differed little for the different SSRT-estimation
             procedures. In sum, the current results highlight that
             different SSRT-estimation procedures can strongly influence
             the distribution of SSRT values across subjects, which in
             turn can ramify into correlational analyses with other
             parameters.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.bbr.2012.01.003},
   Key = {fds277508}
}

@article{fds277504,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Boehler, CN and Zhang, HH and Schoenfeld, MA and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Electrophysiological recordings in humans reveal reduced
             location-specific attentional-shift activity prior to
             recentering saccades.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neurophysiology},
   Volume = {107},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1393-1402},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1522-1598},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22157127},
   Abstract = {Being able to effectively explore the visual world is of
             fundamental importance, and it has been suggested that the
             straight-ahead gaze position within the egocentric reference
             frame ("primary position") might play a special role in this
             context. In the present study we employed human
             electroencephalography (EEG) to examine neural activity
             related to the spatial guidance of saccadic eye movements.
             Moreover, we sought to investigate whether such activity
             would be modulated by the spatial relation of saccade
             direction to the primary gaze position (recentering
             saccades). Participants executed endogenously cued saccades
             between five equidistant locations along the horizontal
             meridian. This design allowed for the comparison of
             isoamplitude saccades from the same starting position that
             were oriented either toward the primary position
             (centripetal) or further away from it (centrifugal). By
             back-averaging time-locked to the saccade onset on each
             trial, we identified a parietally distributed,
             negative-polarity EEG deflection contralateral to the
             direction of the upcoming saccade. Importantly, this
             contralateral presaccadic negativity, which appeared to
             reflect the location-specific attentional guidance of the
             eye movement, was attenuated for recentering saccades
             relative to isoamplitude centrifugal saccades. This
             differential electrophysiological signature was paralleled
             by faster saccadic reaction times and was substantially more
             apparent when time-locking the data to the onset of the
             saccade rather than to the onset of the cue, suggesting a
             tight temporal association with saccade initiation. The
             diminished level of this presaccadic component for
             recentering saccades may reflect the preferential coding of
             the straight-ahead gaze position, in which both the
             eye-centered and head-centered reference frames are
             perfectly aligned and from which the visual world can be
             effectively explored.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1152/jn.00912.2010},
   Key = {fds277504}
}

@article{fds277505,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Liotti, M and Perez, R and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Is conflict monitoring supramodal? Spatiotemporal dynamics
             of cognitive control processes in an auditory Stroop
             task.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective, & Behaviorial Neuroscience},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-15},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1531-135X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21964643},
   Abstract = {The electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing
             and cognitive control have been well characterized for the
             visual modality in paradigms such as the Stroop task. Much
             less is known about corresponding processes in the auditory
             modality. Here, electroencephalographic recordings of brain
             activity were measured during an auditory Stroop task, using
             three different forms of behavioral response (overt verbal,
             covert verbal, and manual), that closely paralleled our
             previous visual Stroop study. As was expected, behavioral
             responses were slower and less accurate for incongruent than
             for congruent trials. Neurally, incongruent trials showed an
             enhanced fronto-central negative polarity wave (N(inc)),
             similar to the N450 in visual Stroop tasks, with similar
             variations as a function of behavioral response mode, but
             peaking ~150 ms earlier, followed by an enhanced positive
             posterior wave. In addition, sequential behavioral and
             neural effects were observed that supported the
             conflict-monitoring and cognitive adjustment hypothesis.
             Thus, while some aspects of the conflict detection
             processes, such as timing, may be modality dependent, the
             general mechanisms would appear to be supramodal.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-011-0060-z},
   Key = {fds277505}
}

@article{fds277524,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Boehler, CN and Roberts, KC and Song, AW and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The involvement of the dopaminergic midbrain and
             cortico-striatal-thalamic circuits in the integration of
             reward prospect and attentional task demands.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {607-615},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1460-2199},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21680848},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention • Corpus
             Striatum • Cues • Dopamine • Female •
             Humans • Male • Mesencephalon • Nerve Net
             • Neural Pathways • Psychomotor Performance •
             Reward* • Thalamus • Visual Cortex • Young
             Adult • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Reward has been shown to promote human performance in
             multiple task domains. However, an important debate has
             developed about the uniqueness of reward-related neural
             signatures associated with such facilitation, as similar
             neural patterns can be triggered by increased attentional
             focus independent of reward. Here, we used functional
             magnetic resonance imaging to directly investigate the
             neural commonalities and interactions between the
             anticipation of both reward and task difficulty, by
             independently manipulating these factors in a cued-attention
             paradigm. In preparation for the target stimulus, both
             factors increased activity within the midbrain, dorsal
             striatum, and fronto-parietal areas, while inducing
             deactivations in default-mode regions. Additionally, reward
             engaged the ventral striatum, posterior cingulate, and
             occipital cortex, while difficulty engaged medial and
             dorsolateral frontal regions. Importantly, a network
             comprising the midbrain, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and
             anterior midcingulate cortex exhibited an interaction
             between reward and difficulty, presumably reflecting
             additional resource recruitment for demanding tasks with
             profitable outcome. This notion was consistent with a
             negative correlation between cue-related midbrain activity
             and difficulty-induced performance detriments in
             reward-predictive trials. Together, the data demonstrate
             that expected value and attentional demands are integrated
             in cortico-striatal-thalamic circuits in coordination with
             the dopaminergic midbrain to flexibly modulate resource
             allocation for an effective pursuit of behavioral
             goals.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhr134},
   Key = {fds277524}
}

@article{fds277511,
   Author = {Green, JJ and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Arrow-elicited cueing effects at short intervals: Rapid
             attentional orienting or cue-target stimulus
             conflict?},
   Journal = {Cognition},
   Volume = {122},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {96-101},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1873-7838},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975079},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Attention •
             Conflict (Psychology)* • Cues* •
             Electroencephalography • Female • Humans •
             Male • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time •
             Space Perception • Young Adult • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The observation of cueing effects (faster responses for cued
             than uncued targets) rapidly following centrally-presented
             arrows has led to the suggestion that arrows trigger rapid
             automatic shifts of spatial attention. However, these
             effects have primarily been observed during easy
             target-detection tasks when both cue and target remain on
             the screen until the behavioral response. We manipulated
             stimulus duration and task difficulty in an attention-cueing
             experiment to explore non-attentional explanations for rapid
             cueing effects. Contrary to attention-based predictions,
             short-interval cueing effects were observed only for
             long-duration cue and target stimuli, occurred even when the
             cue and target were presented simultaneously, and were
             driven by slowing of the uncued-target responses, rather
             than any facilitation for cued targets. We propose that,
             under these long-duration, short-interval conditions, the
             processing of the cue and target interact more extensively
             in the brain, and that when the cue and target convey
             incongruent spatial information (i.e., on invalidly cued
             trials) it leads to conflict-related slowing of
             responses.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cognition.2011.08.018},
   Key = {fds277511}
}

