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Publications of Michael S. Gaffrey    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
   Author = {Somerville, LH and Bookheimer, SY and Buckner, RL and Burgess, GC and Curtiss, SW and Dapretto, M and Elam, JS and Gaffrey, MS and Harms, MP and Hodge, C and Kandala, S and Kastman, EK and Nichols, TE and Schlaggar,
             BL and Smith, SM and Thomas, KM and Yacoub, E and Van Essen and DC and Barch,
   Title = {The Lifespan Human Connectome Project in Development: A
             large-scale study of brain connectivity development in 5-21
             year olds.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {183},
   Pages = {456-468},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Recent technological and analytical progress in brain
             imaging has enabled the examination of brain organization
             and connectivity at unprecedented levels of detail. The
             Human Connectome Project in Development (HCP-D) is
             exploiting these tools to chart developmental changes in
             brain connectivity. When complete, the HCP-D will comprise
             approximately ∼1750 open access datasets from
             1300 + healthy human participants, ages 5-21 years,
             acquired at four sites across the USA. The participants are
             from diverse geographical, ethnic, and socioeconomic
             backgrounds. While most participants are tested once, others
             take part in a three-wave longitudinal component focused on
             the pubertal period (ages 9-17 years). Brain imaging
             sessions are acquired on a 3 T Siemens Prisma platform and
             include structural, functional (resting state and
             task-based), diffusion, and perfusion imaging, physiological
             monitoring, and a battery of cognitive tasks and
             self-reports. For minors, parents additionally complete a
             battery of instruments to characterize cognitive and
             emotional development, and environmental variables relevant
             to development. Participants provide biological samples of
             blood, saliva, and hair, enabling assays of pubertal
             hormones, health markers, and banked DNA samples. This paper
             outlines the overarching aims of the project, the approach
             taken to acquire maximally informative data while minimizing
             participant burden, preliminary analyses, and discussion of
             the intended uses and limitations of the
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.08.050},
   Key = {fds337475}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Tillman, R and Barch, DM and Luby,
   Title = {Continuity and stability of preschool depression from
             childhood through adolescence and following the onset of
   Journal = {Comprehensive Psychiatry},
   Volume = {86},
   Pages = {39-46},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:A growing body of research now supports the
             validity, clinical significance, and long-term negative
             impact of depression occurring during the preschool period.
             However, the prospective continuity of depressive symptoms
             and risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) from childhood
             through adolescence for preschoolers experiencing this
             highly impairing disorder remains unexplored. Such
             information is likely to be critical for understanding the
             developmental continuity of preschool depression and whether
             it continues to be a salient risk factor for an MDD
             diagnosis following the transition into adolescence and the
             onset of biological changes associated with it (i.e.,
             puberty). METHODS:Subjects were participants in the
             Preschool Depression Study conducted at the Early Emotional
             Development Program at Washington University School of
             Medicine in St. Louis. Subjects and their parents completed
             baseline assessments that included comprehensive measures of
             psychopathology and development at baseline and up to 9
             follow-up assessments between 2003 and 2017. N = 279
             subjects had diagnostic and clinical data available for the
             preschool period and the early pubertal and/or later
             pubertal periods and were included in the analyses. There
             were N = 275 subjects assessed during the early pubertal
             period and N = 184 subjects assessed during the later
             pubertal period. RESULTS:Preschool depression was a highly
             salient predictor of prepubertal and mid-to-post pubertal
             MDD. Across all modeled time points children with a history
             of preschool depression continued to demonstrate elevated
             levels of depressive symptoms from childhood through
             adolescence, suggesting a heightened trajectory of
             depressive symptoms relative to their same age peers.
             CONCLUSION:Findings from the current study suggest that
             children with a history of preschool depression follow a
             trajectory of depression severity elevated relative to their
             same age peers from childhood through adolescence but with a
             similar shape over time. They also support the homotypic
             continuity of preschool depression into adolescence and the
             onset of puberty.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.comppsych.2018.07.010},
   Key = {fds337154}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Barch, DM and Bogdan, R and Farris, K and Petersen, SE and Luby, JL},
   Title = {Amygdala Reward Reactivity Mediates the Association Between
             Preschool Stress Response and Depression
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {83},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {128-136},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND:Research in adolescents and adults has suggested
             that altered neural processing of reward following early
             life adversity is a highly promising depressive intermediate
             phenotype. However, very little is known about how stress
             response, neural processing of reward, and depression are
             related in very young children. The present study examined
             the concurrent associations between cortisol response
             following a stressor, functional brain activity to reward,
             and depression severity in children 4 to 6 years old.
             METHODS:Medication-naïve children 4 to 6 years old (N =
             52) participated in a study using functional magnetic
             resonance imaging to assess neural reactivity to reward,
             including gain, loss, and neutral outcomes. Parent-reported
             child depression severity and child cortisol response
             following stress were also measured. RESULTS:Greater caudate
             and medial prefrontal cortex reactivity to gain outcomes and
             increased amygdala reactivity to salient (i.e., both gain
             and loss) outcomes were observed. Higher total cortisol
             output following a stressor was associated with increased
             depression severity and reduced amygdala reactivity to
             salient outcomes. Amygdala reactivity was also inversely
             associated with depression severity and was found to mediate
             the relationship between cortisol output and depression
             severity. CONCLUSIONS:Results suggest that altered neural
             processing of reward is already related to increased
             cortisol output and depression severity in preschoolers.
             These results also demonstrate an important role for
             amygdala function as a mediator of this relationship at a
             very early age. Our results further underscore early
             childhood as an important developmental period for
             understanding the neurobiological correlates of early stress
             and increased risk for depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2017.08.020},
   Key = {fds335645}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Barch, DM and Luby, JL},
   Title = {Amygdala reactivity to sad faces in preschool children: An
             early neural marker of persistent negative
   Journal = {Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience},
   Volume = {17},
   Pages = {94-100},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Elevated negative affect is a highly salient risk factor for
             later internalizing disorders. Very little is known about
             the early neurobiological correlates of negative affect and
             whether they associate with developmental changes in
             negative emotion. Such information may prove critical for
             identifying children deviating from normative developmental
             trajectories of negative affect and at increased risk for
             later internalizing disorders. The current study examined
             the relationship between amygdala activity and negative
             affect measured concurrently and approximately 12 months
             later in preschool-age children.Amygdala activity was
             assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 31
             medication-naive preschool age children. Negative affect was
             measured using parent report both at the time of scan and 12
             months later.Negative affect at baseline was positively
             correlated with right amygdala activity to sad faces, right
             amygdala activity to happy faces, and left amygdala activity
             to happy faces. Right amygdala activity to sad faces also
             positively predicted parent-reported negative affect 12
             months later even when negative affect reported at baseline
             was controlled.The current findings provide preliminary
             evidence for amygdala activity as a potential biomarker of
             persistent negative affect during early childhood and
             suggest future work examining the origins and long-term
             implications of this relationship is necessary.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.dcn.2015.12.015},
   Key = {fds335646}

