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Publications of John S. March    :chronological  alphabetical  combined listing:

%% Journal Articles   
@article{fds275176,
   Author = {JS March and L Amaya-Jackson and R Terry and P
             Costanzo},
   Title = {Posttraumatic symptomatology in children and adolescents
             after an industrial fire.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1080-1088},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9256587},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This investigation evaluated the extent and
             nature of posttraumatic symptomatology (PTS) in children and
             adolescents 9 months after an industrial fire at the
             imperial Foods chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, North
             Carolina, caused extensive loss of life. METHOD: Using a PTS
             self-report measure plus self- and teacher reports of
             comorbid symptoms the authors surveyed 1,019 fourth- to
             ninth-grade students in the community where the fire
             occurred. RESULTS: Three factors comprising PTS were
             identified: reexperiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal.
             Reexperiencing and avoidance were positively correlated;
             hyperarousal proved weakly correlated with reexperiencing,
             perhaps because exposure was largely indirect. Using a T
             score cutoff of 65 on the reexperiencing factor as
             indicative of PTS 9.7% of subjects met criteria for PTS;
             11.9% met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
             using DSM-III-R PTSD criteria. Degree of exposure was the
             most powerful predictor of PTS. Race (African-American) and
             gender (female) posed significant risk factors for PTS.
             Self-reported internalizing symptoms and teacher-reported
             externalizing symptoms were positively predicted by
             intercurrent PTS, and independently of PTS, by degree of
             exposure. Comorbid symptoms showed interesting interactions
             with exposure, race, and gender. Lack of self-attributed
             personal efficacy predicted PTS but did not moderate the
             effects of race or gender on PTS risk. CONCLUSIONS: This
             study, which used a population-based sampling strategy,
             strengthens and extends findings from earlier literature on
             pediatric PTSD in showing that (1) PTS and comorbid
             internalizing and externalizing symptoms rise in direct
             proportion to degree of exposure; (2) gender and race show
             variable effects on risk for PTS and comorbid symptoms; and
             (3) comorbid symptoms are positively correlated with PTS and
             may represent primary outcomes of traumatic exposure in
             their own right.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199708000-00015},
   Key = {fds275176}
}

@article{fds275175,
   Author = {JS March and JD Parker and K Sullivan and P Stallings and CK
             Conners},
   Title = {The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC):
             factor structure, reliability, and validity.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {554-565},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9100431},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To describe the history, factor structure,
             reliability, and validity of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children (MASC). METHOD: In two separate
             school-based population studies, principal-components factor
             analysis was used, first, to test a theory-driven factor
             structure, and second, to develop an empirically derived
             factor structure for the MASC. In a separate study using a
             clinical population, test-retest reliability at 3 weeks and
             3 months, interrater concordance, and convergent and
             divergent validity were examined. RESULTS: The final version
             of the MASC consists of 39 items distributed across four
             major factors, three of which can be parsed into two
             subfactors each. Main and subfactors include (1) physical
             symptoms (tense/restless and somatic/autonomic), (2) social
             anxiety (humiliation/rejection and public performance
             fears), (3) harm avoidance (perfectionism and anxious
             coping), and (4) separation anxiety. The MASC factor
             structure, which presumably reflects the in the vivo
             structure of pediatric anxiety symptoms, is invariant across
             gender and age and shows excellent internal reliability. As
             expected, females show greater anxiety on all factors and
             subfactors than males. Three-week and 3-month test-retest
             reliability was satisfactory to excellent. Parent-child
             agreement was poor to fair. Concordance was greatest for
             easily observable symptom clusters and for mother-child over
             father-child or father-mother pairs. Shared variance with
             scales sampling symptom domains of interest was highest for
             anxiety, intermediate for depression, and lowest for
             externalizing symptoms, indicating adequate convergent and
             divergent validity. CONCLUSION: The MASC is a promising
             self-report scale for assessing anxiety in children and
             adolescents.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019},
   Key = {fds275175}
}

@article{fds39072,
   Author = {March, J},
   Title = {Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents},
   Series = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Booktitle = {Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the past ten
             years},
   Publisher = {New York: Guilford Press},
   Editor = {J. March and H. Leonard},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds39072}
}

@article{fds274967,
   Author = {JS March and HL Leonard and SE Swedo},
   Title = {Pharmacotherapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder},
   Journal = {Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North
             America},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {217-236},
   Booktitle = {Child Psychiatric Clinics of North America:
             Pharmacotherapy},
   Publisher = {New York: Saunders},
   Editor = {M. Riddle},
   Year = {1995},
   Abstract = {The diagnosis and treatment of OCD in children and
             adolescents strongly resemble the diagnosis and treatment of
             OCD in adults. Differences derive largely from developmental
             considerations, especially limitations in insight with
             younger age and family dynamics and pattern of comorbidity.
             Ideally, children with OCD should first receive
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy tailored to OCD and, if
             not rapidly responsive to behavior therapy, a SRI. Some
             physicians and patients may choose medication first, trying
             to avoid the time, effort, and anxiety associated with
             behavior therapy. Others prefer to begin with behavior
             therapy in hopes of avoiding the need for medication and
             accompanying side effects. Most prefer to combine the two
             approaches, especially in severely ill patients. In all
             cases, the decision to begin with pharmacotherapy versus CBT
             or their combination depends on the clinician and the
             individual patient and his or her family. Because there are
             little empiric data favoring one SRI over another, choice of
             agent depends largely on side-effect profile, accumulated
             clinical experience, clinician and patient preference, and
             ultimately new evidence from controlled studies comparing
             SRIs. Supportive psychotherapy is useful in every case;
             family therapy is useful when family problems interfere with
             the implementation of OCD-specific interventions. Although
             current treatments are not curative in the majority of
             patients, given a correct diagnosis and the skillful
             combination of pharmacotherapy and CBT, most children can be
             helped to resume a normal developmental trajectory.},
   Key = {fds274967}
}

@article{fds275178,
   Author = {JS March and K Mulle},
   Title = {Manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for
             obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood: A preliminary
             single case study},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {175-184},
   Year = {1995},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(94)00038-7},
   Abstract = {Using a within-subject multiple baseline design plus global
             ratings across treatment weeks, the authors conducted a
             preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of manualized
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in an eight-year-old girl
             with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Eleven weeks of
             treatment produced complete resolution in OCD symptoms;
             treatment gains were maintained at six-month follow-up.
             Symptom reduction within each baseline was specific to the
             exposure and/or response prevention targets for that
             baseline; generalization across baselines appeared late in
             treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0887-6185(94)00038-7},
   Key = {fds275178}
}

@article{fds275177,
   Author = {JS March and K Mulle and B Herbel},
   Title = {Behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: an open trial of a new
             protocol-driven treatment package.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {333-341},
   Year = {1994},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8169177},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors present an open trial of
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and
             adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHOD: The
             authors developed a treatment manual explicitly designed to
             facilitate (1) patient and parental compliance, (2)
             exportability, and (3) empirical evaluation. Successive
             versions of the manual were used to treat 15 consecutive
             child and adolescent patients with obsessive-compulsive
             disorder, most of whom were also treated with medications.
             RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed a significant benefit
             for treatment immediately posttreatment and at follow-up.
             Nine patients experienced at least a 50% reduction in
             symptoms on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale at
             posttreatment; 6 were asymptomatic on the National Institute
             of Mental Health Global Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. No
             patients relapsed at follow-up intervals as long as 18
             months. Booster behavioral treatment allowed medication
             discontinuation in 6 patients. No patient refused treatment;
             2 discontinued prematurely. CONCLUSIONS:
             Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, alone or in combination
             with pharmacotherapy, appears to be a safe, acceptable, and
             effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder in
             children and adolescents.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199403000-00006},
   Key = {fds275177}
}

@article{fds39070,
   Author = {March, J.},
   Title = {What Constitutes a Stressor? The "Criterion A"
             Issue},
   Pages = {37-54},
   Booktitle = {Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-IV and
             Beyond},
   Publisher = {Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press,
             Inc},
   Editor = {J. Davidson and E. Foa},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds39070}
}


%% Papers Published   
@article{fds274955,
   Author = {JL Podell and PC Kendall and EA Gosch and SN Compton and JS March and A-M
             Albano, MA Rynn and JT Walkup and JT Sherrill and GS Ginsburg and CP
             Keeton, B Birmaher and JC Piacentini},
   Title = {Therapist Factors and Outcomes in CBT for Anxiety in
             Youth},
   Journal = {PROFESSIONAL PSYCHOLOGY-RESEARCH AND PRACTICE},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {89-98},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0735-7028},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000318146500004&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0031700},
   Key = {fds274955}
}

@article{fds274951,
   Author = {AK Langley and A Falk and T Peris and JF Wiley and PC Kendall and G
             Ginsburg, B Birmaher and J March and AM Albano and J
             Piacentini},
   Title = {The Child Anxiety Impact Scale: Examining Parent- and
             Child-Reported Impairment in Child Anxiety
             Disorders},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent
             Psychology},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1537-4416},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.817311},
   Abstract = {The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the
             factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of
             both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety
             Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the
             Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al.,
             2008). The CAIS child and parent versions measure
             anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and
             family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17
             (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS
             study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver.
             Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview
             and then completed the CAIS along with other measures.
             Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori
             three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for
             the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit,
             with a comparative fit index of.88 and root mean square
             error of approximation of.05. Internal consistency was very
             good for total score and subscales of both versions of the
             scale (Cronbach's α =.70-.90). The CAIS total scores
             demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted
             significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist
             (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety
             Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the
             Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global
             Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School
             subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on
             the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that
             the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment
             of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent
             functioning. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group,
             LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2013.817311},
   Key = {fds274951}
}