@article{fds277509,
   Author = {Wu, C-T and Libertus, ME and Meyerhoff, KL and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The temporal dynamics of object processing in visual cortex
             during the transition from distributed to focused spatial
             attention.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {4094-4105},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1530-8898},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21563884},
   Abstract = {Several major cognitive neuroscience models have posited
             that focal spatial attention is required to integrate
             different features of an object to form a coherent
             perception of it within a complex visual scene. Although
             many behavioral studies have supported this view, some have
             suggested that complex perceptual discrimination can be
             performed even with substantially reduced focal spatial
             attention, calling into question the complexity of object
             representation that can be achieved without focused spatial
             attention. In the present study, we took a cognitive
             neuroscience approach to this problem by recording
             cognition-related brain activity both to help resolve the
             questions about the role of focal spatial attention in
             object categorization processes and to investigate the
             underlying neural mechanisms, focusing particularly on the
             temporal cascade of these attentional and perceptual
             processes in visual cortex. More specifically, we recorded
             electrical brain activity in humans engaged in a specially
             designed cued visual search paradigm to probe the
             object-related visual processing before and during the
             transition from distributed to focal spatial attention. The
             onset times of the color popout cueing information,
             indicating where within an object array the subject was to
             shift attention, was parametrically varied relative to the
             presentation of the array (i.e., either occurring
             simultaneously or being delayed by 50 or 100 msec). The
             electrophysiological results demonstrate that some levels of
             object-specific representation can be formed in parallel for
             multiple items across the visual field under spatially
             distributed attention, before focal spatial attention is
             allocated to any of them. The object discrimination process
             appears to be subsequently amplified as soon as focal
             spatial attention is directed to a specific location and
             object. This set of novel neurophysiological findings thus
             provides important new insights on fundamental issues that
             have been long-debated in cognitive neuroscience concerning
             both object-related processing and the role of
             attention.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00045},
   Key = {fds277509}
}

@article{fds277502,
   Author = {Cabeza, R and Mazuz, YS and Stokes, J and Kragel, JE and Woldorff, MG and Ciaramelli, E and Olson, IR and Moscovitch, M},
   Title = {Overlapping parietal activity in memory and perception:
             evidence for the attention to memory model.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {3209-3217},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1530-8898},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568633},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain Mapping • Female
             • Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Linear Models • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Mental Recall • Neural Pathways
             • Orientation* • Oxygen • Paired-Associate
             Learning • Parietal Lobe • Photic Stimulation
             • Reaction Time • Visual Perception •
             Vocabulary • Young Adult • blood • blood
             supply • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic
             retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the
             Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex
             (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by
             retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC)
             mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the
             retrieval output or the retrieval cue. This model also
             hypothesizes that the attentional functions of DPC and VPC
             are similar for memory and perception. To investigate this
             last hypothesis, we scanned participants with event-related
             fMRI whereas they performed memory and perception tasks,
             each comprising an orienting phase (top-down attention) and
             a detection phase (bottom-up attention). The study yielded
             two main findings. First, consistent with the AtoM model,
             orienting-related activity for memory and perception
             overlapped in DPC, whereas detection-related activity for
             memory and perception overlapped in VPC. The DPC overlap was
             greater in the left intraparietal sulcus, and the VPC
             overlap in the left TPJ. Around overlapping areas, there
             were differences in the spatial distribution of memory and
             perception activations, which were consistent with trends
             reported in the literature. Second, both DPC and VPC showed
             stronger connectivity with medial-temporal lobe during the
             memory task and with visual cortex during the perception
             task. These findings suggest that, during memory tasks, some
             parietal regions mediate similar attentional control
             processes to those involved in perception tasks (orienting
             in DPC vs. detection in VPC), although on different types of
             information (mnemonic vs. sensory).},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00065},
   Key = {fds277502}
}

@article{fds277525,
   Author = {Grent-'t-Jong, T and Boehler, CN and Kenemans, JL and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Differential functional roles of slow-wave and
             oscillatory-α activity in visual sensory cortex during
             anticipatory visual-spatial attention.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2204-2216},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1460-2199},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372123},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Alpha Rhythm •
             Anticipation, Psychological • Attention • Female
             • Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Psychomotor Performance • Somatosensory Cortex •
             Space Perception • Visual Cortex • Young Adult
             • methods • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Markers of preparatory visual-spatial attention in sensory
             cortex have been described both as lateralized, slow-wave
             event-related potential (ERP) components and as lateralized
             changes in oscillatory-electroencephalography alpha power,
             but the roles of these markers and their functional
             relationship are still unclear. Here, 3 versions of a
             visual-spatial cueing paradigm, differing in perceptual task
             difficulty and/or response instructions, were used to
             investigate the functional relationships between posterior
             oscillatory-alpha changes and our previously reported
             posterior, slow-wave biasing-related negativity (swBRN) ERP
             activity. The results indicate that the swBRN reflects
             spatially specific, pretarget preparatory activity sensitive
             to the expected perceptual difficulty of the target
             detection task, correlating in both location and strength
             with the early sensory-processing N1 ERP to the target,
             consistent with reflecting a preparatory baseline-shift
             mechanism. In contrast, contralateral event-related
             decreases in alpha-band power were relatively insensitive to
             perceptual difficulty and differed topographically from both
             the swBRN and target N1. Moreover, when response
             instructions emphasized making immediate responses to
             targets, compared with prescribing delayed responses,
             contralateral alpha-event-related desynchronization activity
             was particularly strong and correlated with the longer
             latency target-P3b activity. Thus, in contrast to the
             apparent perceptual-biasing role of swBRN activity,
             contralateral posterior alpha activity may represent an
             attentionally maintained task set linking stimulus-specific
             information and task-specific response requirements.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhq279},
   Key = {fds277525}
}

