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Publications of Scott Huettel    :chronological  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds252281,
   Author = {Carter, RM and Bowling, DL and Reeck, C and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {A distinct role of the temporal-parietal junction in
             predicting socially guided decisions.},
   Journal = {Science (New York, N.Y.)},
   Volume = {337},
   Number = {6090},
   Pages = {109-111},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0036-8075},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1219681},
   Abstract = {To make adaptive decisions in a social context, humans must
             identify relevant agents in the environment, infer their
             underlying strategies and motivations, and predict their
             upcoming actions. We used functional magnetic resonance
             imaging, in conjunction with combinatorial multivariate
             pattern analysis, to predict human participants' subsequent
             decisions in an incentive-compatible poker game. We found
             that signals from the temporal-parietal junction provided
             unique information about the nature of the upcoming
             decision, and that information was specific to decisions
             against agents who were both social and relevant for future
             behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1126/science.1219681},
   Key = {fds252281}
}

@article{fds330851,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Lockhead, GR},
   Title = {A framework for structural constraints on feature
             creation},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {29-29},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x98380103},
   Abstract = {<jats:p>We address two major limitations of Schyns et al.
             First, we clarify their concept of “features” by
             postulating several levels for processing. The composition
             of the feature set at each level determines the set at the
             next higher level, following simple structural guidelines.
             Second, we show that our proposed framework reconciles
             feature-creation and fixed-feature approaches.</jats:p>},
   Doi = {10.1017/s0140525x98380103},
   Key = {fds330851}
}

@article{fds327385,
   Author = {McCarthy, G and Huettel, S},
   Title = {A functional brain system for face processing revealed by
             event-related potentials and functional MRI},
   Journal = {International Congress Series},
   Volume = {1226},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {3-16},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00492-7},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00492-7},
   Key = {fds327385}
}

@article{fds252243,
   Author = {Carter, RM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {A nexus model of the temporal-parietal junction.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {328-336},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1364-6613},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2013.05.007},
   Abstract = {The temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) has been proposed to
             support either specifically social functions or non-specific
             processes of cognition such as memory and attention. To
             account for diverse prior findings, we propose a nexus model
             for TPJ function: overlap of basic processes produces novel
             secondary functions at their convergence. We present
             meta-analytic evidence that is consistent with the
             anatomical convergence of attention, memory, language, and
             social processing in the TPJ, leading to a higher-order role
             in the creation of a social context for behavior. The nexus
             model accounts for recent examples of TPJ contributions
             specifically to decision making in a social context and
             provides a potential reconciliation for competing claims
             about TPJ function.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2013.05.007},
   Key = {fds252243}
}

@article{fds252292,
   Author = {Taren, AA and Venkatraman, V and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {A parallel functional topography between medial and lateral
             prefrontal cortex: evidence and implications for cognitive
             control.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {5026-5031},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5762-10.2011},
   Abstract = {The dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (dmPFC
             and dlPFC) together support cognitive control, with dmPFC
             responsible for monitoring performance and dlPFC responsible
             for adjusting behavior. The dlPFC contains a topographic
             organization that reflects complexity of control demands,
             with more anterior regions guiding increasingly abstract
             processing. Recent evidence for a similar gradient within
             dmPFC suggests the possibility of parallel, hierarchical
             organization. Here, we measured connectivity between
             functional nodes of dmPFC and dlPFC using resting-state
             functional magnetic resonance imaging in humans. We found a
             posterior-to-anterior connectivity gradient; posterior dmPFC
             maximally connected to posterior dlPFC and anterior dmPFC
             maximally connected to anterior dlPFC. This parallel
             topographic pattern replicated across three independent
             datasets collected on different scanners, within individual
             participants, and through both point-to-point and voxelwise
             analyses. We posit a model of cognitive control
             characterized by hierarchical interactions--whose level
             depends on current environmental demands--between functional
             subdivisions of medial and lateral PFC.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5762-10.2011},
   Key = {fds252292}
}

@article{fds252339,
   Author = {McClernon, FJ and Hiott, FB and Huettel, SA and Rose,
             JE},
   Title = {Abstinence-induced changes in self-report craving correlate
             with event-related FMRI responses to smoking
             cues.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1940-1947},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15920499},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Behavior,
             Addictive* • Brain Mapping • Cues* •
             Functional Laterality • Gyrus Cinguli • Humans
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Oxygen •
             Photic Stimulation • Questionnaires • Smoking
             • Smoking Cessation* • blood • blood supply*
             • methods • physiopathology •
             physiopathology* • psychology},
   Abstract = {Drug cues have been shown to activate brain regions involved
             in attention, motivation, and reward in addicted users.
             However, as studies have typically measured responses in
             only one state (ie drug abstinence), it is unclear whether
             observed activations represent amplification by abstinence
             or stable responses. Thus, the present study was designed to
             evaluate the stability of event-related responses to visual
             drug cues in dependent smokers (n=13) using event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging measures. Imaging was
             conducted following smoking as usual and following overnight
             abstinence, and self-reported craving measures were obtained
             before, during, and after scanning. Analysis of hemodynamic
             response (HDR) amplitudes in each of 13 regions of interest
             revealed larger responses to smoking compared to control
             cues in ventral anterior cingulate gyrus (vACG) and superior
             frontal gyrus. Responses to smoking cues in these and all
             other regions revealed no effects of abstinence/satiety,
             thus supporting the notion that cue-elicited brain responses
             are relatively stable. However, while the abstinence
             manipulation did not alter group-level responses to smoking
             cues, at the individual level, abstinence-induced changes in
             craving (abstinence minus satiety) were positively
             correlated with changes in HDR amplitude to smoking cues in
             frontal regions including left inferior frontal gyrus, left
             vACG, and bilateral middle frontal gyrus. These results
             suggest that brain responses to smoking cues, while
             relatively stable at the group level following short-term
             abstinence, may be modulated by individual differences in
             craving in response to abstinence-particularly in regions
             subserving attention and motivation.},
   Doi = {10.1038/sj.npp.1300780},
   Key = {fds252339}
}

@article{fds252343,
   Author = {Due, DL and Huettel, SA and Hall, WG and Rubin, DC},
   Title = {Activation in mesolimbic and visuospatial neural circuits
             elicited by smoking cues: evidence from functional magnetic
             resonance imaging.},
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {159},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {954-960},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12042183},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Behavior, Addictive •
             Brain • Cerebral Cortex • Cues • Dopamine
             • Female • Humans • Limbic System •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Neural
             Pathways • Reward • Smoking • Space
             Perception • Tobacco Use Disorder • Visual
             Perception • diagnosis* • physiology •
             physiology* • psychology • psychology* •
             statistics & numerical data*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to increase understanding of
             the brain mechanisms involved in cigarette addiction by
             identifying neural substrates modulated by visual smoking
             cues in nicotine-deprived smokers. METHOD: Event-related
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to
             detect brain activation after exposure to smoking-related
             images in a group of nicotine-deprived smokers and a
             nonsmoking comparison group. Subjects viewed a pseudo-random
             sequence of smoking images, neutral nonsmoking images, and
             rare targets (photographs of animals). Subjects pressed a
             button whenever a rare target appeared. RESULTS: In smokers,
             the fMRI signal was greater after exposure to
             smoking-related images than after exposure to neutral images
             in mesolimbic dopamine reward circuits known to be activated
             by addictive drugs (right posterior amygdala, posterior
             hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and medial thalamus) as
             well as in areas related to visuospatial attention
             (bilateral prefrontal and parietal cortex and right fusiform
             gyrus). In nonsmokers, no significant differences in fMRI
             signal following exposure to smoking-related and neutral
             images were detected. In most regions studied, both subject
             groups showed greater activation following presentation of
             rare target images than after exposure to neutral images.
             CONCLUSIONS: In nicotine-deprived smokers, both reward and
             attention circuits were activated by exposure to
             smoking-related images. Smoking cues are processed like rare
             targets in that they activate attentional regions. These
             cues are also processed like addictive drugs in that they
             activate mesolimbic reward regions.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.159.6.954},
   Key = {fds252343}
}

@article{fds252310,
   Author = {Carter, RM and Macinnes, JJ and Huettel, SA and Adcock,
             RA},
   Title = {Activation in the VTA and nucleus accumbens increases in
             anticipation of both gains and losses.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {21},
   Year = {2009},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19753142},
   Abstract = {To represent value for learning and decision making, the
             brain must encode information about both the motivational
             relevance and affective valence of anticipated outcomes. The
             nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA)
             are thought to play key roles in representing these and
             other aspects of valuation. Here, we manipulated the valence
             (i.e., monetary gain or loss) and personal relevance (i.e.,
             self-directed or charity-directed) of anticipated outcomes
             within a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. We
             scanned young-adult participants using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI), utilizing imaging parameters
             targeted for the NAcc and VTA. For both self-directed and
             charity-directed trials, activation in the NAcc and VTA
             increased to anticipated gains, as predicted by prior work,
             but also increased to anticipated losses. Moreover, the
             magnitude of responses in both regions was positively
             correlated for gains and losses, across participants, while
             an independent reward-sensitivity covariate predicted the
             relative difference between and gain- and loss-related
             activation on self-directed trials. These results are
             inconsistent with the interpretation that these regions
             reflect anticipation of only positive-valence events.
             Instead, they indicate that anticipatory activation in
             reward-related regions largely reflects the motivational
             relevance of an upcoming event.},
   Doi = {10.3389/neuro.08.021.2009},
   Key = {fds252310}
}

@article{fds252341,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Spaniol, J and Whiting, WL and Bucur, B and Provenzale,
             JM and Cabeza, R and White, LE and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Adult age differences in the functional neuroanatomy of
             visual attention: a combined fMRI and DTI
             study.},
   Journal = {Neurobiol Aging},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {459-476},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1558-1497},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500004},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aging • Anisotropy • Attention •
             Brain Mapping • Choice Behavior • Diffusion
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging* • Female • Humans
             • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Male • Multivariate Analysis
             • Oxygen • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time
             • Statistics • Visual Cortex* • Visual
             Perception • anatomy & histology • blood •
             blood supply • metabolism • methods •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We combined measures from event-related functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI),
             and cognitive performance (visual search response time) to
             test the hypotheses that differences between younger and
             older adults in top-down (goal-directed) attention would be
             related to cortical activation, and that white matter
             integrity as measured by DTI (fractional anisotropy, FA)
             would be a mediator of this age-related effect. Activation
             in frontal and parietal cortical regions was overall greater
             for older adults than for younger adults. The relation
             between activation and search performance supported the
             hypothesis of age differences in top-down attention. When
             the task involved top-down control (increased target
             predictability), performance was associated with
             frontoparietal activation for older adults, but with
             occipital (fusiform) activation for younger adults. White
             matter integrity (FA) exhibited an age-related decline that
             was more pronounced for anterior brain regions than for
             posterior regions, but white matter integrity did not
             specifically mediate the age-related increase in activation
             of the frontoparietal attentional network.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2006.01.005},
   Key = {fds252341}
}

@article{fds252251,
   Author = {Madden, D and Huettel, S and Langley, L and Harlan, N and Whiting, W and Provenzale, J and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Adult age differences in the hemodynamic response during
             visual target detection measured by functional
             MRI},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {19-20},
   Publisher = {M I T PRESS},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174072000021&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252251}
}

@article{fds252226,
   Author = {Smidts, A and Hsu, M and Sanfey, AG and Boksem, MAS and Ebstein, RB and Huettel, SA and Kable, JW and Karmarkar, UR and Kitayama, S and Knutson,
             B and Liberzon, I and Lohrenz, T and Stallen, M and Yoon,
             C},
   Title = {Advancing consumer neuroscience},
   Journal = {Marketing Letters},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {257-267},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0923-0645},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-014-9306-1},
   Abstract = {In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong
             progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can
             inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the
             development of this discipline and compare it to that of the
             adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new
             frontiers for ongoing progress at both theoretical and
             applied levels. First, the field will broaden its boundaries
             to include genetics and molecular neuroscience, each of
             which will provide important new insights into individual
             differences in decision making. Second, recent advances in
             computational methods will improve the accuracy and
             out-of-sample generalizability of predicting decisions from
             brain activity. Third, sophisticated meta-analyses will help
             consumer neuroscientists to synthesize the growing body of
             knowledge, providing evidence for consistency and
             specificity of brain activations and their reliability as
             measurements of consumer behavior. © 2014 Springer
             Science+Business Media New York.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11002-014-9306-1},
   Key = {fds252226}
}

@article{fds252230,
   Author = {Smidts, A and Hsu, M and Sanfey, AG and Boksem, MAS and Ebstein, RB and Huettel, SA and Kable, JW and Karmarkar, UR and Kitayama, S and Knutson,
             B and Liberzon, I and Lohrenz, T and Stallen, M and Yoon,
             C},
   Title = {Advancing consumer neuroscience},
   Journal = {Marketing Letters},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {257-267},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2014},
   ISSN = {0923-0645},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-014-9306-1},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11002-014-9306-1},
   Key = {fds252230}
}

@article{fds220100,
   Author = {Stanton, S.J. and Reeck, C. and Huettel, S.A. and LaBar,
             K.S.},
   Title = {Affective states and cognitive contexts: Induced moods alter
             the influence of frames on economic choices},
   Journal = {Judgment and Decision Making},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220100}
}

@article{fds252330,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Whiting, WL and Provenzale, JM and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Age-related changes in neural activity during visual target
             detection measured by fMRI.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {143-155},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14704211},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aged • Aging • Analysis of Variance
             • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Middle Aged • Neurons •
             Photic Stimulation • Prefrontal Cortex • Reaction
             Time • Regression Analysis • Visual Perception
             • methods* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a
             visual target detection (oddball) task to investigate age
             differences in neural activation for the detection of two
             types of infrequent events: visually simple items requiring
             a response shift (targets) and visually complex items that
             did not entail a response shift (novels). Targets activated
             several prefrontal regions (e.g. middle frontal gyrus), as
             well as deep gray matter regions (caudate, putamen, thalamus
             and insula). Prefrontal activation was similar for younger
             and older adults, whereas deep gray matter activation was
             relatively greater for the older adults. Novels activated
             occipital regions (fusiform and lateral occipital gyri), and
             this activation was relatively reduced for older adults. The
             changes in behavioral performance across the task conditions
             were similar for the two age groups, although the older
             adults' responses were slower overall. Regression analyses
             of the relation between neural activation and task
             performance (response time) indicated that whereas
             performance was mediated most directly by prefrontal cortex
             for younger adults, older adults' performance was influenced
             to a greater extent by deep gray matter structures. Older
             adults may place relatively greater emphasis on the
             attentional control of response regulation, in compensation
             for the age-related decline in visual processing
             efficiency.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhg113},
   Key = {fds252330}
}

@misc{fds252302,
   Author = {Henninger, DE and Madden, D and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Age-Related Cognitive Decline Predicts Changes in Risk
             Preference},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {262-270},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds252302}
}

@article{fds252340,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Whiting, WL and Cabeza, R and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Age-related preservation of top-down attentional guidance
             during visual search.},
   Journal = {Psychology and Aging},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {304-309},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0882-7974},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15222823},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Age Factors • Aged
             • Aged, 80 and over • Aging • Attention*
             • Cues* • Exploratory Behavior* • Female
             • Humans • Male • Middle Aged •
             Questionnaires • Random Allocation • Reaction
             Time* • Visual Perception* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Younger (19-27 years of age) and older (60-82 years of age)
             adults performed a letter search task in which a color
             singleton was either noninformative (baseline condition) or
             highly informative (guided condition) regarding target
             location. In the guided condition, both age groups exhibited
             a substantial decrease in response time (RT) to singleton
             targets, relative to the baseline condition, as well as an
             increase in RT to nonsingleton targets. The authors conclude
             that under conditions that equate the physical structure of
             individual displays, top-down attentional guidance can be at
             least as effective for older adults as for younger
             adults.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0882-7974.19.2.304},
   Key = {fds252340}
}

@article{fds252321,
   Author = {Bucur, B and Madden, DJ and Spaniol, J and Provenzale, JM and Cabeza, R and White, LE and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: contributions of
             perceptual speed and cerebral white matter
             integrity.},
   Journal = {Neurobiol Aging},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1070-1079},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17383774},
   Abstract = {Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT)
             measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of
             adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging
             shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual
             speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of
             perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to
             test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed
             by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of
             perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results
             indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal
             region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in
             other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual
             speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though
             to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections.
             These findings suggest that white matter integrity in
             prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation
             between individual differences in perceptual speed and
             episodic retrieval.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.02.008},
   Key = {fds252321}
}

@article{fds252325,
   Author = {Tankersley, D and Stowe, CJ and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Altruism is associated with an increased neural response to
             agency.},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {150-151},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1097-6256},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1833},
   Keywords = {Altruism* • Brain • Brain Mapping • Cognition
             • Empathy* • Functional Laterality • Humans
             • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Neuropsychological
             Tests • Personality • Social Behavior* •
             Temporal Lobe • User-Computer Interface • anatomy
             & histology • anatomy & histology* • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Although the neural mechanisms underlying altruism remain
             unknown, empathy and its component abilities, such as the
             perception of the actions and intentions of others, have
             been proposed as key contributors. Tasks requiring the
             perception of agency activate the posterior superior
             temporal cortex (pSTC), particularly in the right
             hemisphere. Here, we demonstrate that differential
             activation of the human pSTC during action perception versus
             action performance predicts self-reported
             altruism.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn1833},
   Key = {fds252325}
}

@article{fds322017,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Kwak, Y and Pearson, JM and Woldorff, MG and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Altruistic traits are predicted by neural responses to
             monetary outcomes for self vs charity.},
   Journal = {Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {863-876},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsw026},
   Abstract = {Human altruism is often expressed through charitable
             donation-supporting a cause that benefits others in society,
             at cost to oneself. The underlying mechanisms of this
             other-regarding behavior remain imperfectly understood. By
             recording event-related-potential (ERP) measures of brain
             activity from human participants during a social gambling
             task, we identified markers of differential responses to
             receipt of monetary outcomes for oneself vs for a charitable
             cause. We focused our ERP analyses on the frontocentral
             feedback-related negativity (FRN) and three subcomponents of
             the attention-related P300 (P3) brain wave: the
             frontocentral P2 and P3a and the parietal P3b. The FRN
             distinguished between gains and losses for both self and
             charity outcomes. Importantly, this effect of outcome
             valence was greater for self than charity for both groups
             and was independent of two altruism-related measures:
             participants' pre-declared intended donations and the actual
             donations resulting from their choices. In contrast,
             differences in P3 subcomponents for outcomes for self vs
             charity strongly predicted both of our laboratory measures
             of altruism-as well as self-reported engagement in real-life
             altruistic behaviors. These results indicate that individual
             differences in altruism are linked to individual differences
             in the relative deployment of attention (as indexed by the
             P3) toward outcomes affecting other people.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsw026},
   Key = {fds322017}
}

@article{fds341890,
   Author = {Amasino, DR and Sullivan, NJ and Kranton, RE and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Amount and time exert independent influences on
             intertemporal choice.},
   Journal = {Nature Human Behaviour},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {383-392},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0537-2},
   Abstract = {Intertemporal choices involve trade-offs between the value
             of rewards and the delay before those rewards are
             experienced. Canonical intertemporal choice models such as
             hyperbolic discounting assume that reward amount and time
             until delivery are integrated within each option prior to
             comparison1,2. An alternative view posits that intertemporal
             choice reflects attribute-wise processes in which amount and
             time attributes are compared separately3-6. Here, we use
             multi-attribute drift diffusion modelling (DDM) to show that
             attribute-wise comparison represents the choice process
             better than option-wise comparison for intertemporal choice
             in a young adult population. We find that, while
             accumulation rates for amount and time information are
             uncorrelated, the difference between those rates predicts
             individual differences in patience. Moreover, patient
             individuals incorporate amount earlier than time into the
             decision process. Using eye tracking, we link these
             modelling results to attention, showing that patience
             results from a rapid, attribute-wise process that
             prioritizes amount over time information. Thus, we find
             converging evidence that distinct evaluation processes for
             amount and time determine intertemporal financial choices.
             Because intertemporal decisions in the lab have been linked
             to failures of patience ranging from insufficient saving to
             addiction7-13, understanding individual differences in the
             choice process is important for developing more effective
             interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41562-019-0537-2},
   Key = {fds341890}
}

@article{fds252225,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Payne, JW and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {An overall probability of winning heuristic for complex
             risky decisions: Choice and eye fixation
             evidence},
   Journal = {Organizational Behavior and Human Decision
             Processes},
   Volume = {125},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {73-87},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0749-5978},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.06.003},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier Inc. When faced with multi-outcome gambles
             involving possibilities of both gains and losses, people
             often use a simple heuristic that maximizes the overall
             probability of winning (Pwin). Across three different
             studies, using choice data as well as process data from eye
             tracking, we demonstrate that the Pwin heuristic is a
             frequently used strategy for decisions involving complex
             (multiple outcome) mixed gambles. Crucially, we show
             systematic contextual and individual differences in the use
             of Pwin heuristic. We discuss the implication of these
             findings in the context of the broader debate about single
             versus multiple strategies in risky choice, and the need to
             extend the study of risky decision making from simple to
             more complex gambles.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.06.003},
   Key = {fds252225}
}

@article{fds252236,
   Author = {Damiano, CR and Aloi, J and Dunlap, K and Burrus, CJ and Mosner, MG and Kozink, RV and McLaurin, RE and Mullette-Gillman, OA and Carter, RM and Huettel, SA and McClernon, FJ and Ashley-Koch, A and Dichter,
             GS},
   Title = {Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and
             mesolimbic responses to rewards.},
   Journal = {Molecular Autism},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {7},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2040-2392-5-7},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: There has been significant progress in
             identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum
             disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom
             presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk
             genes. One approach to understanding genetic influences on
             ASD symptom expression is to evaluate relations between
             variants of ASD candidate genes and neural endophenotypes in
             unaffected samples. Allelic variations in the oxytocin
             receptor (OXTR) gene confer small but significant risk for
             ASDs for which the underlying mechanisms may involve
             associations between variability in oxytocin signaling
             pathways and neural response to rewards. The purpose of this
             preliminary study was to investigate the influence of
             allelic variability in the OXTR gene on neural responses to
             monetary rewards in healthy adults using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: The moderating effects of
             three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs1042778,
             rs2268493 and rs237887) of the OXTR gene on mesolimbic
             responses to rewards were evaluated using a monetary
             incentive delay fMRI task. RESULTS: T homozygotes of the
             rs2268493 SNP demonstrated relatively decreased activation
             in mesolimbic reward circuitry (including the nucleus
             accumbens, amygdala, insula, thalamus and prefrontal
             cortical regions) during the anticipation of rewards but not
             during the outcome phase of the task. Allelic variation of
             the rs1042778 and rs237887 SNPs did not moderate mesolimbic
             activation during either reward anticipation or outcomes.
             CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that the OXTR
             SNP rs2268493, which has been previously identified as an
             ASD risk gene, moderates mesolimbic responses during reward
             anticipation. Given previous findings of decreased
             mesolimbic activation during reward anticipation in ASD, the
             present results suggest that OXTR may confer ASD risk via
             influences on the neural systems that support reward
             anticipation.},
   Doi = {10.1186/2040-2392-5-7},
   Key = {fds252236}
}

@article{fds342482,
   Author = {McDonald, KR and Broderick, WF and Huettel, SA and Pearson,
             JM},
   Title = {Bayesian nonparametric models characterize instantaneous
             strategies in a competitive dynamic game.},
   Journal = {Nature Communications},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1808},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09789-4},
   Abstract = {Previous studies of strategic social interaction in game
             theory have predominantly used games with clearly-defined
             turns and limited choices. Yet, most real-world social
             behaviors involve dynamic, coevolving decisions by
             interacting agents, which poses challenges for creating
             tractable models of behavior. Here, using a game in which
             humans competed against both real and artificial opponents,
             we show that it is possible to quantify the instantaneous
             dynamic coupling between agents. Adopting a reinforcement
             learning approach, we use Gaussian Processes to model the
             policy and value functions of participants as a function of
             both game state and opponent identity. We found that
             higher-scoring participants timed their final change in
             direction to moments when the opponent's counter-strategy
             was weaker, while lower-scoring participants less precisely
             timed their final moves. This approach offers a natural set
             of metrics for facilitating analysis at multiple timescales
             and suggests new classes of experimental paradigms for
             assessing behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-09789-4},
   Key = {fds342482}
}

@article{fds252286,
   Author = {Yaxley, RH and Van Voorhees and EE and Bergman, S and Hooper, SR and Huettel, SA and De Bellis, MD},
   Title = {Behavioral risk elicits selective activation of the
             executive system in adolescents: clinical
             implications.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychiatry},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {68},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22194728},
   Abstract = {We investigated adolescent brain processing of decisions
             under conditions of varying risk, reward, and uncertainty.
             Adolescents (n = 31) preformed a Decision-Reward
             Uncertainty task that separates decision uncertainty into
             behavioral and reward risk, while they were scanned using
             functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral risk
             trials involved uncertainty about which action to perform to
             earn a fixed monetary reward. In contrast, during reward
             risk the decision that might lead to a reward was known, but
             the likelihood of earning a reward was probabilistically
             determined. Behavioral risk trials evoked greater activation
             than the reward risk and no risk conditions in the anterior
             cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, bilateral frontal poles,
             bilateral inferior parietal lobe, precuneus, bilateral
             superior-middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and
             insula. Our results were similar to those of young adults
             using the same task (Huettel, 2006) except that adolescents
             did not show significant activation in the posterior
             supramarginal gyrus during behavioral risk. During the
             behavioral risk condition regardless of reward outcome,
             overall mean frontal pole activity showed a positive
             correlation with age during the behavioral and reward risk
             conditions suggesting a developmental difference of this
             region of interest. Additionally, reward response to the
             Decision-Reward Uncertainty task in adolescents was similar
             to that seen in young adults (Huettel, 2006). Our data did
             not show a correlation between age and mean ventral striatum
             activity during the three conditions. While our results came
             from a healthy high functioning non-maltreated sample of
             adolescents, this method can be used to address types of
             risks and reward processing in children and adolescents with
             predisposing vulnerabilities and add to the paucity of
             imaging studies of risk and reward processing during
             adolescence.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00068},
   Key = {fds252286}
}