   Author = {Sylvester, CM and Hudziak, JJ and Gaffrey, MS and Barch, DM and Luby,
   Title = {Stimulus-Driven Attention, Threat Bias, and Sad Bias in
             Youth with a History of an Anxiety Disorder or
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {219-231},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are
             associated with pediatric anxiety and depression,
             respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with
             attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we
             tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention
             for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias
             relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures
             of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and
             current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an
             anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well
             as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention
             was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task,
             while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time
             interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using
             emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using
             a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention
             bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later
             attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat
             vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across
             all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated
             with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with
             later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven
             orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel
             relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms
             of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased
             stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are
             consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad
             bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results
             inform the design of attention bias modification programs
             that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms
             associated with pediatric anxiety and depression.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10802-015-9988-8},
   Key = {fds335647}

   Author = {Pagliaccio, D and Luby, JL and Bogdan, R and Agrawal, A and Gaffrey, MS and Belden, AC and Botteron, KN and Harms, MP and Barch,
   Title = {Amygdala functional connectivity, HPA axis genetic
             variation, and life stress in children and relations to
             anxiety and emotion regulation.},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Psychology},
   Volume = {124},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {817-833},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Internalizing pathology is related to alterations in
             amygdala resting state functional connectivity, potentially
             implicating altered emotional reactivity and/or emotion
             regulation in the etiological pathway. Importantly, there is
             accumulating evidence that stress exposure and genetic
             vulnerability impact amygdala structure/function and risk
             for internalizing pathology. The present study examined
             whether early life stress and genetic profile scores (10
             single nucleotide polymorphisms within 4
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2,
             NR3C1, and FKBP5) predicted individual differences in
             amygdala functional connectivity in school-age children (9-
             to 14-year-olds; N = 120). Whole-brain regression analyses
             indicated that increasing genetic "risk" predicted
             alterations in amygdala connectivity to the caudate and
             postcentral gyrus. Experience of more stressful and
             traumatic life events predicted weakened amygdala-anterior
             cingulate cortex connectivity. Genetic "risk" and stress
             exposure interacted to predict weakened connectivity between
             the amygdala and the inferior and middle frontal gyri,
             caudate, and parahippocampal gyrus in those children with
             the greatest genetic and environmental risk load.
             Furthermore, amygdala connectivity longitudinally predicted
             anxiety symptoms and emotion regulation skills at a later
             follow-up. Amygdala connectivity mediated effects of life
             stress on anxiety and of genetic variants on emotion
             regulation. The current results suggest that considering the
             unique and interacting effects of biological vulnerability
             and environmental risk factors may be key to understanding
             the development of altered amygdala functional connectivity,
             a potential factor in the risk trajectory for internalizing
   Doi = {10.1037/abn0000094},
   Key = {fds335648}

   Author = {Pagliaccio, D and Luby, JL and Bogdan, R and Agrawal, A and Gaffrey, MS and Belden, AC and Botteron, KN and Harms, MP and Barch,
   Title = {HPA axis genetic variation, pubertal status, and sex
             interact to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses to
             negative emotional faces in school-age children.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {109},
   Pages = {1-11},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure,
             particularly during early life, and for variation in genes
             involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity
             to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual
             differences in these factors predict differences in
             emotional responsivity may be important for understanding
             both normative emotional development and for understanding
             the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like
             anxiety and depression, that have often been related to
             increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively
             valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined
             whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10
             single nucleotide polymorphisms within four
             hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2,
             NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala
             and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in
             school-age children (7-12 year olds; N = 107). Experience of
             more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater
             left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli.
             Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal
             status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses.
             Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger
             predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among
             pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively
             predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls
             and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among
             pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and
             environmental stress-related factors may be important in
             normative individual differences in responsivity to negative
             emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying
             internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal
             development may be key moderators of the effects of
             stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus
             responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in
             stress-related psychopathology.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.01.017},
   Key = {fds335649}