@article{fds277523,
   Author = {Harris, JA and Wu, C-T and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Sandwich masking eliminates both visual awareness of faces
             and face-specific brain activity through a feedforward
             mechanism.},
   Journal = {Journal of Vision},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {7},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1534-7362},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21669859},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Awareness • Brain •
             Color Perception • Electroencephalography • Evoked
             Potentials • Face* • Female • Humans •
             Male • Perceptual Masking • Reaction Time •
             Visual Perception • Young Adult • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {It is generally agreed that considerable amounts of
             low-level sensory processing of visual stimuli can occur
             without conscious awareness. On the other hand, the degree
             of higher level visual processing that occurs in the absence
             of awareness is as yet unclear. Here, event-related
             potential (ERP) measures of brain activity were recorded
             during a sandwich-masking paradigm, a commonly used approach
             for attenuating conscious awareness of visual stimulus
             content. In particular, the present study used a combination
             of ERP activation contrasts to track both early
             sensory-processing ERP components and face-specific N170 ERP
             activations, in trials with versus without awareness. The
             electrophysiological measures revealed that the sandwich
             masking abolished the early face-specific N170 neural
             response (peaking at ~170 ms post-stimulus), an effect that
             paralleled the abolition of awareness of face versus
             non-face image content. Furthermore, however, the masking
             appeared to render a strong attenuation of earlier
             feedforward visual sensory-processing signals. This early
             attenuation presumably resulted in insufficient information
             being fed into the higher level visual system pathways
             specific to object category processing, thus leading to
             unawareness of the visual object content. These results
             support a coupling of visual awareness and neural indices of
             face processing, while also demonstrating an early low-level
             mechanism of interference in sandwich masking.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1167/11.7.3},
   Key = {fds277523}
}

@article{fds277522,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Boehler, CN and Egner, T and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The neural underpinnings of how reward associations can both
             guide and misguide attention.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {9752-9759},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1529-2401},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21715640},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Association
             Learning • Attention • Brain Mapping • Female
             • Frontal Lobe • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Nucleus Accumbens • Photic Stimulation
             • Psychomotor Performance • Reaction Time •
             Reward* • Stroop Test • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {It is commonly accepted that reward is an effective
             motivator of behavior, but little is known about potential
             costs resulting from reward associations. Here, we used
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate
             the neural underpinnings of such reward-related
             performance-disrupting effects in a reward-modulated Stroop
             task in humans. While reward associations in the
             task-relevant dimension (i.e., ink color) facilitated
             performance, behavioral detriments were found when the
             task-irrelevant dimension (i.e., word meaning) implicitly
             referred to reward-predictive ink colors. Neurally, only
             relevant reward associations invoked a typical
             reward-anticipation response in the nucleus accumbens
             (NAcc), which was in turn predictive of behavioral
             facilitation. In contrast, irrelevant reward associations
             increased activity in a medial prefrontal
             motor-control-related region, namely the presupplementary
             motor area (pre-SMA), which likely reflects the preemption
             and inhibition of automatic response tendencies that are
             amplified by irrelevant reward-related words. This view was
             further supported by a positive relationship between pre-SMA
             activity and pronounced response slowing in trials
             containing reward-related as compared with reward-unrelated
             incongruent words. Importantly, the distinct neural
             processes related to the beneficial and detrimental
             behavioral effects of reward associations appeared to arise
             from preferential-coding mechanisms in visual-processing
             areas that were shared by the two stimulus dimensions,
             suggesting a transfer of reward-related saliency to the
             irrelevant dimension, but with highly differential
             behavioral and neural ramifications. More generally, the
             data demonstrate that even entirely irrelevant reward
             associations can influence stimulus-processing and
             response-selection pathways relatively automatically,
             thereby representing an important flipside of reward-driven
             performance enhancements.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0732-11.2011},
   Key = {fds277522}
}

@article{fds277526,
   Author = {Donohue, SE and Roberts, KC and Grent-'t-Jong, T and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The cross-modal spread of attention reveals differential
             constraints for the temporal and spatial linking of visual
             and auditory stimulus events.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {22},
   Pages = {7982-7990},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1529-2401},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21632920},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Attention
             • Auditory Perception • Brain Waves •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials •
             Female • Humans • Male • Photic Stimulation
             • Psychomotor Performance • Time Factors •
             Visual Perception • Young Adult • methods •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {The integration of multisensory information has been shown
             to be guided by spatial and temporal proximity, as well as
             to be influenced by attention. Here we used neural measures
             of the multisensory spread of attention to investigate the
             spatial and temporal linking of synchronous versus
             near-synchronous auditory and visual events. Human
             participants attended selectively to one of two lateralized
             visual-stimulus streams while task-irrelevant tones were
             presented centrally. Electrophysiological measures of brain
             activity showed that tones occurring simultaneously or
             delayed by 100 ms were temporally linked to an attended
             visual stimulus, as reflected by robust cross-modal
             spreading-of-attention activity, but not when delayed by 300
             ms. The neural data also indicated a ventriloquist-like
             spatial linking of the auditory to the attended visual
             stimuli, but only when occurring simultaneously. These
             neurophysiological results thus provide unique insight into
             the temporal and spatial principles of multisensory feature
             integration and the fundamental role attention plays in such
             integration.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5298-10.2011},
   Key = {fds277526}
}

@article{fds277506,
   Author = {Wilson, BS and Dorman, MF and Woldorff, MG and Tucci,
             DL},
   Title = {Cochlear implants matching the prosthesis to the brain and
             facilitating desired plastic changes in brain
             function.},
   Journal = {Progress in Brain Research},
   Volume = {194},
   Pages = {117-129},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1875-7855},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867799},
   Keywords = {Brain • Cochlear Implantation • Cochlear Implants*
             • Deafness • Humans • User-Computer Interface
             • anatomy & histology • methods • physiology*
             • rehabilitation*},
   Abstract = {The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the great success
             stories of modern medicine. A high level of function is
             provided for most patients. However, some patients still do
             not achieve excellent or even good results using the
             present-day devices. Accumulating evidence is pointing to
             differences in the processing abilities of the "auditory
             brain" among patients as a principal contributor to this
             remaining and still large variability in outcomes. In this
             chapter, we describe a new approach to the design of CIs
             that takes these differences into account and thereby may
             improve outcomes for patients with compromised auditory
             brains.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-444-53815-4.00012-1},
   Key = {fds277506}
}