@article{fds252323,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Behavioral, but not reward, risk modulates activation of
             prefrontal, parietal, and insular cortices.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {141-151},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1530-7026},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/cabn.6.2.141},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Cerebral Cortex • Cues
             • Decision Making • Female • Functional
             Laterality • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging*
             • Male • Nucleus Accumbens • Parietal Lobe
             • Prefrontal Cortex • Reward* • physiology
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Risky decisions may involve uncertainty about possible
             outcomes (i.e., reward risk) or uncertainty about which
             action should be taken (i.e., behavioral risk). Determining
             whether different forms of risk have distinct neural
             correlates is a central goal of neuroeconomic research. In
             two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments,
             subjects viewed shapes that had well-learned response-reward
             contingencies. Magnitude of a monetary reward was held
             constant within one experiment, whereas expected value was
             held constant within the other. Response selection, in the
             absence of behavioral risk, evoked activation within a broad
             set of brain regions, as had been found in prior studies.
             However, behavioral risk additionally modulated activation
             in prefrontal, parietal, and insular regions,within which no
             effect of reward risk was observed. Reward delivery, in
             comparison with omission, evoked increased activity in the
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens. We
             conclude that distinct brain systems are recruited for the
             resolution of different forms of risk.},
   Doi = {10.3758/cabn.6.2.141},
   Key = {fds252323}
}

@article{fds252313,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Spaniol, J and Costello, MC and Bucur, B and White, LE and Cabeza, R and Davis, SW and Dennis, NA and Provenzale, JM and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Cerebral white matter integrity mediates adult age
             differences in cognitive performance.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {289-302},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18564054},
   Abstract = {Previous research has established that age-related decline
             occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but
             the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is
             not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a
             mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to
             demonstrate that statistical control of the white
             matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of
             age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the
             mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of
             a task-switching paradigm involving word categorization.
             Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older
             adults (60-85 years), and 20 younger adults (18-27 years).
             From diffusion tensor imaging tractography, we obtained
             fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter
             integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum
             and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA
             values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a
             decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction
             time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the
             decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components
             of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both
             components. Critically, age differences in task performance
             were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of
             the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right
             hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional
             component and was not evident in the nondecisional
             component. This result is the first demonstration that the
             integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of
             age-related changes in cognitive performance.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2009.21047},
   Key = {fds252313}
}

@article{fds252235,
   Author = {Smith, DV and Utevsky, AV and Bland, AR and Clement, N and Clithero, JA and Harsch, AEW and McKell Carter and R and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Characterizing individual differences in functional
             connectivity using dual-regression and seed-based
             approaches.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {95},
   Pages = {1-12},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.042},
   Abstract = {A central challenge for neuroscience lies in relating
             inter-individual variability to the functional properties of
             specific brain regions. Yet, considerable variability exists
             in the connectivity patterns between different brain areas,
             potentially producing reliable group differences. Using sex
             differences as a motivating example, we examined two
             separate resting-state datasets comprising a total of 188
             human participants. Both datasets were decomposed into
             resting-state networks (RSNs) using a probabilistic spatial
             independent component analysis (ICA). We estimated
             voxel-wise functional connectivity with these networks using
             a dual-regression analysis, which characterizes the
             participant-level spatiotemporal dynamics of each network
             while controlling for (via multiple regression) the
             influence of other networks and sources of variability. We
             found that males and females exhibit distinct patterns of
             connectivity with multiple RSNs, including both visual and
             auditory networks and the right frontal-parietal network.
             These results replicated across both datasets and were not
             explained by differences in head motion, data quality, brain
             volume, cortisol levels, or testosterone levels.
             Importantly, we also demonstrate that dual-regression
             functional connectivity is better at detecting
             inter-individual variability than traditional seed-based
             functional connectivity approaches. Our findings
             characterize robust-yet frequently ignored-neural
             differences between males and females, pointing to the
             necessity of controlling for sex in neuroscience studies of
             individual differences. Moreover, our results highlight the
             importance of employing network-based models to study
             variability in functional connectivity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.03.042},
   Key = {fds252235}
}

@article{fds252219,
   Author = {Li, R and Brannon, EM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact
             familiarity bias.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {1519},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01519},
   Abstract = {The phenomenon of ambiguity aversion, in which risky gambles
             with known probabilities are preferred over ambiguous
             gambles with unknown probabilities, has been thoroughly
             documented in adults but never measured in children. Here,
             we use two distinct tasks to investigate ambiguity
             preferences of children (8- to 9-year-olds) and a comparison
             group of adults (19- to 27-year-olds). Across three separate
             measures, we found evidence for significant ambiguity
             aversion in adults but not in children and for greater
             ambiguity aversion in adults compared to children. As
             ambiguity aversion in adults has been theorized to result
             from a preference to bet on the known and avoid the
             unfamiliar, we separately measured familiarity bias and
             found that children, like adults, are biased towards the
             familiar. Our findings indicate that ambiguity aversion
             emerges across the course of development between childhood
             and adolescence, while a familiarity bias is already present
             in childhood.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01519},
   Key = {fds252219}
}

@article{fds327384,
   Author = {Meade, CS and Addicott, M and Hobkirk, AL and Towe, SL and Chen, N-K and Sridharan, S and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Cocaine and HIV are independently associated with neural
             activation in response to gain and loss valuation during
             economic risky choice.},
   Journal = {Addict Biol},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {796-809},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12529},
   Abstract = {Stimulant abuse is disproportionately common in HIV-positive
             persons. Both HIV and stimulants are independently
             associated with deficits in reward-based decision making,
             but their interactive and/or additive effects are poorly
             understood despite their prevalent co-morbidity. Here, we
             examined the effects of cocaine dependence and HIV infection
             in 69 adults who underwent functional magnetic resonance
             imaging while completing an economic loss aversion task. We
             identified two neural networks that correlated with the
             evaluation of the favorable characteristics of the gamble
             (i.e. higher gains/lower losses: ventromedial prefrontal
             cortex, anterior cingulate, anterior and posterior precuneus
             and visual cortex) versus unfavorable characteristics of the
             gamble (i.e. lower gains/higher losses: dorsal prefrontal,
             lateral orbitofrontal, posterior parietal cortex, anterior
             insula and dorsal caudate). Behaviorally, cocaine and HIV
             had additive effects on loss aversion scores, with
             HIV-positive cocaine users being the least loss averse.
             Cocaine users had greater activation in brain regions that
             tracked the favorability of gamble characteristics (i.e.
             increased activation to gains, but decreased activation to
             losses). In contrast, HIV infection was independently
             associated with lesser activation in regions that tracked
             the unfavorability of gamble characteristics. These results
             suggest that cocaine is associated with an overactive
             reward-seeking system, while HIV is associated with an
             underactive cognitive control system. Together, these
             alterations may leave HIV-positive cocaine users
             particularly vulnerable to making unfavorable decisions when
             outcomes are uncertain.},
   Doi = {10.1111/adb.12529},
   Key = {fds327384}
}

@article{fds324858,
   Author = {Cordero, DM and Towe, SL and Chen, N-K and Robertson, KR and Madden, DJ and Huettel, SA and Meade, CS},
   Title = {Cocaine dependence does not contribute substantially to
             white matter abnormalities in HIV infection.},
   Journal = {J Neurovirol},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {441-450},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-017-0512-5},
   Abstract = {This study investigated the association of HIV infection and
             cocaine dependence with cerebral white matter integrity
             using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). One hundred
             thirty-five participants stratified by HIV and cocaine
             status (26 HIV+/COC+, 37 HIV+/COC-, 37 HIV-/COC+, and 35
             HIV-/COC-) completed a comprehensive substance abuse
             assessment, neuropsychological testing, and MRI with DTI.
             Among HIV+ participants, all were receiving HIV care and 46%
             had an AIDS diagnosis. All COC+ participants were current
             users and met criteria for cocaine use disorder. We used
             tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to assess the relation
             of HIV and cocaine to fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean
             diffusivity (MD). In whole-brain analyses, HIV+ participants
             had significantly reduced FA and increased MD compared to
             HIV- participants. The relation of HIV and FA was widespread
             throughout the brain, whereas the HIV-related MD effects
             were restricted to the corpus callosum and thalamus. There
             were no significant cocaine or HIV-by-cocaine effects. These
             DTI metrics correlated significantly with duration of HIV
             disease, nadir CD4+ cell count, and AIDS diagnosis, as well
             as some measures of neuropsychological functioning. These
             results suggest that HIV is related to white matter
             integrity throughout the brain, and that HIV-related effects
             are more pronounced with increasing duration of infection
             and greater immune compromise. We found no evidence for
             independent effects of cocaine dependence on white matter
             integrity, and cocaine dependence did not appear to
             exacerbate the effects of HIV.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s13365-017-0512-5},
   Key = {fds324858}
}

@article{fds327383,
   Author = {Meade, CS and Hobkirk, AL and Towe, SL and Chen, N-K and Bell, RP and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Cocaine dependence modulates the effect of HIV infection on
             brain activation during intertemporal decision
             making.},
   Journal = {Drug Alcohol Depend},
   Volume = {178},
   Pages = {443-451},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.043},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter
             the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive
             effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been
             adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates
             HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal
             decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73
             participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18
             COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-).
             Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and
             larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI.
             Choices varied in difficulty based on subjective value: hard
             (equivalently valued), easy (disparately valued), and
             control choices. A mixed-effects model controlling for
             education and smoking identified main and interactive
             effects of HIV and COC during hard relative to easy choices
             (difficulty contrast). RESULTS: COC+ status was associated
             with lower activation in bilateral frontal gyri and right
             insular and posterior parietal cortices. HIV+ status was
             associated with higher activation in the visual cortex, but
             lower activation in bilateral prefrontal cortices and
             cerebellum and left posterior parietal cortex. COC moderated
             the effects of HIV in several clusters centered in the
             bilateral prefrontal cortices and cerebellum. In post-hoc
             analyses, there were significant effects of HIV status on
             activation for COC+, but not COC-, participants; interaction
             effects remained after controlling for polysubstance use.
             CONCLUSION: Cocaine use may diminish the compensatory neural
             activation often seen among HIV+ samples during decision
             making. Our results highlight the importance of examining
             the neuropsychiatric effects of comorbid medical conditions
             to identify potential neural targets for cognitive
             remediation interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.05.043},
   Key = {fds327383}
}

@article{fds252297,
   Author = {Winecoff, A and Labar, KS and Madden, DJ and Cabeza, R and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Cognitive and neural contributors to emotion regulation in
             aging.},
   Journal = {Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {165-176},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20385663},
   Abstract = {Older adults, compared to younger adults, focus on emotional
             well-being. While the lifespan trajectory of emotional
             processing and its regulation has been characterized
             behaviorally, few studies have investigated the underlying
             neural mechanisms. Here, older adults (range: 59-73 years)
             and younger adults (range: 19-33 years) participated in a
             cognitive reappraisal task during functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. On each trial,
             participants viewed positive, negative or neutral pictures
             and either naturally experienced the image ('Experience'
             condition) or attempted to detach themselves from the image
             ('Reappraise' condition). Across both age groups, cognitive
             reappraisal activated prefrontal regions similar to those
             reported in prior studies of emotion regulation, while
             emotional experience activated the bilateral amygdala.
             Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed that the
             left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and amygdala demonstrated
             greater inverse connectivity during the 'Reappraise'
             condition relative to the 'Experience' condition. The only
             regions exhibiting significant age differences were the left
             IFG and the left superior temporal gyrus, for which greater
             regulation-related activation was observed in younger
             adults. Controlling for age, increased performance on
             measures of cognition predicted greater regulation-related
             decreases in amygdala activation. Thus, while older and
             younger adults use similar brain structures for emotion
             regulation and experience, the functional efficacy of those
             structures depends on underlying cognitive
             ability.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsq030},
   Key = {fds252297}
}

@article{fds323990,
   Author = {Meade, CS and Cordero, DM and Hobkirk, AL and Metra, BM and Chen, N-K and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Compensatory activation in fronto-parietal cortices among
             HIV-infected persons during a monetary decision-making
             task.},
   Journal = {Hum Brain Mapp},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2455-2467},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23185},
   Abstract = {HIV infection can cause direct and indirect damage to the
             brain and is consistently associated with neurocognitive
             disorders, including impairments in decision-making
             capacities. The tendency to devalue rewards that are delayed
             (temporal discounting) is relevant to a range of health risk
             behaviors. Making choices about delayed rewards engages the
             executive control network of the brain, which has been found
             to be affected by HIV. In this case-control study of 18
             HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative adults, we examined the
             effects of HIV on brain activation during a temporal
             discounting task. Functional MRI (fMRI) data were collected
             while participants made choices between smaller, sooner
             rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Choices were
             individualized based on participants' unique discount
             functions, so each participant experienced hard (similarly
             valued), easy (disparately valued), and control choices.
             fMRI data were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to
             identify group-related differences associated with choice
             difficulty. While there was no difference between groups in
             behavioral performance, the HIV-positive group demonstrated
             significantly larger increases in activation within left
             parietal regions and bilateral prefrontal regions during
             easy trials and within the right prefrontal cortex and
             anterior cingulate during hard trials. Increasing activation
             within the prefrontal regions was associated with lower
             nadir CD4 cell count and risk-taking propensity. These
             results support the hypothesis that HIV infection can alter
             brain functioning in regions that support decision making,
             providing further evidence for HIV-associated compensatory
             activation within fronto-parietal cortices. A history of
             immunosuppression may contribute to these brain changes. Hum
             Brain Mapp 37:2455-2467, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals,
             Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.23185},
   Key = {fds323990}
}

@article{fds252216,
   Author = {Plassmann, H and Venkatraman, V and Huettel, S and Yoon,
             C},
   Title = {Consumer neuroscience: Applications, challenges, and
             possible solutions},
   Journal = {Journal of Marketing Research},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {427-435},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0022-2437},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmr.14.0048},
   Abstract = {© 2015, American Marketing Association. The first decade of
             consumer neuroscience research has produced groundbreaking
             work in identifying the basic neural processes underlying
             human judgment and decision making, with the majority of
             such studies published in neuroscience journals and
             influencing models of brain function. Yet for the field of
             consumer neuroscience to thrive in the next decade, the
             current emphasis on basic science research must be extended
             into marketing theory and practice. The authors suggest five
             concrete ways that neuroscientific methods can be fruitfully
             applied to marketing. They then outline three fundamental
             challenges facing consumer neuroscientists and offer
             potential solutions for addressing them. The authors
             conclude by describing how consumer neuroscience can become
             an important complement to research and practice in
             marketing.},
   Doi = {10.1509/jmr.14.0048},
   Key = {fds252216}
}

@article{fds252294,
   Author = {Raposo, A and Vicens, L and Clithero, JA and Dobbins, IG and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Contributions of frontopolar cortex to judgments about self,
             others and relations.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {260-269},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1749-5016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsq033},
   Abstract = {Activation in frontopolar cortex (FPC; BA 10) has been
             associated both with attending to mental states and with
             integrating multiple mental relations. However, few previous
             studies have manipulated both of these cognitive processes,
             precluding a clear functional distinction among regions
             within FPC. To address this issue, we developed an fMRI task
             that combined mentalizing and relational integration
             processes. Participants saw blocks of single words and
             performed one of three judgments: how pleasant or unpleasant
             they found each word (Self condition), how a specific friend
             would evaluate the pleasantness of the word (Other
             condition), or the difference between their own pleasantness
             judgment and that of their friend (Relational condition). We
             found that medial FPC was modulated by Other relative to
             Self judgments, consistent with a role in mentalizing.
             Lateral FPC was significantly activated during Relational
             compared to Self judgements, suggesting that this region is
             particularly involved in relational integration. The results
             point to a strong functional dissociation between medial and
             lateral FPC. In addition, the data demonstrate a role for
             lateral FPC in the social domain, provided that the task
             requires the integration of one's preferences with those of
             others.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsq033},
   Key = {fds252294}
}

@article{fds252247,
   Author = {Camerer, C and Smith, A and Kuhnen, CM and Wargo, DT and Samanez-Larkin,
             G and Montague, R and Levy, DJ and Smith, D and Meshi, D and Kenning, PH and Clithero, J and Weber, B and Hare, T and Huettel, S and Josephson, C and d'Acremont, M and Knoch, D and Krajbich, I and De Martino and B and Mohr,
             PNC and Barton, J and Halko, M-L and Chick, CF and Gianotti, L and Heekeren, HR},
   Title = {Correspondence Are Cognitive Functions Localizable?},
   Journal = {The Journal of Economic Perspectives : a Journal of the
             American Economic Association},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {247-250},
   Publisher = {AMER ECONOMIC ASSOC},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0895-3309},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000318610700012&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252247}
}

@article{fds252218,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Appelbaum, LG and Huettel, SA and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {Cortical Brain Activity Reflecting Attentional Biasing
             Toward Reward-Predicting Cues Covaries with Economic
             Decision-Making Performance.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/12006 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying
             and learning from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized
             that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain
             outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by
             analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans
             during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participants
             viewed pairs of outcome-predicting visual cues and then
             chose to wager either a small (i.e., loss-minimizing) or
             large (i.e., gain-maximizing) amount of money. The cues were
             bilaterally presented, which allowed us to extract the
             relative neural responses to each cue by using a
             contralateral-versus-ipsilateral ERP contrast. We found an
             early lateralized ERP response, whose features matched the
             attention-shift-related N2pc component and whose amplitude
             scaled with the learned reward-predicting value of the cues
             as predicted by an attention-for-reward model. Consistently,
             we found a double dissociation involving the N2pc. Across
             participants, gain-maximization positively correlated with
             the N2pc amplitude to the most reliable gain-predicting cue,
             suggesting an attentional bias toward such cues. Conversely,
             loss-minimization was negatively correlated with the N2pc
             amplitude to the most reliable loss-predicting cue,
             suggesting an attentional avoidance toward such stimuli.
             These results indicate that learned stimulus-reward
             associations can influence rapid attention allocation, and
             that differences in this process are associated with
             individual differences in economic decision-making
             performance.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhu160},
   Key = {fds252218}
}

@article{fds252273,
   Author = {Yoon, C and Gonzalez, R and Bechara, A and Berns, GS and Dagher, AA and Dubé, L and Huettel, SA and Kable, JW and Liberzon, I and Plassmann, H and Smidts, A and Spence, C},
   Title = {Decision neuroscience and consumer decision
             making},
   Journal = {Marketing Letters},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {473-485},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0923-0645},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-012-9188-z},
   Abstract = {This article proposes that neuroscience can shape future
             theory and models in consumer decision making and suggests
             ways that neuroscience methods can be used in
             decision-making research. The article argues that
             neuroscience facilitates better theory development and
             empirical testing by considering the physiological context
             and the role of constructs such as hunger, stress, and
             social influence on consumer choice and preferences.
             Neuroscience can also provide new explanations for different
             sources of heterogeneity within and across populations,
             suggest novel hypotheses with respect to choices and
             underlying mechanisms that accord with an understanding of
             biology, and allow for the use of neural data to make better
             predictions about consumer behavior. The article suggests
             that despite some challenges associated with incorporating
             neuroscience into research on consumer decision processes,
             the use of neuroscience paradigms will produce a deeper
             understanding of decision making that can lead to the
             development of more effective decision aids and
             interventions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11002-012-9188-z},
   Key = {fds252273}
}

@article{fds252301,
   Author = {Smith, DV and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Decision neuroscience: neuroeconomics.},
   Journal = {Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive
             Science},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {854-871},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1939-5078},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wcs.73},
   Abstract = {Few aspects of human cognition are more personal than the
             choices we make. Our decisions-from the mundane to the
             impossibly complex-continually shape the courses of our
             lives. In recent years, researchers have applied the tools
             of neuroscience to understand the mechanisms that underlie
             decision making, as part of the new discipline of decision
             neuroscience. A primary goal of this emerging field has been
             to identify the processes that underlie specific decision
             variables, including the value of rewards, the uncertainty
             associated with particular outcomes, and the consequences of
             social interactions. Recent work suggests potential neural
             substrates that integrate these variables, potentially
             reflecting a common neural currency for value, to facilitate
             value comparisons. Despite the successes of decision
             neuroscience research for elucidating brain mechanisms,
             significant challenges remain. These include building new
             conceptual frameworks for decision making, integrating
             research findings across disparate techniques and species,
             and extending results from neuroscience to shape economic
             theory. To overcome these challenges, future research will
             likely focus on interpersonal variability in decision
             making, with the eventual goal of creating biologically
             plausible models for individual choice. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010
             1 854-871 This article is categorized under: Psychology >
             Reasoning and Decision Making Neuroscience >
             Cognition.},
   Doi = {10.1002/wcs.73},
   Key = {fds252301}
}

@article{fds198096,
   Author = {Paulsen, D. and Platt, M.L. and Huettel, S.A. and Brannon,
             E.M.},
   Title = {Decision-making Under Risk in Children, Adolescents, and
             Adults},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Developmental Psychology},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00072},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00072},
   Key = {fds198096}
}

@article{fds252291,
   Author = {Paulsen, DJ and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Decision-making under risk in children, adolescents, and
             young adults.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {2},
   Pages = {72},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21687443},
   Abstract = {Adolescents often make risky and impulsive decisions. Such
             behavior has led to the common assumption that a dysfunction
             in risk-related decision-making peaks during this age.
             Differences in how risk has been defined across studies,
             however, make it difficult to draw conclusions about
             developmental changes in risky decision-making. Here, we
             developed a non-symbolic economic decision-making task that
             can be used across a wide age span and that uses coefficient
             of variation (CV) in reward as an index of risk. We found
             that young children showed the strongest preference for
             risky compared to sure bet options of equal expected value,
             adolescents were intermediate in their risk preference, and
             young adults showed the strongest risk aversion.
             Furthermore, children's preference for the risky option
             increased for larger CVs, while adolescents and young adults
             showed the opposite pattern, favoring the sure bet more
             often as CV increased. Finally, when faced with two gambles
             in a risk-return tradeoff, all three age groups exhibited a
             greater preference for the option with the lower risk and
             return as the disparity in risk between the two options
             increased. These findings demonstrate clear age-related
             differences in economic risk preferences that vary with
             choice set and risk. Importantly, adolescence appears to
             represent an intermediate decision-making phenotype along
             the transition from childhood to adulthood, rather than an
             age of heightened preference for economic
             risk.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00072},
   Key = {fds252291}
}

@article{fds252324,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Song, AW and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Decisions under uncertainty: probabilistic context
             influences activation of prefrontal and parietal
             cortices.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3304-3311},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1529-2401},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15800185},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain Mapping • Decision Making •
             Female • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Oxygen • Parietal Lobe • Pattern
             Recognition, Visual • Photic Stimulation •
             Prefrontal Cortex • Probability* • Reaction Time
             • Time Factors • blood • blood supply •
             methods • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Many decisions are made under uncertainty; that is, with
             limited information about their potential consequences.
             Previous neuroimaging studies of decision making have
             implicated regions of the medial frontal lobe in processes
             related to the resolution of uncertainty. However, a
             different set of regions in dorsal prefrontal and posterior
             parietal cortices has been reported to be critical for
             selection of actions to unexpected or unpredicted stimuli
             within a sequence. In the current study, we induced
             uncertainty using a novel task that required subjects to
             base their decisions on a binary sequence of eight stimuli
             so that uncertainty changed dynamically over time (from 20
             to 50%), depending on which stimuli were presented.
             Activation within prefrontal, parietal, and insular cortices
             increased with increasing uncertainty. In contrast, within
             medial frontal regions, as well as motor and visual
             cortices, activation did not increase with increasing
             uncertainty. We conclude that the brain response to
             uncertainty depends on the demands of the experimental task.
             When uncertainty depends on learned associations between
             stimuli and responses, as in previous studies, it modulates
             activation in the medial frontal lobes. However, when
             uncertainty develops over short time scales as information
             is accumulated toward a decision, dorsal prefrontal and
             posterior parietal contributions are critical for its
             resolution. The distinction between neural mechanisms
             subserving different forms of uncertainty resolution
             provides an important constraint for neuroeconomic models of
             decision making.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5070-04.2005},
   Key = {fds252324}
}

@article{fds252263,
   Author = {McKeown, MJ and Varadarajan, V and Huettel, S and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Deterministic and stochastic features of fMRI data:
             implications for analysis of event-related
             experiments.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience Methods},
   Volume = {118},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {103-113},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0165-0270},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12204302},
   Abstract = {As the limits of stimuli presentation rates are explored in
             event-related fMRI design, there is a greater need to assess
             the implications of averaging raw fMRI data. Selective
             averaging assumes that the fMRI signal consists of
             task-dependent signal, random noise, and non-task dependent
             brain signal that can be modeled as random noise so that it
             tends to zero when averaged over a practical number of
             trials. We recorded a total of four fMRI data series from
             two normal subjects (subject 1, axially acquired; subject 2,
             coronally acquired) performing a simple visual event-related
             task and a water phantom with the same fMRI scanner imaging
             parameters. To determine which fraction of the fMRI data was
             deterministic as opposed to random, we created different
             data subsets by taking the odd or even time points of the
             full data sets. All data sets were first dimension-reduced
             with principal component analysis (PCA) and separated into
             100 spatially independent components with independent
             component analysis (ICA). The mutual information between
             best-matching pairs of components selected from full data
             set-subset comparisons was plotted for each data set. Visual
             inspection suggested that 45-85 components were
             reproducible, and hence deterministic, accounting for 79-97%
             of the variance, respectively, in the raw data. The
             reproducible components exhibited much less trial-to-trial
             variability than the raw data from even the most activated
             voxel. Many (22-47) of reproducible components were
             significantly affected by stimulus presentation (P < 0.001).
             The most significantly-stimulus-correlated component was
             strongly time-locked to stimulus presentation and was
             directly stimulus correlated, corresponding to occipital
             brain regions. However, other spatially distinct
             task-related components demonstrated variable temporal
             relationships with the most significantly-stimulus-correlated
             component. Our results suggest that the majority of the
             variance in fMRI data is in fact deterministic, and support
             the notion that the data consist of differing components
             with differing temporal relationships to visual stimulation.
             They further suggest roles for restricting interpretations
             of the spatial extent of activation from event-related
             designs to a specific region of interest (ROI) and/or first
             separating the data into spatially independent components.
             Averaging the time courses of spatially independent
             components time-locked to stimulus presentation may prevent
             possible biases in the estimates of the spatial and temporal
             extent of stimulus-correlated activation and of
             trial-to-trial variability.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0165-0270(02)00120-6},
   Key = {fds252263}
}