   Author = {Luby, JL and Gaffrey, MS and Tillman, R and April, LM and Belden,
   Title = {Trajectories of preschool disorders to full DSM depression
             at school age and early adolescence: continuity of preschool
   Journal = {The American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {171},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {768-776},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Preschool-onset depression, a developmentally adapted form
             of depression arising between ages 3 and 6, has demonstrated
             numerous validated features, including characteristic
             alterations in stress reactivity and brain function. This
             syndrome is characterized by subthreshold DSM criteria for
             major depressive disorder, raising questions about its
             clinical significance. To clarify the utility and public
             health significance of the preschool-onset depression
             construct, the authors investigated diagnostic outcomes of
             preschool children at school age and in adolescence.In a
             longitudinal prospective study of preschool children, the
             authors assessed the likelihood of meeting full criteria for
             major depressive disorder at age 6 or later as a function of
             preschool depression, other preschool axis I disorders,
             maternal history of depression, nonsupportive parenting, and
             traumatic life events.Preschool-onset depression emerged as
             a robust predictor of major depressive disorder in later
             childhood even after accounting for the effect of maternal
             history of depression and other risk factors.
             Preschool-onset conduct disorder also predicted major
             depression in later childhood, but this association was
             partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting, reducing by
             21% the effect of preschool conduct disorder in predicting
             major depression.Study findings provide evidence that this
             preschool depressive syndrome is a robust risk factor for
             developing full criteria for major depression in later
             childhood, over and above other established risk factors.
             The results suggest that attention to preschool depression
             and conduct disorder in addition to maternal history of
             depression and exposure to trauma may be important in
             identifying young children at highest risk for later major
             depression and applying early interventions.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13091198},
   Key = {fds335650}

   Author = {Bogdan, R and Agrawal, A and Gaffrey, MS and Tillman, R and Luby,
   Title = {Serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR)
             genotype and stressful life events interact to predict
             preschool-onset depression: a replication and developmental
   Journal = {Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {448-457},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {May},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment
             interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin
             transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful
             life events) interaction predicting depression, have
             recently been tempered by sober realizations of small
             effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions.
             These mixed findings highlight the need for further
             research. Converging evidence suggests that the effects of
             5-HTTLPR genotype may be neurodevelopmental in origin, but
             we are not aware of empirical studies that have investigated
             whether the 5-HTTLPR genotype × SLE interaction predicts
             preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD), the earliest validated
             form of depression.Children (n = 234) aged 3-5 were
             recruited for a longitudinal study designed to examine
             PO-MDD. In a comprehensive baseline assessment, the child's
             primary caregivers completed questionnaires and were
             interviewed about their child's behaviors, psychiatric
             symptoms, and exposure to SLEs.A 5-HTTLPR × SLEs
             interaction emerged, such that children homozygous for the
             short allele were more susceptible to depression in the
             context of elevated SLE than long allele carriers. In
             contrast, at low SLE exposure, short allele homozygotes had
             fewer depressive symptoms. The data were best fit by a
             plasticity model with a substantial reduction in fit by
             diathesis-stress models.Extending studies in adult and
             adolescent populations, these data suggest that 5-HTTLPR
             genotype may provide plasticity to environmental influence,
             for better or worse. Specifically, children homozygous for
             the short allele were more susceptible to the depressogenic
             effects of SLEs but benefitted, in the form of reduced
             depressive symptoms, in the context of relatively benign
             environmental conditions (i.e. relatively low SLE exposure).
             These data highlight the importance of examining gene ×
             environment interactions across development, environment,
             and outcome but should be interpreted cautiously given the
             small sample size.},
   Doi = {10.1111/jcpp.12142},
   Key = {fds335651}

   Author = {Pagliaccio, D and Luby, JL and Bogdan, R and Agrawal, A and Gaffrey, MS and Belden, AC and Botteron, KN and Harms, MP and Barch,
   Title = {Stress-system genes and life stress predict cortisol levels
             and amygdala and hippocampal volumes in children.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {1245-1253},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Depression has been linked to increased cortisol reactivity
             and differences in limbic brain volumes, yet the mechanisms
             underlying these alterations are unclear. One main
             hypothesis is that stress causes these effects. This is
             supported by animal studies showing that chronic stress or
             glucocorticoid administration can lead to alterations in
             hippocampal and amygdala structures. Relatedly, life stress
             is cited as one of the major risk factors for depression and
             candidate gene studies have related variation in
             stress-system genes to increased prevalence and severity of
             depression. The present study tested the hypothesis that
             genetic profile scores combining variance across 10 single
             nucleotide polymorphisms from four stress-system genes
             (CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) and early life stress would
             predict increases in cortisol levels during laboratory
             stressors in 120 preschool-age children (3-5 years old), as
             well as hippocampal and amygdala volumes assessed with MRI
             in these same children at school age (7-12 years old). We
             found that stress-system genetic profile scores positively
             predicted cortisol levels while the number of
             stressful/traumatic life events experienced by 3-5 years old
             negatively predicted cortisol levels. The interaction of
             genetic profile scores and early life stress predicted left
             hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Cortisol partially
             mediated the effects of genetic variation and life stress on
             limbic brain volumes, particularly on left amygdala volume.
             These results suggest that stress-related genetic and early
             environmental factors contribute to variation in stress
             cortisol reactivity and limbic brain volumes in children,
             phenotypes associated with depression in
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2013.327},
   Key = {fds335652}