@article{fds277500,
   Author = {Boehler, CN and Appelbaum, LG and Krebs, RM and Chen, L-C and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The role of stimulus salience and attentional capture across
             the neural hierarchy in a stop-signal task.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e26386},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1932-6203},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22022611},
   Keywords = {Attention • Behavior • Brain • Brain Mapping
             • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Nerve Net • Physical
             Stimulation • Task Performance and Analysis* •
             Young Adult • anatomy & histology • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Inhibitory motor control is a core function of cognitive
             control. Evidence from diverse experimental approaches has
             linked this function to a mostly right-lateralized network
             of cortical and subcortical areas, wherein a signal from the
             frontal cortex to the basal ganglia is believed to trigger
             motor-response cancellation. Recently, however, it has been
             recognized that in the context of typical motor-control
             paradigms those processes related to actual response
             inhibition and those related to the attentional processing
             of the relevant stimuli are highly interrelated and thus
             difficult to distinguish. Here, we used fMRI and a modified
             Stop-signal task to specifically examine the role of
             perceptual and attentional processes triggered by the
             different stimuli in such tasks, thus seeking to further
             distinguish other cognitive processes that may precede or
             otherwise accompany the implementation of response
             inhibition. In order to establish which brain areas respond
             to sensory stimulation differences by rare Stop-stimuli, as
             well as to the associated attentional capture that these may
             trigger irrespective of their task-relevance, we compared
             brain activity evoked by Stop-trials to that evoked by
             Go-trials in task blocks where Stop-stimuli were to be
             ignored. In addition, region-of-interest analyses comparing
             the responses to these task-irrelevant Stop-trials, with
             those to typical relevant Stop-trials, identified separable
             activity profiles as a function of the task-relevance of the
             Stop-signal. While occipital areas were mostly blind to the
             task-relevance of Stop-stimuli, activity in temporo-parietal
             areas dissociated between task-irrelevant and task-relevant
             ones. Activity profiles in frontal areas, in turn, were
             activated mainly by task-relevant Stop-trials, presumably
             reflecting a combination of triggered top-down attentional
             influences and inhibitory motor-control processes.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0026386},
   Key = {fds277500}
}

@article{fds205200,
   Author = {ME Libertus and EM Brannon and MG Woldorff},
   Title = {Parallels in stimulus-driven oscillatory brain responses to
             numerosity changes in adults and seven-month-old
             infants.},
   Journal = {Developmental neuropsychology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {651-67},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1532-6942},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87565641.2010.549883},
   Keywords = {Adult • Biological Markers • Brain • Brain
             Mapping • Electroencephalography • Female •
             Functional Neuroimaging • Humans • Infant •
             Linear Models • Male • Mathematical Concepts*
             • Visual Perception • physiology •
             physiology* • psychology},
   Abstract = {Previous studies provide indirect evidence for an
             ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System. We
             employed a rapid steady-state visual-presentation paradigm
             combined with electroencephalography to measure
             stimulus-driven neural oscillatory responses to numerosities
             in infants and adults. Steady-state repetition of the same
             numerosity across a 2.4-sec time block yielded an increase
             in the stimulus-locked neural entrainment in both groups.
             Entrainment changes following a numerosity switch varied by
             the ratio of the numerosities, consistent with Weber's Law.
             These similarities thus provide direct evidence for an
             ontogenetically continuous Approximate-Number System.
             Moreover, the degree of neural entrainment significantly
             predicted infants' number discrimination measured
             behaviorally two months later.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/87565641.2010.549883},
   Key = {fds205200}
}

@article{fds277510,
   Author = {Krebs, RM and Schoenfeld, MA and Boehler, CN and Song, AW and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The Saccadic Re-Centering Bias is Associated with Activity
             Changes in the Human Superior Colliculus.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {193},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21103010},
   Abstract = {Being able to effectively explore our visual world is of
             fundamental importance, and it has been suggested that the
             straight-ahead gaze (primary position) might play a special
             role in this context. We employed fMRI in humans to
             investigate how neural activity might be modulated for
             saccades relative to this putative default position. Using
             an endogenous cueing paradigm, saccade direction and orbital
             starting position were systematically manipulated, resulting
             in saccades toward primary position (centripetal) and away
             from primary position (centrifugal) that were matched in
             amplitude, directional predictability, as well as orbital
             starting position. In accord with earlier research, we found
             that fMRI activity in the superior colliculus (SC), as well
             as in the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus,
             was enhanced contralateral to saccade direction across all
             saccade conditions. Furthermore, the SC exhibited a relative
             activity decrease during re-centering relative to
             centrifugal saccades, a pattern that was paralleled by
             faster saccadic reaction times. In contrast, activity within
             the cortical eye fields was not significantly modulated
             during re-centering saccades as compared to other saccade
             types, suggesting that the re-centering bias is
             predominantly implemented at a subcortical rather than
             cortical processing stage. Such a modulation might reflect a
             special coding bias facilitating the return of gaze to a
             default position in the gaze space in which retinotopic and
             egocentric reference frames are aligned and from which the
             visual world can be effectively explored.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2010.00193},
   Key = {fds277510}
}

@article{fds277494,
   Author = {Song, AW and Truong, T-K and Woldorff, M},
   Title = {Dynamic MRI of small electrical activity},
   Journal = {Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)},
   Volume = {489},
   Pages = {297-315},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1064-3745},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839098},
   Keywords = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Models, Theoretical •
             Phantoms, Imaging • methods*},
   Abstract = {Neuroscience methods entailing in vivo measurements of brain
             activity have greatly contributed to our understanding of
             brain function for the past decades, from the invasive early
             studies in animals using single-cell electrical recordings,
             to the noninvasive techniques in humans of scalp-recorded
             electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography
             (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and, most
             recently, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A central
             objective of these techniques is to measure neuronal
             activities with high spatial and temporal resolution. Each
             of these methods, however, has substantial limitations in
             this regard. Single-cell recording is invasive and only
             typically records cellular activity in a single location;
             EEG/MEG cannot generally provide accurate and unambiguous
             delineations of neuronal activation spatially; and the most
             sophisticated BOLD-based fMRI methods are still
             fundamentally limited by their dependence on the very slow
             hemodynamic responses upon which they are based. Even the
             latest neuroimaging methodology (e.g., multimodal EEG/fMRI)
             does not yet unambiguously provide accurate localization of
             neuronal activation spatially and temporally. There is hence
             a need to further develop noninvasive imaging methods that
             can directly image neuroelectric activity and thus truly
             achieve a high temporal resolution and spatial specificity
             in humans. Here, we discuss the theory, implementation, and
             potential utility of an MRI technique termed Lorentz effect
             imaging (LEI) that can detect spatially incoherent yet
             temporally synchronized, minute electrical activities in the
             neural amplitude range (microamperes) when they occur in a
             strong magnetic field. Moreover, we demonstrate with our
             preliminary results in phantoms and in vivo, the feasibility
             of imaging such activities with a temporal resolution on the
             order of milliseconds. © 2009 Humana Press.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-59745-543-5-14},
   Key = {fds277494}
}