@article{fds343502,
   Author = {Li, R and Utevsky, AV and Huettel, SA and Braams, BR and Peters, S and Crone, EA and van Duijvenvoorde, ACK},
   Title = {Developmental Maturation of the Precuneus as a Functional
             Core of the Default Mode Network.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1506-1519},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01426},
   Abstract = {Efforts to map the functional architecture of the developing
             human brain have shown that connectivity between and within
             functional neural networks changes from childhood to
             adulthood. Although prior work has established that the
             adult precuneus distinctively modifies its connectivity
             during task versus rest states [Utevsky, A. V., Smith, D.
             V., & Huettel, S. A. Precuneus is a functional core of the
             default-mode network. Journal of Neuroscience, 34, 932-940,
             2014], it remains unknown how these connectivity patterns
             emerge over development. Here, we use fMRI data collected at
             two longitudinal time points from over 250 participants
             between the ages of 8 and 26 years engaging in two cognitive
             tasks and a resting-state scan. By applying independent
             component analysis to both task and rest data, we identified
             three canonical networks of interest-the rest-based default
             mode network and the task-based left and right
             frontoparietal networks (LFPN and RFPN, respectively)-which
             we explored for developmental changes using dual regression
             analyses. We found systematic state-dependent functional
             connectivity in the precuneus, such that engaging in a task
             (compared with rest) resulted in greater precuneus-LFPN and
             precuneus-RFPN connectivity, whereas being at rest (compared
             with task) resulted in greater precuneus-default mode
             network connectivity. These cross-sectional results
             replicated across both tasks and at both developmental time
             points. Finally, we used longitudinal mixed models to show
             that the degree to which precuneus distinguishes between
             task and rest states increases with age, due to age-related
             increasing segregation between precuneus and LFPN at rest.
             Our results highlight the distinct role of the precuneus in
             tracking processing state, in a manner that is both present
             throughout and strengthened across development.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_01426},
   Key = {fds343502}
}

@article{fds252221,
   Author = {Kwak, Y and Pearson, J and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Differential reward learning for self and others predicts
             self-reported altruism.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {e107621},
   Year = {2014},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107621},
   Abstract = {In social environments, decisions not only determine rewards
             for oneself but also for others. However, individual
             differences in pro-social behaviors have been typically
             studied through self-report. We developed a decision-making
             paradigm in which participants chose from card decks with
             differing rewards for themselves and charity; some decks
             gave similar rewards to both, while others gave higher
             rewards for one or the other. We used a reinforcement-learning
             model that estimated each participant's relative weighting
             of self versus charity reward. As shown both in choices and
             model parameters, individuals who showed relatively better
             learning of rewards for charity--compared to
             themselves--were more likely to engage in pro-social
             behavior outside of a laboratory setting indicated by
             self-report. Overall rates of reward learning, however, did
             not predict individual differences in pro-social tendencies.
             These results support the idea that biases toward learning
             about social rewards are associated with one's altruistic
             tendencies.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0107621},
   Key = {fds252221}
}

@article{fds252328,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Whiting, WL and Huettel, SA and White, LE and MacFall,
             JR and Provenzale, JM},
   Title = {Diffusion tensor imaging of adult age differences in
             cerebral white matter: relation to response
             time.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1174-1181},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15006684},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aging • Algorithms • Anisotropy
             • Brain • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Female • Humans • Image Interpretation,
             Computer-Assisted • Male • Neural Pathways •
             Prefrontal Cortex • Psychomotor Performance •
             Reaction Time • anatomy & histology • anatomy &
             histology* • growth & development* • methods*
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the displacement of
             water molecules across tissue components, thus providing
             information regarding the microstructure of cerebral white
             matter. Fractional anisotropy (FA), the degree to which
             diffusion is directionally dependent, is typically higher
             for compact, homogeneous fiber bundles such as the corpus
             callosum. Previous DTI studies in adults have demonstrated
             an age-related decline in white matter FA, but whether the
             relation between FA and behavioral performance varies as a
             function of age has not been determined. We investigated
             adult age differences in FA, and age-related changes in the
             relation between FA and response time (RT), in a visual
             target-detection task. The results confirmed that,
             independently of age, FA is higher in the corpus callosum
             than in other brain regions. We also observed an age-related
             decline in FA that did not vary significantly across the
             brain regions. For both age groups, a lower level of
             integrity of the cerebral white matter (as indexed by FA),
             in specific brain regions, was associated with slower
             responses in the visual task. An age-related change in this
             relation was evident, however, in that the best predictor of
             RT for younger adults was FA in the splenium of the corpus
             callosum, whereas for older adults the best predictor was FA
             in the anterior limb of the internal capsule. This pattern
             is consistent with measures of the task-related cortical
             activation obtained from these same individuals and suggests
             an age-related increase in the attentional control of
             responses mediated by corticostriatal or corticothalamic
             circuits.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.11.004},
   Key = {fds252328}
}

@article{fds252337,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Güzeldere, G and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Dissociating the neural mechanisms of visual attention in
             change detection using functional MRI.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1006-1018},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/089892901753165908},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention • Brain • Humans •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Visual Cortex • Visual
             Perception • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) the neural processes associated with performance of a
             change-detection task. In this task, two versions of the
             same picture are presented in alternation, separated by a
             brief mask interval. Even when the two pictures greatly
             differ (e.g., as when a building is in different locations),
             subjects report that identification of the change is
             difficult and often take 30 or more seconds to identify the
             change. This phenomenon of "change blindness" provides a
             powerful and novel paradigm for segregating components of
             visual attention using fMRI that can otherwise be confounded
             in short-duration tasks. By using a response-contingent
             event-related analysis technique, we successfully
             dissociated brain regions associated with different
             processing components of a visual change-detection task.
             Activation in the calcarine cortex was associated with task
             onset, but did not vary with the duration of visual search.
             In contrast, the pattern of activation in dorsal and ventral
             visual areas was temporally associated with the duration of
             visual search. As such, our results support a distinction
             between brain regions whose activation is modulated by
             attentional demands of the visual task (extrastriate cortex)
             and those that are not affected by it (primary visual
             cortex). A second network of areas including central sulcus,
             insular, and inferior frontal cortical areas, along with the
             thalamus and basal ganglia, showed phasic activation tied to
             the execution of responses. Finally, parietal and frontal
             regions showed systematic deactivations during task
             performance, consistent with previous reports that these
             regions may be associated with nontask semantic processing.
             We conclude that detection of change, when transient visual
             cues are not present, requires activation of extrastriate
             visual regions and frontal regions responsible for eye
             movements. These results suggest that studies of change
             blindness can inform understanding of more general
             attentional processing.},
   Doi = {10.1162/089892901753165908},
   Key = {fds252337}
}

@article{fds252300,
   Author = {Smith, DV and Hayden, BY and Truong, T-K and Song, AW and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Distinct value signals in anterior and posterior
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {2490-2495},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20164333},
   Abstract = {The core feature of an economic exchange is a decision to
             trade one good for another, based on a comparison of
             relative value. Economists have long recognized, however,
             that the value an individual ascribes to a good during
             decision making (i.e., their relative willingness to trade
             for that good) does not always map onto the reward they
             actually experience. Here, we show that experienced value
             and decision value are represented in distinct regions of
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) during the passive
             consumption of rewards. Participants viewed two categories
             of rewards-images of faces that varied in their
             attractiveness and monetary gains and losses-while being
             scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. An
             independent market task, in which participants exchanged
             some of the money that they had earned for brief views of
             attractive faces, determined the relative decision value
             associated with each category. We found that activation of
             anterior VMPFC increased with increasing experienced value,
             but not decision value, for both reward categories. In
             contrast, activation of posterior VMPFC predicted each
             individual's relative decision value for face and monetary
             stimuli. These results indicate not only that experienced
             value and decision value are represented in distinct regions
             of VMPFC, but also that decision value signals are evident
             even in the absence of an overt choice task. We conclude
             that decisions are made by comparing neural representations
             of the value of different goods encoded in posterior VMPFC
             in a common, relative currency.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3319-09.2010},
   Key = {fds252300}
}

@article{fds252289,
   Author = {Ballard, IC and Murty, VP and Carter, RM and MacInnes, JJ and Huettel,
             SA and Adcock, RA},
   Title = {Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex drives mesolimbic
             dopaminergic regions to initiate motivated
             behavior.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {28},
   Pages = {10340-10346},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21753011},
   Abstract = {How does the brain translate information signaling potential
             rewards into motivation to get them? Motivation to obtain
             reward is thought to depend on the midbrain [particularly
             the ventral tegmental area (VTA)], the nucleus accumbens
             (NAcc), and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), but
             it is not clear how the interactions among these regions
             relate to reward-motivated behavior. To study the influence
             of motivation on these reward-responsive regions and on
             their interactions, we used dynamic causal modeling to
             analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data
             from humans performing a simple task designed to isolate
             reward anticipation. The use of fMRI permitted the
             simultaneous measurement of multiple brain regions while
             human participants anticipated and prepared for
             opportunities to obtain reward, thus allowing
             characterization of how information about reward changes
             physiology underlying motivational drive. Furthermore, we
             modeled the impact of external reward cues on causal
             relationships within this network, thus elaborating a link
             between physiology, connectivity, and motivation.
             Specifically, our results indicated that dlPFC was the
             exclusive entry point of information about reward in this
             network, and that anticipated reward availability caused VTA
             activation only via its effect on the dlPFC. Anticipated
             reward thus increased dlPFC activation directly, whereas it
             influenced VTA and NAcc only indirectly, by enhancing
             intrinsically weak or inactive pathways from the dlPFC. Our
             findings of a directional prefrontal influence on
             dopaminergic regions during reward anticipation suggest a
             model in which the dlPFC integrates and transmits
             representations of reward to the mesolimbic and mesocortical
             dopamine systems, thereby initiating motivated
             behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0895-11.2011},
   Key = {fds252289}
}

@article{fds252326,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Misiurek, J and Jurkowski, AJ and McCarthy,
             G},
   Title = {Dynamic and strategic aspects of executive
             processing.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1000},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {78-84},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2003.11.041},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Brain • Female •
             Humans • Linear Models • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging • Male • Photic Stimulation •
             Psychomotor Performance • methods* •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {Executive cognitive functions have been postulated to
             include both dynamic behavioral selection and strategic
             goal-setting or response preparation. To investigate the
             relation between these aspects of executive processing, we
             embedded an event-related oddball paradigm within a blocked
             design. Subjects responded to infrequent targets presented
             within a series of standard stimuli that required no
             response; this task alternated with a visually similar
             nontask condition. Using functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI), we found that a set of brain regions
             including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), insular
             cortex, cingular cortex, and the basal ganglia demonstrated
             transient activation both to target stimuli and to the onset
             of task blocks. Within the parietal cortex, there was a
             dissociation such that the supramarginal gyrus exhibited
             greater activity to the target stimuli than to block onsets,
             while the converse pattern was observed in the intraparietal
             sulcus. Sustained positive activity during task blocks was
             present in the caudate and supplementary motor area, while
             sustained negative activity was present in the precuneus and
             medial parietal cortex. We conclude that dlPFC and related
             brain regions mediate both dynamic and strategic processing,
             through the preparation and selection of rules for
             behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2003.11.041},
   Key = {fds252326}
}

@article{fds252314,
   Author = {Dennis, NA and Hayes, SM and Prince, SE and Madden, DJ and Huettel, SA and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful item
             and source memory encoding.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and
             Cognition},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {791-808},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-7393},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18605869},
   Abstract = {To investigate the neural basis of age-related source memory
             (SM) deficits, young and older adults were scanned with fMRI
             while encoding faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs.
             Successful encoding activity was identified by comparing
             encoding activity for subsequently remembered versus
             forgotten items or pairs. Age deficits in successful
             encoding activity in hippocampal and prefrontal regions were
             more pronounced for SM (pairs) as compared with item memory
             (faces and scenes). Age-related reductions were also found
             in regions specialized in processing faces (fusiform face
             area) and scenes (parahippocampal place area), but these
             reductions were similar for item and SM. Functional
             connectivity between the hippocampus and the rest of the
             brain was also affected by aging; whereas connections with
             posterior cortices were weaker in older adults, connections
             with anterior cortices, including prefrontal regions, were
             stronger in older adults. Taken together, the results
             provide a link between SM deficits in older adults and
             reduced recruitment of hippocampal and prefrontal regions
             during encoding. The functional connectivity findings are
             consistent with a posterior-anterior shift with aging
             previously reported in several cognitive domains and linked
             to functional compensation.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-7393.34.4.791},
   Key = {fds252314}
}

@article{fds252259,
   Author = {Huettel, S and Singerman, J and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Effects of aging on the refractory period of the fMRI
             hemodynamic response},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {S644},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1053-8119(00)91574-X},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1053-8119(00)91574-X},
   Key = {fds252259}
}

@article{fds252261,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Needham, A},
   Title = {Effects of balance relations between objects on infants'
             object segregation},
   Journal = {Developmental Science},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {415-427},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-7687.00136},
   Abstract = {Young infants are sensitive to support relations between
             objects. However, the types of contact perceived to be
             sufficient for object support change over development. At
             4.5 months of age, infants expect an object to be adequately
             supported when in contact with another object. By 6.5
             months, this simple contact/no-contact distinction is
             refined to account for proportion of contact: an object is
             perceived to be supported when 70% of its bottom surface is
             in contact with another object, but it is not perceived to
             be supported when 15% is contacted. Here, we employ an
             object segregation paradigm to investigate whether
             8-month-old infants' judgments of support relations are
             mediated by assessments both of the proportion of contact
             and of the position of contact. Infants in the current
             experiments viewed test displays consisting of two objects,
             a long thin object (a box) and a smaller roughly cubic
             object (a box in Experiment 1, a cylinder in Experiments 2
             and 3). Two basic positions of contact were used, such that
             either the centers or the lateral edges of the two objects
             were aligned. The proportion of contact was manipulated
             across experiments by having the smaller object support the
             larger or the larger object support the smaller. There was a
             significant effect of position of contact when only a small
             proportion of the upper object was contacted by the lower
             object. However, position of contact was found not to matter
             when all of the upper object was in contact with the lower
             object. We conclude that 8-month-old infants' judgments of
             support relations are influenced by both proportion and
             position of supporting contact. We integrate the findings
             from the current experiments into the general developmental
             framework proposed by Baillargeon and colleagues.},
   Doi = {10.1111/1467-7687.00136},
   Key = {fds252261}
}

@article{fds252233,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Reeck, C and Huettel, SA and LaBar,
             KS},
   Title = {Effects of induced moods on economic choices},
   Journal = {Judgment and Decision Making},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {167-175},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1930-2975},
   Abstract = {Emotions can shape decision processes by altering valuation
             signals, risk perception, and strategic orientation.
             Although multiple theories posit a role for affective
             processes in mediating the influence of frames on decision
             making, empirical studies have yet to demonstrate that
             manipulated affect modulates framing phenomena. The present
             study asked whether induced affective states alter gambling
             propensity and the influence of frames on decision making.
             In a between-subjects design, we induced mood (happy, sad,
             or neutral) in subjects (N=91) via films that were
             interleaved with the framing task. Happy mood induction
             increased gambling and apparently accentuated framing
             effects compared to sad mood induction, although the effect
             on framing could have resulted from the fact that the
             increased tendency to gamble made the framing measure more
             sensitive. Happy mood induction increased gambling, but not
             framing magnitude, compared to neutral mood induction.
             Subjects experiencing a sad mood induction did not exhibit
             behavioral differences from those experiencing a neutral
             mood. For those subjects who experienced the happy mood
             induction, both gambling propensity and framing magnitude
             were positively correlated with the magnitude of the change
             in their mood valence. We discuss the broader implications
             of mood effects on real-world economic decisions. ©
             2013.},
   Key = {fds252233}
}

@article{fds252277,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Event-related fMRI in cognition.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {1152-1156},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.113},
   Abstract = {A primary advantage of functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) over other techniques in neuroscience is its
             flexibility. Researchers have used fMRI to study a
             remarkable diversity of topics, from basic processes of
             perception and memory, to the complex mechanisms of economic
             decision making and moral cognition. The chief contributor
             to this experimental flexibility-indeed, to the growth of
             fMRI itself-has been the development of event-related
             experimental designs and associated analyses. The core idea
             of an event-related design, as first articulated in the late
             1990s, is the separation of cognitive processes into
             discrete points in time (i.e., "events") allowing
             differentiation of their associated fMRI signals. By
             modeling brain function as a series of transient changes,
             rather than as an ongoing state, event-related fMRI allowed
             researchers to create much more complex paradigms and more
             dynamic analysis methods. Yet, this flexibility came with a
             cost. As the complexity of experimental designs increased,
             fMRI analyses became increasingly abstracted from the
             original data, which in turn has had consequences both
             positive (e.g., greater use of model-based fMRI) and
             negative (e.g., fewer articles plot the timing of
             activation). And, as event-related methods have become
             ubiquitous, they no longer represent a distinct category of
             fMRI research. In a real sense, event-related fMRI has now
             become, simply, fMRI.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.113},
   Key = {fds252277}
}

@article{fds252335,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Evidence for a refractory period in the hemodynamic response
             to visual stimuli as measured by MRI.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {5 Pt 1},
   Pages = {547-553},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0553},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Hemodynamic
             Processes • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time
             • Refractory Period, Electrophysiological •
             Regression Analysis • Visual Cortex • blood
             supply* • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {We investigated the effects of paired presentations of
             visual stimuli upon the evoked hemodynamic response of
             visual cortex measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
             Stimuli were identical 500-ms high-contrast checkerboard
             patterns, presented singly or with an interpair interval
             (IPI) of 1, 2, 4, or 6 s (onset-to-onset), followed by an
             intertrial interval of 16-20 s. Images were acquired at 1.5
             Tesla using a gradient-echo echoplanar imaging sequence
             sensitive to blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD)
             contrast. Single checkerboards evoked a hemodynamic response
             from visual cortex characterized by a rise at 3 s, peak
             activation at 5 s, and return to baseline by 10 s. We
             subtracted subjects' single-stimulus hemodynamic response
             from their paired-stimulus responses to isolate the
             contribution of the second stimulus. If the hemodynamic
             responses were fully additive, the residual should be a
             time-shifted replica of the single stimulus response.
             However, the amplitude of the hemodynamic response to the
             second checkerboard was smaller, and the peak latency was
             longer, than for the first. Furthermore, the amplitude
             decrement was dependent upon IPI, such that the response to
             the second stimulus at 1 s IPI was only 55% of that to a
             single stimulus, with recovery to 90% at a 6 s IPI. Peak
             latency was similarly dependent upon IPI with longer
             latencies observed for shorter IPIs. These results
             demonstrate an extended refractory period in the hemodynamic
             response to visual stimuli consistent with that shown
             previously for neuronal activity measured
             electrophysiologically.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0553},
   Key = {fds252335}
}

@article{fds252229,
   Author = {Ruff, CC and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Experimental Methods in Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {77-108},
   Booktitle = {Neuroeconomics (2nd Edition)},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Editor = {Glimcher, P. and Fehr, E.},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-416008-8.00006-1},
   Abstract = {The growth of neuroeconomics as an academic discipline has
             been inextricably tied to the development of research
             methods to study brain function and its relationship to
             behavior. The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of
             these methods at a cursory level, while at the same time
             referring the reader to excellent textbooks and primary
             research articles for more in-depth information. The chapter
             focuses primarily on the conceptual issues involved in
             choosing a research technique and evaluating results using
             different techniques. As such, it is primarily intended for
             those who are new to neuroeconomics and cognitive
             neuroscience and who seek guidance on how to evaluate the
             strengths and limitations of published work. Accordingly,
             each technique is introduced in conjunction with specific
             examples drawn from recent neuroeconomic studies. © 2014
             Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-416008-8.00006-1},
   Key = {fds252229}
}

@article{fds342483,
   Author = {Zhang, X and Huettel, SA and Mullette-Gillman, OA and Guo, H and Wang,
             L},
   Title = {Exploring common changes after acute mental stress and acute
             tryptophan depletion: Resting-state fMRI
             studies.},
   Journal = {J Psychiatr Res},
   Volume = {113},
   Pages = {172-180},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.03.025},
   Abstract = {Stress and low serotonin levels are important biological
             factors in depression and anxiety etiologies. Although
             studies indicate that low serotonin levels, stress, and
             other factors may interact in depression/anxiety
             psychopathology, few studies have investigated the
             potentially shared neural substrates. We conducted
             resting-state fMRI scans pre- and post-stress task, and
             under control and tryptophan depletion condition, to explore
             the common changes induced by acute mental stress (AMS) and
             acute tryptophan depletion (ATD). The present study targeted
             regions within core brain networks - default mode network,
             salience network, executive control network, and emotion
             network - reported altered in AMS and ATD, and used regional
             homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity (FC) analyses
             to explore their overlapped effects. We additionally
             examined the relationships among core neural networks -
             operationalized as an index of resource allocation bias that
             quantifies the shift from internal to external modes of
             processing. We found both manipulations induced increased
             ReHo of the amygdala and decreased ReHo of the posterior
             cingulate cortex (PCC). The PCC-amygdala FC was negatively
             correlated with the change of negative affect, whereas the
             right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right anterior
             insula FC was positively associated with anxiety level. In
             addition, we found that a greater shift to an external mode
             was correlated with higher anxiety level under both
             conditions. Common changes induced by acute mental stress
             and acute tryptophan depletion confirmed our hypothesis that
             AMS and ATD induce changes in common neural pathways, which
             in turn might mark vulnerability to depression and
             anxiety.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.03.025},
   Key = {fds342483}
}

@article{fds338425,
   Author = {Lighthall, NR and Pearson, JM and Huettel, SA and Cabeza,
             R},
   Title = {Feedback-Based Learning in Aging: Contributions and
             Trajectories of Change in Striatal and Hippocampal
             Systems.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {39},
   Pages = {8453-8462},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0769-18.2018},
   Abstract = {The striatum supports learning from immediate feedback by
             coding prediction errors (PEs), whereas the hippocampus (HC)
             plays a parallel role in learning from delayed feedback.
             Both regions show evidence of decline in human aging, but
             behavioral research suggests greater decline in HC versus
             striatal functions. The present study included male and
             female humans and used fMRI to examine younger and older
             adults' brain activation patterns during a learning task
             with choice feedback presented immediately or after a brief
             delay. Participants then completed a surprise memory task
             that tested their recognition of trial-unique feedback
             stimuli, followed by assessments of postlearning cue
             preference, outcome probability awareness, and willingness
             to pay. The study yielded three main findings. First,
             behavioral measures indicated similar rates of learning in
             younger and older adults across conditions, but postlearning
             measures indicated impairment in older adults' ability to
             subsequently apply learning to discriminate between cues.
             Second, PE signals in the striatum were greater for
             immediate versus delayed feedback in both age groups, but PE
             signals in the HC were greater for delayed versus immediate
             feedback only in younger adults. Third, unlike younger
             adults, older adults failed to exhibit enhanced episodic
             memory for outcome stimuli in the delayed-feedback
             condition. Together, these findings indicate that HC
             circuits supporting learning and memory decline more than
             striatal circuits in healthy aging, which suggests that
             declines in HC learning signals may be an important
             predictor of deficits in learning-dependent economic
             decisions among older adults.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The
             hippocampus (HC) and striatum play distinct and critical
             roles in learning. Substantial research suggests that
             age-related decline in learning supported by the HC outpaces
             decline in learning supported by the striatum; however, such
             inferences have been drawn by comparing performance in tasks
             with fundamentally different structures. The present study
             overcomes this obstacle by implementing a single
             fMRI-learning paradigm with a subtle variation in feedback
             timing to examine differential age effects on memory
             supported by the HC and striatum. Our results provide
             converging behavioral and brain-imaging evidence showing
             that HC circuits supporting learning and memory decline more
             than striatal circuits in healthy aging and that declines in
             HC learning signals may predict early deficits in
             learning-dependent decisions among older
             adults.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0769-18.2018},
   Key = {fds338425}
}

@article{fds325992,
   Author = {Li, R and Roberts, RC and Huettel, SA and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Five-year-olds do not show ambiguity aversion in a risk and
             ambiguity task with physical objects.},
   Journal = {Journal of Experimental Child Psychology},
   Volume = {159},
   Pages = {319-326},
   Publisher = {ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.013},
   Abstract = {Ambiguity aversion arises when a decision maker prefers
             risky gambles with known probabilities over equivalent
             ambiguous gambles with unknown probabilities. This
             phenomenon has been consistently observed in adults across a
             large body of empirical work. Evaluating ambiguity aversion
             in young children, however, has posed methodological
             challenges because probabilistic representations appropriate
             for adults might not be understood by young children. Here,
             we established a novel method for representing risk and
             ambiguity with physical objects that overcomes previous
             methodological limitations and allows us to measure
             ambiguity aversion in young children. We found that
             individual 5-year-olds exhibited consistent choice
             preferences and, as a group, exhibited no ambiguity aversion
             in a task that evokes ambiguity aversion in adults. Across
             individuals, 5-year-olds exhibited greater variance in
             ambiguity preferences compared with adults tested under
             similar conditions. This suggests that ambiguity aversion is
             absent during early childhood and emerges over the course of
             development.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jecp.2017.02.013},
   Key = {fds325992}
}

@article{fds252241,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {fMRI: BOLD Contrast},
   Pages = {273-281},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-008045046-9.00318-1},
   Abstract = {An influential technique for the study of the human brain
             has been functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The
             most common form of fMRI uses standard clinical magnetic
             resonance imaging scanners to create images based on blood
             oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast. Compared to
             other human neuroimaging techniques, BOLD fMRI has good
             spatial resolution but only fair temporal resolution.
             Nevertheless, because it is noninvasive and well matched to
             many experimental paradigms, it has become the dominant
             technique in cognitive neuroscience. This article describes
             the physical and physiological principles underlying fMRI,
             along with the key concepts of designing and analyzing fMRI
             experiments. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-008045046-9.00318-1},
   Key = {fds252241}
}

@article{fds252312,
   Author = {Clithero, JA and Tankersley, D and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Foundations of neuroeconomics: from philosophy to
             practice.},
   Journal = {Plos Biology},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {e298},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1545-7885},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0060298},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pbio.0060298},
   Key = {fds252312}
}

@article{fds252274,
   Author = {Paulsen, DJ and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {From risk-seeking to risk-averse: the development of
             economic risk preference from childhood to
             adulthood.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {313},
   Year = {2012},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22973247},
   Abstract = {Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened
             risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity,
             emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking
             and driving under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we
             found that risk-taking declines linearly from childhood to
             adulthood when individuals make choices over monetary
             gambles. Further, with age we found increases in the
             sensitivity to economic risk, defined as the degree to which
             a preference for assured monetary gains over a risky payoff
             depends upon the variability in the risky payoff. These
             findings indicate that decisions about economic risk may
             follow a different developmental trajectory than other kinds
             of risk-taking, and that changes in sensitivity to risk may
             be a major factor in the development of mature risk
             aversion.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00313},
   Key = {fds252274}
}