   Author = {Pagliaccio, D and Luby, JL and Gaffrey, MS and Belden, AC and Botteron,
             KN and Harms, MP and Barch, DM},
   Title = {Functional brain activation to emotional and nonemotional
             faces in healthy children: evidence for developmentally
             undifferentiated amygdala function during the school-age
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {771-789},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The amygdala is a key region in emotion processing. In
             particular, fMRI studies have demonstrated that the amygdala
             is active during the viewing of emotional faces. Previous
             research has consistently found greater amygdala responses
             to fearful than to neutral faces in adults, convergent with
             a focus in the animal literature on the amygdala's role in
             fear processing. Studies have shown that the amygdala also
             responds differentially to other facial emotion types in
             adults. Yet the literature regarding when this differential
             amygdala responsivity develops is limited and mixed. Thus,
             the goal of the present study was to examine amygdala
             responses to emotional and neutral faces in a relatively
             large sample of healthy school-age children (N = 52).
             Although the amygdala was active in response to emotional
             and neutral faces, the results did not support the
             hypothesis that the amygdala responds differentially to
             emotional faces in 7- to 12-year-old children. Nonetheless,
             amygdala activity was correlated with the severity of
             subclinical depression symptoms and with emotional
             regulation skills. Additionally, sex differences were
             observed in frontal, temporal, and visual regions, as well
             as effects of pubertal development in visual regions. These
             findings suggest important differences in amygdala
             reactivity in childhood.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-013-0167-5},
   Key = {fds335653}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Barch, DM and Singer, J and Shenoy, R and Luby,
   Title = {Disrupted amygdala reactivity in depressed 4- to 6-year-old
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {737-746},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Disrupted amygdala activity in depressed adolescents and
             adults while viewing facial expressions of emotion has been
             reported. However, few data are available to inform the
             developmental nature of this phenomenon, an issue that
             studies of the earliest known forms of depression might
             elucidate. The current study addressed this question by
             examining functional brain activity and its relationships to
             emotion regulation in depressed 4- to 6-year-old children
             and their healthy peers.A total of 54 medication-naive 4- to
             6-year-olds (23 depressed and 31 healthy) participated in a
             case-control study using functional magnetic resonance
             imaging (fMRI). Imaging data were used to compare functional
             brain activity in children with and without depression
             during emotion face processing.A right-lateralized pattern
             of elevated amygdala, thalamus, inferior frontal gyrus, and
             angular gyrus activity during face processing was found in
             depressed 4- to 6-year-olds. In addition, relationships
             between increased amygdala activity during face processing
             and disruptions in parent-reported emotion regulation and
             negative affect were found. No between-group differences
             specific to emotion face type were identified.To our
             knowledge, this is the earliest evidence of alterations in
             functional brain activity in depression using fMRI. Results
             suggest that, similar to findings in older depressed groups,
             depression at this age is associated with disrupted amygdala
             functioning during face processing. The findings also raise
             the intriguing possibility that disrupted amygdala function
             is a depression-related biomarker that spans development.
             Additional studies will be needed to clarify whether the
             current findings are a precursor to or a consequence of very
             early childhood depression.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2013.04.009},
   Key = {fds335654}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Luby, JL and Barch, DM},
   Title = {Towards the study of functional brain development in
             depression: an Interactive Specialization
   Journal = {Neurobiology of Disease},
   Volume = {52},
   Pages = {38-48},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Depression is a significant and impairing mood disorder with
             onset possible as early as age 3 and into adulthood. Given
             this varying pattern of age of onset, identifying the
             relationship between brain development and depression across
             the lifespan has proven elusive. This review identifies some
             of the factors that may have limited the advancement of our
             knowledge in this area and discusses how synthesizing
             established models of depression and normative brain
             development may help to overcome them. More specifically, it
             is suggested that current neurobiological models of
             depression fail to account for the developmental variance
             associated with early neural network development and the
             potential influence of experience on this process. The
             utility of applying an established framework of normative
             brain development to this topic is described and its
             potential utility for conceptualizing the influence of
             depression on brain function across the life span is
             addressed. Future directions including longitudinal
             neuroimaging studies of early onset depression and groups at
             risk for this disorder are proposed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.nbd.2012.06.012},
   Key = {fds335655}

   Author = {Suzuki, H and Botteron, KN and Luby, JL and Belden, AC and Gaffrey, MS and Babb, CM and Nishino, T and Miller, MI and Ratnanather, JT and Barch,
   Title = {Structural-functional correlations between hippocampal
             volume and cortico-limbic emotional responses in depressed
   Journal = {Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {135-151},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Although hippocampal atrophy and altered functional brain
             responses to emotional stimuli have been found in major
             depressive disorder (MDD), the relationship between the two
             is not yet well understood. The present study focused on
             children with and without a history of preschool onset MDD
             (PO-MDD) and directly examined the relations between
             hippocampal volume and functional brain activation to
             affect-eliciting stimuli. Children completed annual
             diagnostic assessments starting at preschool. When children
             were school-aged, high-resolution structural MRI and
             task-related functional MRI data were acquired from N = 64
             nonmedicated children. During fMRI, subjects were shown
             emotional faces. Results from the total sample indicated
             that smaller bilateral hippocampal volumes were associated
             with greater cortico-limbic (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus,
             dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) activation to sad or
             negative faces versus neutral faces. Left hippocampal volume
             was negatively associated with the cortico-limbic activation
             in both the PO-MDD and healthy children. Right hippocampal
             volume was negatively correlated with amygdala responses in
             the PO-MDD group, but not in the healthy comparison group.
             These findings suggest that there may be important
             interrelationships between reduced hippocampal volume and
             hyperactivation of brain responses in children, both those
             with and those without a history of PO-MDD.},
   Doi = {10.3758/s13415-012-0121-y},
   Key = {fds335656}