@article{fds277501,
   Author = {Loui, P and Grent-'t-Jong, T and Torpey, D and Woldorff,
             M},
   Title = {Effects of attention on the neural processing of harmonic
             syntax in Western music.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {678-687},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16257518},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Attention • Brain • Cerebral Cortex • Data
             Interpretation, Statistical • Electroencephalography
             • Eye Movements • Female • Humans •
             Loudness Perception • Male • Middle Aged •
             Music • Perception • physiology • physiology*
             • psychology*},
   Abstract = {The effects of selective attention on the neural response to
             the violation of musical syntax were investigated in the
             present study. Musical chord progressions were played to
             nonmusicians while Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) were
             recorded. The five-chord progressions included 61%
             harmonically expected cadences (I-I(6)-IV-V-I), 26%
             harmonically unexpected cadences (I-I(6)-IV-V-N(6)), and 13%
             with one of the five chords having an intensity fadeout
             across its duration. During the attended condition, subjects
             responded by pressing a button upon detecting a fadeout in
             volume; during the unattended condition, subjects were given
             reading comprehension materials and instructed to ignore all
             auditory stimuli. In response to the harmonic deviant, an
             Early Anterior Negativity (EAN) was observed at 150-300 ms
             in both attention conditions, but it was much larger in
             amplitude in the attended condition. A second scalp-negative
             deflection was also identified at 380-600 ms following the
             harmonic deviants; this Late Negativity onset earlier during
             the attended condition. These results suggest strong effects
             of attention on the neural processing of harmonic
             syntax.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.08.019},
   Key = {fds277501}
}

@article{fds277499,
   Author = {Brannon, EM and Roussel, LW and Meck, WH and Woldorff,
             M},
   Title = {Timing in the baby brain.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {227-233},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15464354},
   Keywords = {Acoustic Stimulation • Adolescent • Adult •
             Age Factors • Brain • Brain Mapping* •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials, Auditory
             • Female • Humans • Infant • Male •
             Time Factors • Time Perception • methods •
             physiology* • radiation effects},
   Abstract = {Ten-month-old infants and adults were tested in an auditory
             oddball paradigm in which 50-ms tones were separated by 1500
             ms (standard interval) and occasionally 500 ms (deviant
             interval). Both infants and adults showed marked brain
             responses to the tone that followed a deviant inter-stimulus
             interval (ISI). Specifically, the timing-deviance
             event-related-potential (ERP) difference waves (deviant-ISI
             ERP minus standard-ISI ERP) yielded a significant,
             fronto-centrally distributed, mismatch negativity (MMN) in
             the latency range of 120-240 ms post-stimulus for infants
             and 110-210 ms for adults. A robust, longer latency,
             deviance-related positivity was also obtained for infants
             (330-520 ms), with a much smaller and later deviance-related
             positivity observed for adults (585-705 ms). These results
             suggest that the 10-month-old infant brain has already
             developed some of the same mechanisms as adults for
             detecting deviations in the timing of stimulus
             events.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.04.007},
   Key = {fds277499}
}

@article{fds205208,
   Author = {MA Schoenfeld and M Woldorff and E Düzel and H Scheich and HJ Heinze and GR Mangun},
   Title = {Form-from-motion: MEG evidence for time course and
             processing sequence.},
   Journal = {Journal of cognitive neuroscience},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-72},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892903321208105},
   Keywords = {Attention • Brain Mapping • Electrophysiology
             • Evoked Potentials, Visual • Humans • Light
             • Magnetoencephalography • Models, Neurological
             • Motion Perception • Occipital Lobe •
             Reaction Time • Signal Detection, Psychological •
             Space Perception • Temporal Lobe • Visual Pathways
             • Visual Perception • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The neural mechanisms and role of attention in the
             processing of visual form defined by luminance or motion
             cues were studied using magnetoencephalography. Subjects
             viewed bilateral stimuli composed of moving random dots and
             were instructed to covertly attend to either left or right
             hemifield stimuli in order to detect designated target
             stimuli that required a response. To generate
             form-from-motion (FFMo) stimuli, a subset of the dots could
             begin to move coherently to create the appearance of a
             simple form (e.g., square). In other blocks, to generate
             form-from-luminance (FFLu) stimuli that served as a control,
             a gray stimulus was presented superimposed on the randomly
             moving dots. Neuromagnetic responses were observed to both
             the FFLu and FFMo stimuli and localized to multiple visual
             cortical stages of analysis. Early activity in low-level
             visual cortical areas (striate/early extrastriate) did not
             differ for FFLu versus FFMo stimuli, nor as a function of
             spatial attention. Longer latency responses elicited by the
             FFLu stimuli were localized to the ventral-lateral occipital
             cortex (LO) and the inferior temporal cortex (IT). The FFMo
             stimuli also generated activity in the LO and IT, but only
             after first eliciting activity in the lateral occipital
             cortical region corresponding to MT/V5, resulting in a 50-60
             msec delay in activity. All of these late responses (MT/V5,
             LO, and IT) were significantly modulated by spatial
             attention, being greatly attenuated for ignored FFLu and
             FFMo stimuli. These findings argue that processing of form
             in IT that is defined by motion requires a serial processing
             of information, first in the motion analysis pathway from V1
             to MT/V5 and thereafter via the form analysis stream in the
             ventral visual pathway to IT.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892903321208105},
   Key = {fds205208}
}

@article{fds277491,
   Author = {Song, AW and Fichtenholtz, H and Woldorff, M},
   Title = {BOLD signal compartmentalization based on the apparent
             diffusion coefficient.},
   Journal = {Magnetic Resonance Imaging},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {521-525},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0730-725X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12413597},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Brain • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Hemodynamics • Humans • Motor
             Cortex • Oxygen • Regression Analysis • blood
             • blood supply* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Functional MRI (fMRI) can detect blood oxygenation level
             dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic responses secondary to neuronal
             activity. The most commonly used method for detecting fMRI
             signals is the gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (EPI)
             technique because of its sensitivity and speed. However, it
             is generally believed that a significant portion of these
             signals arises from large veins, with additional
             contribution from the capillaries and parenchyma. Early
             experiments using diffusion-weighted gradient-echo EPI have
             suggested that intra-voxel incoherent motion (IVIM)
             weighting inherent in the sequence can selectively attenuate
             contributions from different vessels based on the
             differences in the mobility of the blood within them. In the
             present study, we used similar approach to characterize the
             apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) distribution within the
             activated areas of BOLD contrast. It is shown that the voxel
             values of the ADCs obtained from this technique can infer
             various vascular contributions to the BOLD
             signal.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277491}
}