@article{fds274953,
   Author = {C Wei and A Hoff and MA Villabø and J Peterman and PC Kendall and J
             Piacentini, J McCracken and JT Walkup and AM Albano and M Rynn and E
             al},
   Title = {Assessing Anxiety in Youth with the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent
             Psychology},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1537-4416},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2013.814541},
   Abstract = {The present study examined the psychometric properties,
             including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the
             youth self-report and parent-report forms of the
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among
             youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents
             and youth (N = 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 to 17 who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study. Although the typical low agreement between parent and
             youth self-reports was found, the MASC evidenced good
             internal reliability across MASC subscales and informants.
             The main MASC subscales (i.e., Physical Symptoms, Harm
             Avoidance, Social Anxiety, and Separation/Panic) were
             examined. The Social Anxiety and Separation/Panic subscales
             were found to be significantly predictive of the presence
             and severity of social phobia and separation anxiety
             disorder, respectively. Using multiple informants improved
             the accuracy of prediction. The MASC subscales demonstrated
             good psychometric properties and clinical utilities in
             identifying youth with anxiety disorders. © 2013
             Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2013.814541},
   Key = {fds274953}
}

@article{fds274954,
   Author = {RS Beidas and O Lindhiem and DM Brodman and A Swan and M Carper and C
             Cummings, PC Kendall and AM Albano and M Rynn and J Piacentini and E
             al},
   Title = {A Probabilistic and Individualized Approach for Predicting
             Treatment Gains: An Extension and Application to Anxiety
             Disordered Youth},
   Journal = {Behavior Therapy},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0005-7894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.05.001},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study was to extend the probability of
             treatment benefit method by adding treatment condition as a
             stratifying variable, and illustrate this extension of the
             methodology using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study data. The probability of treatment benefit
             method produces a simple and practical way to predict
             individualized treatment benefit based on pretreatment
             patient characteristics. Two pretreatment patient
             characteristics were selected in the production of the
             probability of treatment benefit charts: baseline anxiety
             severity, measured by the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale,
             and treatment condition (cognitive-behavioral therapy,
             sertraline, their combination, and placebo). We produced two
             charts as exemplars which provide individualized and
             probabilistic information for treatment response and outcome
             to treatments for child anxiety. We discuss the implications
             of the use of the probability of treatment benefit method,
             particularly with regard to patient-centered outcomes and
             individualized decision-making in psychology and psychiatry.
             © 2013.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.beth.2013.05.001},
   Key = {fds274954}
}

@article{fds274956,
   Author = {CP Keeton and GS Ginsburg and KL Drake and D Sakolsky and PC Kendall and B
             Birmaher, AM Albano and JS March and M Rynn and J Piacentini and E
             al},
   Title = {Benefits Of Child-Focused Anxiety Treatments For Parents And
             Family Functioning},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {1091-4269},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22055},
   Abstract = {Background: To examine (1) changes in parent (global
             psychological distress, trait anxiety) and family
             (dysfunction, burden) functioning following 12 weeks of
             child-focused anxiety treatment, and (2) whether changes in
             these parent and family factors were associated with child's
             treatment condition and response. Methods: Participants were
             488 youth ages 7-17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7 years)
             who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation
             anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder, and their
             parents. Youth were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of "Coping
             Cat" individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT),
             medication management with sertraline (SRT), their
             combination (COMB), or medication management with pill
             placebo (PBO) within the multisite Child/Adolescent Anxiety
             Multimodal Study (CAMS). At pre- and posttreatment, parents
             completed measures of trait anxiety, psychological distress,
             family functioning, and burden of child illness; children
             completed a measure of family functioning. Blinded
             independent evaluators rated child's response to treatment
             using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale at
             posttreatment. Results: Analyses of covariance revealed that
             parental psychological distress and trait anxiety, and
             parent-reported family dysfunction improved only for parents
             of children who were rated as treatment responders, and
             these changes were unrelated to treatment condition. Family
             burden and child-reported family dysfunction improved
             significantly from pre- to posttreatment regardless of
             treatment condition or response. Conclusions: Findings
             suggest that child-focused anxiety treatments, regardless of
             intervention condition, can result in improvements in
             nontargeted parent symptoms and family functioning
             particularly when children respond successfully to the
             treatment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.22055},
   Key = {fds274956}
}

@article{fds274957,
   Author = {NE Caporino and DM Brodman and PC Kendall and AM Albano and J Sherrill and J Piacentini and D Sakolsky and B Birmaher and SN Compton and G Ginsburg and E al},
   Title = {Defining treatment response and remission in child anxiety:
             Signal detection analysis using the pediatric anxiety rating
             scale},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {57-67},
   Year = {2013},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Abstract = {Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating
             Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for
             predicting treatment response and remission among children
             and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were
             from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS), a multi-site, randomized controlled trial that
             examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline [SRT]),
             their combination, and pill placebo for the treatment of
             separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder,
             and social phobia. The clinician-rated PARS was administered
             pre- and posttreatment (delivered over 12 weeks). Quality
             receiver operating characteristic methods assessed the
             performance of various PARS percent reductions and absolute
             cut-off scores in predicting treatment response and
             remission, as determined by posttreatment ratings on the
             Clinical Global Impression scales and the Anxiety Disorders
             Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Corresponding change in
             impairment was evaluated using the Child Anxiety Impact
             Scale. Results: Reductions of 35% and 50% on the six-item
             PARS optimally predicted treatment response and remission,
             respectively. Post-treatment PARS raw scores of 8 to 10
             optimally predicted remission. Anxiety improved as a
             function of PARS-defined treatment response and remission.
             Conclusions: Results serve as guidelines for
             operationalizing treatment response and remission in future
             research and in making cross-study comparisons. These
             guidelines can facilitate translation of research findings
             into clinical practice. © 2013 American Academy of Child
             and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Key = {fds274957}
}

@article{fds274958,
   Author = {DA Cole and S-J Cho and NC Martin and EA Youngstrom and JS March and RL
             Findling, BE Compas and IM Goodyer and P Rohde and M Weissman and MJ
             Essex, JS Hyde and JF Curry and R Forehand and MJ Slattery and JW Felton and MA Maxwell},
   Title = {Are Increased Weight and Appetite Useful Indicators of
             Depression in Children and Adolescents?},
   Journal = {JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY},
   Volume = {121},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {838-851},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0021-843X},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000311527700005&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0028175},
   Key = {fds274958}
}

@article{fds275128,
   Author = {A Przeworski and LA Zoellner and ME Franklin and A Garcia and J Freeman and JS March and EB Foa},
   Title = {Maternal and child expressed emotion as predictors of
             treatment response in pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry Hum Dev},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {337-353},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1573-3327},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22090186},
   Abstract = {Expressed emotion (EE) is associated with symptoms and
             treatment outcome in various disorders. Few studies have
             examined EE in pediatric OCD and none of these has assessed
             the child's perspective. This study examined the
             relationship among maternal and child EE, child OCD
             severity, and OCD-related functioning pre- and
             post-treatment. At pre-treatment, mothers completed speech
             samples about the child with OCD and an unaffected sibling.
             Children with OCD completed speech samples about parents.
             There were low rates of high maternal EE (child with OCD:
             16.1%; sibling: 2.6%) and high child EE about parents
             (mothers: 11.9%; fathers: 10.2%). High EE was primarily
             characterized by high criticism, not high overinvolvement.
             High maternal EE and child EE regarding fathers were
             associated with pre-treatment child OCD severity but not
             post-treatment severity. High child and maternal EE were
             predictive of post-treatment OCD-related functioning. EE may
             be an important child and maternal trait associated with
             pre-treatment OCD severity and generalization of treatment
             gains.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-011-0268-8},
   Key = {fds275128}
}

@article{fds275143,
   Author = {A Prakash and E Lobo and CJ Kratochvil and RN Tamura and BA Pangallo and KE
             Bullok, T Quinlan and GJ Emslie and JS March},
   Title = {An open-label safety and pharmacokinetics study of
             duloxetine in pediatric patients with major
             depression.},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {48-55},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1557-8992},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22251023},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This preliminary, 32-week study assessed the
             safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of duloxetine in
             pediatric patients (aged 7-17 years) with major depressive
             disorder. METHODS: Patients received flexible duloxetine
             doses of 20-120 mg once daily, with dose changes made based
             on clinical improvement and tolerability. Pharmacokinetic
             samples were collected across all duloxetine doses, and data
             were analyzed using population modeling. Primary outcome
             measures included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs),
             vital signs, and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale
             (C-SSRS). RESULTS: Of the 72 enrolled patients, 48 (66.7%)
             completed acute treatment (18 weeks) and 42 (58.3%)
             completed extended treatment. Most patients (55/72; 76%)
             required doses ≥ 60 mg once daily to optimize efficacy
             based on investigator judgment and Clinical Global
             Impressions-Severity score. Body weight and age did not
             significantly affect duloxetine pharmacokinetic parameters.
             Typical duloxetine clearance in pediatric patients was
             ≈ 42%-60% higher than that in adults. Four patients
             (5.6%) discontinued due to TEAEs. Many (36/72, 50%) patients
             experienced potentially clinically significant (PCS)
             elevations in blood pressure, with most cases (21/36, 58%)
             being transient. As assessed via C-SSRS, one nonfatal
             suicidal attempt occurred, two patients (2.8%) experienced
             worsening of suicidal ideation, and among the 19 patients
             reporting suicidal ideation at baseline, 17 (90%) reported
             improvement in suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: Results
             suggested that pediatric patients generally tolerated
             duloxetine doses of 30 to 120 mg once daily, although
             transient PCS elevations in blood pressure were observed in
             many patients. Pharmacokinetic results suggested that
             adjustment of total daily dose based on body weight or age
             is not warranted for pediatric patients and different total
             daily doses may not be warranted for pediatric patients
             relative to adults.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2011.0072},
   Key = {fds275143}
}