@article{fds252224,
   Author = {Lighthall, NR and Huettel, SA and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal
             cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older
             adults.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {47},
   Pages = {15648-15657},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2888-14.2014},
   Abstract = {Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when
             we retrieve information about consumer products when making
             purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may
             affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with
             memory decline, such as older adults. However, age
             differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older
             adults can recruit additional neural resources that support
             task performance. Although such functional compensation is
             well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently
             unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making
             and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation.
             The current study engaged younger and older humans in a
             memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer
             products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated
             with different delays between the first and second product.
             Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation
             as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC
             activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2)
             age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with
             increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC
             activity was positively associated with performance in older
             adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these
             results, we observed evidence for compensation in
             connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during
             memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence
             for age differences in value-related processing or
             age-related compensation for choices without delayed
             retrieval. Together, these results converge on the
             conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent
             choice performance can be minimized via functional
             compensation in vmPFC.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2888-14.2014},
   Key = {fds252224}
}

@article{fds252237,
   Author = {Smith, DV and Clithero, JA and Boltuck, SE and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Functional connectivity with ventromedial prefrontal cortex
             reflects subjective value for social rewards.},
   Journal = {Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {2017-2025},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1749-5016},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu005},
   Abstract = {According to many studies, the ventromedial prefrontal
             cortex (VMPFC) encodes the subjective value of disparate
             rewards on a common scale. Yet, a host of other reward
             factors-likely represented outside of VMPFC-must be
             integrated to construct such signals for valuation. Using
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested
             whether the interactions between posterior VMPFC and
             functionally connected brain regions predict subjective
             value. During fMRI scanning, participants rated the
             attractiveness of unfamiliar faces. We found that activation
             in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior VMPFC and
             caudate increased with higher attractiveness ratings. Using
             data from a post-scan task in which participants spent money
             to view attractive faces, we quantified each individual's
             subjective value for attractiveness. We found that
             connectivity between posterior VMPFC and regions frequently
             modulated by social information-including the
             temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and middle temporal
             gyrus-was correlated with individual differences in
             subjective value. Crucially, these additional regions
             explained unique variation in subjective value beyond that
             extracted from value regions alone. These findings indicate
             not only that posterior VMPFC interacts with additional
             brain regions during valuation, but also that these
             additional regions carry information employed to construct
             the subjective value for social reward.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsu005},
   Key = {fds252237}
}

@article{fds252240,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Functional MRI (fMRI)},
   Pages = {741-748},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry, 2nd
             edition},
   Publisher = {Elsevier},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-374413-5.00053-1},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows
             researchers to investigate the mechanisms underlying
             information processing in the human brain. Most fMRI studies
             use standard MRI scanners to collect images sensitive to
             changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)
             contrast, which provides an indirect measure of neuronal
             activity. The images collected in BOLD fMRI experiments
             generally have spatial resolution on the order of several
             millimeters and temporal resolution on the order of several
             seconds. fMRI provides several advantages over other human
             neuroimaging techniques: it is noninvasive, can be adapted
             to a wide range of experiments, and allows good localization
             of activation. Because of these and other strengths, fMRI
             has grown over the past two decades to become the dominant
             technique in human cognitive neuroscience. However, fMRI
             also has significant limitations, especially regarding the
             conclusions that can be drawn from individual studies. This
             article introduces the basic physical and physiological
             principles of fMRI, followed by a consideration of the core
             concepts involved in fMRI experimentation. © 2010 Elsevier
             Ltd All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-374413-5.00053-1},
   Key = {fds252240}
}

@article{fds252298,
   Author = {Carter, RMK and Meyer, JR and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Functional Neuroimaging of Intertemporal Choice Models: A
             Review},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and
             Economics},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {27-45},
   Publisher = {American Psychological Association (APA)},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1937-321X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018046},
   Abstract = {People often forsake a larger reward later for a smaller
             reward sooner. The process of devaluing the larger, later
             prize is called temporal discounting or delay discounting,
             which lies at the core of intertemporal choice. Here, we
             describe the methodology and findings of research on the
             mechanisms of intertemporal choice, with a focus on those
             that utilize functional MRI (fMRI). We consider the neural
             bases for the most common economic models of intertemporal
             choice and examine whether these models require neural
             processes that are common or distinct across types of
             decision making. Considered as a whole, current research
             points to potentially distinct contributions from brain
             systems associated with valuation and with prospective
             thought, which may be reflected in separable foci in
             posterior cingulate cortex. Based on open questions in the
             field, we suggest two core goals for future research:
             identifying aspects of valuation that are unique to
             intertemporal choice and evaluating direct or indirect
             interactions between delay and prize magnitude. © 2010
             American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0018046},
   Key = {fds252298}
}

@article{fds252305,
   Author = {Han, S and Huettel, SA and Raposo, A and Adcock, RA and Dobbins,
             IG},
   Title = {Functional significance of striatal responses during
             episodic decisions: recovery or goal attainment?},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {4767-4775},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20357127},
   Abstract = {Memory retrieval is typically a goal-directed behavior, and
             as such, potentially influenced by reinforcement and
             motivation processes. Although striatal activation is often
             evident during memory retrieval, its functional significance
             remains unclear because typical memory paradigms do not
             control the motivational significance of memory decisions.
             We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) to investigate striatal activation during recognition
             with and without performance-linked monetary incentives.
             During initial performance in the absence of incentives,
             dorsal striatal activation for "Old" memory conclusions
             nonetheless exceeded that for "New" conclusions regardless
             of the accuracy of these conclusions. In contrast,
             subsequent scans paired incentives with either "Old" or
             "New" conclusions and demonstrated greater activation for
             whichever judgment was potentially rewarded, both with and
             without performance feedback. The data demonstrate that
             striatal activation during recognition judgments does not
             signal monetary reward receipt, cognitive feedback, or
             successful episodic retrieval. Instead, it is heavily
             dependent upon satisfaction of the subjective goals of the
             observer.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3077-09.2010},
   Key = {fds252305}
}

@article{fds252279,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Kranton, RE},
   Title = {Identity economics and the brain: uncovering the mechanisms
             of social conflict.},
   Journal = {Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
             Series B, Biological Sciences},
   Volume = {367},
   Number = {1589},
   Pages = {680-691},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22271784},
   Abstract = {Social contexts can have dramatic effects on decisions. When
             individuals recognize each other as coming from the same
             social group, they can coordinate their actions towards a
             common goal. Conversely, information about group differences
             can lead to conflicts both economic and physical.
             Understanding how social information shapes decision
             processes is now a core goal both of behavioural economics
             and neuroeconomics. Here, we describe the foundations for
             research that combines the theoretical framework from
             identity economics with the experimental methods of
             neuroscience. Research at this intersection would fill
             important gaps in the literature not addressed by current
             approaches in either of these disciplines, nor within social
             neuroscience, psychology or other fields. We set forth a
             simple taxonomy of social contexts based on the information
             content they provide. And, we highlight the key questions
             that would be addressed by a new 'identity neuroeconomics'.
             Such research could serve as an important and novel link
             between the social and natural sciences.},
   Doi = {10.1098/rstb.2011.0264},
   Key = {fds252279}
}

@article{fds252264,
   Author = {Huettel, S and Polger, T and Riley, M},
   Title = {In favor of an ecological account of color},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {33},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X03340014},
   Abstract = {Byrne & Hilbert understate the difficulties facing their
             version of color realism. We doubt that they can fix
             reflectance types and magnitudes in a way that does not
             invoke relations to perceivers. B&H's account, therefore,
             resembles the dispositional or ecological accounts that they
             dismiss. This is a good thing, for a dispositional account
             is promising if understood in an ecological
             framework.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0140525X03340014},
   Key = {fds252264}
}

@article{fds341051,
   Author = {Sullivan, NJ and Fitzsimons, GJ and Platt, ML and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Indulgent Foods Can Paradoxically Promote Disciplined
             Dietary Choices.},
   Journal = {Psychol Sci},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {273-287},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618817509},
   Abstract = {As obesity rates continue to rise, interventions promoting
             healthful choices will become increasingly important. Here,
             participants ( N = 79) made binary choices between familiar
             foods; some trials contained a common consequence that had a
             constant probability of receipt regardless of the
             participant's choice. We theorized-on the basis of
             simulations using a value-normalization model-that indulgent
             common consequences potentiated disciplined choices by
             shaping other options' perceived healthfulness and
             tastiness. Our experimental results confirmed these
             predictions: An indulgent common consequence more than
             doubled the rate of disciplined choices. We used eye-gaze
             data to provide insights into the underlying mechanisms,
             finding that an indulgent common consequence biased eye gaze
             toward healthful foods. Furthermore, attention toward the
             common consequence predicted individual differences in
             behavioral bias. Results were replicated across two
             independent samples receiving distinct goal primes. These
             results demonstrate that introducing an irrelevant indulgent
             food can alter processing of healthier items-and thus
             promote disciplined choices.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797618817509},
   Key = {fds341051}
}

@article{fds252290,
   Author = {Mullette-Gillman, OA and Detwiler, JM and Winecoff, A and Dobbins, I and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Infrequent, task-irrelevant monetary gains and losses engage
             dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal
             cortex.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1395},
   Pages = {53-61},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.04.026},
   Abstract = {Decision making is commonly conceived to reflect the
             interplay of mutually antagonistic systems: executive
             processes must inhibit affective information to make
             adaptive choices. Consistent with this interpretation, prior
             studies have shown that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
             (dlPFC) is activated by executive processing and deactivated
             during emotional processing, with the reverse pattern found
             within the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). To
             evaluate whether this pattern generalizes to other affective
             stimuli--here, monetary rewards--we modified the emotional
             oddball task to use behaviorally irrelevant reward stimuli,
             while matching analysis methods and task parameters to those
             of previous research. Contrary to the double-dissociation
             model advanced for emotional stimuli, we found that monetary
             stimuli produced activations within both the dlPFC and the
             vlPFC. This suggests that monetary stimuli are treated like
             affective stimuli by vlPFC but like task-relevant target
             stimuli by dlPFC. Our results suggest differential
             functional roles in affective and executive processing for
             these brain regions: the dlPFC supports contingency
             processing, while the vlPFC evaluates affective or
             conceptual information.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2011.04.026},
   Key = {fds252290}
}

@article{fds252306,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Payne, JW},
   Title = {Integrating neural and decision sciences: Convergence and
             constraints},
   Journal = {Journal of Marketing Research},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {14-17},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0022-2437},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.46.1.14},
   Doi = {10.1509/jmkr.46.1.14},
   Key = {fds252306}
}

@article{fds252258,
   Author = {Lockhead, GR and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Isomorphisms and subjective colors},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {959-960},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press (CUP)},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0140-525X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99392219},
   Abstract = {Palmer describes a 'subjective barrier' that limits
             knowledge of others' experience. We discuss how this barrier
             extends to all knowledge, becoming less distinct as
             theoretical constructs are strengthened. We provide evidence
             for isomorphic experience, among individuals with similar
             physiologies, by showing that perceived relations between
             colors are as similar when viewing pigments as when viewing
             subjective colors caused by flickering bars.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S0140525X99392219},
   Key = {fds252258}
}

@article{fds322015,
   Author = {Jenke, L and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Issues or Identity? Cognitive Foundations of Voter
             Choice.},
   Journal = {Trends in Cognitive Sciences},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {794-804},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2016.08.013},
   Abstract = {Voter choice is one of the most important problems in
             political science. The most common models assume that voting
             is a rational choice based on policy positions (e.g., key
             issues) and nonpolicy information (e.g., social identity,
             personality). Though such models explain macroscopic
             features of elections, they also reveal important anomalies
             that have been resistant to explanation. We argue for a new
             approach that builds upon recent research in cognitive
             science and neuroscience; specifically, we contend that
             policy positions and social identities do not combine in
             merely an additive manner, but compete to determine voter
             preferences. This model not only explains several key
             anomalies in voter choice, but also suggests new directions
             for research in both political science and cognitive
             science.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.tics.2016.08.013},
   Key = {fds322015}
}

@article{fds329566,
   Author = {Utevsky, AV and Smith, DV and Young, JS and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Large-Scale Network Coupling with the Fusiform Cortex
             Facilitates Future Social Motivation.},
   Journal = {Eneuro},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {ENEURO.0084-17.2017-ENEURO.0084-17.2017},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0084-17.2017},
   Abstract = {Large-scale functional networks, as identified through the
             coordinated activity of spatially distributed brain regions,
             have become central objects of study in neuroscience because
             of their contributions to many processing domains. Yet, it
             remains unclear how these domain-general networks interact
             with focal brain regions to coordinate thought and action.
             Here, we investigated how the default-mode network (DMN) and
             executive control network (ECN), two networks associated
             with goal-directed behavior, shape task performance through
             their coupling with other cortical regions several seconds
             in advance of behavior. We measured these networks'
             connectivity during an adaptation of the monetary incentive
             delay (MID) response-time task in which human participants
             viewed social and nonsocial images (i.e., pictures of faces
             and landscapes, respectively) while brain activity was
             measured using fMRI. We found that participants displayed
             slower reaction times (RTs) subsequent to social trials
             relative to nonsocial trials. To examine the neural
             mechanisms driving this subsequent-RT effect, we integrated
             independent components analysis (ICA) and a network-based
             psychophysiological interaction (nPPI) analysis; this
             allowed us to investigate task-related changes in network
             coupling that preceded the observed trial-to-trial variation
             in RT. Strikingly, when subjects viewed social rewards, an
             area of the fusiform gyrus (FG) consistent with the
             functionally-defined fusiform face area (FFA) exhibited
             increased coupling with the ECN (relative to the DMN), and
             the relative magnitude of coupling tracked the slowing of RT
             on the following trial. These results demonstrate how
             large-scale, domain-general networks can interact with
             focal, domain-specific cortical regions to orchestrate
             subsequent behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1523/ENEURO.0084-17.2017},
   Key = {fds329566}
}

@article{fds252245,
   Author = {Carter, RM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Learning from silver linings.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {80},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-4548},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23734092},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2013.00080},
   Key = {fds252245}
}

@article{fds252329,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and McKeown, MJ and Song, AW and Hart, S and Spencer, DD and Allison, T and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Linking hemodynamic and electrophysiological measures of
             brain activity: evidence from functional MRI and
             intracranial field potentials.},
   Journal = {Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {165-173},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1047-3211},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14704213},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain • Electrophysiology • Epilepsy
             • Evoked Potentials, Visual • Female •
             Hemodynamic Processes • Humans • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Photic Stimulation
             • methods • methods* • physiology* •
             physiopathology},
   Abstract = {We investigated the relation between electrophysiological
             and hemodynamic measures of brain activity through
             comparison of intracranially recorded event-related local
             field potentials (ERPs) and blood-oxygenation level
             dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI).
             We manipulated the duration of visual checkerboard stimuli
             across trials and measured stimulus-duration-related changes
             in ERP and BOLD activity in three brain regions:
             peri-calcarine cortex, the fusiform gyrus and lateral
             temporal-occipital (LTO) cortex. ERPs were recorded from
             patients who had indwelling subdural electrodes as part of
             presurgical testing, while BOLD responses were measured in
             similar brain regions in a second set of subjects. Similar
             BOLD responses were measured in peri-calcarine and fusiform
             regions, with both showing monotonic but non-linear
             increases in hemodynamic amplitude with stimulus duration.
             In sharp contrast, very different ERP responses were
             observed in these same regions, such that calcarine
             electrodes exhibited onset potentials, sustained activity
             over the course of stimulus duration and prominent offset
             potentials, while fusiform electrodes only exhibited onset
             potentials that did not vary with stimulus duration. No
             duration-related ERP or BOLD changes were observed in LTO.
             Additional analyses revealed no consistent changes in the
             EEG spectrum across different brain sites that correlated
             with duration-related changes in the BOLD response. We
             conclude that the relation between ERPs and fMRI differs
             across brain regions.},
   Doi = {10.1093/cercor/bhg115},
   Key = {fds252329}
}

@article{fds252311,
   Author = {Clithero, JA and Carter, RM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Local pattern classification differentiates processes of
             economic valuation.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {1329-1338},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.074},
   Abstract = {For effective decision making, individuals must be able to
             form subjective values from many types of information. Yet,
             the neural mechanisms that underlie potential differences in
             value computation across different decision scenarios are
             incompletely understood. Here, we used functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with the machine
             learning technique of support vector machines (SVM), to
             identify brain regions that contain unique local information
             associated with different types of valuation. We used a
             combinatoric approach that evaluated the unique
             contributions of different brain regions to model
             generalization strength. Local voxel patterns in left
             posterior parietal cortex contained unique information
             differentiating probabilistic and intertemporal valuation, a
             result that was not accessible using standard fMRI analyses.
             We conclude that the early valuation phases for these reward
             types differ on a fine spatial scale, suggesting the
             existence of computational topographies along the value
             construction pathway.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.074},
   Key = {fds252311}
}

@article{fds252285,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Mullette-Gillman, OA and McLaurin, RE and Kuhn, CM and LaBar, KS and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased
             aversion to economic risk.},
   Journal = {Psychol Sci},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {447-453},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21393575},
   Abstract = {Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking
             behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical
             aggression). However, the scant research linking
             testosterone to economic risk preferences presents
             inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between
             endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic
             preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference,
             and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and
             women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a
             significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and
             ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically,
             individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more
             than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and
             ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate
             levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This
             relationship was highly similar in men and women. In
             contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk,
             the present data provide the first robust evidence for a
             nonlinear association between economic preferences and
             levels of endogenous testosterone.},
   Doi = {10.1177/0956797611401752},
   Key = {fds252285}
}

@article{fds252342,
   Author = {Sandstrom, NJ and Kaufman, J and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Males and females use different distal cues in a virtual
             environment navigation task.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {351-360},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0926-6410},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0926-6410(98)00002-0},
   Keywords = {Adult • Analysis of Variance • Cues* • Female
             • Humans • Male • Maze Learning •
             Reaction Time • Sex Characteristics* •
             User-Computer Interface* • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {The study of navigational ability in humans is often limited
             by the restricted availability and inconvenience of using
             large novel environments. In the present study we use a
             computer-generated virtual environment to study sex
             differences in human spatial navigation. Adult male and
             female participants navigated through a virtual water maze
             where both landmarks and room geometry were available as
             distal cues. Manipulation of environmental characteristics
             revealed that females rely predominantly on landmark
             information, while males more readily use both landmark and
             geometric information. We discuss these results as a
             possible link between recent human research reporting
             hippocampal activation in spatial tasks and animal work
             showing sex differences in both spatial ability and
             hippocampal development.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0926-6410(98)00002-0},
   Key = {fds252342}
}

@article{fds252232,
   Author = {Beam, E and Appelbaum, LG and Jack, J and Moody, J and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive
             neuroscience.},
   Journal = {J Cogn Neurosci},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1949-1965},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10645 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the
             biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing
             constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations
             throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we
             visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point
             to directions for future research that will advance its
             integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses
             were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected
             from five major journals over a 30-month period, including
             every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological
             processes. From this, we generate network maps that
             illustrate the relationships among psychological and
             anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that
             guide inferences about network structure. Three
             terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate
             cortex--dominate the network structure with their high
             frequency in the literature and the density of their
             connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network
             statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared
             with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and
             thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the
             discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function),
             or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g.,
             subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are
             disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as
             the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that
             semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive
             neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating
             systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of
             research and by identifying directions that may be most
             productive for future research.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn_a_00604},
   Key = {fds252232}
}

@article{fds252331,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Misiurek, J},
   Title = {Modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by information
             toward a decision rule.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1883-1886},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200408260-00009},
   Keywords = {Adult • Brain Mapping • Decision Making •
             Discrimination Learning • Female • Functional
             Laterality • Humans • Image Processing,
             Computer-Assisted • Magnetic Resonance Imaging •
             Male • Mental Processes • Oxygen • Photic
             Stimulation • Prefrontal Cortex • Reaction Time
             • blood • blood supply • methods •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We used fMRI to investigate how the information content of a
             stimulus influences activity in brain systems that support
             decision making. Subjects learned decision rules that were
             based upon the color, shape, or fill pattern of a series of
             stimuli. Each stimulus was classified by its information
             content, defined formally by the decision rules it excluded.
             While activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)
             increased with increasing stimulus information, activity in
             the striatum did not. In contrast, within both the striatum
             and dlPFC, stimuli consistent with the rule evoked greater
             activity than stimuli inconsistent with the rule. This
             dissociation indicates that dlPFC supports modification of
             sets of stimulus-response contingencies while the striatum
             supports stimulus-specific learning.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-200408260-00009},
   Key = {fds252331}
}

@article{fds330179,
   Author = {Kelly, M and Ngo, L and Chituc, V and Huettel, S and Sinnott-Armstrong,
             W},
   Title = {Moral conformity in online interactions: rational
             justifications increase influence of peer opinions on moral
             judgments},
   Journal = {Social Influence},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2-3},
   Pages = {57-68},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15534510.2017.1323007},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis
             Group. Over the last decade, social media has increasingly
             been used as a platform for political and moral discourse.
             We investigate whether conformity, specifically concerning
             moral attitudes, occurs in these virtual environments apart
             from face-to-face interactions. Participants took an online
             survey and saw either statistical information about the
             frequency of certain responses, as one might see on social
             media (Study 1), or arguments that defend the responses in
             either a rational or emotional way (Study 2). Our results
             show that social information shaped moral judgments, even in
             an impersonal digital setting. Furthermore, rational
             arguments were more effective at eliciting conformity than
             emotional arguments. We discuss the implications of these
             results for theories of moral judgment that prioritize
             emotional responses.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15534510.2017.1323007},
   Key = {fds330179}
}

@article{fds252234,
   Author = {Crozier, JC and Wang, L and Huettel, SA and De Bellis,
             MD},
   Title = {Neural correlates of cognitive and affective processing in
             maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress symptoms: does
             gender matter?},
   Journal = {Dev Psychopathol},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {491-513},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0954-5794},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095457941400008X},
   Abstract = {We investigated the relationship of gender to cognitive and
             affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic
             stress disorder symptoms using functional magnetic resonance
             imaging. Maltreated (N = 29, 13 females, 16 males) and
             nonmaltreated participants (N = 45, 26 females, 19 males)
             performed an emotional oddball task that involved detection
             of targets with fear or scrambled face distractors. Results
             were moderated by gender. During the executive component of
             this task, left precuneus/posterior middle cingulate
             hypoactivation to fear versus calm or scrambled face targets
             were seen in maltreated versus control males and may
             represent dysfunction and less resilience in attentional
             networks. Maltreated males also showed decreased activation
             in the inferior frontal gyrus compared to control males. No
             differences were found in females. Posterior cingulate
             activations positively correlated with posttraumatic stress
             disorder symptoms. While viewing fear faces, maltreated
             females exhibited decreased activity in the dorsomedial
             prefrontal cortex and cerebellum I-VI, whereas maltreated
             males exhibited increased activity in the left hippocampus,
             fusiform cortex, right cerebellar crus I, and visual cortex
             compared to their same-gender controls. Gender by
             maltreatment effects were not attributable to demographic,
             clinical, or maltreatment parameters. Maltreated girls and
             boys exhibited distinct patterns of neural activations
             during executive and affective processing, a new finding in
             the maltreatment literature.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S095457941400008X},
   Key = {fds252234}
}

@article{fds252246,
   Author = {De Bellis, MD and Wang, L and Bergman, SR and Yaxley, RH and Hooper, SR and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Neural mechanisms of risky decision-making and reward
             response in adolescent onset cannabis use
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Drug Alcohol Depend},
   Volume = {133},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {134-145},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0376-8716},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23773952},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Neural mechanisms of decision-making and reward
             response in adolescent cannabis use disorder (CUD) are
             underexplored. METHODS: Three groups of male adolescents
             were studied: CUD in full remission (n=15); controls with
             psychopathology without substance use disorder history
             (n=23); and healthy controls (n=18). We investigated neural
             processing of decision-making and reward under conditions of
             varying risk and uncertainty with the Decision-Reward
             Uncertainty Task while participants were scanned using
             functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Abstinent
             adolescents with CUD compared to controls with
             psychopathology showed hyperactivation in one cluster that
             spanned left superior parietal lobule/left lateral occipital
             cortex/precuneus while making risky decisions that involved
             uncertainty, and hypoactivation in left orbitofrontal cortex
             to rewarded outcomes compared to no-reward after making
             risky decisions. Post hoc region of interest analyses
             revealed that both control groups significantly differed
             from the CUD group (but not from each other) during both the
             decision-making and reward outcome phase of the
             Decision-Reward Uncertainty Task. In the CUD group,
             orbitofrontal activations to reward significantly and
             negatively correlated with total number of individual drug
             classes the CUD patients experimented with prior to
             treatment. CUD duration significantly and negatively
             correlated with orbitofrontal activations to no-reward.
             CONCLUSIONS: The adolescent CUD group demonstrated
             distinctly different activation patterns during risky
             decision-making and reward processing (after risky
             decision-making) compared to both the controls with
             psychopathology and healthy control groups. These findings
             suggest that neural differences in risky decision-making and
             reward processes are present in adolescent addiction,
             persist after remission from first CUD treatment, and may
             contribute to vulnerability for adolescent
             addiction.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.05.020},
   Key = {fds252246}
}

@article{fds332798,
   Author = {Wing, EA and Iyengar, V and Hess, TM and LaBar, KS and Huettel, SA and Cabeza, R},
   Title = {Neural mechanisms underlying subsequent memory for personal
             beliefs:An fMRI study.},
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {216-231},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-018-0563-y},
   Abstract = {Many fMRI studies have examined the neural mechanisms
             supporting emotional memory for stimuli that generate
             emotion rather automatically (e.g., a picture of a dangerous
             animal or of appetizing food). However, far fewer studies
             have examined how memory is influenced by emotion related to
             social and political issues (e.g., a proposal for large
             changes in taxation policy), which clearly vary across
             individuals. In order to investigate the neural substrates
             of affective and mnemonic processes associated with personal
             opinions, we employed an fMRI task wherein participants
             rated the intensity of agreement/disagreement to
             sociopolitical belief statements paired with neural face
             pictures. Following the rating phase, participants performed
             an associative recognition test in which they distinguished
             identical versus recombined face-statement pairs. The study
             yielded three main findings: behaviorally, the intensity of
             agreement ratings was linked to greater subjective emotional
             arousal as well as enhanced high-confidence subsequent
             memory. Neurally, statements that elicited strong (vs. weak)
             agreement or disagreement were associated with greater
             activation of the amygdala. Finally, a subsequent memory
             analysis showed that the behavioral memory advantage for
             statements generating stronger ratings was dependent on the
             medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Together, these results
             both underscore consistencies in neural systems supporting
             emotional arousal and suggest a modulation of
             arousal-related encoding mechanisms when emotion is
             contingent on referencing personal beliefs.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-018-0563-y},
   Key = {fds332798}
}