   Author = {Barch, DM and Gaffrey, MS and Botteron, KN and Belden, AC and Luby,
   Title = {Functional brain activation to emotionally valenced faces in
             school-aged children with a history of preschool-onset major
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1035-1042},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Recent research has demonstrated that clinical depression
             can emerge as early as the preschool period. Here, we
             examine brain function in children with a history of
             preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD) in comparison with
             healthy children.Participants were medication naïve
             school-aged children (ages 7-11) with PO-MDD (n = 22) or no
             psychiatric history (n = 16) followed longitudinally as part
             of the Preschool Depression Study. We used functional
             magnetic resonance imaging measures of blood oxygen
             level-dependent signal to examine functional brain activity
             in response to emotionally valenced faces (sad, fearful,
             angry, happy, neutral) following a negative mood induction
             provided to all children.In categorical group comparisons,
             children with PO-MDD demonstrated increased activity in
             parietal cortex in response to sad faces but no differences
             in brain activity in a priori regions of interest (e.g.,
             amygdala). However, in dimensional analyses, the severity of
             depression symptoms at the baseline preschool assessment
             predicted increased responses to sad faces in amygdala,
             hippocampal, parietal, and orbital frontal
             regions.School-aged children with a history of PO-MDD showed
             patterns of functional brain responses to emotionally
             evocative stimuli similar to patterns found in adults and
             adolescents with major depression. These patterns were most
             strongly related to the severity of depression during the
             preschool period, suggesting that the magnitude of early
             symptoms may be particularly important for understanding
             altered brain function. These findings suggest that an early
             episode of depression before age 6 may be associated with
             enduring brain change or may represent a biomarker that was
             present even before the preschool episode.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.06.009},
   Key = {fds335657}

   Author = {Belden, AC and Gaffrey, MS and Luby, JL},
   Title = {Relational aggression in children with preschool-onset
             psychiatric disorders.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {889-901},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as
             correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression
             during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of
             146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years).Axis-I
             diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the
             Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children's roles in
             relational aggression as aggressor, victim,
             aggressive-victim, or nonaggressor/nonvictim were determined
             at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school
             entry.Preschoolers diagnosed with PO psychiatric disorders
             were three times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be
             classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims.
             Children diagnosed with PO disruptive, depressive, and/or
             anxiety disorders were at least six times as likely as
             children without PO psychiatric disorders to become
             aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying
             for other key risk factors.Findings suggested that PO
             psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and
             school-age children's roles in relational aggression based
             on teacher report. Recommendations for future research and
             preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the
             development of relational aggression in early childhood by
             identifying and targeting PO psychiatric disorders are
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2012.06.018},
   Key = {fds335659}

   Author = {Shen, MD and Shih, P and Öttl, B and Keehn, B and Leyden, KM and Gaffrey,
             MS and Müller, R-A},
   Title = {Atypical lexicosemantic function of extrastriate cortex in
             autism spectrum disorder: evidence from functional and
             effective connectivity.},
   Journal = {Neuroimage},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {1780-1791},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Previous studies have suggested atypically enhanced activity
             of visual cortex during language processing in autism
             spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it remains unclear whether
             visual cortical participation reflects isolated processing
             within posterior regions or functional cooperation with
             distal brain regions, such as left inferior frontal gyrus
             (LIFG). We addressed this question using functional
             connectivity MRI (fcMRI) and structural equation modeling in
             14 adolescents and adults with ASD and 14 matched typically
             developing (TD) participants. Data were analyzed to isolate
             low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations, by regressing out
             effects of a semantic decision task. For a right
             extrastriate seed derived from the strongest cluster of
             atypical activation in the ASD group, widespread effects of
             increased connectivity in prefrontal and medial frontal
             lobes bilaterally were observed for the ASD group, compared
             to the TD group. A second analysis for a seed in LIFG,
             derived from pooled activation effects in both groups, also
             yielded widespread effects of overconnectivity in the ASD
             group, especially in temporal lobes. Structural equation
             modeling showed that whereas right extrastriate cortex did
             not impact function of language regions (left and right IFG,
             left middle temporal gyrus) in the TD model, it was an
             integral part of a language circuit in the ASD group. These
             results suggest that atypical extrastriate activation during
             language processing in ASD reflects integrative (not
             isolated) processing. Furthermore, our findings are
             inconsistent with previous reports of functional
             underconnectivity in ASD, probably related to removal of
             task effects required to isolate intrinsic low-frequency
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.06.008},
   Key = {fds335660}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Luby, JL and Botteron, K and Repovš, G and Barch,
   Title = {Default mode network connectivity in children with a history
             of preschool onset depression.},
   Journal = {Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {964-972},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Atypical Default Mode Network (DMN) functional connectivity
             has been previously reported in depressed adults. However,
             there is relatively little data informing the developmental
             nature of this phenomenon. The current case-control study
             examined the DMN in a unique prospective sample of
             school-age children with a previous history of preschool
             depression.DMN functional connectivity was assessed using
             resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance
             imaging data and the posterior cingulate (PCC) as a seed
             region of interest. Thirty-nine medication naïve school age
             children (21 with a history of preschool depression and 18
             healthy peers) and their families who were ascertained as
             preschoolers and prospectively assessed over at least 4
             annual waves as part of a federally funded study of
             preschool depression were included.  Decreased
             connectivity between the PCC and regions within the middle
             temporal gyrus (MTG), inferior parietal lobule, and
             cerebellum was found in children with known depression
             during the preschool period. Increased connectivity between
             the PCC and regions within the subgenual and anterior
             cingulate cortices and anterior MTG bilaterally was also
             found in these children. Additionally, a clinically relevant
             'brain-behavior' relationship between atypical functional
             connectivity of the PCC and disruptions in emotion
             regulation was identified.To our knowledge, this is the
             first study to examine the DMN in children known to have
             experienced the onset of a clinically significant depressive
             syndrome during preschool. Results suggest that a history of
             preschool depression is associated with atypical DMN
             connectivity. However, longitudinal studies are needed to
             clarify whether the current findings of atypical DMN
             connectivity are a precursor or a consequence of preschool
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02552.x},
   Key = {fds335661}