@article{fds275089,
   Author = {M Villabø and M Gere and S Torgersen and JS March and PC
             Kendall},
   Title = {Diagnostic efficiency of the child and parent versions of
             the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {75-85},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22233247},
   Abstract = {The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometrics
             and clinical efficiency of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children (MASC), which measures physical symptoms,
             harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic. Using
             a sample of 190 treatment-seeking Norwegian youth (aged 7-13
             years, M (age) = 10.3 years, 62.1% male), the internal
             stability and ability to predict to disorder were examined
             for child, mother, and father reports on the MASC. Moderate
             to strong internal reliability was exhibited across all MASC
             subscales. Parent-child agreement was low, but mother-father
             agreement was high. MASC scores successfully distinguished
             between children with and without anxiety disorders and
             identified youth with separation anxiety disorder and social
             phobia, but less accurately generalized anxiety disorders.
             The MASC has favorable psychometric properties and is a
             useful screening instrument for identifying youth with
             anxiety disorders.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2012.632350},
   Key = {fds275089}
}

@article{fds274952,
   Author = {AD Simons and CN Marti and P Rohde and CC Lewis and J Curry and J
             March},
   Title = {Does homework "matter" in cognitive behavioral therapy for
             adolescent depression?},
   Journal = {Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {390-404},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0889-8391},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/0889-8391.26.4.390},
   Abstract = {Objective: Examine the degree to which homework completion
             is associated with various indices of clinical improvement
             in adolescents with depression treated with cognitive
             behavioral therapy (CBT) either as a monotherapy and in
             combination with antidepressant medication. Method: This
             study used data from the Treatment of Adolescents with
             Depression Study (TADS), which compared the efficacy of CBT,
             fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), and
             a pill placebo (PBO; TADS Team, 2003, 2004, 2005). Current
             analyses included only TADS participants in the CBT (n 5
             111) or COMB (n 5 107) conditions. Analyses focused on the
             relations between partial and full homework completion and a
             dichotomized measure of clinical response, evaluator and
             self-report ratings of depressive symptoms, hopelessness,
             and suicidality. Results: Homework completion significantly
             predicted clinical improvement, decrease in self-reported
             hopelessness, suicidality, and depression-but not in
             evaluator-rated depressive symptoms-in adolescents treated
             with CBT only. These relationships were almost completely
             absent in the COMB condition. The only significant COMB
             finding was that partially completed homework was related to
             decrease in hopelessness over time. Conclusions: These
             findings suggest that the ability of therapists and clients
             to collaboratively develop and complete between-session
             assignments is associated with response to CBT, self-report
             of severity of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and
             suicidality and may be integral to optimizing the effects of
             CBT when delivered as a monotherapy. © 2012 Springer
             Publishing Company.},
   Doi = {10.1891/0889-8391.26.4.390},
   Key = {fds274952}
}

@article{fds275044,
   Author = {BS Vaughan and JS March and CJ Kratochvil},
   Title = {The evidence-based pharmacological treatment of paediatric
             ADHD},
   Journal = {International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {15},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {27-39},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1461-1457},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1461145711000095},
   Abstract = {Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in
             children, adolescents, and adults, with extensive research
             establishing it as a valid neurobiological disorder. Without
             intervention, ADHD can result in significant impairment
             throughout the lifespan for the individuals it afflicts.
             Fortunately, multiple evidence-based options are available
             for the treatment of ADHD, including several efficacious
             pharmacotherapies. The role of medication, including
             stimulants as well as non-stimulants, is well-documented by
             an extensive body of literature. Although there may be less
             enthusiasm for behavioural and other psychosocial
             interventions as stand-alone treatments for moderate to
             severe ADHD, they are recommended as first-line treatment
             for ADHD management in preschool-aged children, for those
             patients with mild symptoms, and as an adjunct to medication
             in patients with comorbid disorders or suboptimal responses
             to pharmacotherapy. When planning treatment for individuals
             with ADHD, the potential risks associated with the available
             interventions must be carefully balanced against the risks
             of not treating, or not treating adequately. The treatment
             plan must also include ongoing re-assessment of the
             effectiveness of and the need for continued therapy. Recent
             practice parameters provide further specific guidance for
             the evidence-based assessment and treatment of children and
             adolescents with ADHD. © 2011 CINP.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1461145711000095},
   Key = {fds275044}
}

@article{fds275045,
   Author = {ME Franklin and JB Freeman and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive behavior therapy for pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder - Reply},
   Journal = {JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {307},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {560-561},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2012.109},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2012.109},
   Key = {fds275045}
}

@article{fds275046,
   Author = {J Freeman and A Garcia and K Benito and C Conelea and J Sapyta and M
             Khanna, J March and M Franklin},
   Title = {The pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder treatment study
             for young children (POTS Jr): Developmental considerations
             in the rationale, design, and methods},
   Journal = {Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related
             Disorders},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {294-300},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {2211-3649},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.07.010},
   Abstract = {This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of
             the pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder treatment study
             for young children (POTS Jr). The study is a multi-site
             randomized controlled trial (RCT) of family-based cognitive
             behavioral treatment (CBT) vs. family-based relaxation
             therapy for young children (ages 5-8) with obsessive
             compulsive disorder (OCD), which examines the effect of
             treatment on symptom reduction, functional impairment, and
             quality of life. Secondary aims evaluate: potential
             moderators and mediators of treatment response, differences
             in time course of response, retention rates, and maintenance
             of treatment gains over one year post-treatment. The sample
             included 127 children (53% female) and their parents. With
             regard to ethnicity, 89% of the sample described themselves
             as non-Hispanic, 5% Hispanic/Latino, and 6% did not endorse
             a category. In terms of race, the sample was predominantly
             (91%) white. Because the rationale and methods of the
             multi-site RCT have been well established, we emphasize here
             the methodological aspects of the study that were tailored
             to meet the developmental needs of young children with OCD.
             Aspects that are highlighted include: choice of control
             group, inclusion/exclusion criteria, assessment/measurement
             issues, treatment adaptations, training, and recruitment.
             © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jocrd.2012.07.010},
   Key = {fds275046}
}

@article{fds275062,
   Author = {NE Caporino and DM Brodman and PC Kendall and AM Albano and J Sherrill and J Piacentini and D Sakolsky and B Birmaher and SN Compton and G Ginsburg and E al},
   Title = {Defining Treatment Response and Remission in Child Anxiety:
             Signal Detection Analysis Using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating
             Scale},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Abstract = {Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating
             Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for
             predicting treatment response and remission among children
             and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were
             from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS), a multi-site, randomized controlled trial that
             examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT; Coping Cat), medication (sertraline [SRT]),
             their combination, and pill placebo for the treatment of
             separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder,
             and social phobia. The clinician-rated PARS was administered
             pre- and posttreatment (delivered over 12 weeks). Quality
             receiver operating characteristic methods assessed the
             performance of various PARS percent reductions and absolute
             cut-off scores in predicting treatment response and
             remission, as determined by posttreatment ratings on the
             Clinical Global Impression scales and the Anxiety Disorders
             Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Corresponding change in
             impairment was evaluated using the Child Anxiety Impact
             Scale. Results: Reductions of 35% and 50% on the six-item
             PARS optimally predicted treatment response and remission,
             respectively. Post-treatment PARS raw scores of 8 to 10
             optimally predicted remission. Anxiety improved as a
             function of PARS-defined treatment response and remission.
             Conclusions: Results serve as guidelines for
             operationalizing treatment response and remission in future
             research and in making cross-study comparisons. These
             guidelines can facilitate translation of research findings
             into clinical practice. © 2012 American Academy of Child
             and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2012.10.006},
   Key = {fds275062}
}

@article{fds275071,
   Author = {J Curry and S Silva and P Rohde and G Ginsburg and B Kennard and C
             Kratochvil, A Simons and J Kirchner and D May and T Mayes and N Feeny and AM Albano and S Lavanier and M Reinecke and R Jacobs and E
             Becker-Weidman, E Weller and G Emslie and J Walkup and E Kastelic and B
             Burns, K Wells and J March},
   Title = {Onset of alcohol or substance use disorders following
             treatment for adolescent depression},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {80},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {299-312},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026929},
   Abstract = {Objective: This study tested whether positive response to
             short-term treatment for adolescent major depressive
             disorder (MDD) would have the secondary benefit of
             preventing subsequent alcohol use disorders (AUD) or
             substance use disorders (SUD). Method: For 5 years, we
             followed 192 adolescents (56.2% female; 20.8% minority) who
             had participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with
             Depression Study (TADS; TADS Team, 2004) and who had no
             prior diagnoses of AUD or SUD. TADS initial treatments were
             cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine alone (FLX),
             the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), or clinical
             management with pill placebo (PBO). We used both the
             original TADS treatment response rating and a more
             restrictive symptom count rating. During follow-up,
             diagnostic interviews were completed at 6-or 12-month
             intervals to assess onset of AUD or SUD as well as MDD
             recovery and recurrence. Results: Achieving a positive
             response to MDD treatment was unrelated to subsequent AUD
             but predicted a lower rate of subsequent SUD, regardless of
             the measure of positive response (11.65% vs. 24.72%, or
             10.0% vs. 24.5%, respectively). Type of initial MDD
             treatment was not related to either outcome. Prior to
             depression treatment, greater involvement with alcohol or
             drugs predicted later AUD or SUD, as did older age (for AUD)
             and more comorbid disorders (for SUD). Among those with
             recurrent MDD and AUD, AUD preceded MDD recurrence in 24 of
             25 cases. Conclusion: Effective short-term adolescent
             depression treatment significantly reduces the rate of
             subsequent SUD but not AUD. Alcohol or drug use should be
             assessed prior to adolescent MDD treatment and monitored
             even after MDD recovery. © 2012 American Psychological
             Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0026929},
   Key = {fds275071}
}