@article{fds252322,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Stowe, CJ and Gordon, EM and Warner, BT and Platt,
             ML},
   Title = {Neural signatures of economic preferences for risk and
             ambiguity.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {765-775},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0896-6273},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16504951},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Brain • Brain Mapping*
             • Decision Theory • Female • Humans •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Mental Processes •
             Oxygen • Photic Stimulation • Reaction Time •
             Reward* • Risk-Taking* • Statistics •
             Uncertainty* • Visual Perception • blood •
             blood supply • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {People often prefer the known over the unknown, sometimes
             sacrificing potential rewards for the sake of surety.
             Overcoming impulsive preferences for certainty in order to
             exploit uncertain but potentially lucrative options may
             require specialized neural mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate
             by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that
             individuals' preferences for risk (uncertainty with known
             probabilities) and ambiguity (uncertainty with unknown
             probabilities) predict brain activation associated with
             decision making. Activation within the lateral prefrontal
             cortex was predicted by ambiguity preference and was also
             negatively correlated with an independent clinical measure
             of behavioral impulsiveness, suggesting that this region
             implements contextual analysis and inhibits impulsive
             responses. In contrast, activation of the posterior parietal
             cortex was predicted by risk preference. Together, this
             novel double dissociation indicates that decision making
             under ambiguity does not represent a special, more complex
             case of risky decision making; instead, these two forms of
             uncertainty are supported by distinct mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2006.01.024},
   Key = {fds252322}
}

@article{fds252270,
   Author = {Wang, L and Huettel, S and De Bellis, MD},
   Title = {Neural substrates for processing task-irrelevant sad images
             in adolescents.},
   Journal = {Dev Sci},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-32},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18171363},
   Abstract = {Neural systems related to cognitive and emotional processing
             were examined in adolescents using event-related functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten healthy adolescents
             performed an emotional oddball task. Subjects detected
             infrequent circles (targets) within a continual stream of
             phase-scrambled images (standards). Sad and neutral images
             were intermittently presented as task-irrelevant distracters
             (novels). As previously shown for adults, when the
             adolescents responded to the task-relevant targets,
             activation increased in the dorsal attention-executive
             system including the anterior middle frontal gyrus (aMFG),
             dorsal anterior cingulate (ACG), posterior cingulate (PCG),
             insula, and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Unlike adults,
             however, the adolescents exhibited strong activation to the
             emotional distracter images not only in the ventromedial
             prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), but also in the posterior middle
             frontal gyrus (pMFG) and in the parietal cortex. Those
             subjects who had stronger VmPFC activation to emotional
             distraction also had reduced activation in the aMFG during
             target detection, suggesting that emotional information may
             interfere with executive processing in these adolescents. In
             contrast, pMFG and PCG activation to emotional distracters
             was positively correlated with aMFG activation to targets,
             indicating a different role of these regions from the VmPFC.
             The pattern of activation to task-irrelevant emotional
             distraction suggests a possible immaturity of brain function
             in cognitive control over emotional distraction in
             adolescents.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00661.x},
   Key = {fds252270}
}

@article{fds252308,
   Author = {Mullette-Gillman, OA and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Neural substrates of contingency learning and executive
             control: dissociating physical, valuative, and behavioral
             changes.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {23},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/neuro.09.023.2009},
   Abstract = {Contingency learning is fundamental to cognition. Knowledge
             about environmental contingencies allows behavioral
             flexibility, as executive control processes accommodate the
             demands of novel or changing environments. Studies of
             experiential learning have focused on the relationship
             between actions and the values of associated outcomes.
             However, outcome values have often been confounded with the
             physical changes in the outcomes themselves. Here, we
             dissociated contingency learning into valuative and
             non-valuative forms, using a novel version of the
             two-alternative choice task, while measuring the neural
             effects of contingency changes using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (fMRI). Changes in value-relevant
             contingencies evoked activation in the lateral prefrontal
             cortex (LPFC), posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and
             dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) consistent with prior
             results (e.g., reversal-learning paradigms). Changes in
             physical contingencies unrelated to value or to action
             produced similar activations within the LPFC, indicating
             that LPFC may engage in generalized contingency learning
             that is not specific to valuation. In contrast, contingency
             changes that required behavioral shifts evoked activation
             localized to the DMPFC, supplementary motor, and precentral
             cortices, suggesting that these regions play more specific
             roles within the executive control of behavior.},
   Doi = {10.3389/neuro.09.023.2009},
   Key = {fds252308}
}

@article{fds340129,
   Author = {Sweitzer, MM and Watson, KK and Erwin, SR and Winecoff, AA and Datta, N and Huettel, S and Platt, ML and Zucker, NL},
   Title = {Neurobiology of social reward valuation in adults with a
             history of anorexia nervosa.},
   Journal = {Plos One},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {e0205085},
   Year = {2018},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205085},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder characterized
             by atypical patterns of reward valuation (e.g. positive
             valuation of hunger). Atypical reward processing may extend
             into social domains. If so, such findings would be of
             prognostic significance as impaired social functioning
             predicts worse outcome. We explore neural circuits
             implicated in social reward processing in individuals with a
             history of AN who are weight-restored relative to controls
             and examine the effects of illness course on the experience
             of social value. METHOD: 20 weight-restored individuals with
             a history of AN (AN-WR) and 24 healthy control (HC)
             participants were assessed using fMRI tasks that tapped
             social reward: smiling faces and full human figures that
             varied in attractiveness and weight. RESULTS: AN-WR differed
             from HC in attractiveness ratings by weight (negatively
             correlated in AN-WR). While there were no significant
             differences when viewing smiling faces, viewing full figures
             resulted in decreased activation in regions implicated in
             reward valuation (the right caudate) for AN-WR and this
             region was negatively correlated with a sustained course of
             the disorder. Exploratory whole brain analyses revealed
             reduced activation in regions associated with social reward,
             self-referential processing, and cognitive reappraisal
             (e.g., medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and nucleus
             accumbens) with sustained disorder course. DISCUSSION: The
             rewarding value of full body images decreases with a
             sustained disorder course. This may reflect an extension of
             atypical reward processing documented in AN-WR, perhaps as a
             function of starvation dampening visceral motivational
             signals; the deployment of cognitive strategies that lessen
             the experience of reward; and/or the nature of the stimuli
             themselves as provocative of eating disorder symptoms (e.g.,
             thin bodies). These findings did not extend to smiling face
             stimuli. Advances in technology (e.g., virtual avatars, text
             messaging) may provide novel means to build relationships,
             including therapeutic relationships, to support improved
             social connections without threats to symptom
             provocation.},
   Doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0205085},
   Key = {fds340129}
}

@article{fds252282,
   Author = {Paulsen, DJ and Carter, RM and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early
             childhood to adulthood},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {JANUARY 2012},
   Pages = {1-17},
   Publisher = {FRONTIERS MEDIA SA},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000299563000001&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic
             studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure
             gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be
             less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the
             brain regions supporting decision-making under risk do not
             reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is
             possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from
             the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore
             this hypothesis, we tested 5- to 8-year-old children, 14- to
             16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a
             risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI) data acquisition. To our knowledge, this is
             the youngest sample of children in an fMRI decision-making
             task. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to
             increase in activation with age during decision-making,
             including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval
             and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current
             decision-making strategy, e.g., insula, hippocampus, and
             amygdala. Further, children who were more riskaverse showed
             increased activation during decision-making in ventromedial
             prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Our findings
             indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion
             co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting
             decision-making under risk, including the integration of
             prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This
             pattern of results suggests that individual differences in
             the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in
             the maturation of these neural processes. © 2012 Paulsen,
             Carter, Platt, Huettel and Brannon.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2011.00178},
   Key = {fds252282}
}

@article{fds318720,
   Author = {Paulsen, DJ and Carter, RM and Platt, ML and Huettel, SA and Brannon,
             EM},
   Title = {Neurocognitive development of risk aversion from early
             childhood to adulthood.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {178},
   Year = {2011},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00178},
   Abstract = {Human adults tend to avoid risk. In behavioral economic
             studies, risk aversion is manifest as a preference for sure
             gains over uncertain gains. However, children tend to be
             less averse to risk than adults. Given that many of the
             brain regions supporting decision-making under risk do not
             reach maturity until late adolescence or beyond it is
             possible that mature risk-averse behavior may emerge from
             the development of decision-making circuitry. To explore
             this hypothesis, we tested 5- to 8-year-old children, 14- to
             16-year-old adolescents, and young adults in a
             risky-decision task during functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI) data acquisition. To our knowledge, this is
             the youngest sample of children in an fMRI decision-making
             task. We found a number of decision-related brain regions to
             increase in activation with age during decision-making,
             including areas associated with contextual memory retrieval
             and the incorporation of prior outcomes into the current
             decision-making strategy, e.g., insula, hippocampus, and
             amygdala. Further, children who were more risk-averse showed
             increased activation during decision-making in ventromedial
             prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Our findings
             indicate that the emergence of adult levels of risk aversion
             co-occurs with the recruitment of regions supporting
             decision-making under risk, including the integration of
             prior outcomes into current decision-making behavior. This
             pattern of results suggests that individual differences in
             the development of risk aversion may reflect differences in
             the maturation of these neural processes.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2011.00178},
   Key = {fds318720}
}

@article{fds329283,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Sinnott-Armstrong, W and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Neuromarketing: Ethical Implications of its Use and
             Potential Misuse},
   Journal = {Journal of Business Ethics},
   Volume = {144},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {799-811},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10551-016-3059-0},
   Abstract = {© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
             Neuromarketing is an emerging field in which academic and
             industry research scientists employ neuroscience techniques
             to study marketing practices and consumer behavior. The use
             of neuroscience techniques, it is argued, facilitates a more
             direct understanding of how brain states and other
             physiological mechanisms are related to consumer behavior
             and decision making. Herein, we will articulate common
             ethical concerns with neuromarketing as currently practiced,
             focusing on the potential risks to consumers and the ethical
             decisions faced by companies. We argue that the most
             frequently raised concerns—threats to consumer autonomy,
             privacy, and control—do not rise to meaningful ethical
             issues given the current capabilities and implementation of
             neuromarketing research. But, we identify how potentially
             serious ethical issues may emerge from neuromarketing
             research practices in industry, which are largely
             proprietary and opaque. We identify steps that can mitigate
             associated ethical risks and thus reduce the threats to
             consumers. We conclude that neuromarketing has clear
             potential for positive impact on society and consumers, a
             fact rarely considered in the discussion on the ethics of
             neuromarketing.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10551-016-3059-0},
   Key = {fds329283}
}

@article{fds252283,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Clithero, JA and Fitzsimons, GJ and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {New scanner data for brand marketers: How neuroscience can
             help better understand differences in brand
             preferences},
   Journal = {Journal of Consumer Psychology},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {143-153},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1057-7408},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.008},
   Abstract = {A core goal for marketers is effective segmentation:
             partitioning a brand's or product's consumer base into
             distinct and meaningful groups with differing needs.
             Traditional segmentation data include factors like
             geographic location, demographics, and shopping history.
             Yet, research into the cognitive and affective processes
             underlying consumption decisions shows that these variables
             can improve the matching of consumers with products beyond
             traditional demographic and benefit approaches. We propose,
             using managing a brand as an example, that neuroscience
             provides a novel way to establish mappings between cognitive
             processes and traditional marketing data. An improved
             understanding of the neural mechanisms of decision making
             will enhance the ability of marketers to effectively market
             their products. Just as neuroscience can model potential
             influences on the decision process. -including pricing,
             choice strategy, context, experience, and memory. -it can
             also provide new insights into individual differences in
             consumption behavior and brand preferences. We outline such
             a research agenda for incorporating neuroscience data into
             future attempts to match consumers to brands. © 2011
             Society for Consumer Psychology.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jcps.2011.11.008},
   Key = {fds252283}
}

@article{fds252265,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Non-linearities in the blood-oxygenation-level dependent
             (BOLD) response measured by functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI).},
   Journal = {Conference Proceedings : ... Annual International Conference
             of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.
             Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual
             Conference},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {4413-4416},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0589-1019},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/iembs.2004.1404227},
   Abstract = {A central question in the analysis of functional magnetic
             resonance imaging (IMRI) data is whether the measured fMRI
             signal summates in a linear fashion over repeated inputs.
             Most fMRI studies collect images sensitive to
             blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) contrast, which
             measures the local amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin (dHb).
             When neurons are active, more oxygenated hemoglobin is
             supplied than is needed for their metabolic demands,
             resulting in a decrease in dHb and an increase in MR signal.
             For analysis of fMRI data, researchers must therefore create
             experimental hypotheses of the measurable BOLD response
             based upon the predicted neuronal activity. An influential
             early model of the fMRI BOLD response assumes that BOLD
             activity is a linear transformation of neuronal input,
             representing the filtering effects of the vascular system.
             Recent studies have called this interpretation into
             question, due to observed differences in the pattern of
             linearity across brain regions that serve distinct
             functions.},
   Doi = {10.1109/iembs.2004.1404227},
   Key = {fds252265}
}

@article{fds290505,
   Author = {Clithero, JA and Reeck, C and Mckell Carter and R and Smith, DV and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Nucleus accumbens mediates relative motivation for rewards
             in the absence of choice},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Number = {AUGUST},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10252 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states,
             motivation associated with the expected outcome must be
             captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural
             mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in
             motivation, particularly with regard to complex economic
             preferences, are rarely examined in situations without overt
             decisions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging
             in a large sample of participants while they anticipated
             earning rewards from two different modalities: monetary and
             candy rewards. An index for relative motivation toward
             different reward types was constructed using reaction times
             to the target for earning rewards. Activation in the nucleus
             accumbens (NAcc) and anterior insula (aINS) predicted
             individual variation in relative motivation between our
             reward modalities. NAcc activation, however, mediated the
             effects of aINS, indicating the NAcc is the likely source of
             this relative weighting. These results demonstrate that
             neural idiosyncrasies in reward efficacy exist even in the
             absence of explicit choices, and extend the role of NAcc as
             a critical brain region for such choice-free motivation. ©
             2011 Clithero, Reeck, Carter, Smith and Huettel.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2011.00087},
   Key = {fds290505}
}

@article{fds252284,
   Author = {Clithero, JA and Reeck, C and Carter, RM and Smith, DV and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Nucleus accumbens mediates relative motivation for rewards
             in the absence of choice.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {AUGUST},
   Pages = {87},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-5161},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2011.00087},
   Abstract = {To dissociate a choice from its antecedent neural states,
             motivation associated with the expected outcome must be
             captured in the absence of choice. Yet, the neural
             mechanisms that mediate behavioral idiosyncrasies in
             motivation, particularly with regard to complex economic
             preferences, are rarely examined in situations without overt
             decisions. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging
             in a large sample of participants while they anticipated
             earning rewards from two different modalities: monetary and
             candy rewards. An index for relative motivation toward
             different reward types was constructed using reaction times
             to the target for earning rewards. Activation in the nucleus
             accumbens (NAcc) and anterior insula (aINS) predicted
             individual variation in relative motivation between our
             reward modalities. NAcc activation, however, mediated the
             effects of aINS, indicating the NAcc is the likely source of
             this relative weighting. These results demonstrate that
             neural idiosyncrasies in reward efficacy exist even in the
             absence of explicit choices, and extend the role of NAcc as
             a critical brain region for such choice-free
             motivation.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2011.00087},
   Key = {fds252284}
}

@article{fds252338,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Mack, PB and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Perceiving patterns in random series: dynamic processing of
             sequence in prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {485-490},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1097-6256},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn841},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Basal Ganglia • Behavior
             • Brain Mapping • Female • Humans •
             Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male • Pattern
             Recognition, Visual • Photic Stimulation •
             Prefrontal Cortex • Reaction Time • anatomy &
             histology • methods • physiology •
             physiology*},
   Abstract = {We demonstrate that regions within human prefrontal cortex
             develop moment-to-moment models for patterns of events
             occurring in the sensory environment. Subjects viewed a
             random binary sequence of images, each presented singly and
             each requiring a different button press response. Patterns
             occurred by chance within the presented series of images.
             Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we
             identified activity evoked by viewing a stimulus that
             interrupted a pattern. Prefrontal activation was evoked by
             violations of both repeating and alternating patterns, and
             the amplitude of this activation increased with increasing
             pattern length. Violations of repeating patterns, but not of
             alternating patterns, activated the basal
             ganglia.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn841},
   Key = {fds252338}
}

@misc{fds252238,
   Author = {Utevsky, AV and Smith, DV and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Precuneus is a functional core of the default-mode
             network.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {932-940},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4227-13.2014},
   Abstract = {Efforts to understand the functional architecture of the
             brain have consistently identified multiple overlapping
             large-scale neural networks that are observable across
             multiple states. Despite the ubiquity of these networks, it
             remains unclear how regions within these large-scale neural
             networks interact to orchestrate behavior. Here, we
             collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data from
             188 human subjects who engaged in three cognitive tasks and
             a resting-state scan. Using multiple tasks and a large
             sample allowed us to use split-sample validations to test
             for replication of results. We parceled the task-rest pairs
             into functional networks using a probabilistic spatial
             independent components analysis. We examined changes in
             connectivity between task and rest states using
             dual-regression analysis, which quantifies voxelwise
             connectivity estimates for each network of interest while
             controlling for the influence of signals arising from other
             networks and artifacts. Our analyses revealed systematic
             state-dependent functional connectivity in one brain region:
             the precuneus. Specifically, task performance led to
             increased connectivity (compared to rest) between the
             precuneus and the left frontoparietal network (lFPN),
             whereas rest increased connectivity between the precuneus
             and the default-mode network (DMN). The absolute magnitude
             of this effect was greater for DMN, suggesting a heightened
             specialization for resting-state cognition. All results
             replicated within the two independent samples. Our results
             indicate that the precuneus plays a core role not only in
             DMN, but also more broadly through its engagement under a
             variety of processing states.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4227-13.2014},
   Key = {fds252238}
}

@article{fds252269,
   Author = {Henninger, DE and Madden, DJ and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Processing speed and memory mediate age-related differences
             in decision making.},
   Journal = {Psychol Aging},
   Volume = {25},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {262-270},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20545412},
   Abstract = {Decision making under risk changes with age. Increases in
             risk aversion with age have been most commonly
             characterized, although older adults may be risk seeking in
             some decision contexts. An important, and unanswered,
             question is whether these changes in decision making reflect
             a direct effect of aging or, alternatively, an indirect
             effect caused by age-related changes in specific cognitive
             processes. In the current study, older adults (M = 71 years)
             and younger adults (M = 24 years) completed a battery of
             tests of cognitive capacities and decision-making
             preferences. The results indicated systematic effects of age
             upon decision quality-with both increased risk seeking and
             increased risk aversion observed in different
             tasks-consistent with prior studies. Path analyses, however,
             revealed that age-related effects were mediated by
             individual differences in processing speed and memory. When
             those variables were included in the model, age was no
             longer a significant predictor of decision quality. The
             authors conclude that the reduction in decision quality and
             associated changes in risk preferences commonly ascribed to
             aging are instead mediated by age-related changes in
             underlying cognitive capacities.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0019096},
   Key = {fds252269}
}

@article{fds322016,
   Author = {Kwak, Y and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Prosocial Reward Learning in Children and
             Adolescents.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {OCT},
   Pages = {1539},
   Publisher = {FRONTIERS MEDIA SA},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01539},
   Abstract = {Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social
             contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes
             over development-and influences reward learning-we
             investigated how children and adolescents perceive and
             integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic
             risky decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N =
             75, 8-16 years) performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT,
             Kwak et al., 2014) and completed a set of questionnaires
             measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants
             choose amongst four card decks that have different payout
             structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined
             patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how
             reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in
             behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model.
             Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data
             from a previously collected sample of adults (N = 102)
             performing the identical task. We found that that
             children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards
             directed to the charity than self but also showed greater
             prosocial tendencies on independent measures of
             other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also
             showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for
             self at the expense of rewards for others. These results
             support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children
             and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for
             others when making decisions and learning about potential
             rewards.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01539},
   Key = {fds322016}
}

@article{fds252260,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Lockhead, G},
   Title = {Psychologically rational choice: Selection between
             alternatives in a multiple-equilibrium game},
   Journal = {Cognitive Systems Research},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {143-160},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1389-0417(00)00006-1},
   Abstract = {Choice is modeled by game theory through analyses of the
             structure of a game situation. However, at least some
             choices, such as those in games that have more than one
             rational solution, are difficult to address under standard
             game theory. We investigated choice in a simple
             multiple-equilibrium game, Wolf's Dilemma, and found that
             choice depends on both structural components of the game,
             such as the number of opponents, and non-structural
             components, such as judgments about opponents' likely
             choices. Significant effects of trial-to-trial sequence were
             identified. We conclude that game theoretic methods cannot
             deal with multiple and equilibrium games in the absence of a
             psychological understanding of choice, and that
             psychological measures are required to predict performance
             in such games. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1389-0417(00)00006-1},
   Key = {fds252260}
}

@article{fds252334,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Lockhead, GR},
   Title = {Range effects of an irrelevant dimension on
             classification.},
   Journal = {Perception & Psychophysics},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1624-1645},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0031-5117},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10598475},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention* • Female • Humans •
             Loudness Perception* • Male • Pitch
             Discrimination* • Psychoacoustics • Reaction
             Time},
   Abstract = {In univariate classification tasks, subjects sort stimuli on
             the basis of the only attribute that varies. In orthogonal
             classification tasks, often called filtering tasks, there
             additionally are trial-to-trial variations in irrelevant
             attributes that the subjects are instructed to ignore.
             Performance is generally slower in filtering tasks than in
             univariate control tasks. We investigated this slowing in
             experiments of how the range of irrelevant trial-to-trial
             variation affects responses in pitch/loudness classification
             tasks. Using two levels of pitch and of loudness as stimuli,
             Experiment 1 replicated prior work showing that responses
             are slowed more when the range of the irrelevant dimension
             is made larger. Also in Experiment 1, sequential analyses
             showed that response time depends both on sequence and on
             the stimulus set independent of sequence. Experiments 2 and
             3 used several levels on the irrelevant dimension and showed
             that responses to categorize loudness are slowed more by
             larger trial-to-trial pitch differences, but only on trials
             when the response repeats. When the response changes,
             performance is essentially unaffected by trial-to-trial
             irrelevant variation. This interaction supports the
             conclusion that slowed average performance in orthogonal
             classification tasks, which is known as Garner interference,
             is not due to difficulties that subjects have in filtering
             stimulus attributes. It is due to how subjects process
             successive stimulus differences. We call for more frequent
             reports of sequential analyses, because these can reveal
             information that is not available from data
             averages.},
   Doi = {10.3758/bf03213123},
   Key = {fds252334}
}

@article{fds252248,
   Author = {San Martín and R and Appelbaum, LG and Pearson, JM and Huettel, SA and Woldorff, MG},
   Title = {Rapid brain responses independently predict gain
             maximization and loss minimization during economic decision
             making.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {7011-7019},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23595758},
   Abstract = {Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the
             ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an
             agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to
             losses, that agent could still make choices yielding
             suboptimal rewards. Here, by analyzing event-related
             potentials (ERPs) recorded in humans during a probabilistic
             gambling task, we show that individuals' behavioral
             tendencies to maximize gains and to minimize losses are
             associated with their ERP responses to the receipt of those
             gains and losses, respectively. We focused our analyses on
             ERP signals that predict behavioral adjustment: the
             frontocentral feedback-related negativity (FRN) and two P300
             (P3) subcomponents, the frontocentral P3a and the parietal
             P3b. We found that, across participants, gain maximization
             was predicted by differences in amplitude of the P3b for
             suboptimal versus optimal gains (i.e., P3b amplitude
             difference between the least good and the best gains).
             Conversely, loss minimization was predicted by differences
             in the P3b amplitude to suboptimal versus optimal losses
             (i.e., difference between the worst and the least bad
             losses). Finally, we observed that the P3a and P3b, but not
             the FRN, predicted behavioral adjustment on subsequent
             trials, suggesting a specific adaptive mechanism by which
             prior experience may alter ensuing behavior. These findings
             indicate that individual differences in gain maximization
             and loss minimization are linked to individual differences
             in rapid neural responses to monetary outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4242-12.2013},
   Key = {fds252248}
}

@article{fds252315,
   Author = {Goyer, JP and Woldorff, MG and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Rapid electrophysiological brain responses are influenced by
             both valence and magnitude of monetary rewards.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2058-2069},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18416673},
   Abstract = {Abstract Negative outcomes, as identified from external
             feedback, cause a short-latency negative deflection in the
             event-related potential (ERP) waveform over medial frontal
             electrode sites. This brain response, which has been called
             an "error related negativity" (ERN) or "medial frontal
             negativity" (MFN), may reflect a coarse evaluation of
             performance outcomes, such as the valence of a reward within
             a monetary gambling task. Yet, for feedback to lead to the
             adaptive control of behavior, other information concerning
             reward outcomes besides experienced valence may also be
             important. Here, we used a gambling task in which subjects
             chose between two options that could vary in both outcome
             valence (gain or loss) and outcome magnitude (larger or
             smaller). We measured changes in brain ERP responses
             associated with the presentation of the outcomes. We found,
             as shown in prior studies, that valence of the chosen
             outcome has an early effect upon frontal ERPs, with maximal
             difference observed at approximately 250 msec. However, our
             results demonstrated that the early ERP responses to outcome
             feedback were driven not just by valence but by the
             combination of valence and magnitude for both chosen and
             unchosen options. Beginning even earlier, at around 150
             msec, responses to high-consequence outcomes resulted in a
             greater, more centrally distributed, positive potential than
             those involving low-consequence outcomes, independent of
             valence. Furthermore, the amplitude of these early effects
             was significantly modulated by the sequence of outcomes in
             previous trials. These results indicate that early
             evaluation of feedback goes beyond simple identification of
             valence-it involves the consideration of multiple factors,
             including outcome magnitude, context of unchosen options,
             and prior history.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2008.20134},
   Key = {fds252315}
}