@article{fds205214,
   Author = {J Xiong and S Rao and P Jerabek and F Zamarripa and M Woldorff and J
             Lancaster, PT Fox},
   Title = {Intersubject variability in cortical activations during a
             complex language task.},
   Journal = {NeuroImage},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {326-39},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0621},
   Keywords = {Adult • Algorithms • Cerebral Cortex • Female
             • Humans • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
             • Individuality • Language* • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Middle Aged •
             Psychomotor Performance • Speech • Speech
             Perception • Tomography, Emission-Computed •
             anatomy & histology • physiology • physiology*
             • radionuclide imaging},
   Abstract = {Intersubject variability in the functional organization of
             the human brain has theoretical and practical importance for
             basic and clinical neuroscience. In the present study,
             positron emission tomography (PET) and anatomical magnetic
             resonance imaging (MRI) were used to study the functional
             anatomy of language processes. Intersubject variability in
             task-induced activations in six brain regions was assessed
             in 20 normal subjects (10 men and 10 women) for frequency of
             occurrence, location, intensity, and extent. A complex, but
             well-studied task (overt verb generation) was compared to a
             simple baseline (visual fixation) to induce activations in
             brain areas serving perceptual, motoric, and cognitive
             functions. The frequency of occurrence was high for all
             selected brain areas (80-95%). The variability in response
             location in Talairach space, expressed as the standard
             deviation along each axis (x, y, z), ranged from 5.2 to 9.9
             mm. This variability appears to be uniformly distributed
             across the brain, uninfluenced by regional differences in
             the complexity of gyral anatomy or mediated behavior. The
             variability in response location, expressed as the average
             Euclidean distances (averaged across subjects) about mean
             locations of activations, varied from 9.40 to 13.36 mm and
             had no significant differences by region (P>0.05, beta =
             0.20). Intensity variability was also relatively small and
             homogenous across brain regions. In contrast, response
             extent was much more variable both across subjects and
             across brain regions (0.79 to 1.77, coefficient of
             variation). These findings are in good agreement with
             previous PET studies of intersubject variability and bode
             well for the possibility of using functional neuroimaging to
             study neural plasticity subsequent to congenital and
             acquired brain lesions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0621},
   Key = {fds205214}
}

@article{fds277495,
   Author = {Xiong, J and Rao, S and Gao, JH and Woldorff, M and Fox,
             PT},
   Title = {Evaluation of hemispheric dominance for language using
             functional MRI: a comparison with positron emission
             tomography.},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {42-58},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {1065-9471},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9673662},
   Keywords = {Adult • Dominance, Cerebral* • Evaluation Studies
             as Topic • Female • Functional Laterality •
             Humans • Language Tests • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Middle Aged • Reference
             Values • Semantics* • Tomography,
             Emission-Computed* • methods* •
             physiology},
   Abstract = {The utility of a conventional (i.e., nonecho-planar)
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to
             determine hemispheric dominance for language was assessed
             using a semantic generation task in which subjects were
             presented with a series of nouns and generated aloud a verb
             for each one. A direct comparison of the fMRI results with
             positron emission tomography (PET), acquired from the same
             subjects, was also performed. When analyzed by group
             averaging, the results of this work were in concordance with
             those of previous PET studies, showing a left hemispheric
             dominance for language. Analyzed on a individual basis, 7
             out of 9 subjects were left-hemisphere dominant and 2
             subjects were right-hemisphere dominant; this applied with
             both PeT and fMRI methods. The direct comparison between PET
             and fMRI further demonstrated that fMRI can replicate PET
             findings. Of the total activation foci detected by PeT, 92%
             were observed by fMRI. On the other hand, fMRI reported 64%
             more activations than did PET. This may reflect differences
             in procedure, spatial resolution, sensitivity, and the
             underlying physiological mechanism between PET and fMRI.
             This study suggests that the fMRI technique, even using
             conventional MRI scanners, could be clinically useful in
             evaluating hemispheric dominance for language on an
             individual subject-by-subject basis.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(1998)6:1<42::AID-HBM4>3.0.CO;2-L},
   Key = {fds277495}
}

@article{fds277492,
   Author = {Hansen, JC and Woldorff, M},
   Title = {Mechanisms of auditory selective attention as revealed by
             event-related potentials.},
   Journal = {Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.
             Supplement},
   Volume = {42},
   Pages = {195-209},
   Year = {1991},
   ISSN = {0424-8155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1915016},
   Keywords = {Attention • Auditory Perception • Brain •
             Electroencephalography • Evoked Potentials, Auditory
             • Humans • Reaction Time • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277492}
}

@article{fds277498,
   Author = {Hackley, SA and Woldorff, M and Hillyard, SA},
   Title = {Cross-modal selective attention effects on retinal,
             myogenic, brainstem, and cerebral evoked
             potentials.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {195-208},
   Year = {1990},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2247550},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Afferent Pathways •
             Attention • Blinking • Brain Stem • Cerebral
             Cortex • Electroencephalography* •
             Electromyography • Electroretinography • Evoked
             Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem • Evoked Potentials,
             Visual • Humans • Loudness Perception • Male
             • Retina • Visual Perception • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Short latency evoked potentials were recorded during a
             cross-modal selective attention task to evaluate recent
             proposals that sensory transmission in the peripheral
             auditory and visual pathways can be modified selectively by
             centrifugal mechanisms in humans. Twenty young adult
             subjects attended in turn to either left-ear tones or
             right-field flashes presented in a randomized sequence, in
             order to detect infrequent, lower-intensity targets.
             Attention-related enhancement of longer-latency components,
             including the visual P105 and the auditory N1/Nd waves and
             T-complex, showed that subjects were able to adopt a
             selective sensory set toward either modality. Neither the
             auditory evoked brainstem potentials nor the early visual
             components (electroretinogram, occipito-temporal N40, P50,
             N70 waves) were significantly affected by attention.
             Measures of retinal B-waves were significantly reduced in
             amplitude when attention was directed to the flashes, but
             concurrent recordings of eyelid electromyographic activity
             and the electro-oculogram indicated that this effect may
             have resulted from contamination of the retinal recordings
             by blink microreflex activity. A trend toward greater
             positivity in the 15-50 ms latency range for auditory evoked
             potentials to attended tones was observed. These results
             provide further evidence that the earliest levels of sensory
             transmission are unaffected by cross-modal selective
             attention, but that longer latency exogenous and endogenous
             potentials are enhanced to stimuli in the attended
             modality.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277498}
}