@article{fds275130,
   Author = {JS March and JM Fegert},
   Title = {Drug development in pediatric psychiatry: current status,
             future trends.},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health},
   Volume = {6},
   Pages = {7},
   Year = {2012},
   ISSN = {1753-2000},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22313578},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-6-7},
   Key = {fds275130}
}

@article{fds275133,
   Author = {ME Franklin and J Sapyta and JB Freeman and M Khanna and S Compton and D
             Almirall, P Moore and M Choate-Summers and A Garcia and AL Edson and EB
             Foa and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive behavior therapy augmentation of pharmacotherapy
             in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: the Pediatric
             OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) randomized controlled
             trial.},
   Journal = {JAMA},
   Volume = {306},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1224-1232},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1538-3598},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21934055},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy* •
             Combined Modality Therapy • Female • Humans •
             Male • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Serotonin
             Uptake Inhibitors • Severity of Illness Index •
             Treatment Outcome • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: The extant literature on the treatment of pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) indicates that partial
             response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) is the norm
             and that augmentation with short-term OCD-specific cognitive
             behavior therapy (CBT) may provide additional benefit.
             OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of augmenting SRIs with
             CBT or a brief form of CBT, instructions in CBT delivered in
             the context of medication management. DESIGN, SETTING, AND
             PARTICIPANTS: A 12-week randomized controlled trial
             conducted at 3 academic medical centers between 2004 and
             2009, involving 124 pediatric outpatients between the ages
             of 7 and 17 years with OCD as a primary diagnosis and a
             Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale score of 16
             or higher despite an adequate SRI trial. INTERVENTIONS:
             Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment
             strategies that included 7 sessions over 12 weeks: 42 in the
             medication management only, 42 in the medication management
             plus instructions in CBT, and 42 in the medication
             management plus CBT; the last included 14 concurrent CBT
             sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether patients responded
             positively to treatment by improving their baseline
             obsessive-compulsive scale score by 30% or more and
             demonstrating a change in their continuous scores over 12
             weeks. RESULTS: The medication management plus CBT strategy
             was superior to the other 2 strategies on all outcome
             measures. In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, 68.6%
             (95% CI, 53.9%-83.3%) in the plus CBT group were considered
             responders, which was significantly better than the 34.0%
             (95% CI, 18.0%-50.0%) in the plus instructions in CBT group,
             and 30.0% (95% CI, 14.9%-45.1%) in the medication management
             only group. The results were similar in pairwise comparisons
             with the plus CBT strategy being superior to the other 2
             strategies (P < .01 for both). The plus instructions in CBT
             strategy was not statistically superior to medication
             management only (P = .72). The number needed-to-treat
             analysis with the plus CBT vs medication management only in
             order to see 1 additional patient at week 12, on average,
             was estimated as 3; for the plus CBT vs the plus
             instructions in CBT strategy, the number needed to treat was
             also estimated as 3; for the plus instructions in CBT vs
             medication management only the number needed to treat was
             estimated as 25. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients aged 7 to 17
             years with OCD and partial response to SRI use, the addition
             of CBT to medication management compared with medication
             management alone resulted in a significantly greater
             response rate, whereas augmentation of medication management
             with the addition of instructions in CBT did not. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:
             NCT00074815.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.2011.1344},
   Key = {fds275133}
}

@article{fds275139,
   Author = {CA Flessner and JB Freeman and J Sapyta and A Garcia and ME Franklin and JS
             March and E Foa},
   Title = {Predictors of parental accommodation in pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: findings from the Pediatric
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study (POTS)
             trial.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {716-725},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21703499},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Cooperative Behavior* • Family Health* • Female
             • Humans • Linear Models • Male •
             Multivariate Analysis • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
             • Parenting* • Patient Compliance • United
             States • psychology • rehabilitation*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Few studies have examined predictors of parental
             accommodation (assessed with the Family Accommodation
             Scale-Parent Report) among families of children with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). No studies have
             examined this phenomenon using empirically derived subscales
             of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent Report (i.e.,
             Caregiver Involvement, Avoidance of Triggers). METHOD:
             Ninety-six youths (and their families) were included in the
             present study. Parents were asked to complete the Family
             Accommodation Scale-Parent Report. Families also completed
             several additional measurements assessing child- and
             parent-level variables of interest. Regression analyses were
             used to examine potential predictors of accommodation.
             RESULTS: Results support prior research suggesting that
             accommodation is ubiquitous among the families of children
             with OCD. Analyses revealed that several child-level (i.e.,
             compulsion severity, oppositional behavior, and frequency of
             washing symptoms) and one parent-level (i.e., symptoms of
             anxiety) predictors work jointly to provide significant
             predictive models of parental accommodation. CONCLUSIONS:
             Clinicians and researchers should be aware of the impact of
             specific child- and parent-level variables on family
             accommodation in pediatric OCD and in turn their
             implications for treatment compliance, adherence, and, by
             extension, outcome. Study limitations warrant replication
             and extension of these findings; in particular, researchers
             may seek to obtain a better understanding of how the various
             facets of parental accommodation may differentially affect
             treatment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2011.03.019},
   Key = {fds275139}
}

@article{fds275107,
   Author = {LD Miller and A Laye-Gindhu and Y Liu and JS March and DS Thordarson and EJ Garland},
   Title = {Evaluation of a preventive intervention for child anxiety in
             two randomized attention-control school trials.},
   Journal = {Behav Res Ther},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {315-323},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1873-622X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21419391},
   Keywords = {Anxiety • Attention* • Child • Cognitive
             Therapy* • Female • Humans • Male •
             Schools • Social Environment • Treatment Outcome
             • prevention & control* • therapy},
   Abstract = {The present research examined the effectiveness of a
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) based intervention
             program, FRIENDS, for children from grades 4 to 6, using
             random assignment at the school-level and an
             attention-control design in two longitudinal studies. The
             first study targeted children with anxiety symptoms (N=191,
             mean age=10.1) as screened with self, parent, and
             teacher-reports; the second study took a universal approach
             with full classrooms of children participating (N=253, mean
             age=9.8). The results showed no intervention effect in
             both studies, with children's anxiety symptoms decreasing
             over time regardless of whether they were in the
             story-reading (attention control) or FRIENDS condition. The
             findings also indicated that girls reported a higher level
             of anxiety than boys and children in higher grades reported
             lower anxiety relative to younger children in both studies.
             In addition, similar patterns were found using a subgroup of
             children with high-anxiety symptoms from both
             studies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brat.2011.02.006},
   Key = {fds275107}
}

@article{fds275108,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {The preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS) as the culmination
             of twenty years of clinical trials in pediatric
             psychopharmacology.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {427-430},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21515189},
   Keywords = {Adult • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
             • Central Nervous System Stimulants • Child,
             Preschool • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug •
             Forecasting • Humans • Methylphenidate •
             Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic • Translational
             Medical Research • Treatment Outcome • United
             States • adverse effects • drug therapy* •
             therapeutic use* • trends*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2010.09.018},
   Key = {fds275108}
}

@article{fds275166,
   Author = {CU Correll and CJ Kratochvil and JS March},
   Title = {Developments in pediatric psychopharmacology: focus on
             stimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics.},
   Journal = {J Clin Psychiatry},
   Volume = {72},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {655-670},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1555-2101},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21658348},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Age Factors • Antidepressive Agents
             • Antipsychotic Agents • Anxiety Disorders •
             Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity •
             Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders •
             Autistic Disorder • Bipolar Disorder • Central
             Nervous System Stimulants • Child • Depressive
             Disorder, Major • Humans • Obsessive-Compulsive
             Disorder • Psychotic Disorders • Schizophrenia
             • adverse effects • drug therapy •
             therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {Most major psychiatric disorders have an onset in childhood
             or adolescence in a sizeable proportion of patients, and
             earlier onset disorders often have a severe and chronic
             course that can seriously disrupt sensitive developmental
             periods, with lifelong adverse consequences. Accordingly,
             psychopharmacologic treatments have been increasingly
             utilized in severely ill youth. However, the increased use
             of psychopharmacologic treatments in pediatric patients has
             also raised concerns regarding a potential overdiagnosis and
             overtreatment of youth, without adequate data regarding the
             pediatric efficacy and safety of psychotropic agents. Over
             the past decade, a remarkable number of pediatric randomized
             controlled trials have been completed, especially with
             psychostimulants, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. For
             these frequently used agents, effect sizes against placebo
             have typically been at least moderate, with most
             numbers-needed-to-treat well below 10 for response,
             indicating clinical significance as well. Nevertheless, data
             also point to a greater and/or different profile of
             susceptibility to adverse effects in pediatric compared to
             adult patients, as well as to a role for nonpharmacologic
             treatments, given alone or combined with pharmacotherapy,
             for many of the youth. Taken together, these results
             highlight the need for a careful assessment of the
             risk-benefit relationship of psychopharmacologic treatments
             in patients who cannot be managed sufficiently with
             nonpharmacologic interventions and for routine, proactive
             adverse effect monitoring and management. Although
             considerable progress has been made, there is still enormous
             need for additional data and funding of pediatric
             psychopharmacology trials. It is hoped that the field will
             acquire the necessary resources to propel pediatric clinical
             psychopharmacology to new levels of insight by linking it
             with, but not replacing it by, pharmacoepidemiologic and
             biomarker approaches and advances.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.4088/JCP.11r07064},
   Key = {fds275166}
}