@article{fds325991,
   Author = {Li, R and Smith, DV and Clithero, JA and Venkatraman, V and Carter, RM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Reason's Enemy Is Not Emotion: Engagement of Cognitive
             Control Networks Explains Biases in Gain/Loss
             Framing.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {3588-3598},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3486-16.2017},
   Abstract = {In the classic gain/loss framing effect, describing a gamble
             as a potential gain or loss biases people to make
             risk-averse or risk-seeking decisions, respectively. The
             canonical explanation for this effect is that frames
             differentially modulate emotional processes, which in turn
             leads to irrational choice behavior. Here, we evaluate the
             source of framing biases by integrating functional magnetic
             resonance imaging data from 143 human participants
             performing a gain/loss framing task with meta-analytic data
             from >8000 neuroimaging studies. We found that activation
             during choices consistent with the framing effect were most
             correlated with activation associated with the resting or
             default brain, while activation during choices inconsistent
             with the framing effect was most correlated with the
             task-engaged brain. Our findings argue against the common
             interpretation of gain/loss framing as a competition between
             emotion and control. Instead, our study indicates that this
             effect results from differential cognitive engagement across
             decision frames.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The biases frequently
             exhibited by human decision makers have often been
             attributed to the presence of emotion. Using a large fMRI
             sample and analysis of whole-brain networks defined with the
             meta-analytic tool Neurosynth, we find that neural activity
             during frame-biased decisions was more significantly
             associated with default behaviors (and the absence of
             executive control) than with emotion. These findings point
             to a role for neuroscience in shaping long-standing
             psychological theories in decision science.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3486-16.2017},
   Key = {fds325991}
}

@article{fds323690,
   Author = {Coutlee, CG and Kiyonaga, A and Korb, FM and Huettel, SA and Egner,
             T},
   Title = {Reduced Risk-Taking following Disruption of the
             Intraparietal Sulcus.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {10},
   Pages = {588},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00588},
   Abstract = {Decision makers frequently encounter opportunities to pursue
             great gains-assuming they are willing to accept greater
             risks. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that
             activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the inferior
             frontal junction (IFJ) are associated with individual
             preferences for economic risk ("known unknowns," e.g., a 50%
             chance of winning $5) and ambiguity ("unknown unknowns,"
             e.g., an unknown chance of winning $5), respectively.
             Whether processing in these regions causally enables
             risk-taking for individual decisions, however, remains
             unknown. To examine this question, we assessed the decision
             to engage in risk-taking after disrupting neural processing
             in the IPS and IFJ of healthy human participants using
             repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. While
             stimulation of the IFJ resulted in general slowing of
             decision times, disrupting neural processing within the IPS
             selectively suppressed risk-taking, biasing choices toward
             certain options featuring both lower risks and lower
             expected rewards. Our results are the first to demonstrate
             the necessity of intact IPS function for choosing uncertain
             outcomes when faced with calculable risks and rewards.
             Engagement of IPS during decision making may support a
             willingness to accept uncertain outcomes for a chance to
             obtain greater gains.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2016.00588},
   Key = {fds323690}
}

@article{fds252336,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Regional differences in the refractory period of the
             hemodynamic response: an event-related fMRI
             study.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {967-976},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2001.0900},
   Keywords = {Adult • Arousal • Attention • Brain Mapping
             • Echo-Planar Imaging • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Face • Female • Hemodynamic Processes
             • Humans • Image Enhancement • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging* • Male • Oxygen Consumption
             • Pattern Recognition, Visual • Reaction Time
             • Refractory Period, Electrophysiological •
             Regional Blood Flow • Visual Cortex • blood
             supply* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We investigated the characteristics of the hemodynamic
             response (HDR) to paired presentations of visual face
             stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
             Photographs of faces were presented singly or in pairs with
             either a 1-s or 6-s intrapair interval (IPI). Each trial
             (single face or face pairs) was followed by an intertrial
             interval of 16-20 s. Faces were presented at fixation and
             passively viewed by the 10 subjects. Images were acquired at
             1.5 Tesla using a gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence
             sensitive to blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD)
             contrast. To examine the refractory properties of the HDR,
             we subtracted the single-stimulus hemodynamic response from
             the composite response evoked by face pairs for all voxels
             significantly active on single face trials. The residual
             represents the contribution of the second stimulus to the
             fMRI signal. Event-related presentation of faces evoked
             activity in medial calcarine cortex and the fusiform gyrus
             bilaterally. In both calcarine and fusiform regions, the
             hemodynamic response to the second face in a pair was of
             lower amplitude and of increased latency at 1 s IPI, with
             significant recovery of both amplitude and latency toward
             single-stimulus values at 6 s IPI. At 1 s IPI, significantly
             greater recovery was found in posterior fusiform regions
             (50-60%) than in midfusiform regions (10-40%). These
             regional differences were not apparent at 6 s IPI. No
             differences were found across slices in calcarine cortex.
             There was a significant difference in mean latency to HDR
             peak between calcarine and fusiform cortex, with the HDR
             peaking about 400 ms earlier in calcarine cortex. We
             conclude that characteristics of the HDR, notably its
             amplitude, latency, and refractory properties, differ across
             visual cortical areas.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2001.0900},
   Key = {fds252336}
}

@article{fds252307,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Rosati, AG and Taren, AA and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Resolving response, decision, and strategic control:
             evidence for a functional topography in dorsomedial
             prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {42},
   Pages = {13158-13164},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0270-6474},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/6928 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) plays a central
             role in aspects of cognitive control and decision making.
             Here, we provide evidence for an anterior-to-posterior
             topography within the DMPFC using tasks that evoke three
             distinct forms of control demands--response, decision, and
             strategic--each of which could be mapped onto independent
             behavioral data. Specifically, we identify three spatially
             distinct regions within the DMPFC: a posterior region
             associated with control demands evoked by multiple
             incompatible responses, a middle region associated with
             control demands evoked by the relative desirability of
             decision options, and an anterior region that predicts
             control demands related to deviations from an individual's
             preferred decision-making strategy. These results provide
             new insight into the functional organization of DMPFC and
             suggest how recent controversies about its role in complex
             decision making and response mapping can be
             reconciled.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2708-09.2009},
   Key = {fds252307}
}

@article{fds252228,
   Author = {Murty, VP and Shermohammed, M and Smith, DV and Carter, RM and Huettel,
             SA and Adcock, RA},
   Title = {Resting state networks distinguish human ventral tegmental
             area from substantia nigra.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {100},
   Pages = {580-589},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.047},
   Abstract = {Dopaminergic networks modulate neural processing across a
             spectrum of function from perception to learning to action.
             Multiple organizational schemes based on anatomy and
             function have been proposed for dopaminergic nuclei in the
             midbrain. One schema originating in rodent models delineated
             ventral tegmental area (VTA), implicated in complex
             behaviors like addiction, from more lateral substantia nigra
             (SN), preferentially implicated in movement. However,
             because anatomy and function in rodent midbrain differs from
             the primate midbrain in important ways, the utility of this
             distinction for human neuroscience has been questioned. We
             asked whether functional definition of networks within the
             human dopaminergic midbrain would recapitulate this
             traditional anatomical topology. We first developed a method
             for reliably defining SN and VTA in humans at conventional
             MRI resolution. Hand-drawn VTA and SN regions-of-interest
             (ROIs) were constructed for 50 participants, using
             individually-localized anatomical landmarks and signal
             intensity. Individual segmentation was used in seed-based
             functional connectivity analysis of resting-state functional
             MRI data; results of this analysis recapitulated traditional
             anatomical targets of the VTA versus SN. Next, we
             constructed a probabilistic atlas of the VTA, SN, and the
             dopaminergic midbrain region (comprised of SN plus VTA) from
             individual hand-drawn ROIs. The combined probabilistic (SN
             plus VTA) ROI was then used for connectivity-based
             dual-regression analysis in two independent resting-state
             datasets (n = 69 and n = 79). Results of the
             connectivity-based, dual-regression functional segmentation
             recapitulated results of the anatomical segmentation,
             validating the utility of this probabilistic atlas for
             future research.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.06.047},
   Key = {fds252228}
}

@article{fds339650,
   Author = {Hobkirk, AL and Bell, RP and Utevsky, AV and Huettel, S and Meade,
             CS},
   Title = {Reward and executive control network resting-state
             functional connectivity is associated with impulsivity
             during reward-based decision making for cocaine
             users.},
   Journal = {Drug and Alcohol Dependence},
   Volume = {194},
   Pages = {32-39},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.013},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Cocaine addiction is related to impulsive
             decision making that is mediated by brain circuitry involved
             in reward processing and executive functions, such as
             cognitive control and attentional salience. Resting-state
             functional connectivity between reward and executive control
             circuitry is altered among cocaine users, with concomitant
             deficits in impulsivity and learning. Prior research has
             examined how select brain regions interact to influence
             impulsive decision making for drug users; however, research
             examining interactions between large-scale brain networks
             and impulsive behavior is limited. METHODS:The current study
             compared reward and executive control network resting-state
             functional connectivity and its relationship to impulsive
             decision making between cocaine users (n = 37) and
             non-cocaine using control participants (n = 35).
             Participants completed computerized decision-making tasks
             and a separate resting-state functional magnetic resonance
             imaging scan. Data underwent independent component, dual
             regression, and linear regression moderation analyses.
             RESULTS:Higher impulsivity on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task
             (BART) was associated with inverse resting-state
             connectivity between the left cognitive control and
             subgenual anterior cingulate extended reward networks for
             cocaine users, while the opposite was found for controls.
             Less impulsivity on the monetary choice questionnaire was
             associated with stronger positive resting-state connectivity
             between the attentional salience and striatal core reward
             networks for controls, while cocaine users showed no
             association between impulsivity and resting-state
             connectivity of these networks. CONCLUSIONS:Cocaine users
             show aberrant associations between reward-executive control
             resting-state network coupling and impulsive decision
             making. The findings support the conclusion that an
             imbalance between reward and executive control circuitry
             contributes to impulsivity in drug use.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.09.013},
   Key = {fds339650}
}

@article{fds252320,
   Author = {Platt, ML and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Risky business: the neuroeconomics of decision making under
             uncertainty.},
   Journal = {Nature Neuroscience},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {398-403},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1097-6256},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18368046},
   Keywords = {Animals • Brain • Choice Behavior* • Decision
             Making* • Female • Humans • Male •
             Probability Learning • Reinforcement (Psychology)
             • Risk-Taking* • Sex Factors • Uncertainty*
             • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Many decisions involve uncertainty, or imperfect knowledge
             about how choices lead to outcomes. Colloquial notions of
             uncertainty, particularly when describing a decision as
             'risky', often carry connotations of potential danger as
             well. Gambling on a long shot, whether a horse at the
             racetrack or a foreign oil company in a hedge fund, can have
             negative consequences, but the impact of uncertainty on
             decision making extends beyond gambling. Indeed, uncertainty
             in some form pervades nearly all our choices in daily life.
             Stepping into traffic to hail a cab, braving an ice storm to
             be the first at work, or dating the boss's son or daughter
             also offer potentially great windfalls, at the expense of
             surety. We continually face trade-offs between options that
             promise safety and others that offer an uncertain potential
             for jackpot or bust. When mechanisms for dealing with
             uncertain outcomes fail, as in mental disorders such as
             problem gambling or addiction, the results can be
             disastrous. Thus, understanding decision making-indeed,
             understanding behavior itself-requires knowing how the brain
             responds to and uses information about uncertainty.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn2062},
   Key = {fds252320}
}

@article{fds252316,
   Author = {Marks, BL and Madden, DJ and Bucur, B and Provenzale, JM and White, LE and Cabeza, R and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Role of aerobic fitness and aging on cerebral white matter
             integrity.},
   Journal = {Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
   Volume = {1097},
   Pages = {171-174},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0077-8923},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17413020},
   Keywords = {Adult • Aerobiosis • Aged • Aging •
             Anaerobic Threshold • Anisotropy • Body Mass Index
             • Brain • Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Female • Humans • Male • Motor
             Activity • Oxygen Consumption • Physical Fitness
             • Sex Characteristics • growth & development*
             • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Neuroimaging research suggests that cerebral white matter
             (WM) integrity, as reflected in fractional anisotropy (FA)
             via diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is decreased in older
             adults, especially in the prefrontal regions of the brain.
             Behavioral investigations of cognitive functioning suggest
             that some aspects of cognition may be better preserved in
             older adults who possess higher levels of aerobic fitness.
             There are only a few studies, however, investigating
             potential mechanisms for the improvements in aerobic
             fitness. Our study suggests that greater aerobic fitness may
             be related to greater WM integrity in select brain
             regions.},
   Doi = {10.1196/annals.1379.022},
   Key = {fds252316}
}

@article{fds252319,
   Author = {Han, S and Huettel, SA and Dobbins, IG},
   Title = {Rule-dependent prefrontal cortex activity across episodic
             and perceptual decisions: an fMRI investigation of the
             criterial classification account.},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {922-937},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2009.21060},
   Abstract = {Although lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is clearly
             involved in decision-making, competing functional
             characterizations exist. One characterization posits that
             activation reflects the need to select among competing
             representations. In contrast, recent fMRI research suggests
             that activation is driven by the criterial classification of
             representations, even with minimal competition. To
             adjudicate between these hypotheses, we used event-related
             fMRI and contrasted tasks that required different numbers of
             criterial classifications prior to response in both
             perceptual and memory domains. Additionally, we manipulated
             the level of interstimulus competition by increasing the
             number of probes. Experiment 1 demonstrated that LPFC
             activation tracked the number of intermediate
             classifications during trials yet was insensitive to the
             number of competing probes and the behavioral decline
             accompanying competition. Furthermore, Experiment 2
             demonstrated equivalent increases in LPFC activation for a
             task requiring two overt criterial classifications
             (independent classification) and one requiring two covert
             criterial classifications prior to the single overt response
             (same-different judgment). As found in Experiment 1, both
             tasks showed greater activation than a judgment requiring
             only one classification act (forced choice). These data
             indicate that LPFC responses reflect the number of executed
             criterial classifications or judgments, independent of the
             number of competing stimuli and the overt response demands
             of the decision task.},
   Doi = {10.1162/jocn.2009.21060},
   Key = {fds252319}
}

@article{fds252299,
   Author = {Morey, RA and Selgrade, ES and Wagner, HR and Huettel, SA and Wang, L and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {Scan-rescan reliability of subcortical brain volumes derived
             from automated segmentation.},
   Journal = {Hum Brain Mapp},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1751-1762},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20162602},
   Abstract = {Large-scale longitudinal studies of regional brain volume
             require reliable quantification using automated segmentation
             and labeling. However, repeated MR scanning of the same
             subject, even if using the same scanner and acquisition
             parameters, does not result in identical images due to small
             changes in image orientation, changes in prescan parameters,
             and magnetic field instability. These differences may lead
             to appreciable changes in estimates of volume for different
             structures. This study examined scan-rescan reliability of
             automated segmentation algorithms for measuring several
             subcortical regions, using both within-day and across-day
             comparison sessions in a group of 23 normal participants. We
             found that the reliability of volume measures including
             percent volume difference, percent volume overlap (Dice's
             coefficient), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC),
             varied substantially across brain regions. Low reliability
             was observed in some structures such as the amygdala (ICC =
             0.6), with higher reliability (ICC = 0.9) for other
             structures such as the thalamus and caudate. Patterns of
             reliability across regions were similar for automated
             segmentation with FSL/FIRST and FreeSurfer (longitudinal
             stream). Reliability was associated with the volume of the
             structure, the ratio of volume to surface area for the
             structure, the magnitude of the interscan interval, and the
             method of segmentation. Sample size estimates for detecting
             changes in brain volume for a range of likely effect sizes
             also differed by region. Thus, longitudinal research
             requires a careful analysis of sample size and choice of
             segmentation method combined with a consideration of the
             brain structure(s) of interest and the magnitude of the
             anticipated effects.},
   Doi = {10.1002/hbm.20973},
   Key = {fds252299}
}

@misc{fds252288,
   Author = {Stanton, SJ and Mullette-Gillman, OA and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Seasonal variation of salivary testosterone in men, normally
             cycling women, and women using hormonal contraceptives.},
   Journal = {Physiology & Behavior},
   Volume = {104},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {804-808},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0031-9384},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.07.009},
   Abstract = {Humans' endogenous testosterone concentrations vary over a
             number of temporal scales, with little known about variation
             longer than monthly cycles. Past studies of seasonal or
             circannual variation have principally used male participants
             and have produced inconsistent results. Thus, little is
             known about how testosterone concentrations fluctuate
             throughout the year, whether such variation differs between
             men and women, and whether there are influences of hormonal
             contraceptive use. The present study collected saliva
             samples from a large sample (N=718) of men and women, each
             collected at one time point within a relatively uniform
             distribution over a full calendar year. Both men and
             normally-cycling women displayed seasonal variation in
             salivary testosterone concentrations, such that testosterone
             concentrations are maximal in the fall and minimal in the
             summer. Notably, normally-cycling women had testosterone
             concentrations that were over 100% greater at their maximum
             in fall compared to their minimum in summer. Women using
             hormonal contraceptives not only had consistently lower
             endogenous testosterone concentrations, but also showed a
             flatter seasonal testosterone profile. The implications for
             studies of psychology and human behavioral endocrinology are
             discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.07.009},
   Key = {fds252288}
}

@article{fds252215,
   Author = {Massar, SAA and Libedinsky, C and Weiyan, C and Huettel, SA and Chee,
             MWL},
   Title = {Separate and overlapping brain areas encode subjective value
             during delay and effort discounting.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {120},
   Pages = {104-113},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.080},
   Abstract = {Making decisions about rewards that involve delay or effort
             requires the integration of value and cost information. The
             brain areas recruited in this integration have been well
             characterized for delay discounting. However only a few
             studies have investigated how effort costs are integrated
             into value signals to eventually determine choice. In
             contrast to previous studies that have evaluated fMRI
             signals related to physical effort, we used a task that
             focused on cognitive effort. Participants discounted the
             value of delayed and effortful rewards. The value of
             cognitively effortful rewards was represented in the
             anterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus and
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the value of
             the chosen option was encoded in the anterior cingulate
             cortex, caudate, and cerebellum. While most brain regions
             showed no significant dissociation between effort
             discounting and delay discounting, the ACC was significantly
             more activated in effort compared to delay discounting
             tasks. Finally, overlapping regions within the right
             orbitofrontal cortex and lateral temporal and parietal
             cortices encoded the value of the chosen option during both
             delay and effort discounting tasks. These results indicate
             that encoding of rewards discounted by cognitive effort and
             delay involves partially dissociable brain areas, but a
             common representation of chosen value is present in the
             orbitofrontal, temporal and parietal cortices.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.080},
   Key = {fds252215}
}

@article{fds252309,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Payne, JW and Bettman, JR and Luce, MF and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Separate neural mechanisms underlie choices and strategic
             preferences in risky decision making.},
   Journal = {Neuron},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {593-602},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19477159},
   Abstract = {Adaptive decision making in real-world contexts often relies
             on strategic simplifications of decision problems. Yet, the
             neural mechanisms that shape these strategies and their
             implementation remain largely unknown. Using an economic
             decision-making task, we dissociate brain regions that
             predict specific choices from those predicting an
             individual's preferred strategy. Choices that maximized
             gains or minimized losses were predicted by functional
             magnetic resonance imaging activation in ventromedial
             prefrontal cortex or anterior insula, respectively. However,
             choices that followed a simplifying strategy (i.e.,
             attending to overall probability of winning) were associated
             with activation in parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices.
             Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, through differential
             functional connectivity with parietal and insular cortex,
             predicted individual variability in strategic preferences.
             Finally, we demonstrate that robust decision strategies
             follow from neural sensitivity to rewards. We conclude that
             decision making reflects more than compensatory interaction
             of choice-related regions; in addition, specific brain
             systems potentiate choices depending on strategies, traits,
             and context.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuron.2009.04.007},
   Key = {fds252309}
}

@article{fds252249,
   Author = {Libedinsky, C and Massar, SAA and Ling, A and Chee, W and Huettel, SA and Chee, MWL},
   Title = {Sleep deprivation alters effort discounting but not delay
             discounting of monetary rewards.},
   Journal = {Sleep},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {899-904},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23729933},
   Abstract = {STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sleep deprivation
             would affect the discounting of delayed rewards, of rewards
             entailing the expense of effort, or both. DESIGN: We
             measured rates of two types of reward discounting under
             conditions of rested wakefulness (RW) and sleep deprivation
             (SD). Delay discounting was defined as the willingness to
             accept smaller monetary rewards sooner rather than larger
             monetary rewards later. Effort discounting was defined as
             the willingness to accept smaller rewards that require less
             effort to obtain (e.g., typing a small number of letter
             strings backward) over larger but more effortful rewards
             (e.g., typing more letter strings to receive the reward).
             The first two experiments used a crossover design in which
             one session was conducted after a normal night of sleep
             (RW), and the other after a night without sleep (SD). The
             first experiment evaluated only temporal discounting whereas
             the second evaluated temporal and effort discounting. In the
             second experiment, the discounting tasks were repeatedly
             administered prior to the state comparisons to minimize the
             effects of order and/or repeated testing. In a third
             experiment, participants were studied only once in a
             between-subject evaluation of discounting across states.
             SETTING: The study took place in a research laboratory.
             PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-seven healthy young adult
             participants: 20 in Experiment 1, 27 in Experiment 2, and 30
             in Experiment 3. INTERVENTIONS: N/A. MEASUREMENTS AND
             RESULTS: Sleep deprivation elicited increased effort
             discounting but did not affect delay discounting.
             CONCLUSIONS: The dissociable effects of sleep deprivation on
             two forms of discounting behavior suggest that they may have
             differing underlying neural mechanisms.},
   Doi = {10.5665/sleep.2720},
   Key = {fds252249}
}

@article{fds252287,
   Author = {Libedinsky, C and Smith, DV and Teng, CS and Namburi, P and Chen, VW and Huettel, SA and Chee, MWL},
   Title = {Sleep deprivation alters valuation signals in the
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {70},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22028686},
   Abstract = {Even a single night of total sleep deprivation (SD) can have
             dramatic effects on economic decision making. Here we tested
             the novel hypothesis that SD influences economic decisions
             by altering the valuation process. Using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging we identified value signals related to the
             anticipation and the experience of monetary and social
             rewards (attractive female faces). We then derived decision
             value signals that were predictive of each participant's
             willingness to exchange money for brief views of attractive
             faces in an independent market task. Strikingly, SD altered
             decision value signals in ventromedial prefrontal cortex
             (VMPFC) in proportion to the corresponding change in
             economic preferences. These changes in preference were
             independent of the effects of SD on attention and vigilance.
             Our results provide novel evidence that signals in VMPFC
             track the current state of the individual, and thus reflect
             not static but constructed preferences.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00070},
   Key = {fds252287}
}

@article{fds252293,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Huettel, SA and Chuah, LYM and Payne, JW and Chee,
             MWL},
   Title = {Sleep deprivation biases the neural mechanisms underlying
             economic preferences.},
   Journal = {The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the
             Society for Neuroscience},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {3712-3718},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21389226},
   Abstract = {A single night of sleep deprivation (SD) evoked a strategy
             shift during risky decision making such that healthy human
             volunteers moved from defending against losses to seeking
             increased gains. This change in economic preferences was
             correlated with the magnitude of an SD-driven increase in
             ventromedial prefrontal activation as well as by an
             SD-driven decrease in anterior insula activation during
             decision making. Analogous changes were observed during
             receipt of reward outcomes: elevated activation to gains in
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, but
             attenuated anterior insula activation following losses.
             Finally, the observed shift in economic preferences was not
             correlated with change in psychomotor vigilance. These
             results suggest that a night of total sleep deprivation
             affects the neural mechanisms underlying economic
             preferences independent of its effects on vigilant
             attention.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4407-10.2011},
   Key = {fds252293}
}

@article{fds252318,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Chuah, YML and Huettel, SA and Chee,
             MWL},
   Title = {Sleep deprivation elevates expectation of gains and
             attenuates response to losses following risky
             decisions.},
   Journal = {Sleep},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {603-609},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0161-8105},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17552375},
   Keywords = {Adult • Affect* • Brain Mapping • Cerebral
             Cortex • Choice Behavior • Decision Making* •
             Dominance, Cerebral • Female • Frontal Lobe •
             Gambling • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
             • Male • Nucleus Accumbens • Reaction Time
             • Reward* • Set (Psychology)* • Sleep
             Deprivation • physiology • physiopathology •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {STUDY OBJECTIVES:Using a gambling task, we investigated how
             24 hours of sleep deprivation modulates the neural response
             to the making of risky decisions with potentially
             loss-bearing outcomes. DESIGN:Two experiments involving
             sleep-deprived subjects were performed. In the first, neural
             responses to decision making and reward outcome were
             evaluated. A second control experiment evaluated responses
             to reward outcome only. PARTICIPANTS:Healthy right-handed
             adults participated in these experiments (26 [mean age 21.3
             years] in Experiment 1 and 13 [mean age 21.7 years] in
             Experiment 2.) MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Following sleep
             deprivation, choices involving higher relative risk elicited
             greater activation in the right nucleus accumbens,
             signifying an elevated expectation of the higher reward once
             the riskier choice was made. Concurrently, activation for
             losses in the insular and orbitofrontal cortices was
             reduced, denoting a diminished response to losses. This
             latter finding of reduced insular activation to losses was
             also true when volunteers were merely shown the results of
             the computer's decision, that is, without having to make
             their own choice. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that
             sleep deprivation poses a dual threat to competent decision
             making by modulating activation in nucleus accumbens and
             insula, brain regions associated with risky decision making
             and emotional processing.},
   Doi = {10.1093/sleep/30.5.603},
   Key = {fds252318}
}