@article{fds277496,
   Author = {Hackley, SA and Woldorff, M and Hillyard, SA},
   Title = {Combined use of microreflexes and event-related brain
             potentials as measures of auditory selective
             attention.},
   Journal = {Psychophysiology},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {632-647},
   Year = {1987},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0048-5772},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3438427},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Arousal* • Attention*
             • Auditory Perception* • Electroencephalography*
             • Evoked Potentials, Auditory • Female •
             Humans • Male • Reflex, Acoustic*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277496}
}

@article{fds277493,
   Author = {Woldorff, M and Hansen, JC and Hillyard, SA},
   Title = {Evidence for effects of selective attention in the
             mid-latency range of the human auditory event-related
             potential.},
   Journal = {Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.
             Supplement},
   Volume = {40},
   Pages = {146-154},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0424-8155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3480115},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain Stem • Evoked
             Potentials, Auditory* • Female • Humans •
             Reaction Time • physiology • physiology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277493}
}

@article{fds277497,
   Author = {Hillyard, SA and Woldorff, M and Mangun, GR and Hansen,
             JC},
   Title = {Mechanisms of early selective attention in auditory and
             visual modalities.},
   Journal = {Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology.
             Supplement},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {317-324},
   Year = {1987},
   ISSN = {0424-8155},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3477441},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention* • Auditory Perception •
             Brain Stem • Evoked Potentials, Auditory • Evoked
             Potentials, Visual • Humans • Reaction Time •
             Visual Perception • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds277497}
}


%% Books   
@book{fds180393,
   Author = {D Purves and EM Brannon and R Cabeza and SA Huettel and KS Labar and ML
             Platt and MG Woldorff},
   Title = {Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Sinauer},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds180393}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds26282,
   Author = {Talsma, D. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {Methods for the estimation and removal of artifacts and
             overlap in ERP waveforms.},
   Pages = {115-148},
   Booktitle = {Event-related Potentials: A Methods Handbook},
   Publisher = {MIT Press},
   Address = {Cambridge, MA},
   Editor = {Handy, T.},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds26282}
}

@misc{fds26283,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff},
   Title = {Auditory Attention},
   Pages = {50-52},
   Booktitle = {The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences},
   Publisher = {MIT Press: Cambridge, MA},
   Editor = {Wilson, R. and Keil, F.},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds26283}
}


%% Other   
@misc{fds11653,
   Author = {Weissman, D.H. and Woldorff, M.G. and Hazlett, C.J. and Mangum, G.R.},
   Title = {"Effects of Practice on Executive Control Investigated with
             Event-Related fMRI"},
   Journal = {Cognitive Brain Research},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds11653}
}

@misc{fds11654,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, M.A. and Nosselt, T. and Tempelmann, C. and Hopf, J.M. and Heinze, H.J. and Poggel, D. and Woldorff, M.G. and Hillyard, S.A.},
   Title = {"Spatiotemporal Analysis of Cortical Pathways Mediating
             Preserved Vision Following Lesions of the Striate
             Cortex"},
   Journal = {Annals of Neurology},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds11654}
}

@misc{fds11655,
   Author = {Busse, L. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Implications of the ERP Omitted Stimulus Response to
             "No-Stim" Events in Fast-Rate Event-Related fMRI
             Designs"},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Year = {2003},
   Key = {fds11655}
}

@misc{fds11645,
   Author = {Sanders, L.D. and Neville, H.J. and Woldorff,
             M.G.},
   Title = {"Speech Segmentation by Native and Non-Native Speakers: The
             Use of Lexical, Syntactic, and Stress-Pattern
             Cues"},
   Journal = {Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
             Research},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {519-530},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11645}
}

@misc{fds11646,
   Author = {Noesselt, T. and Hillyard, S.A. and Woldorff, M.G. and Schoenfeld, A. and Hagner, T. and Jaencke, L. and Tempelmann, C. and Hinrichs, H. and Heinze, H.J.},
   Title = {"Delayed Striate Cortical Activation During Spatial
             Attention"},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {35},
   Pages = {575-587},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11646}
}

@misc{fds11648,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, M.A. and Heinze, H.J. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Unmasking Motion-Processing Activity in Human Brain Area
             V5/MT+ Mediated by Pathways Primary Visual
             Cortex"},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {769-779},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11648}
}

@misc{fds11649,
   Author = {Weissman, D.H. and Mangum, G.R. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"A Role for Top-Down Attentional Orienting during
             Interference Between Global and Local Aspects of
             Hierarchical Stimuli"},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {1266-1276},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11649}
}

@misc{fds11650,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Liotti, M. and Seabolt, M. and Busse, L. and Lancaster, J.L. and Fox, P.T.},
   Title = {"Temporal Dynamics of the Effects in Occipital Cotex of
             Visual-Spatial Selective Attention"},
   Journal = {Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {15},
   Pages = {1-15},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11650}
}

@misc{fds11651,
   Author = {Song, A.W. and Woldorff, M.G. and Gangstead, S. and Mangum, G.R. and McCarthy, G.},
   Title = {"Enhanced Spatial Localization of Neuronal Activation using
             Simultaneous Apparent-Diffusion-Coefficient and
             Blood-Oxygenzation Functional MRI"},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {742-750},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11651}
}

@misc{fds11668,
   Author = {Busse, L. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Implications of the ERP Omitted Stimulus Response to Null
             Events in Fast-Rate Event-Related fMRI Designs"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11668}
}

@misc{fds11669,
   Author = {Hazlett, C. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Planning Time but not Execution Time for the Voluntary
             Shifting of Visual Spatial Attention is Dependent on Shift
             Distance"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11669}
}

@misc{fds11670,
   Author = {Weissman, D.H. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Effects of Practice on Executive Control Investigated with
             Event-Related fMRI"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11670}
}

@misc{fds11671,
   Author = {Giesbrechet, B. and Woldorff, M.G. and Mangum, G.R.},
   Title = {"Cortical Consequences of Top-Down Control during Spatial
             and NonSpatial Attention"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11671}
}

@misc{fds11672,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Busse, L.},
   Title = {"Attention-Related Brain Mechanisms Underlying the
             Auditory-Visual Perceptual Grouping during theVentriloquism
             Effect"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11672}
}