@article{fds275105,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and BS Vaughan and JA Stoner and JM Daughton and BD
             Lubberstedt, DW Murray and AK Chrisman and MA Faircloth and NB
             Itchon-Ramos, SH Kollins and LA Maayan and LL Greenhill and LA
             Kotler, J Fried and JS March},
   Title = {A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine in
             young children with ADHD.},
   Journal = {Pediatrics},
   Volume = {127},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {e862-e868},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1098-4275},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422081},
   Keywords = {Age Factors • Attention Deficit Disorder with
             Hyperactivity • Central Nervous System Stimulants
             • Child • Child, Preschool • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
             • Double-Blind Method • Education • Female
             • Humans • Male • Off-Label Use •
             Personality Assessment • Propylamines •
             Psychometrics • adverse effects • diagnosis •
             drug therapy* • psychology • statistics &
             numerical data • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of
             atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD) in 5- and 6-year-old children. METHODS: This
             was an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized
             clinical trial of atomoxetine in 101 children with ADHD.
             Atomoxetine or placebo was flexibly titrated to a maximum
             dose of 1.8 mg/kg per day. The pharmacotherapist reviewed
             psychoeducational material on ADHD and behavioral-management
             strategies with parents during each study visit. RESULTS:
             Significant mean decreases in parent (P = .009) and teacher
             (P = .02) ADHD-IV Rating Scale scores were demonstrated with
             atomoxetine compared with placebo. A total of 40% of
             children treated with atomoxetine met response criteria
             (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale indicating
             much or very much improved) compared with 22% of children on
             placebo, which was not significant (P = .1). Decreased
             appetite, gastrointestinal upset, and sedation were
             significantly more common with atomoxetine than placebo.
             Although some children demonstrated a robust response to
             atomoxetine, for others the response was more attenuated.
             Sixty-two percent of subjects who received atomoxetine were
             moderately, markedly, or severely ill according to the
             Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale at study
             completion. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first
             randomized controlled trial of atomoxetine in children as
             young as 5 years. Atomoxetine generally was well tolerated
             and reduced core ADHD symptoms in the children on the basis
             of parent and teacher reports. Reductions in the ADHD-IV
             Rating Scale scores, however, did not necessarily translate
             to overall clinical and functional improvement, as
             demonstrated on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity
             Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale.
             Despite benefits, the children in the atomoxetine group
             remained, on average, significantly impaired at the end of
             the study.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1542/peds.2010-0825},
   Key = {fds275105}
}

@article{fds275150,
   Author = {JF Leckman and JS March},
   Title = {Editorial: Developmental neuroscience comes of
             age.},
   Journal = {J Child Psychol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {333-338},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1469-7610},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21410471},
   Keywords = {Child • Child Psychiatry • Child Psychology •
             Developmental Disabilities • Forecasting • Gene
             Expression • Humans • Neurosciences • Social
             Environment • genetics • psychology •
             trends*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02378.x},
   Key = {fds275150}
}

@article{fds275109,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Looking to the future of research in pediatric anxiety
             disorders.},
   Journal = {Depress Anxiety},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {88-98},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1520-6394},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21162058},
   Keywords = {Anxiety Disorders • Arousal • Brain • Child
             • Clinical Trials as Topic • Combined Modality
             Therapy • Evidence-Based Medicine • Fear •
             Forecasting • Humans • Individualized Medicine
             • United States • diagnosis • physiology
             • physiopathology • psychology •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The rapid emergence of translational
             developmental neuroscience as the key driver in
             understanding the onset of mental illness, the restructuring
             of academic health science centers on the NIH Roadmap, and
             dramatic shifts in drug, biological, device, and
             psychosocial intervention development all have important
             consequences for pediatric anxiety disorders as a field.
             METHOD: This article, which tracks the final presentation at
             a day-long symposium on pediatric anxiety disorders at the
             2010 annual meeting of the Anxiety Disorders Association of
             America (ADAA), will try to outline where the field will
             head over the next decade as these forces combine to shape
             research and practice. RESULTS: After 20 years of large
             comparative treatment trials that have defined the place of
             current generation treatments, the field is shifting toward
             interventions that will emerge from the revolution in
             translational developmental neuroscience and that herald the
             dawn of stratified and ultimately personalized medicine.
             With a much more efficient discovery to translational
             continuum, intervention development and dissemination will
             benefit from the concurrent transformation of the clinical
             and clinical research enterprise. CONCLUSION: Dramatic
             advances in science and changes in the structure of medicine
             will condition the future of clinical research across every
             therapeutic area in medicine. For the field of pediatric
             anxiety disorders to thrive it will be important to embrace
             and actively participate in this revolution so that anxious
             youth are viewed as a key target population and,
             consequently, preemptive, preventive, and curative
             interventions will be developed for children by first
             intent.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.20754},
   Key = {fds275109}
}

@article{fds275042,
   Author = {CA Flessner and J Sapyta and A Garcia and JB Freeman and ME Franklin and E
             Foa and J March},
   Title = {Examining the psychometric properties of the family
             accommodation scale-parent-report (FAS-PR)},
   Journal = {Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral
             Assessment},
   Volume = {33},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {38-46},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0882-2689},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10862-010-9196-3},
   Abstract = {Growing research has examined parental accommodation among
             the families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder
             (OCD). However, these studies have utilized a parent-report
             (PR) version of a measure, the Family Accommodation Scale
             (FAS) that has never received proper psychometric
             validation. In turn, previously derived subscales have been
             developed via clinical rather than empirical evidence. This
             study aims to conduct a comprehensive psychometric analysis
             of the FAS-PR utilizing data collected from 96 youths with
             OCD. Exploratory factors analysis was conducted and revealed
             a 12-item scale yielding two separate, yet related
             subscales, Avoidance of Triggers (AT) and Involvement in
             Compulsions (IC). Subsequent analyses revealed good internal
             consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. These
             findings suggest that future research should seek to examine
             factors that may impact various facets to accommodation as
             well as the role these facets plays in predicting treatment
             outcome. Limitations are discussed. © 2010 Springer
             Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10862-010-9196-3},
   Key = {fds275042}
}

@article{fds275043,
   Author = {MM Amaya and MA Reinecke and SG Silva and JS March},
   Title = {Parental marital discord and treatment response in depressed
             adolescents},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {401-411},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9466-2},
   Abstract = {Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes
             to the development of internalizing and externalizing
             symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however,
             have examined the association between parental marital
             discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study
             examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment
             response in a randomized control trial of adolescents with
             major depression enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents
             with Depression Study (TADS). Participants were 260
             adolescents from two-parent households randomly assigned to
             one of four treatment groups: fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive
             behavior therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or placebo
             (PBO). Logistic regressions revealed that parental marital
             discord interacted with youth gender and co-morbid
             oppositionality symptoms to predict group differences in
             treatment response. © 2010 Springer Science+Business
             Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10802-010-9466-2},
   Key = {fds275043}
}

@article{fds275061,
   Author = {GS Ginsburg and PC Kendall and D Sakolsky and SN Compton and J
             Piacentini, AM Albano and JT Walkup and J Sherrill and KA Coffey and MA
             Rynn and E al},
   Title = {Remission after acute treatment in children and adolescents
             with anxiety disorders: Findings from the
             CAMS},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {79},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {806-813},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0025933},
   Abstract = {Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who
             participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal
             Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial,
             randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79
             Caucasian; 50 female) with separation, social, and/or
             generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of
             sertraline (SRT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), their
             combination (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo
             (PBO). Method: The primary definition of remission was loss
             of all study-entry anxiety disorder diagnoses; additional
             definitions of remission were used. All outcomes were rated
             by independent evaluators blind to treatment assignment.
             Predictors of remission were also examined. Results:
             Remission rates after 12 weeks of treatment ranged from 46
             to 68 for COMB, 34 to 46 for SRT, 20 to 46 for CBT, and 15
             to 27 for PBO. Rates of remission (i.e., achieving a nearly
             symptom-free state) were significantly lower than rates of
             response (i.e., achieving a clinically meaningful
             improvement relative to baseline) for the entire sample.
             Youth who received COMB had significantly higher rates of
             remission compared to all other treatment groups. Both
             monotherapies had higher remission rates compared to PBO,
             but rates were not different from each other. Predictors of
             remission were younger age, nonminority status, lower
             baseline anxiety severity, absence of other internalizing
             disorders (e.g., anxiety, depression), and absence of social
             phobia. Conclusions: For the majority of children, some
             symptoms of anxiety persisted, even among those showing
             improvement after 12 weeks of treatment, suggesting a need
             to augment or extend current treatments for some children.
             © 2011 American Psychological Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0025933},
   Key = {fds275061}
}