   Author = {Luby, JL and Barch, DM and Belden, A and Gaffrey, MS and Tillman, R and Babb, C and Nishino, T and Suzuki, H and Botteron,
   Title = {Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger
             hippocampal volumes at school age.},
   Journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the
             United States of America},
   Volume = {109},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {2854-2859},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific
             gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses,
             and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In
             humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early
             childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective
             data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between
             early experience and brain development. Although much
             retrospective data suggests a link between early
             psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to
             date there has been no prospective data to inform this
             potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal
             study of depressed and healthy preschool children who
             underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated
             whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal
             volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was
             strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school
             age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal
             volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings
             provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive
             effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal
             development, a brain region key to memory and stress
   Doi = {10.1073/pnas.1118003109},
   Key = {fds335662}

   Author = {van der Fluit, F and Gaffrey, MS and Klein-Tasman,
   Title = {Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between
             Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and
             Behavioral Characteristics.},
   Journal = {Frontiers in Psychology},
   Volume = {3},
   Pages = {197},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of
             genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and
             personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and
             gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism
             spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered
             underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with
             WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie
             these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely
             examined. Participants in the current study included 24
             children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of
             social perception and social cognition was administered
             (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual
             functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of
             communication and reciprocal social skills (Social
             Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale).
             Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and
             social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated
             relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the
             typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based
             measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning
             was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who
             produced narratives in response to the social attribution
             task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in
             previous studies of typically developing individuals were
             also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties
             in the real world setting as reported by parents. In
             addition, a significant improvement in performance on the
             SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for
             participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These
             findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social
             dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may
             contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed
             in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual
             functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance
             by individuals with stronger intellectual functioning is
             improved with additional structure to a greater degree than
             for those with weaker intellectual functioning.
             Interventions that specifically target these social
             information processing of individuals with WS would likely
             be beneficial.},
   Doi = {10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00197},
   Key = {fds335663}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Shenoy, R and Luby, JL},
   Title = {Effects of Stimulants and SSRIs on Brain Function in
             Children: Emerging Clues from fMRI Studies.},
   Journal = {Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology News},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {3-10},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1521/capn.2011.16.5.3},
   Key = {fds335665}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Belden, AC and Luby, JL},
   Title = {The 2-week duration criterion and severity and course of
             early childhood depression: implications for
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {133},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {537-545},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Although validity for DSM-IV MDD symptom criteria in
             preschoolers has been demonstrated, whether the 2-week
             duration criterion is an appropriate threshold of clinical
             significance at this age remains unclear. The current study
             aimed to begin addressing this question.Three hundred and
             six preschoolers were recruited from community sites and
             followed longitudinally for 2 years. A subsample including
             healthy preschoolers (N=77) and those with MDD (N=74) were
             examined. The MDD group was further divided based upon
             meeting (DSM, N=24) or failing to meet (<DSM, N=50) the
             DSM-IV 2-week duration criterion. Groups were compared on
             parent and teacher report measures of symptom severity and
             functional impairment at baseline and 2-year follow-up.A
             larger sample of depressed preschoolers and refined measures
             of duration are needed to replicate the current
             study.Preschoolers with MDD differed significantly from
             controls on the majority of measures examined regardless of
             duration status and time of assessment. Further, the DSM
             group significantly differed from the<DSM group at baseline
             on measures of MDD symptom severity and impairment. No
             differences in the risk of a MDD diagnosis at follow-up were
             found on the basis of duration group status.DSM-IV duration
             criterion failed to capture all clinically affected
             preschoolers at baseline or confer greater predictive
             validity for a depression diagnosis 2 years later. Findings
             suggest that preschoolers meeting all DSM-IV MDD criteria
             except for episode duration exhibit a clinically significant
             form of depression and experience a 2-year MDD outcome
             similar to those meeting full criterion.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jad.2011.04.056},
   Key = {fds335666}