@misc{fds11673,
   Author = {Weissman, D.H. and Woldorff, M.G. and Mangum,
             G.R.},
   Title = {"Both Perceptual/Semantic Conflict and Response Conflict
             Between Target and Distract Stimuli Activate Midline Frontal
             Regions"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11673}
}

@misc{fds11674,
   Author = {Brannon, E. and Wolfe, L. and Meck, W. and Woldorff,
             M.},
   Title = {"Electrophysiological Correlates of Timing in Human
             Infants"},
   Year = {2002},
   Key = {fds11674}
}

@misc{fds323875,
   Author = {Hasnain, MK},
   Title = {Structure-Function Spatial Covariance in the Human Visual
             Cortex},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {702-716},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press (OUP)},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/11.8.702},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/11.8.702},
   Key = {fds323875}
}

@misc{fds11643,
   Author = {Hopfinger, J.B. and Woldorff, M.G. and Fletcher, E.M. and Mangun, G.R.},
   Title = {"Dissociating Top-Down Attentional Control from Selective
             Perception and Action"},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {1277-1291},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11643}
}

@misc{fds11663,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Fichtenholtz, H.M. and Song, A.W. and Mangum,
             G.R.},
   Title = {"Separation of Cue- and Target-Related Processing in a
             Fast-Rate Compound-Event Visual Attention Cueing
             Paradigm"},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11663}
}

@misc{fds11664,
   Author = {Weissman, D.H. and Woldorff, M.G. and Mangum,
             G.R.},
   Title = {"Neural Correlates of Voluntary Orienting For Global Versus
             Local Processing"},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11664}
}

@misc{fds11665,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, M.A. and Heinze, H.J. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Unmasking Non-Striate Input Into Human Motion Area
             V5"},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11665}
}

@misc{fds11666,
   Author = {Liotti, M. and Kothmann, D.K. and Perez III and R., Woldorff and M.G.},
   Title = {"Colocalization of Conflict Monitoring and Error Detection
             in the Anterior Cingulate"},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds11666}
}

@misc{fds277447,
   Author = {Lancaster, J and Kochimov, P and Woldorff, M and Liotti, M and Parsons,
             L and Rainey, L and Nickerson, D and Fox, P},
   Title = {Automatic talairach labels for functional activation
             sites},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5 PART II},
   Pages = {S483},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   Key = {fds277447}
}

@misc{fds11638,
   Author = {Liotti, M. and Woldorff, M.G. and Perez III and R., Mayberg and H.S.},
   Title = {"An ERP Study of the Temporal Course of the Stroop
             Color-Word Interference Effect"},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {38},
   Pages = {701-711},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11638}
}

@misc{fds11639,
   Author = {Pliszka, S.R. and Liotti, M. and Woldorff, M.G.},
   Title = {"Inhibitory Control in Children with ADHD: Event-Related
             Potentials Identify the Processing Component and Timing of
             an Impaired Right-Frontal Response Inhibition
             Mechanism"},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Pages = {238-246},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11639}
}

@misc{fds11641,
   Author = {Lancaster, J.L. and Woldorff, M.G. and Parsons, L.M. and Liotti, M. and Freitas, C.S. and Rainey, L. and Kochunov, P.V. and Nickerson, D. and Mikiten, S.A. and Fox, P.T.},
   Title = {"Automated Talairach Atlas Labels for Functional Brain
             Mapping"},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {120-131},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11641}
}

@misc{fds11642,
   Author = {Hinrichs, H. and Scholz, M. and Tempelmann, C. and Woldorff, M.G. and Dale, A.M. and Heinze, H.J.},
   Title = {"Deconvolution of Event-Related fMRI Responses in Fast Rate
             Experimental Designs: Tracking Amplitude
             Variations"},
   Journal = {J. Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {12},
   Pages = {76-89},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11642}
}

@misc{fds11658,
   Author = {Jones, V.M. and Liotti, M. and Perez III and R., Thomas and C.C., Woldorff and M.G.},
   Title = {"Episodic Encoding and Recognition of Object Pictures: Where
             and When?"},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11658}
}

@misc{fds11659,
   Author = {Schoenfeld, M.A. and Woldorff, M. and Mangum, G.R. and Heinze, H.J.},
   Title = {"Timing and Processing of Form-From-Motion and
             Form-From-Luminance in the Human Visual System"},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11659}
}

@misc{fds11661,
   Author = {Liotti, M. and Jones, V.M. and Perez III and Ricardo, Woldorff and M.G.},
   Title = {"Event-Related Potential and RT Correlates of Verdical and
             Illusory Recognition Memory for Familiar
             Objects"},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11661}
}

@misc{fds11662,
   Author = {Mangum, G.R. and Hopfinger, J.B. and Woldorff, M.G. and Giebrecht, B.},
   Title = {"Isolating the Neuronal Systems Underlying Attentional
             Control during Spatial and Non-Spatial Attention with
             Event-Related fMRI"},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds11662}
}

@misc{fds277445,
   Author = {Woldorff, MG and Perez, R and Barker, A and Liotti, M and Pridgen, SC and Fox, PT},
   Title = {Right occipital ERP effects for non-letter character strings
             relative to letter strings},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {6 PART II},
   Pages = {S1093},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   Key = {fds277445}
}

@misc{fds11634,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Tempelmann, C. and Fell, J. and Tegeler, C. and Gaschler-Markefski, B. and Hermann, H. and Heinze, H.J. and Scheich, H.},
   Title = {"Lateralized Auditory Spatial Perception and the
             Cotralaterality of Cortical Processing as Studied with
             Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and
             Magnetoencephalo-Graphy"},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {49-66},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11634}
}

@misc{fds11636,
   Author = {Baumgart, F. and Gaschler-Markefski, B. and Woldorff, M.G. and Heinze, H.J. and Scheich, H.},
   Title = {"A Movement-Sensitive Area in Auditory Cortex"},
   Journal = {Nature},
   Volume = {400},
   Pages = {724-726},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11636}
}

@misc{fds11637,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Matzke, M. and Zamarripa, F. and Fox, P.T.},
   Title = {"Hemodynamic and Electrophysiological Study of the Role of
             the Anterior Cingulate in Target-Related Processing and
             Selection for Action"},
   Journal = {Human Brain Mapping},
   Volume = {82},
   Pages = {121-127},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11637}
}

@misc{fds11656,
   Author = {M.G. Woldorff and Perez, R. and Barker, A. and Liotti, M. and Fox, P.},
   Title = {"Right Occipital ERP Effects for Symbol and False-Font
             Strings Relative to Letter Strings"},
   Year = {1999},
   Key = {fds11656}
}


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