@article{fds275066,
   Author = {J Freeman and J Sapyta and A Garcia and D Fitzgerald and M Khanna and M
             Choate-Summers, P Moore and A Chrisman and N Haff and A Naeem and J
             March and M Franklin},
   Title = {Still Struggling: Characteristics of youth with OCD who are
             partial responders to medication treatment},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {424-441},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-011-0227-4},
   Abstract = {The primary aim of this paper is to examine the
             characteristics of a large sample of youth with OCD who are
             partial responders (i.e., still have clinically significant
             symptoms) to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) medication.
             The sample will be described with regard to: demographics,
             treatment history, OCD symptoms/severity, family history and
             parental psychopathology, comorbidity, and global and family
             functioning. The sample includes 124 youth with OCD ranging
             in age from 7 to 17 with a primary diagnosis of OCD and a
             partial response to an SRI medication. The youth are a
             predominantly older (age 12 and over), Caucasian, middle to
             upper income group who had received significant past
             treatment. Key findings include moderate to severe OCD
             symptoms, high ratings of global impairment, and significant
             comorbidity, despite partial response to an adequate
             medication trial. Considerations regarding generalizability
             of the sample and limitations of the study are discussed.
             © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
             2011.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-011-0227-4},
   Key = {fds275066}
}

@article{fds275070,
   Author = {J Curry and S Silva and P Rohde and G Ginsburg and C Kratochvil and A
             Simons, J Kirchner and D May and B Kennard and T Mayes and N Feeny and AM
             Albano, S Lavanier and M Reinecke and R Jacobs and E Becker-Weidman and E Weller and G Emslie and J Walkup and E Kastelic and B Burns and K Wells and J March},
   Title = {Recovery and recurrence following treatment for adolescent
             major depression},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {263-270},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.150},
   Abstract = {Context: Major depressive disorder in adolescents is common
             and impairing. Efficacious treatments have been developed,
             but little is known about longer-term outcomes, including
             recurrence. Objectives: To determine whether adolescents who
             responded to short-term treatments or who received the most
             efficacious short-term treatment would have lower recurrence
             rates, and to identify predictors of recovery and
             recurrence. Design: Naturalistic follow-up study. Setting:
             Twelve academic sites in the United States. Participants:
             One hundred ninety-six adolescents (86 males and 110
             females) randomized to 1 of 4 short-term interventions
             (fluoxetine hydrochloride treatment, cognitive behavioral
             therapy, their combination, or placebo) in the Treatment for
             Adolescents With Depression Study were followed up for 5
             years after study entry (44.6% of the original Treatment for
             Adolescents With Depression Study sample). Main Outcome
             Measures: Recovery was defined as absence of clinically
             significant major depressive disorder symptoms on the
             Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for
             School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version interview
             for at least 8 weeks, and recurrence was defined as a new
             episode of major depressive disorder following recovery.
             Results: Almost all participants (96.4%) recovered from
             their index episode of major depressive disorder during the
             follow-up period. Recovery by 2 years was significantly more
             likely for short-term treatment responders (96.2%) than for
             partial responders or nonresponders (79.1%) (P&lt;.001) but
             was not associated with having received the most efficacious
             short-term treatment (the combination of fluoxetine and
             cognitive behavioral therapy). Of the 189 participants who
             recovered, 88 (46.6%) had a recurrence. Recurrence was not
             predicted by full short-term treatment response or by
             original treatment. However, full or partial responders were
             less likely to have a recurrence (42.9%) than were
             non-responders (67.6%) (P=.03). Sex predicted recurrence
             (57.0% among females vs 32.9% among males; P=.02).
             Conclusions: Almost all depressed adolescents recovered.
             However, recurrence occurs in almost half of recovered
             adolescents, with higher probability in females in this age
             range. Further research should identify and address the
             vulnerabilities to recurrence that are more common among
             young women. ©2011 American Medical Association. All
             rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.150},
   Key = {fds275070}
}

@article{fds275090,
   Author = {LD Miller and A Laye-Gindhu and JL Bennett and Y Liu and S Gold and JS
             March, BF Olson and VE Waechtler},
   Title = {An effectiveness study of a culturally enriched school-based
             CBT anxiety prevention program.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {618-629},
   Year = {2011},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21722033},
   Keywords = {Anxiety • Canada • Child • Cognitive Therapy*
             • Culture • Female • Humans • Indians,
             North American • Male • School Health Services
             • Sex Factors • Treatment Outcome • ethnology
             • prevention & control* • psychology*},
   Abstract = {Anxiety disorders are prevalent in the school-aged
             population and are present across cultural groups. Scant
             research exists on culturally relevant prevention and
             intervention programs for mental health problems in the
             Aboriginal populations. An established cognitive behavioral
             program, FRIENDS for Life, was enriched to include content
             that was culturally relevant to Aboriginal students.
             Students (N = 533), including 192 students of
             Aboriginal background, participated in the cluster
             randomized control study. Data were collected three times
             over 1 year. A series of multilevel models were conducted to
             examine the effect of the culturally enriched FRIENDS
             program on anxiety. These analyses revealed that the FRIENDS
             program did not effectively reduce anxiety for the total
             sample or for Aboriginal children specifically. However, all
             students, regardless of intervention condition, Aboriginal
             status, or gender, reported a consistent decrease in
             feelings of anxiety over the 6-month study
             period.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2011.581619},
   Key = {fds275090}
}

@article{fds275117,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Attention bias modification training and the new
             interventions research.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {68},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {978-979},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1873-2402},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21075226},
   Keywords = {Anxiety Disorders • Attention* • Behavior Therapy*
             • Humans • therapy*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.007},
   Key = {fds275117}
}

@article{fds275122,
   Author = {AM Garcia and JJ Sapyta and PS Moore and JB Freeman and ME Franklin and JS
             March and EB Foa},
   Title = {Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome in the
             Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Treatment Study (POTS
             I).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1024-1033},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20855047},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Awareness • Child • Codependency
             (Psychology) • Cognitive Therapy* • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Comorbidity • Disability
             Evaluation • Female • Humans •
             Internal-External Control • Linear Models • Male
             • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Parent-Child
             Relations • Prognosis • Serotonin Uptake
             Inhibitors • Sertraline • diagnosis •
             genetics • psychology • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors and moderators of outcome
             in the first Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS I) among
             youth (N = 112) randomly assigned to sertraline, cognitive
             behavioral therapy (CBT), both sertraline and CBT (COMB), or
             a pill placebo. METHOD: Potential baseline predictors and
             moderators were identified by literature review. The outcome
             measure was an adjusted week 12 predicted score for the
             Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS).
             Main and interactive effects of treatment condition and each
             candidate predictor or moderator variable were examined
             using a general linear model on the adjusted predicted week
             12 CY-BOCS scores. RESULTS: Youth with lower
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) severity, less
             OCD-related functional impairment, greater insight, fewer
             comorbid externalizing symptoms, and lower levels of family
             accommodation showed greater improvement across treatment
             conditions than their counterparts after acute POTS
             treatment. Those with a family history of OCD had more than
             a sixfold decrease in effect size in CBT monotherapy
             relative to their counterparts in CBT without a family
             history of OCD. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention is needed to
             build optimized intervention strategies for more complex
             youth with OCD. Youth with a family history of OCD are not
             likely to benefit from CBT unless offered in combination
             with an SSRI. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION INFORMATION:
             Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in
             Children, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov,
             NCT00000384.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.jaac.2010.06.013},
   Key = {fds275122}
}

@article{fds275157,
   Author = {GL Stein and JF Curry and J Hersh and A Breland-Noble and J March and SG
             Silva, MA Reinecke and R Jacobs},
   Title = {Ethnic differences among adolescents beginning treatment for
             depression.},
   Journal = {Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {152-158},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1099-9809},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20438153},
   Abstract = {This study examines ethnic/racial differences at the start
             of treatment among participants in the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). African American
             and Latino youth were compared to Caucasian youth on symptom
             presentation and cognitive variables associated with
             depression. Contrary to hypothesis, there were no
             significant differences in symptom presentation as measured
             by the interview-based items of the Children's Depression
             Rating Scale--Revised (CDRS-R). However, African American
             and Latino youth were both rated as demonstrating more
             severe symptoms on the observational items of the CDRS-R
             compared to Caucasian youth. In terms of cognitive variables
             associated with depression, African Americans reported fewer
             negative cognitive biases compared to Caucasians, but
             cognitive biases were significantly correlated with
             depression severity across ethnic groups.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0018666},
   Key = {fds275157}
}

@article{fds275091,
   Author = {CC Lewis and AD Simons and LJ Nguyen and JL Murakami and MW Reid and SG
             Silva and JS March},
   Title = {Impact of childhood trauma on treatment outcome in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study
             (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {49},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {132-140},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20215935},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Child • Child Abuse • Child Abuse, Sexual
             • Cognitive Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy
             • Depressive Disorder, Major • Double-Blind Method
             • Female • Fluoxetine • Humans • Life
             Change Events* • Longitudinal Studies • Male
             • Personality Inventory • Psychometrics •
             Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic • Treatment Outcome
             • blood* • diagnosis • psychology* •
             statistics & numerical data • therapeutic use* •
             therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in
             427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD =
             1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).
             METHOD: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral
             therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),
             and placebo (PBO). Teens were separated into four trauma
             history groups: (1) no trauma; (2) trauma, no abuse; (3)
             physical abuse; (4), and sexual abuse. The effects of
             treatment and trauma history on depression severity across
             12 weeks of acute treatment, as measured by the Children's
             Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), were examined.
             RESULTS: A significant trauma-by-treatment-by-time
             interaction indicated that trauma history moderated
             treatment. The Week 12 primary efficacy findings previously
             reported by TADS were replicated in the no trauma group (n =
             201): COMB = FLX > CBT = PBO. No significant differences in
             treatment arms were observed among the trauma, no abuse, or
             physical abuse group. Teens with a history of sexual abuse
             treated with COMB, FLX, and PBO showed significant and
             equivalent improvement on the CDRS-R (mean <45), whereas the
             mean CDRS-R for the CBT group tended to remain in the
             depressed range (mean >45). Baseline suicidality and
             self-reported depression were significantly related to a
             history of sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The study was limited
             by the level of detail regarding childhood traumatic
             experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the
             implications for treating depressed adolescents with
             traumatic backgrounds.Clinical Trials Registry Information:
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study;
             http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00006286.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275091}
}