@article{fds344828,
   Author = {Warwick, H and Hutyra, C and Politzer, C and Francis, A and Risoli, T and Green, C and Verma, N and Huettel, S and Mather, RC},
   Title = {Small Social Incentives Did Not Improve the Survey Response
             Rate of Patients Who Underwent Orthopaedic Surgery: A
             Randomized Trial.},
   Journal = {Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research},
   Volume = {477},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1648-1656},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000732},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The generalizability of data derived from
             patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) depends largely on
             the proportion of the relevant population that completes
             PROM surveys. However, PROM survey responses remain low,
             despite efforts to increase participation. Social
             incentives, such as the offer to make a charitable donation
             on behalf of the survey respondent, have generally not been
             effective where online surveys are concerned, but this has
             not been extensively tested in medicine. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:
             (1) Do personalized social incentives increase response
             rates or response completeness for postoperative PROM
             surveys in an orthopaedic population? (2) Are there
             demographic factors associated with response and nonresponse
             to postoperative PROM surveys? (3) Are some demographic
             factors associated with increased response to social
             incentive offers? METHODS: Participants were selected from
             an institutional orthopaedics database. Patients were older
             than 18 years, had an email address on file, and had
             undergone one of the following procedures 1 to 2 years ago:
             Achilles tendon repair, ACL reconstruction, meniscectomy,
             hip arthroscopy, TKA, or THA. Of 4685 eligible patients,
             3000 (64%) were randomly selected for inclusion in the
             study. Participants were randomized to one of four groups:
             (1) control: no incentive (n = 750); (2) patient donation:
             offer of a USD 5 donation to provide medical supplies to a
             pediatric orthopaedic patient (n = 751); (3) research
             donation: offer of a USD 5 donation to a procedure-specific
             research program (n = 749); or (4) explanation: explanation
             that response supports quality improvement (n = 750). The
             four groups did not differ regarding patient age, gender,
             race, procedure type, or time since procedure. All patients
             were sent an email invitation with the same PROM survey
             link. The proportion of patients who responded (defined here
             as the response rate) was measured at 4 weeks and compared
             between intervention groups. We used a logistic regression
             analysis to identify demographic factors associated with
             response while controlling for confounding variables and
             performed subgroup analyses to determine any demographic
             factors associated with increased response to social
             incentives. RESULTS: There was no difference in the overall
             response rate (research donation: 49% [353 of 725], patient
             donation: 45% [333 of 734], control: 45% [322 of 723],
             explanation: 44% [314 of 719]; p = 0.239) or response
             completeness (research donation: 89% [315 of 353], patient
             donation: 90% [301 of 333], control: 89% [287 of 322],
             explanation: 87% [274 of 314]; p = 0.647) between the four
             groups. Women (odds ratio [OR], 1.175; p = 0.042), older
             patients (< 58 years: OR, 1.016 per 1-year increase; p =
             0.001; 58-64 years: OR, 1.023 per 1-year increase; p <
             0.001; > 64 years: OR, 1.021 per 1-year increase; p <
             0.001), and white patients (OR 2.034 compared with black
             patients, p < 0.001) were slightly more likely to respond,
             after controlling for potential confounding variables such
             as gender, age, race, and procedure type. In subgroup
             analyses, men (research donation: 49% [155 of 316], patient
             donation: 45% [146 of 328], control: 40% [130 of 325],
             explanation: 39% [127 of 325]; p = 0.041) and patients
             younger than 58 years (research donation: 40% [140 of 351],
             control: 35% [130 of 371], patient donation: 32% [113 of
             357], explanation: 27% [93 of 340]; p = 0.004) were slightly
             more likely to respond to the research donation than those
             with other interventions were. CONCLUSIONS: Despite small
             effects in specific subgroups, personalized social
             incentives did not increase the overall response to
             postoperative orthopaedic surveys. Novel and targeted
             strategies will be necessary to reach response thresholds
             that enable healthcare stakeholders to use PROMs
             effectively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, therapeutic
             study.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CORR.0000000000000732},
   Key = {fds344828}
}

@article{fds252272,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Strategic control in decision-making under
             uncertainty.},
   Journal = {The European Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1075-1082},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0953-816X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08009.x},
   Abstract = {Complex economic decisions - whether investing money for
             retirement or purchasing some new electronic gadget - often
             involve uncertainty about the likely consequences of our
             choices. Critical for resolving that uncertainty are
             strategic meta-decision processes, which allow people to
             simplify complex decision problems, evaluate outcomes
             against a variety of contexts, and flexibly match behavior
             to changes in the environment. In recent years, substantial
             research has implicated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex
             (dmPFC) in the flexible control of behavior. However, nearly
             all such evidence comes from paradigms involving executive
             function or response selection, not complex decision-making.
             Here, we review evidence that demonstrates that the dmPFC
             contributes to strategic control in complex decision-making.
             This region contains a functional topography such that the
             posterior dmPFC supports response-related control, whereas
             the anterior dmPFC supports strategic control. Activation in
             the anterior dmPFC signals changes in how a decision problem
             is represented, which in turn can shape computational
             processes elsewhere in the brain. Based on these findings,
             we argue for both generalized contributions of the dmPFC to
             cognitive control, and specific computational roles for its
             subregions depending upon the task demands and context. We
             also contend that these strategic considerations are likely
             to be critical for decision-making in other domains,
             including interpersonal interactions in social
             settings.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1460-9568.2012.08009.x},
   Key = {fds252272}
}

@article{fds252220,
   Author = {Young, JS and Smith, DV and Coutlee, CG and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is
             associated with subclinical variation in autistic
             traits},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Human Neuroscience},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {MAR},
   Publisher = {FRONTIERS MEDIA SA},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10251 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {© 2015 Young, Smith, Coutlee and Huettel. Individuals with
             autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality
             traits linked to attentional, social, and affective
             functions, and those traits are expressed with varying
             levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical
             population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to
             reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e.,
             underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony) with neural
             networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective
             functions. Yet, it remains unclear whether reduced synchrony
             between these neural networks contributes to autistic
             traits. To investigate this issue, we used functional
             magnetic resonance imaging to record brain activation while
             neurotypical participants who varied in their subclinical
             scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) viewed
             alternating blocks of social and nonsocial stimuli (i.e.,
             images of faces and of landscape scenes). We used
             independent component analysis (ICA) combined with a
             spatiotemporal regression to quantify synchrony between
             neural networks. Our results indicated that decreased
             synchrony between the executive control network (ECN) and a
             face-scene network (FSN) predicted higher scores on the AQ.
             This relationship was not explained by individual
             differences in head motion, preferences for faces, or
             personality variables related to social cognition. Our
             findings build on clinical reports by demonstrating that
             reduced synchrony between distinct neural networks
             contributes to a range of subclinical autistic
             traits.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnhum.2015.00146},
   Key = {fds252220}
}

@article{fds338534,
   Author = {Meade, CS and Bell, RP and Towe, SL and Chen, N-K and Hobkirk, AL and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Synergistic effects of marijuana abuse and HIV infection on
             neural activation during a cognitive interference
             task.},
   Journal = {Addict Biol},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1235-1244},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12678},
   Abstract = {Marijuana use, which is disproportionately prevalent among
             human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, can
             alter activity in fronto-parietal regions during cognitively
             demanding tasks. While HIV is also associated with altered
             neural activation, it is not known how marijuana may further
             affect brain function in this population. Our study examined
             the independent and additive effects of HIV infection and
             regular marijuana use on neural activation during a
             cognitive interference task. The sample included 93 adults
             who differed on marijuana (MJ) and HIV statuses
             (20 MJ+/HIV+, 19 MJ+/HIV-, 29 MJ-/HIV+, 25 MJ-/HIV-).
             Participants completed a counting Stroop task during a
             functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Main and
             interactive effects on neural activation during interference
             versus neutral blocks were examined using a mixed-effects
             analysis. The sample showed the expected Stroop effect for
             both speed and accuracy. There were main effects of MJ in
             the right and left inferior parietal lobules, with the left
             cluster extending into the posterior middle temporal gyrus
             and a main effect of HIV in the dorsal anterior cingulate
             cortex. There was an interaction in the left fronto-insular
             cortex, such that the MJ+/HIV+ group had the largest
             increase in activation compared with other groups. Among
             MJ+, signal change in this cluster correlated positively
             with cumulative years of regular marijuana use. These
             results suggest that comorbid HIV and marijuana use is
             associated with complex neural alterations in multiple brain
             regions during cognitive interference. Follow-up research is
             needed to determine how marijuana-related characteristics
             may moderate HIV neurologic disease and impact real-world
             functioning.},
   Doi = {10.1111/adb.12678},
   Key = {fds338534}
}

@article{fds252304,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Ten challenges for decision neuroscience.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {4},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2010.00171},
   Abstract = {Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced,
             employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts
             drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one
             or more variables from psychological or economic models,
             manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice
             task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this
             "neuroeconomic" approach, researchers have described brain
             systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables,
             most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard
             approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of
             the mechanisms of decision making - from the sources of
             variability in decision making to the very computations
             supported by decision-related regions - remain incompletely
             understood. Here, I outline 10 outstanding challenges for
             future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be
             readily addressed using current methods, others will require
             new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of
             decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and
             cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and
             cognitive neuroscience.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2010.00171},
   Key = {fds252304}
}

@article{fds339750,
   Author = {Shelby, RA and Dorfman, CS and Bosworth, HB and Keefe, F and Sutton, L and Owen, L and Corsino, L and Erkanli, A and Reed, SD and Arthur, SS and Somers, T and Barrett, N and Huettel, S and Gonzalez, JM and Kimmick,
             G},
   Title = {Testing a behavioral intervention to improve adherence to
             adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET).},
   Journal = {Contemp Clin Trials},
   Volume = {76},
   Pages = {120-131},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2018.11.010},
   Abstract = {Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) is used to prevent
             recurrence and reduce mortality for women with hormone
             receptor positive breast cancer. Poor adherence to AET is a
             significant problem and contributes to increased medical
             costs and mortality. A variety of problematic symptoms
             associated with AET are related to non-adherence and early
             discontinuation of treatment. The goal of this study is to
             test a novel, telephone-based coping skills training that
             teaches patients adherence skills and techniques for coping
             with problematic symptoms (CST-AET). Adherence to AET will
             be assessed in real-time for 18 months using wireless
             smart pill bottles. Symptom interference (i.e., pain,
             vasomotor symptoms, sleep problems, vaginal dryness) and
             cost-effectiveness of the intervention protocol will be
             examined as secondary outcomes. Participants (N = 400)
             will be recruited from a tertiary care medical center or
             community clinics in medically underserved or rural areas.
             Participants will be randomized to receive CST-AET or a
             general health education intervention (comparison
             condition). CST-AET includes ten nurse-delivered calls
             delivered over 6 months. CST-AET provides systematic
             training in coping skills for managing symptoms that
             interfere with adherence. Interactive voice messaging
             provides reinforcement for skills use and adherence that is
             tailored based on real-time adherence data from the wireless
             smart pill bottles. Given the high rates of non-adherence
             and recent recommendations that women remain on AET for
             10 years, we describe a timely trial. If effective, the
             CST-AET protocol may not only reduce the burden of AET use
             but also lead to cost-effective changes in clinical care and
             improve breast cancer outcomes. Trials registration:
             ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02707471, registered
             3/3/2016.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cct.2018.11.010},
   Key = {fds339750}
}

@article{fds252332,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Obembe, OO and Song, AW and Woldorff,
             MG},
   Title = {The BOLD fMRI refractory effect is specific to stimulus
             attributes: evidence from a visual motion
             paradigm.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {402-408},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15325388},
   Keywords = {Adult • Female • Humans • Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging* • Male • Motion Perception •
             Occipital Lobe • Orientation • Oxygen •
             Pattern Recognition, Visual • Reference Values •
             Refractory Period, Electrophysiological • Regional
             Blood Flow • Temporal Lobe • blood supply •
             blood* • physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have
             demonstrated that the blood oxygenation level-dependent
             (BOLD) hemodynamic response (HDR) to a stimulus is reduced
             by the previous presentation of a similar stimulus. We
             investigated the dependence of this refractory effect upon
             stimulus characteristics using a novel adaptation paradigm
             while scanning subjects using fMRI at 4 T. The stimuli were
             composed of horizontal stripes that scrolled up, scrolled
             down, or remained static, randomly presented for 1-s
             duration with stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) of 2-7 s.
             We identified regions of interest (ROI) in lateral
             temporal--occipital cortex that were activated by motion
             stimuli, regardless of direction or SOA. We found strong
             evidence for direction specificity in motion-sensitive
             lateral temporal-occipital (LTO) cortex. For stimuli whose
             direction of motion reprised that of the previous stimulus
             (e.g., up preceded by up), the fMRI response was attenuated
             at short SOAs (2-4 s) compared to long SOAs (5-7 s).
             However, for stimuli whose direction of motion was opposite
             that of the previous stimulus (e.g., up preceded by down),
             little or no refractory effect was observed. Additionally,
             examination of activity in pericalcarine cortex indicated a
             similar pattern. We conclude that the fMRI refractory effect
             predominantly reflects local stimulus-specific neuronal or
             neurovascular adaptation and is unlikely to be a nonspecific
             response of large vessels that support broad functional
             regions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.04.031},
   Key = {fds252332}
}

@article{fds252303,
   Author = {Wang, L and Mullette-Gillman, OA and Gadde, KM and Kuhn, CM and McCarthy, G and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotional
             distraction and subsequent memory.},
   Journal = {Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {357-368},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19628700},
   Abstract = {Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter involved in emotional
             regulation and memory. A number of studies using acute
             tryptophan depletion (ATD) in healthy subjects have shown
             that a temporary serotonin reduction both induces a negative
             emotional bias and impairs long-term memory. However, little
             is known about the specific effects of ATD on emotional
             memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),
             we investigated the effect of ATD on negative memory and
             executive function in healthy volunteers. Our emotional
             oddball task required participants to distinguish
             infrequently presented targets from distracting negative and
             neutral pictures. Memory for the distracting pictures was
             tested 1 h following the fMRI session. ATD selectively
             enhanced memory for negative distractors relative to neutral
             distractors and increased activation in response to the
             negative distractors in the left orbital-inferior frontal,
             dorsomedial prefrontal and bilateral angular gyri. ATD also
             induced greater activation in the left inferior frontal
             gyrus and anterior cingulate across all stimuli. Stronger
             frontal activation to distractors was positively correlated
             with memory performance on ATD but not control days,
             indicating a possible compensatory mechanism for coping with
             increased task demand under the ATD challenge. These
             findings highlight the importance of serotonin in negative
             memory with implications for mood disorders.},
   Doi = {10.1093/scan/nsp025},
   Key = {fds252303}
}

@article{fds252344,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Singerman, JD and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {The effects of aging upon the hemodynamic response measured
             by functional MRI.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {161-175},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/nimg.2000.0675},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Aged • Aging •
             Cerebrovascular Circulation • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Female • Head Movements • Humans •
             Image Processing, Computer-Assisted • Magnetic
             Resonance Imaging • Male • Middle Aged •
             Pattern Recognition, Visual • Photic Stimulation •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We comparedthe characteristics of the visually evoked
             hemodynamic response (HDR) in groups of young and elderly
             adults. Checkerboard stimuli were presented for 500 ms
             either singly or in pairs separated by a 2-s intrapair
             interval while gradient-echo echoplanar fMRI images were
             acquired concurrently every 1 s. Activated voxels,
             identified by correlation with an empirically derived
             reference waveform, were found for both groups in cortex
             along the calcarine sulcus and in the fusiform gyrus, with
             the mean HDR latency in calcarine cortex peaking
             approximately 300 ms earlier than the HDR evoked in the
             fusiform gyrus. On average, younger subjects had twice as
             many activated voxels as older subjects. The mean HDR had a
             similar onset time, rate of rise, and peak amplitude in both
             groups. However, the HDRs of older subjects reached their
             peak earlier and were more variable across subjects. Despite
             having average HDR amplitudes similar to those of younger
             subjects, older subjects had higher noise levels in
             activated voxels, resulting in lower signal-to-noise ratios.
             Distribution analyses of voxel statistics (t value, peak
             amplitude, peak latency) revealed that older subjects had
             proportionally fewer small-effect-size voxels, due to their
             increased voxelwise noise. This finding was consistent with
             the smaller spatial extent of activation in older subjects.
             To investigate age differences in the refractory period of
             the visual HDR, the HDR evoked by the second stimulus of
             each pair was isolated by subtracting the HDR evoked by a
             single stimulus from the composite HDR evoked by a pair.
             Recovery measures were similar across the age
             groups.},
   Doi = {10.1006/nimg.2000.0675},
   Key = {fds252344}
}

@article{fds252333,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {The effects of single-trial averaging upon the spatial
             extent of fMRI activation.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2411-2416},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0959-4965},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200108080-00025},
   Keywords = {Adult • Artifacts • Evoked Potentials, Visual
             • Humans • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Male
             • Middle Aged • Photic Stimulation • Visual
             Cortex • methods* • physiology*},
   Abstract = {We examined effects of trial averaging upon spatial extent,
             spatial topography, and temporal properties of fMRI
             activation. Two subjects participated in an event-related
             visual stimulation design. There was an exponential relation
             between number of trials and spatial extent, such that
             additional trials identified, on average, a constant
             proportion of the remaining voxels. At values typical of
             fMRI experimentation (e.g. 50 trials) only about 50% of
             eventually active voxels were significant; asymptotic values
             were approached by 150 trials. The variability of the
             estimated hemodynamic response decreased with signal
             averaging, becoming stable across samples of > or = 25
             trials. Therefore, group or condition differences may result
             from differences in voxelwise noise exacerbated by averaging
             small numbers of trials.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00001756-200108080-00025},
   Key = {fds252333}
}

@article{fds252253,
   Author = {Huettel, S and McKeown, M and Hart, S and Allison, T and Song, A and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {The effects of stimulus duration upon visual cortical
             activation: Evidence from functional MRI and intracranial
             ERPS},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Pages = {89-89},
   Publisher = {M I T PRESS},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000174072000339&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds252253}
}

@article{fds252278,
   Author = {Engell, AD and Huettel, S and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {The fMRI BOLD signal tracks electrophysiological spectral
             perturbations, not event-related potentials.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {59},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {2600-2606},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21925278},
   Abstract = {Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and
             electroencephalography (EEG) are primary tools of the
             psychological neurosciences. It is therefore important to
             understand the relationship between hemodynamic and
             electrophysiological responses. An early study by Huettel
             and colleagues found that the coupling of fMRI
             blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal (BOLD) and
             subdurally-recorded signal-averaged event-related potentials
             (ERPs) was not consistent across brain regions. Instead, a
             growing body of evidence now indicates that hemodynamic
             changes measured by fMRI reflect non-phase-locked changes in
             high frequency power rather than the phase-locked ERP. Here,
             we revisit the data from Huettel and colleagues and measure
             event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) to examine the
             time course of frequency changes. We found that, unlike the
             ERP, γ-ERSP power was consistently coupled with the
             hemodynamic response across three visual cortical regions.
             Stimulus duration modulated the BOLD signal and the γ-ERSP
             in the peri-calcarine and fusiform cortices, whereas there
             was no such modulation of either physiological signal in the
             lateral temporal-occipital cortex. This finding reconciles
             the original report with the more recent literature and
             demonstrates that the ERP and ERSP reflect dissociable
             aspects of neural activity.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.08.079},
   Key = {fds252278}
}

@article{fds252280,
   Author = {Coutlee, CG and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {The functional neuroanatomy of decision making: prefrontal
             control of thought and action.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1428},
   Pages = {3-12},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.053},
   Abstract = {Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for flexible thought
             and action. Despite changing internal needs and external
             context, individuals maintain stable goals and pursue
             purposeful action. Functional neuroimaging research
             examining the neural underpinnings of such behavioral
             flexibility has progressed within several distinct
             traditions, as evident in the largely separate literatures
             on "cognitive control" and on "decision making." Both topics
             investigate the formulation of desires and intentions, the
             integration of knowledge and context, and the resolution of
             conflict and uncertainty. Additionally, each recognizes the
             fundamental role of the prefrontal cortex in supporting
             flexible selection of behavior. But despite this notable
             overlap, neuroimaging studies in cognitive control and
             decision making have exerted only limited influence on each
             other, in part due to differences in their theoretical and
             experimental groundings. Additionally, the precise
             organization of control processing within prefrontal cortex
             has remained unclear, fostering an acceptance of vague
             descriptions of decision making in terms of canonical
             cognitive control functions such as "inhibition" or
             "self-control." We suggest a unifying role for models of the
             hierarchical organization of action selection within
             prefrontal cortex. These models provide an important
             conceptual link between decision-making phenomena and
             cognitive-control processes, potentially facilitating
             cross-fertilization between these topics.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.053},
   Key = {fds252280}
}

@article{fds252317,
   Author = {Weber, BJ and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {The neural substrates of probabilistic and intertemporal
             decision making.},
   Journal = {Brain Research},
   Volume = {1234},
   Pages = {104-115},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0006-8993},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.105},
   Abstract = {Many important decisions involve outcomes that are either
             probabilistic or delayed. Based on similarities in decision
             preferences, models of decision making have postulated that
             the same psychological processes may underlie decisions
             involving probabilities (i.e., risky choice) and decisions
             involving delay (i.e., intertemporal choice). Equivocal
             behavioral evidence has made this hypothesis difficult to
             evaluate. However, a combination of functional neuroimaging
             and behavioral data may allow identification of differences
             between these forms of decision making. Here, we used
             functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine
             brain activation in subjects making a series of choices
             between pairs of real monetary rewards that differed either
             in their relative risk or their relative delay. While both
             sorts of choices evoked activation in brain systems
             previously implicated in executive control, we observed
             clear distinctions between these forms of decision making.
             Notably, choices involving risk evoked greater activation in
             posterior parietal and lateral prefrontal cortices, whereas
             choices involving delay evoked greater activation in the
             posterior cingulate cortex and the striatum. Moreover,
             activation of regions associated with reward evaluation
             predicted choices of a more-risky option, whereas activation
             of control regions predicted choices of more-delayed or
             less-risky options. These results indicate that there are
             differences in the patterns of brain activation evoked by
             risky and intertemporal choices, suggesting that the two
             domains utilize at least partially distinct sets of
             cognitive processes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brainres.2008.07.105},
   Key = {fds252317}
}

@article{fds330849,
   Author = {Kwak, Y and Huettel, S},
   Title = {The order of information processing alters economic
             gain-loss framing effects.},
   Journal = {Acta Psychologica},
   Volume = {182},
   Pages = {46-54},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.013},
   Abstract = {Adaptive decision making requires analysis of available
             information during the process of choice. In many decisions
             that information is presented visually - which means that
             variations in visual properties (e.g., salience, complexity)
             can potentially influence the process of choice. In the
             current study, we demonstrate that variation in the
             left-right positioning of risky and safe decision options
             can influence the canonical gain-loss framing effect. Two
             experiments were conducted using an economic framing task in
             which participants chose between gambles and certain
             outcomes. The first experiment demonstrated that the
             magnitude of the gain-loss framing effect was greater when
             the certain option signaling the current frame was presented
             on the left side of the visual display. Eye-tracking data
             during task performance showed a left-gaze bias for initial
             fixations, suggesting that the option presented on the left
             side was processed first. Combination of eye-tracking and
             choice data revealed that there was a significant effect of
             direction of first gaze (i.e. left vs. right) as well as an
             interaction between gaze direction and identity of the first
             fixated information (i.e. certain vs. gamble) regardless of
             frame. A second experiment presented the gamble and certain
             options in a random order, with a temporal delay between
             their presentations. We found that the magnitude of
             gain-loss framing was larger when the certain option was
             presented first, regardless of left and right positioning,
             only in individuals with lower risk-taking tendencies. The
             effect of presentation order on framing was not present in
             high risk-takers. These results suggest that the sequence of
             visual information processing as well as their left-right
             positioning can bias choices by changing the impact of the
             presented information during risky decision
             making.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.11.013},
   Key = {fds330849}
}

@article{fds252217,
   Author = {Kwak, Y and Payne, JW and Cohen, AL and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {The Rational Adolescent: Strategic Information Processing
             during Decision Making Revealed by Eye Tracking.},
   Journal = {Cognitive Development},
   Volume = {36},
   Pages = {20-30},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0885-2014},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/10590 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Adolescence is often viewed as a time of irrational, risky
             decision-making - despite adolescents' competence in other
             cognitive domains. In this study, we examined the strategies
             used by adolescents (N=30) and young adults (N=47) to
             resolve complex, multi-outcome economic gambles. Compared to
             adults, adolescents were more likely to make conservative,
             loss-minimizing choices consistent with economic models.
             Eye-tracking data showed that prior to decisions,
             adolescents acquired more information in a more thorough
             manner; that is, they engaged in a more analytic processing
             strategy indicative of trade-offs between decision
             variables. In contrast, young adults' decisions were more
             consistent with heuristics that simplified the decision
             problem, at the expense of analytic precision. Collectively,
             these results demonstrate a counter-intuitive developmental
             transition in economic decision making: adolescents'
             decisions are more consistent with rational-choice models,
             while young adults more readily engage task-appropriate
             heuristics.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cogdev.2015.08.001},
   Key = {fds252217}
}

@article{fds303797,
   Author = {Knutson, B and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {The risk matrix},
   Journal = {Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {141-146},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {2352-1546},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.10.012},
   Abstract = {© 2015. Neuroimaging methods (e.g., functional magnetic
             resonance imaging or FMRI) can now resolve momentary changes
             in deep brain activity that not only correlate with but also
             predict risky choice. Accumulating evidence beginning from
             financial choice studies but extending into other domains
             indicates that risk assessment recruits activity in multiple
             core components which differentially promote (e.g., ventral
             striatum) versus inhibit (e.g., anterior insula) risky
             choice. Further, frontal control circuits may modulate the
             influence of these core components on risky choice. These
             findings point toward an emerging consensus about a 'risk
             matrix' whose components unite previously disparate
             literatures related to anticipation of reward versus pain
             and whose measurement can improve the prediction of risky
             choice.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.10.012},
   Key = {fds303797}
}

@article{fds252268,
   Author = {Dubé, L and Bechara, A and Böckenholt, U and Ansari, A and Dagher, A and Daniel, M and DeSarbo, W and Fellows, L and Hammond, R and Huang, T and Huettel, S and Kestens, Y and Knäuper, B and Kooreman, P and Moore, D and Smidts, A},
   Title = {Towards a brain-to-society systems model of individual
             choice},
   Journal = {Marketing Letters},
   Volume = {20},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {105-106},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0923-0645},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-008-9067-9},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11002-008-9067-9},
   Key = {fds252268}
}

@article{fds252296,
   Author = {Dubé, L and Bechara, A and Böckenholt, U and Ansari, A and Dagher, A and Daniel, M and Desarbo, WS and Fellows, LK and Hammond, RA and Huang,
             TTK and Huettel, S and Kestens, Y and Knäuper, B and Kooreman, P and Moore, DS and Smidts, A},
   Title = {Towards a brain-to-society systems model of individual
             choice},
   Journal = {Marketing Letters},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {3-4},
   Pages = {323-336},
   Publisher = {Springer Nature},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0923-0645},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11002-008-9057-y},
   Abstract = {Canonical models of rational choice fail to account for many
             forms of motivated adaptive behaviors, specifically in
             domains such as food selections. To describe behavior in
             such emotion- and reward-laden scenarios, researchers have
             proposed dual-process models that posit competition between
             a slower, analytic faculty and a fast, impulsive, emotional
             faculty. In this paper, we examine the assumptions and
             limitations of these approaches to modeling motivated
             choice. We argue that models of this form, though
             intuitively attractive, are biologically implausible. We
             describe an approach to motivated choice based on sequential
             sampling process models that can form a solid theoretical
             bridge between what is known about brain function and
             environmental influences upon choice. We further suggest
             that the complex and dynamic relationships between biology,
             behavior, and environment affecting choice at the individual
             level must inform aggregate models of consumer choice.
             Models using agent-based complex systems may further provide
             a principled way to relate individual and aggregate consumer
             choices to the aggregate choices made by businesses and
             social institutions. We coin the term "brain-to-society
             systems" choice model for this broad integrative approach.
             © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11002-008-9057-y},
   Key = {fds252296}
}