   Author = {Luking, KR and Repovs, G and Belden, AC and Gaffrey, MS and Botteron,
             KN and Luby, JL and Barch, DM},
   Title = {Functional connectivity of the amygdala in
             early-childhood-onset depression.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1027-41.e3},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {October},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with
             reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to
             indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it
             is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also
             present in early-childhood-onset MDD.A total of 51 children
             7 through 11 years of age who had been prospectively studied
             since preschool age, completed resting state functional
             magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and were assigned to one
             of four groups: 1) C-MDD (N = 13), those children with a
             personal history of early-childhood-onset MDD; 2) M-MDD (N =
             11), those with a maternal history of affective disorders;
             3) CM-MDD (N = 13), those with both maternal and
             early-childhood-onset MDD; or 4) CON (N = 14), those without
             either a personal or maternal history of MDD. We used
             seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI)
             analysis in an independent sample of adults to identify
             networks showing both positive (e.g., limbic regions) and
             negative (e.g., dorsal frontal/parietal regions)
             connectivity with the amygdala. These regions were then used
             in region-of-interest-based analyses of our child sample.We
             found a significant interaction between maternal affective
             disorder history and the child's MDD history for both
             positive and negative rsfcMRI networks. Specifically, when
             compared with CON, we found reduced connectivity between the
             amygdala and the "negative network" in children with C-MDD,
             M-MDD, and CM-MDD. Children with either C-MDD or a maternal
             history of MDD (but not CM-MDD) displayed reduced
             connectivity between the amygdala and the "positive
             network."Our finding of an attenuated relationship between
             the amygdala, a region affected in MDD and involved in
             emotion processing, and cognitive control regions is
             consistent with a hypothesis of altered regulation of
             emotional processing in C-MDD, suggesting developmental
             continuity of this alteration into early
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2011.07.019},
   Key = {fds335664}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Luby, JL and Belden, AC and Hirshberg, JS and Volsch, J and Barch, DM},
   Title = {Association between depression severity and amygdala
             reactivity during sad face viewing in depressed
             preschoolers: an fMRI study.},
   Journal = {Journal of Affective Disorders},
   Volume = {129},
   Number = {1-3},
   Pages = {364-370},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {March},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Previous research has indicated that symptom severity and
             amygdala reactivity during the viewing of facial expressions
             of emotion are related in depression. However, it remains
             unclear how early in development this can be detected.A
             sample of 11 depressed preschoolers (4.5±0.8; 6 males)
             participated in an fMRI experiment where they viewed facial
             expressions of emotion. A region of interest approach was
             used in order to examine the relationship between amygdala
             activation and depression severity. Additional whole-brain
             analyses were conducted and the results of these analyses
             were examined for potential relationships with depression
             severity.Findings indicated that depressed preschoolers
             exhibited a significant positive relationship between
             depression severity and right amygdala activity when viewing
             facial expressions of negative affect. In addition, we found
             a significant positive relationship between degree of
             functional activation in the occipital cortex while viewing
             faces and level of depression severity.Additional research
             including a larger sample of depressed preschoolers, as well
             as a healthy comparison group, is needed to replicate the
             current findings and examine their specificity at this
             age.This is the first study directly examining brain
             function in depressed preschoolers. The results suggest
             that, similar to older children and adults with depression,
             amygdala responsivity and degree of depression severity are
             related as early as age 3.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.031},
   Key = {fds335667}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Luby, JL and Repovš, G and Belden, AC and Botteron, KN and Luking, KR and Barch, DM},
   Title = {Subgenual cingulate connectivity in children with a history
             of preschool-depression.},
   Journal = {Neuroreport},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {18},
   Pages = {1182-1188},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) presents
             altered functional connections with other regions of the
             brain in individuals with depression. However, the
             developmental nature of this phenomenon remains largely
             unexplored. Functional connections of the sgACC were
             examined in 36 school age children, 17 with a history of
             preschool onset major depressive disorder (PO-MDD). The
             sgACC exhibited increased connections with cognitive control
             regions in healthy children and increased connections with
             thalamic and parietal regions in the PO-MDD group. A
             significant correlation between dysregulated emotional
             behavior and connectivity of the sgACC and dorsal medial
             prefrontal cortex was also found. These findings demonstrate
             that atypical sgACC functional connections are evident as
             early as school age in children with a history of PO-MDD and
             suggest an association with a very early episode of
   Doi = {10.1097/WNR.0b013e32834127eb},
   Key = {fds335668}

   Author = {Shih, P and Shen, M and Ottl, B and Keehn, B and Gaffrey, MS and Müller,
   Title = {Atypical network connectivity for imitation in autism
             spectrum disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {2931-2939},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {August},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Imitation has been considered as one of the precursors for
             sociocommunicative development. Impairments of imitation in
             autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be indicative of
             dysfunctional underlying neural processes. Neuroimaging
             studies have found reduced activation in areas associated
             with imitation, but a functional connectivity MRI network
             perspective of these regions in autism is unavailable.
             Functional and effective connectivity was examined in 14
             male participants with ASD and 14 matched typically
             developing (TD) participants. We analyzed intrinsic,
             low-frequency blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)
             fluctuations of three regions in literature found to be
             associated with imitation (inferior frontal gyrus [IFG],
             inferior parietal lobule [IPL], superior temporal sulcus
             [STS]). Direct group comparisons did not show significantly
             reduced functional connectivity within the imitation network
             in ASD. Conversely, we observed greater connectivity with
             frontal regions, particularly superior frontal and anterior
             cingulate gyri, in the ASD compared to TD group. Structural
             equation modeling of effective connectivity revealed a
             significantly reduced effect of IPL on IFG together with an
             increased influence of a region in dorsal prefrontal cortex
             (dPFC) on IFG in the ASD group. Our results suggest atypical
             connectivity of the imitation network with an enhanced role
             of dPFC, which may relate to behavioral impairments.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.05.035},
   Key = {fds335669}