@article{fds275167,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Commentary on 'Forum: use of antidepressants in children and
             adolescents'.},
   Journal = {Curr Opin Psychiatry},
   Volume = {23},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {63-65},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1473-6578},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19952557},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Behavior Therapy • Child •
             Depressive Disorder • Humans • Meta-Analysis as
             Topic • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • Suicide,
             Attempted* • drug therapy* • psychology •
             therapeutic use*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.yco.0000365437.88103.9d},
   Key = {fds275167}
}

@article{fds275035,
   Author = {EG Becker-Weidman and RH Jacobs and MA Reinecke and SG Silva and JS
             March},
   Title = {Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for
             depression},
   Journal = {Behaviour Research and Therapy},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11-18},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0005-7967},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2009.08.006},
   Abstract = {Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may
             be associated with increased risk of depression and
             suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear,
             however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving
             are related to depression and suicidality among youth.
             Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and
             problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in
             depression and suicidality among children and adolescents
             receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on
             acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized
             controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents
             enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression
             Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation
             Questionnaire - Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social
             Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random
             coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main
             and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale
             scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage.
             Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation,
             and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific
             predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality,
             avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness
             style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation
             and positive problem orientation were moderators of
             treatment outcome. Implications of these findings,
             limitations, and directions for future research are
             discussed. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brat.2009.08.006},
   Key = {fds275035}
}

@article{fds275036,
   Author = {RH Jacobs and EG Becker-Weidman and MA Reinecke and N Jordan and SG
             Silva, P Rohde and JS March},
   Title = {Treating depression and oppositional behavior in
             adolescents},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent
             Psychology},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {559-567},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1537-4416},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2010.486318},
   Abstract = {Adolescents with depression and high levels of
             oppositionality often are particularly difficult to treat.
             Few studies, however, have examined treatment outcomes among
             youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems.
             This study examines the effect of fluoxetine, cognitive
             behavior therapy (CBT), the combination of fluoxetine and
             CBT, and placebo on co-occurring oppositionality within a
             sample of depressed adolescents. All treatments resulted in
             decreased oppositionality at 12 weeks. Adolescents receiving
             fluoxetine, either alone or in combination with CBT,
             experienced greater reductions in oppositionality than
             adolescents not receiving antidepressant medication. These
             results suggest that treatments designed to alleviate
             depression can reduce oppositionality among youth with a
             primary diagnosis of depression. © Taylor &amp; Francis
             Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374416.2010.486318},
   Key = {fds275036}
}

@article{fds275037,
   Author = {EB Foa and M Coles and JD Huppert and RV Pasupuleti and ME Franklin and J March},
   Title = {Development and Validation of a Child Version of the
             Obsessive Compulsive Inventory},
   Journal = {Behavior Therapy},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {121-132},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0005-7894},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.02.001},
   Abstract = {Surprisingly, only 3 self-report measures that directly
             assess pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have
             been developed. In addition, these scales have typically
             been developed in small samples and fail to provide a quick
             assessment of symptoms across multiple domains. Therefore,
             the current paper presents initial psychometric data for a
             quick assessment of pediatric OCD across multiple symptom
             domains, a child version of the Obsessive Compulsive
             Inventory (the OCI-CV). Data from a sample of over 100 youth
             ages 7 to 17 with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD support
             the use of the 21-item OCI-CV. Results support the use of
             the OCI-CV as a general index of OCD symptom severity and in
             6 symptom domains parallel to those assessed by the revised
             adult version of the scale (OCI-R). The OCI-CV showed strong
             retest reliability after approximately 1.5 weeks in a
             subsample of 64 participants and was significantly
             correlated with clinician-rated OCD symptom severity and
             parent and child reports of dysfunction related to OCD.
             Significantly stronger correlations with self-reported
             anxiety than with depressive symptoms provide initial
             support for the divergent validity of the measure. Finally,
             preliminary data with 88 treatment completers suggest that
             the OCI-CV is sensitive to change. © 2009.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.beth.2009.02.001},
   Key = {fds275037}
}

@article{fds275038,
   Author = {JS March and DL Evans},
   Title = {In Memoriam: Elizabeth Weller, M.D.},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {e49},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.031},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.031},
   Key = {fds275038}
}

@article{fds275039,
   Author = {CA Flessner and A Allgair and A Garcia and J Freeman and J Sapyta and ME
             Franklin, E Foa and J March},
   Title = {The impact of neuropsychological functioning on treatment
             outcome in pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder},
   Journal = {Depression and Anxiety},
   Volume = {27},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {365-371},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1091-4269},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.20626},
   Abstract = {Background: Scant research has examined the effect of
             neuropsychological (NP) functioning on treatment outcome in
             pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study
             sought to address this gap in existing research. Methods: A
             total of 63 youths were included in this study and asked to
             complete the Rey- Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and
             specific subtests of theWechsler Intelligence Scale for
             Children, Third Edition (WISC-III). Results: Analyses
             suggest that 5min recall accuracy (raw score) and percent
             recall from the ROCF, assessed before treatment may be
             predictors of treatment response among children with OCD.
             What is more, exploratory post hoc analyses indicated that
             performance on these ROCF tasks is particularly relevant
             among youths receiving cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT)
             alone. These results may be driven by executive functioning
             ability. Additional analyses suggest a relationship between
             age, symptom severity, and NP functioning on select tasks
             from both the ROCF and WISC-III. Conclusions: Although
             alternative explanations exist, these findings suggest that
             poorer performance on the ROCF and, in turn, poorer response
             to treatment, particularly among those youths receiving CBT
             alone, may be due to executive functioning difficulties.
             Clinicians and researchers should be sensitive to this fact
             and may warrant modification(s) to existing treatment
             protocols. Limitations to this study, however, suggest the
             need for replication and extension of these findings in the
             future. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.20626},
   Key = {fds275039}
}

@article{fds275040,
   Author = {RH Jacobs and MA Reinecke and JK Gollan and N Jordan and SG Silva and JS
             March},
   Title = {Extreme thinking in clinically depressed adolescents:
             Results from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study (TADS)},
   Journal = {Behaviour Research and Therapy},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1155-1159},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0005-7967},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.001},
   Abstract = {The purpose of this report is to examine relations between
             extreme thinking, as measured by the Dysfunctional Attitudes
             Scale, and the maintenance of gains among adolescents who
             participated in the Treatment for Adolescents with
             Depression Study (TADS). We examine extreme thinking among
             327 adolescents (mean age. = 14.56, 57% female, 75% White)
             who received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine
             (FLX), or a combination of CBT and FLX (COMB). Among those
             who met remission status on the Children's Depression Rating
             Scale - Revised (CDRS-R ≤ 28; 56 at week 12, 79 at
             week 18) extreme thinking did not predict failure to
             maintain remission. This is in contrast to findings with
             depressed adults. Treatment influenced level of extreme
             thinking, and this appeared to be driven by greater
             endorsement of positively valenced beliefs as opposed to a
             decrease in negatively valenced beliefs. Developmental or
             investigation characteristics may account for the
             discrepancy in findings. © 2010 Elsevier
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.brat.2010.08.001},
   Key = {fds275040}
}

@article{fds275041,
   Author = {J March and HC Kraemer and M Trivedi and J Csernansky and J Davis and TA
             Ketter and ID Glick},
   Title = {What have we learned about trial design from NIMH-funded
             pragmatic trials},
   Journal = {Neuropsychopharmacology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {13},
   Pages = {2491-2501},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0893-133X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npp.2010.115},
   Abstract = {At the 2008 annual meeting of the American College of
             Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), a symposium was devoted to
             the following question: what have we learned about the
             design of pragmatic clinical trials (PCTs) from the recent
             costly long-term, large-scale trials of psychiatric
             treatments? in order to inform the design of future trials.
             In all, 10 recommendations were generated placing emphasis
             on (1) appropriate conduct of pragmatic trials; (2)
             clinical, rather than, merely statistical significance; (3)
             sampling from the population clinicians are called upon to
             treat; (4) clinical outcomes of patients, rather than, on
             outcome measures; (5) use of stratification, controlling, or
             adjusting when necessary and not otherwise; (6) appropriate
             consideration of site differences in multisite studies; (7)
             encouragement of post hoc exploration to generate (not test)
             hypotheses; (8) precise articulation of the treatment
             strategy to be tested and use of the corresponding
             appropriate design; (9) expanded opportunity for training of
             researchers and reviewers in RCT principles; and (10)
             greater emphasis on data sharing. © 2010 Nature
             Publishing Group All rights reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1038/npp.2010.115},
   Key = {fds275041}
}