@article{fds252275,
   Author = {Levallois, C and Clithero, JA and Wouters, P and Smidts, A and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Translating upwards: linking the neural and social sciences
             via neuroeconomics.},
   Journal = {Nature Reviews. Neuroscience},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {789-797},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1471-003X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn3354},
   Abstract = {The social and neural sciences share a common interest in
             understanding the mechanisms that underlie human behaviour.
             However, interactions between neuroscience and social
             science disciplines remain strikingly narrow and tenuous. We
             illustrate the scope and challenges for such interactions
             using the paradigmatic example of neuroeconomics. Using
             quantitative analyses of both its scientific literature and
             the social networks in its intellectual community, we show
             that neuroeconomics now reflects a true disciplinary
             integration, such that research topics and scientific
             communities with interdisciplinary span exert greater
             influence on the field. However, our analyses also reveal
             key structural and intellectual challenges in balancing the
             goals of neuroscience with those of the social sciences. To
             address these challenges, we offer a set of prescriptive
             recommendations for directing future research in
             neuroeconomics.},
   Doi = {10.1038/nrn3354},
   Key = {fds252275}
}

@article{fds292901,
   Author = {Ngo, L and Kelly, M and Coutlee, CG and Carter, RM and Sinnott-Armstrong, W and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Two Distinct Moral Mechanisms for Ascribing and Denying
             Intentionality.},
   Journal = {Scientific Reports},
   Volume = {5},
   Pages = {17390},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {December},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11093 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Philosophers and legal scholars have long theorized about
             how intentionality serves as a critical input for morality
             and culpability, but the emerging field of experimental
             philosophy has revealed a puzzling asymmetry. People judge
             actions leading to negative consequences as being more
             intentional than those leading to positive ones. The
             implications of this asymmetry remain unclear because there
             is no consensus regarding the underlying mechanism. Based on
             converging behavioral and neural evidence, we demonstrate
             that there is no single underlying mechanism. Instead, two
             distinct mechanisms together generate the asymmetry. Emotion
             drives ascriptions of intentionality for negative
             consequences, while the consideration of statistical norms
             leads to the denial of intentionality for positive
             consequences. We employ this novel two-mechanism model to
             illustrate that morality can paradoxically shape judgments
             of intentionality. This is consequential for mens rea in
             legal practice and arguments in moral philosophy pertaining
             to terror bombing, abortion, and euthanasia among
             others.},
   Doi = {10.1038/srep17390},
   Key = {fds292901}
}

@article{fds252262,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and Lockhead, G},
   Title = {Variability is not uniformily bad: The practices of
             psychologists generate research questions},
   Journal = {Behavioral and Brain Sciences},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {418-419},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0140-525X},
   Abstract = {The practices of economists increase experimental
             reproducibility relative to those of selected psychologists
             but should not be universally adopted. Procedures criticized
             by Hertwig and Ortmann as producing variable data are
             valuable, instead, for generating questions. The procedure
             of choice should depend on the theoretical goal: measure a
             known factor or learn what factors are important and need to
             be measured.},
   Key = {fds252262}
}

@article{fds252244,
   Author = {Winecoff, A and Clithero, JA and Carter, RM and Bergman, SR and Wang, L and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Ventromedial prefrontal cortex encodes emotional
             value.},
   Journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {27},
   Pages = {11032-11039},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23825408},
   Abstract = {The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a critical
             role in processing appetitive stimuli. Recent investigations
             have shown that reward value signals in the vmPFC can be
             altered by emotion regulation processes; however, to what
             extent the processing of positive emotion relies on neural
             regions implicated in reward processing is unclear. Here, we
             investigated the effects of emotion regulation on the
             valuation of emotionally evocative images. Two independent
             experimental samples of human participants performed a
             cognitive reappraisal task while undergoing fMRI. The
             experience of positive emotions activated the vmPFC, whereas
             the regulation of positive emotions led to relative
             decreases in vmPFC activation. During the experience of
             positive emotions, vmPFC activation tracked participants'
             own subjective ratings of the valence of stimuli.
             Furthermore, vmPFC activation also tracked normative valence
             ratings of the stimuli when participants were asked to
             experience their emotions, but not when asked to regulate
             them. A separate analysis of the predictive power of vmPFC
             on behavior indicated that even after accounting for
             normative stimulus ratings and condition, increased signal
             in the vmPFC was associated with more positive valence
             ratings. These results suggest that the vmPFC encodes a
             domain-general value signal that tracks the value of not
             only external rewards, but also emotional
             stimuli.},
   Doi = {10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4317-12.2013},
   Key = {fds252244}
}

@article{fds322014,
   Author = {Delgado, MR and Beer, JS and Fellows, LK and Huettel, SA and Platt, ML and Quirk, GJ and Schiller, D},
   Title = {Viewpoints: Dialogues on the functional role of the
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex.},
   Journal = {Nat Neurosci},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1545-1552},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {November},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4438},
   Doi = {10.1038/nn.4438},
   Key = {fds322014}
}

@article{fds252327,
   Author = {Huettel, SA and McCarthy, G},
   Title = {What is odd in the oddball task? Prefrontal cortex is
             activated by dynamic changes in response
             strategy.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {379-386},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0028-3932},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.07.009},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Attention* • Brain
             Mapping* • Discrimination Learning • Evoked
             Potentials, Visual • Female • Field
             Dependence-Independence* • Humans • Male •
             Photic Stimulation • Prefrontal Cortex • Reaction
             Time • Reference Values • Visual Fields •
             physiology • physiology*},
   Abstract = {In the "oddball" target detection task, subjects respond to
             target stimuli that occur infrequently and irregularly
             within a series of standard stimuli. Although detection of
             these targets reliably evokes transient activity in
             prefrontal cortical regions, it has not been established
             whether this activity is due to selection of an infrequent
             response or to changes in response strategy. We investigated
             this issue using a novel variant of the oddball task that
             incorporated the Simon effect, while measuring hemodynamic
             brain activity in prefrontal cortex using functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects viewed a series
             of circles and squares that required left and right button
             presses, respectively. On 90% of trials ("standard" trials),
             the stimuli were presented in the same visual hemifield as
             the hand of response, but on 10% of trials
             ("strategy-change" trials) they were presented in the
             opposite visual hemifield. Significant activation to the
             infrequent strategy-change trials was found in the anterior
             middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the posterior inferior frontal
             gyrus (IFG) and adjacent insular cortex, and in the anterior
             cingulate gyrus (ACG). These regions, which correspond to
             previous reports of oddball-related activation, were
             consistent across subjects. Behavioral results supported our
             interpretation that subjects potentiated a position-based
             response strategy, which was inhibited on the
             strategy-change trials. Activity within the MFG and ACG was
             much greater on error trials than on correct trials, while
             IFG activity was similar between error and correct trials.
             We conclude that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC)
             is associated with dynamic changes in the mapping of stimuli
             to responses (e.g. response strategies), independently of
             any changes in behavior.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2003.07.009},
   Key = {fds252327}
}

@article{fds252276,
   Author = {Kragel, PA and Carter, RM and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {What makes a pattern? Matching decoding methods to data in
             multivariate pattern analysis.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Neuroscience},
   Volume = {6},
   Number = {NOV},
   Pages = {162},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1662-4548},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2012.00162},
   Abstract = {Research in neuroscience faces the challenge of integrating
             information across different spatial scales of brain
             function. A promising technique for harnessing information
             at a range of spatial scales is multivariate pattern
             analysis (MVPA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) data. While the prevalence of MVPA has increased
             dramatically in recent years, its typical implementations
             for classification of mental states utilize only a subset of
             the information encoded in local fMRI signals. We review
             published studies employing multivariate pattern
             classification since the technique's introduction, which
             reveal an extensive focus on the improved detection power
             that linear classifiers provide over traditional analysis
             techniques. We demonstrate using simulations and a
             searchlight approach, however, that non-linear classifiers
             are capable of extracting distinct information about
             interactions within a local region. We conclude that for
             spatially localized analyses, such as searchlight and region
             of interest, multiple classification approaches should be
             compared in order to match fMRI analyses to the properties
             of local circuits.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fnins.2012.00162},
   Key = {fds252276}
}

@article{fds252295,
   Author = {Clithero, JA and Smith, DV and Carter, RM and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Within- and cross-participant classifiers reveal different
             neural coding of information.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {56},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {699-708},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1053-8119},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.057},
   Abstract = {Analyzing distributed patterns of brain activation using
             multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has become a popular
             approach for using functional magnetic resonance imaging
             (fMRI) data to predict mental states. While the majority of
             studies currently build separate classifiers for each
             participant in the sample, in principle a single classifier
             can be derived from and tested on data from all
             participants. These two approaches, within- and
             cross-participant classification, rely on potentially
             different sources of variability and thus may provide
             distinct information about brain function. Here, we used
             both approaches to identify brain regions that contain
             information about passively received monetary rewards (i.e.,
             images of currency that influenced participant payment) and
             social rewards (i.e., images of human faces). Our
             within-participant analyses implicated regions in the
             ventral visual processing stream-including fusiform gyrus
             and primary visual cortex-and ventromedial prefrontal cortex
             (VMPFC). Two key results indicate these regions may contain
             statistically discriminable patterns that contain different
             informational representations. First, cross-participant
             analyses implicated additional brain regions, including
             striatum and anterior insula. The cross-participant analyses
             also revealed systematic changes in predictive power across
             brain regions, with the pattern of change consistent with
             the functional properties of regions. Second, individual
             differences in classifier performance in VMPFC were related
             to individual differences in preferences between our two
             reward modalities. We interpret these results as reflecting
             a distinction between patterns showing participant-specific
             functional organization and those indicating aspects of
             brain organization that generalize across
             individuals.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.057},
   Key = {fds252295}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds136714,
   Author = {B Bucur and DJ Madden and J Spaniol and JM Provenzale and R Cabeza and LE
             White, SA Huettel},
   Title = {Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of
             perceptual speed and cerebral white matter
             integrity.},
   Journal = {Neurobiol Aging},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1558-1497},
   Abstract = {Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT)
             measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of
             adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging
             shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual
             speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of
             perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to
             test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed
             by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of
             perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results
             indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal
             region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in
             other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual
             speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though
             to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections.
             These findings suggest that white matter integrity in
             prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation
             between individual differences in perceptual speed and
             episodic retrieval.},
   Key = {fds136714}
}

@article{fds149957,
   Author = {DJ Madden and J Spaniol and MC Costello and B Bucur and LE White and R
             Cabeza, SW Davis and NA Dennis and JM Provenzale and SA
             Huettel},
   Title = {Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age
             Differences in Cognitive Performance.},
   Journal = {Journal of cognitive neuroscience},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0898-929X},
   Abstract = {Abstract Previous research has established that age-related
             decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter
             integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related
             cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white
             matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it
             is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the
             white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of
             age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the
             mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of
             a task-switching paradigm involving word categorization.
             Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older
             adults (60-85 years), and 20 younger adults (18-27 years).
             From diffusion tensor imaging tractography, we obtained
             fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter
             integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum
             and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA
             values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a
             decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction
             time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the
             decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components
             of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both
             components. Critically, age differences in task performance
             were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of
             the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right
             hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional
             component and was not evident in the nondecisional
             component. This result is the first demonstration that the
             integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of
             age-related changes in cognitive performance.},
   Key = {fds149957}
}

@article{fds136700,
   Title = {Huettel SA, Lockhead GR. Psychologically Rational Choice:
             Selection between alternatives in a multiple-equilibrium
             game. Cognitive Sys Res. 2000; 1(3):143-160.},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds136700}
}


%% Books   
@book{fds150850,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel and Allen W. Song and Gregory McCarthy},
   Title = {Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2nd
             Edition},
   Publisher = {Sinauer Associates},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://www.sinauer.com/detail.php?id=2863},
   Key = {fds150850}
}

@book{fds183692,
   Author = {Purves, D. and Brannon, E. and Cabeza, R. and Huettel, S. and LaBar, K. and Platt, M. and Woldorff, M.},
   Title = {Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Publisher = {Sinauer Associates},
   Year = {2009},
   Key = {fds183692}
}

@book{fds211720,
   Author = {Purves, D. and Cabeza, R. and Huettel, S. and LaBar, K. and Platt, M. and Woldorff, M.},
   Title = {Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2nd
             Edition},
   Year = {2012},
   Key = {fds211720}
}


%% Chapters in Books   
@misc{fds220102,
   Author = {Reyna, V.F. and Huettel, S.A.},
   Title = {A theoretical framework for the neuroscience of risky
             decision making},
   Booktitle = {The Neuroscience of Risky Decision Making},
   Editor = {Reyna, V.F. and Zayas, V.},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220102}
}

@misc{fds252213,
   Author = {Madden, DJ and Whiting, WL and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Age-related changes in neural activity during visual
             perception and attention},
   Pages = {157-185},
   Booktitle = {Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging: Linking cognitive and
             cerebral aging},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9780195156744},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156744.003.0007},
   Abstract = {© 2005 by Oxford University Press, Inc. All rights
             reserved. This chapter presents an overview of age-related
             changes in sensory systems that alter the identification of
             objects and events in the environment. It reviews the
             behavioral literature on perception and attention,
             documenting decreases in sensory function with age and the
             centrality of theories of decreased speed of processing in
             accounting for many age differences in perception and
             attention. It discusses age differences in attention, as
             well as the instances when some types of attentional
             processes remain age invariant. The chapter then reviews the
             neurobiological underpinnings of attention and perception in
             young adults, which sets the stage for a detailed discussion
             of what has been learned about age differences in neural
             activation and pathways for object recognition and
             attention. The picture presented is one of decreased
             efficiency and less differentiation of neural pathways
             mediating object recognition and higher order visual
             processes, along with instances of compensatory
             activation.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195156744.003.0007},
   Key = {fds252213}
}

@misc{fds326932,
   Author = {Martin, RS and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Cognitive functions as revealed by imaging of the human
             brain},
   Pages = {2727-2753},
   Booktitle = {Neuroscience in the 21st Century: From Basic to Clinical,
             Second Edition},
   Publisher = {Springer New York},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781493934737},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-3474-4_82},
   Abstract = {© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013 and Springer
             Science+Business Media New York 2016. Functional
             neuroimaging techniques allow neuroscientists to map the
             processes of perception, cognition, memory, and action onto
             the human brain. The core techniques used in current
             research either measure neuronal activity directly (e.g.,
             electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography) or measure
             aspects of brain metabolism that provide indirect measures
             of neuronal activity (e.g., functional magnetic resonance
             imaging, positron emission tomography). Each technique
             presents a distinct set of strengths and limitations; some
             have superior ability to localize processing within the
             brain (spatial resolution), while others have better
             capability for evaluating the timing of processing (temporal
             resolution). As these techniques have matured, they have
             been applied to an increasingly diverse range of research
             questions. This chapter highlights some key advances
             associated with functional neuroimaging, with a focus on
             research that studies higher cognition and decision making.
             The chapter ends with speculations about the future
             directions for functional neuroimaging research, including
             the roles these techniques will play within
             neuroscience.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4939-3474-4_82},
   Key = {fds326932}
}

@misc{fds252212,
   Author = {San Martin and R and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Cognitive functions as revealed by imaging of the human
             brain},
   Pages = {2213-2238},
   Booktitle = {Neuroscience in the 21st Century: From Basic to
             Clinical},
   Publisher = {Springer New York},
   Editor = {Pfaff, D.},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {November},
   ISBN = {1461419964},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-1997-6_82},
   Abstract = {© 2013 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights are
             reserved. Functional neuroimaging techniques allow
             neuroscientists to map the processes of perception,
             cognition, memory, and action onto the human brain. The core
             techniques used in current research either measure neuronal
             activity directly (e.g., electroencephalography,
             magnetoencephalography) or measure aspects of brain
             metabolism that provide indirect measures of neuronal
             activity (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging,
             positron emission tomography). Each technique presents a
             distinct set of strengths and limitations; some have
             superior ability to localize processing within the brain
             (spatial resolution), while others have better capability
             for evaluating the timing of processing (temporal
             resolution). As these techniques have matured, they have
             been applied to an increasingly diverse range of research
             questions. This chapter highlights some key advances
             associated with functional neuroimaging, with a focus on
             research that studies higher cognition and decision making.
             The chapter ends with speculations about the future
             directions for functional neuroimaging research, including
             the roles these techniques will play within
             neuroscience.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4614-1997-6_82},
   Key = {fds252212}
}

@misc{fds183476,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Decision making: Neural Underpinnings},
   Booktitle = {Sage Encyclopedia of the Mind},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds183476}
}

@misc{fds170450,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Decisions are not so simple},
   Booktitle = {Cerebrum 2010: Emerging Ideas in Brain Science},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds170450}
}

@misc{fds211721,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V. and Huettel, S.A. and Libedinsky, C. and Chee,
             M.W.L},
   Title = {Economic decision making and the sleep-deprived
             brain},
   Booktitle = {Neuroimaging of Sleep & Sleep Disorders},
   Editor = {Nofzinger et al.},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds211721}
}

@misc{fds323841,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Huettel, SA and Libedinsky, C and Chee,
             MWL},
   Title = {Economic decision-making and the sleep-deprived
             brain},
   Pages = {145-153},
   Booktitle = {Neuroimaging of Sleep and Sleep Disorders},
   Publisher = {Cambridge University Press},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9781107018631},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139088268},
   Abstract = {© Cambridge University Press 2013. Introduction As
             acceptable temporal boundaries of business and social
             activities gradually disappear with pervasive connectivity,
             an increasing number of persons will be called upon to make
             decisions at times that our predecessors reserved for sleep.
             In the last decade, there has been a surge in interest in
             the neural underpinnings of decision-making, particularly
             when individuals are faced with risk [1, 2]. Yet, despite
             the steady increase in numbers of persons who make decisions
             following chronic or acute sleep loss, there remains
             relatively little work about how sleep deprivation (SD)
             alters decision-making. Risky decisions are those where the
             outcomes of one or more potential choices are probabilistic;
             that is, different outcomes might occurwith knownor
             estimated probabilities (e.g., gambling on roulette). The
             broad appeal, detailed characterization, ease of
             experimental design, and ready incentive compatibility have
             made risky decision-making a common target for research in
             decision neuroscience or “neuroeconomics” [1, 3,
             4].Moreover, risky decisions often must be made under
             conditions of reduced sleep (and/or other deleterious
             states), as in the cases of emergency personnel, physicians,
             financial markets, and even policy makers. For these
             reasons, an improved understanding of risky decision-making
             in sleep-deprived persons could have important real-world
             consequences.},
   Doi = {10.1017/CBO9781139088268},
   Key = {fds323841}
}

@misc{fds341007,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Functional MRI (fMRI)},
   Pages = {778-784},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780128032244},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803224-4.00053-4},
   Abstract = {© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows researchers to
             investigate the mechanisms underlying information processing
             in the human brain. Most fMRI studies use standard MRI
             scanners to collect images sensitive to changes in blood
             oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast, which provides
             an indirect measure of neuronal activity. The images
             collected in BOLD fMRI experiments generally have spatial
             resolution on the order of several millimeters and temporal
             resolution on the order of several seconds. fMRI provides
             several advantages over other human neuroimaging techniques:
             it is noninvasive, can be adapted to a wide range of
             experiments, and allows good localization of activation.
             Because of these and other strengths, fMRI has grown over
             the past two decades to become the dominant technique in
             human cognitive neuroscience. However, fMRI also has
             significant limitations, especially regarding the
             conclusions that can be drawn from individual studies. This
             article introduces the basic physical and physiological
             principles of fMRI, followed by a consideration of the core
             concepts involved in fMRI experimentation.},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-803224-4.00053-4},
   Key = {fds341007}
}

@misc{fds154465,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Imaging techniques: BOLD Functional Magnetic Resonance
             Imaging},
   Booktitle = {The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience},
   Editor = {Squire et al.},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds154465}
}

@misc{fds154466,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Magnetic resonance: Functional MRI (fMRI)},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Spectroscopy and Spectrometry, 2nd
             Edition},
   Editor = {Lindon et al.},
   Year = {2008},
   Key = {fds154466}
}

@misc{fds330540,
   Author = {Jack, J and Appelbaum, LG and Beam, E and Moody, J and Huettel,
             SA},
   Title = {Mapping rhetorical topologies in cognitive
             neuroscience},
   Pages = {125-150},
   Booktitle = {Topologies as Techniques for a Post-Critical
             Rhetoric},
   Publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9783319512679},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51268-6_7},
   Abstract = {© The Author(s) 2017. Many tools that neuroscientists use
             to trace the complex topography of the human brain draw on
             the neuroscience literature to yield “metanalyses” or
             “syntheses of data.” These approaches conflate
             rhetorical connections in the literature with physical
             connections in the brain. By contrast, the model presented
             in this chapter seeks not a topography of the brain but a
             topology of neuroscience. A social network analysis of
             titles and abstracts for cognitive neuroscience articles
             yields a topology of brain regions and functions. This map
             can help researchers identify underresearched areas (e.g.,
             the thalamus) or areas that are oversaturated (e.g., the
             amygdala). The map also helps researchers identify
             subdisciplines, such as “neuroeconomics,” that have not
             yet integrated with the broader field–“islands” where
             rhetorical work could yield benefits.},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-51268-6_7},
   Key = {fds330540}
}

@misc{fds220101,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Neuroeconomics},
   Booktitle = {The Cognitive Neurosciences V},
   Editor = {Gazzaniga, M.},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds220101}
}

@misc{fds252222,
   Author = {Venkatraman, V and Payne, JW and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Neuroeconomics of risky decisions: From variables to
             strategies},
   Pages = {153-172},
   Booktitle = {Decision Making, Affect, and Learning: Attention and
             Performance XXIII},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISBN = {9780199600434},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0007},
   Abstract = {© The International Association for the study of Attention
             and Performance, 2011. All rights reserved. We make a
             variety of decisions throughout our lives. Some decisions
             involve outcomes whose values can be readily compared,
             especially when those outcomes are simple, immediate, and
             familiar. Other decisions involve imperfect knowledge about
             their potential consequences. Understanding the choice
             process when consequences are uncertain - often called the
             study of decision making under risk - remains a key goal of
             behavioural economics, cognitive psychology, and now
             neuroscience. An ongoing challenge, however, lies in the
             substantial individual differences in how people approach
             risky decisions. Using a novel choice paradigm, this chapter
             demonstrates that people vary in whether they adopt
             compensatory rules (i.e., tradeoffs between decision
             variables) or noncompensatory rules (i.e., a simplification
             of the choice problem) in economic decision making. The
             chapter shows that distinct neural mechanisms support
             variability in choices and variability in strategic
             preferences. Specifically, compensatory choices are
             associated with activation in the anterior insula and the
             ventromedial prefrontal cortex, while noncompensatory
             choices are associated with increased activation in the
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal
             cortex. The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex shaped decision
             making at a strategic level through its functional
             connectivity with these regions. Individual-difference
             analyses are a key direction through which neuroscience can
             influence models of choice behaviour.},
   Doi = {10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199600434.003.0007},
   Key = {fds252222}
}

@misc{fds322018,
   Author = {Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Novel developments in cognitive fMRI},
   Pages = {557-579},
   Booktitle = {fMRI: From Nuclear Spins to Brain Functions},
   Publisher = {Springer US},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {September},
   ISBN = {9781489975904},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7591-1_19},
   Doi = {10.1007/978-1-4899-7591-1_19},
   Key = {fds322018}
}

@misc{fds198098,
   Author = {S.A. Huettel},
   Title = {Novel developments in cognitive fMRI},
   Booktitle = {fMRI: From Nuclear Spins to Brain Function},
   Year = {2011},
   Key = {fds198098}
}

@misc{fds303798,
   Author = {Coutlee, CG and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Rules, rewards, and responsibility: A reinforcement learning
             approach to action control},
   Pages = {327-334},
   Booktitle = {Moral Psychology, Volume 4: Free Will And Moral
             Responsibility},
   Editor = {Sinnott-Armstrong, W.},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780262525473},
   Key = {fds303798}
}

@misc{fds342365,
   Author = {Massar, SAA and Lim, J and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Sleep deprivation, effort allocation and
             performance.},
   Volume = {246},
   Pages = {1-26},
   Booktitle = {Progress in Brain Research},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {January},
   ISBN = {9780444642509},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.03.007},
   Abstract = {Sleep deprivation causes physiological alterations (e.g.,
             decreased arousal, intrusion of micro-sleeps), that
             negatively affect performance on a wide range of cognitive
             domains. These effects indicate that cognitive performance
             relies on a capacity-limited system that may be more
             challenged in the absence of sleep. Additionally, sleep loss
             can result in a lower willingness to exert effort in the
             pursuit of performance goals. Such deficits in motivation
             may interact with the effects of capacity limitations to
             further stifle cognitive performance. When sleep-deprived,
             cognitive performance is experienced as more effortful, and
             intrinsic motivation to perform dwindles. On the other hand,
             increasing motivation extrinsically (e.g., by monetary
             incentives) can inspire individuals to allocate more
             task-related effort, and can partially counter performance
             deficits associated with sleep deprivation. In this chapter,
             we review current research on the interplay between sleep
             deprivation, effort and performance. We integrate these
             findings into an effort-based decision-making framework in
             which sleep-related performance impairments may result from
             a voluntary decision to withdraw effort. We conclude with
             practical implications of this framework for performance in
             healthy populations (e.g., work productivity) and clinical
             conditions.},
   Doi = {10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.03.007},
   Key = {fds342365}
}

@misc{fds252214,
   Author = {Utevsky, AV and Huettel, SA},
   Title = {Social Decision Making},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {231-234},
   Booktitle = {Brain Mapping: An Encyclopedic Reference},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {February},
   ISBN = {9780123973160},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00185-8},
   Doi = {10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00185-8},
   Key = {fds252214}
}


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