   Author = {Gallo, FJ and Klein-Tasman, BP and Gaffrey, MS and Curran,
   Title = {Expecting the worst: observations of reactivity to sound in
             young children with Williams syndrome.},
   Journal = {Research in Developmental Disabilities},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {567-581},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {November},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The study examined behavioral reactions to sound, including
             startle eye blinks, in young children with Williams syndrome
             (WS) using video-based observational techniques.
             Participants were 21 children with WS and 20 children with
             other developmental disabilities of mixed etiology between
             the ages of 2.5 and 6. Groups were matched for chronological
             age and developmental level. All children participated in a
             semi-structured play interaction including exposure to mild
             intensity sounds as emitted from conventional toys. Overall,
             90% of the children in the WS group were observed to exhibit
             overt behavioral reactivity to mild intensity sounds,
             compared to only 20% in the mixed etiology group.
             Examination of the temporal sequence indicated that children
             with WS generally exhibited these behaviors before exposure
             to sound stimuli, suggesting a relation to anticipatory
             anxiety. Children with WS also exhibited significantly
             greater acoustic startle eye blinks, often viewed as an
             indication of heightened emotional state. Taken together,
             the current findings confirm the presence of heightened
             reactivity to sound in WS, behaviors previously investigated
             using parent report alone. The observed behaviors and their
             potential relation to anxiety are also discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ridd.2007.09.003},
   Key = {fds335670}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Kleinhans, NM and Haist, F and Akshoomoff, N and Campbell, A and Courchesne, E and Müller, RA},
   Title = {Erratum to "Atypical participation of visual cortex during
             word processing in autism: An fMRI study of semantic
             decision" [Neuropsychologia 45 (2007) 1672-1684]
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {2644},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {June},
   url = {},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.04.014},
   Key = {fds335671}

   Author = {Gaffrey, MS and Kleinhans, NM and Haist, F and Akshoomoff, N and Campbell, A and Courchesne, E and Müller, R-A},
   Title = {Atypical [corrected] participation of visual cortex during
             word processing in autism: an fMRI study of semantic
   Journal = {Neuropsychologia},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1672-1684},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {Language delay and impairment are salient features of
             autism. More specifically, there is evidence of atypical
             semantic organization in autism, but the functional brain
             correlates are not well understood. The current study used
             functional MRI to examine activation associated with
             semantic category decision. Ten high-functioning men with
             autism spectrum disorder and 10 healthy control subjects
             matched for gender, handedness, age, and nonverbal IQ were
             studied. Participants indicated via button press response
             whether visually presented words belonged to a target
             category (tools, colors, feelings). The control condition
             required target letter detection in unpronounceable letter
             strings. Significant activation for semantic decision in the
             left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 44 and 45) was
             found in the control group. Corresponding activation in the
             autism group was more limited, with smaller clusters in left
             inferior frontal areas 45 and 47. Autistic participants,
             however, showed significantly greater activation compared to
             controls in extrastriate visual cortex bilaterally (areas 18
             and 19), which correlated with greater number of errors on
             the semantic task. Our findings suggest an important role of
             perceptual components (possibly visual imagery) during
             semantic decision, consistent with previous evidence of
             atypical lexicosemantic performance in autism. In the
             context of similar findings from younger typically
             developing children, our results suggest an immature pattern
             associated with inefficient processing, presumably due to
             atypical experiential embedding of word acquisition in
   Doi = {10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.01.008},
   Key = {fds335672}

   Author = {Kemmotsu, N and Villalobos, ME and Gaffrey, MS and Courchesne, E and Müller, R-A},
   Title = {Activity and functional connectivity of inferior frontal
             cortex associated with response conflict.},
   Journal = {Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {335-342},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   url = {},
   Abstract = {The traditional Stroop test of cognitive interference
             requires overt speech responses. One alternative, the
             counting Stroop, generates cognitive interference similar to
             the traditional Stroop test but allows button press
             responses. Previous counting Stroop studies have used
             concrete words in the control condition, which may have
             masked inferior frontal activation. We studied 7 healthy
             young adults using fMRI on a counting Stroop condition, with
             a nonlinguistic control condition (geometric shapes). As
             expected, we found activation in bilateral inferior frontal
             gyri, as well as in lateral and medial prefrontal, inferior
             parietal, and extrastriate cortices. Additional functional
             connectivity analyses using inferior frontal activation
             clusters (right area 44, left area 47) as seed volumes
             showed connectivity with superior frontal area 8 and
             anterior cingulate gyrus, suggesting that the role of
             inferior frontal cortex was related to response conflict and
             inhibition. Connectivity with left perisylvian language
             areas was not observed, which further underscores the
             nonlinguistic nature of inferior frontal activity. We
             conclude that bilateral inferior frontal cortex is involved
             in response suppression associated with interference in the
             counting Stroop task.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.02.015},
   Key = {fds335673}

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