@article{fds275060,
   Author = {PC Kendall and SN Compton and JT Walkup and B Birmaher and AM Albano and J
             Sherrill, G Ginsburg and M Rynn and J McCracken and E Gosch and E
             al},
   Title = {Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered
             youth},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {360-365},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009},
   Abstract = {Reports the characteristics of a large, representative
             sample of treatment-seeking anxious youth (N=488).
             Participants, aged 7-17 years (mean 10.7 years), had a
             principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder
             (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia
             (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a
             different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated
             (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not
             included, there were few other exclusion criteria.
             Participants and their parent/guardian underwent an
             extensive baseline assessment using a broad array of
             measures capturing diagnostic status, anxiety symptoms and
             severity, and areas of functional impairment. Means and
             standard deviations of the measures of psychopathology and
             data on diagnostic status are provided. The sample had
             moderate to severe anxiety disorder and was highly comorbid,
             with 55.3% of participants meeting criteria for at least one
             non-targeted DSM-IV disorder. Anxiety disorders in youth
             often do not present as a single/focused disorder: such
             disorders in youth overlap in symptoms and are highly
             comorbid among themselves. © 2010 Elsevier
             Ltd.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.janxdis.2010.01.009},
   Key = {fds275060}
}

@article{fds275171,
   Author = {SN Compton and JT Walkup and AM Albano and JC Piacentini and B Birmaher and JT Sherrill and GS Ginsburg and MA Rynn and JT McCracken and BD Waslick and S Iyengar and PC Kendall and JS March},
   Title = {Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale,
             design, and methods.},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health},
   Volume = {4},
   Pages = {1},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {1753-2000},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051130},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To present the design, methods, and rationale of
             the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a
             recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized
             placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy
             of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and
             their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the
             treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized
             anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children
             and adolescents. METHODS: Following a brief review of the
             acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the
             psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for
             pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the
             CAMS trial are described. RESULTS: CAMS was a six-year,
             six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred
             eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17
             years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were
             randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT,
             SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety,
             and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and
             moderators of treatment response were completed in a
             multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based
             therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators
             were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A
             multi-layered administrative structure with representation
             from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the
             entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance.
             CONCLUSIONS: CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods
             applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological
             comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art
             methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also
             provided a large-scale examination of the relative and
             combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based
             psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to
             date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety
             disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold
             important implications for informing practice-relevant
             decisions regarding the initial treatment of youth with
             anxiety disorders. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov
             NCT00052078.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-4-1},
   Key = {fds275171}
}

@article{fds275092,
   Author = {RH Jacobs and SG Silva and MA Reinecke and JF Curry and GS Ginsburg and CJ
             Kratochvil and JS March},
   Title = {Dysfunctional attitudes scale perfectionism: a predictor and
             partial mediator of acute treatment outcome among clinically
             depressed adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {803-813},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183664},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Attitude* • Child • Cognitive
             Therapy • Depressive Disorder, Major • Diagnostic
             and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders • Female
             • Humans • Male • Personality* •
             Predictive Value of Tests • Questionnaires* • Self
             Concept • Treatment Outcome • diagnosis •
             methods* • psychology • therapy*},
   Abstract = {The effect of perfectionism on acute treatment outcomes was
             explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically
             depressed adolescents (12-17 years of age) enrolled in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) who
             received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), fluoxetine, a
             combination of CBT and FLX, or pill placebo. Measures
             included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised, the
             Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Grades 7-9, and the
             perfectionism subscale from the Dysfunctional Attitudes
             Scale (DAS). Predictor results indicate that adolescents
             with higher versus lower DAS perfectionism scores at
             baseline, regardless of treatment, continued to demonstrate
             elevated depression scores across the acute treatment
             period. In the case of suicidality, DAS perfectionism
             impeded improvement. Treatment outcomes were partially
             mediated by the change in DAS perfectionism across the
             12-week period.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903259031},
   Key = {fds275092}
}

@article{fds275093,
   Author = {NC Feeny and SG Silva and MA Reinecke and S McNulty and RL Findling and P
             Rohde, JF Curry and GS Ginsburg and CJ Kratochvil and SM Pathak and DE
             May, BD Kennard and AD Simons and KC Wells and M Robins and D Rosenberg and JS March},
   Title = {An exploratory analysis of the impact of family functioning
             on treatment for depression in adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {814-825},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183665},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Double-Blind Method •
             Family • Female • Fluoxetine • Humans •
             Male • Research Design • Serotonin Uptake
             Inhibitors • Single-Blind Method • Social
             Environment • Treatment Outcome • diagnosis •
             methods* • psychology* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {This article explores aspects of family environment and
             parent-child conflict that may predict or moderate response
             to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439)
             randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive behavioral
             therapy, their combination, or placebo. Outcomes were Week
             12 scores on measures of depression and global impairment.
             Of 20 candidate variables, one predictor emerged: Across
             treatments, adolescents with mothers who reported less
             parent-child conflict were more likely to benefit than their
             counterparts. When family functioning moderated outcome,
             adolescents who endorsed more negative environments were
             more likely to benefit from fluoxetine. Similarly, when
             moderating effects were seen on cognitive behavioral therapy
             conditions, they were in the direction of being less
             effective among teens reporting poorer family
             environments.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903297148},
   Key = {fds275093}
}

@article{fds275094,
   Author = {GS Ginsburg and SG Silva and RH Jacobs and S Tonev and RH Hoyle and JN
             Kingery, MA Reinecke and JF Curry and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive measures of adolescent depression: unique or
             unitary constructs?},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {790-802},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183663},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognition Disorders •
             Cognitive Therapy • Culture • Depressive Disorder,
             Major • Female • Fluoxetine • Humans •
             Male • Neuropsychological Tests • Personality
             Disorders • Questionnaires • Self Concept •
             Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • Treatment Outcome •
             diagnosis • diagnosis* • epidemiology •
             epidemiology* • methods* • psychology •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires
             assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed
             in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390
             adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with
             current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment
             of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor solution
             resulted, accounting for 65% of the total variance. The
             factors were labeled (a) Cognitive Distortions and
             Maladaptive Beliefs, (b) Cognitive Avoidance, (c) Positive
             Outlook, and (d) Solution-Focused Thinking. Internal
             consistencies for the factor-based composite scores were
             .83, .85, .84, and .82, respectively. Girls endorsed more
             negative cognitions than boys on three of the four factors.
             Maladaptive cognitions were positively related to severity
             of depression and predicted treatment response. Taken
             together, findings indicated that there are four distinct
             domains of cognitions that are present among adolescents
             with depression that are tapped by several widely used
             self-report measures of cognitions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903259015},
   Key = {fds275094}
}

@article{fds275095,
   Author = {GM Rogers and JH Park and MJ Essex and MH Klein and SG Silva and RH Hoyle and JF Curry and NC Feeny and B Kennard and CJ Kratochvil and S Pathak and MA
             Reinecke, DR Rosenberg and EB Weller and JS
             March},
   Title = {The dysfunctional attitudes scale: psychometric properties
             in depressed adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {781-789},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183662},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Anxiety Disorders • Attitude* •
             Child • Depressive Disorder, Major • Factor
             Analysis, Statistical • Female • Humans •
             Male • Psychological Theory • Questionnaires*
             • Self Concept • diagnosis • diagnosis*
             • epidemiology • psychology •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {The psychometric properties and factor structure of the
             Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale were examined in a sample of
             422 male and female adolescents (ages 12-17) with current
             major depressive disorder. The scale demonstrated high
             internal consistency (alpha = .93) and correlated
             significantly with self-report and interview-based measures
             of depression. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a
             correlated 2-factor model, with scales corresponding to
             perfectionism and need for social approval, provided a
             satisfactory fit to the data. The goodness-of-fit was
             equivalent across sexes and age groups. The findings support
             the use of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale and its
             subscales in the assessment of clinically depressed
             adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903259007},
   Key = {fds275095}
}

@article{fds275096,
   Author = {MA Reinecke and JF Curry and JS March},
   Title = {Findings from the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study (TADS): what have we learned? What do we need to
             know?},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {761-767},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183660},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Clinical Competence* • Depressive
             Disorder • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
             • Humans • Recurrence • Suicide, Attempted
             • drug therapy* • epidemiology • prevention &
             control • psychology • statistics & numerical
             data},
   Abstract = {This introduction to the special section on findings from
             the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study provides
             a review of the rationale for the study, its design, and
             principal findings to date. Findings with regard to acute
             effectiveness of alternative treatments, relapse,
             recurrence, maintenance of gains, and the effects of
             treatment on suicidal ideations and suicidal behavior are
             reviewed. We conclude with a brief discussion of unresolved
             clinical issues, including treatment resistance, management
             of partial response, moderators and predictors of long-term
             response, and mediators of clinical change. The articles of
             the special section address a range of issues including
             relations between cognitive factors associated with
             depression, relations between maladaptive beliefs and
             treatment response, cognitive mediators of therapeutic
             improvement, relations between family conflict and treatment
             response, and the economic costs of adolescent
             depression.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903258991},
   Key = {fds275096}
}

@article{fds275097,
   Author = {JN Kingery and HO Kepley and GS Ginsburg and JT Walkup and SG Silva and RH
             Hoyle, MA Reinecke and JS March},
   Title = {Factor structure and psychometric properties of the
             Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire with a
             clinically depressed adolescent sample.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {768-780},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183661},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Affect* • Child • Cognition*
             • Cognitive Therapy • Depressive Disorder, Major
             • Factor Analysis, Statistical • Female •
             Fluoxetine • Humans • Male • Observer
             Variation • Psychometrics • Questionnaires* •
             Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • diagnosis* •
             epidemiology • methods* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {The factor structure and psychometric properties of the
             Children's Negative Cognitive Error Questionnaire (CNCEQ)
             were examined with 427 adolescents ages 12 to 18 (193 boys)
             with current major depressive disorder. Results of
             confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor model
             comprised of three content area factors (i.e., social,
             academic, athletic) and a general factor. Internal
             consistencies ranged between .84 and .94 for the total and
             three content area scores. Girls scored significantly higher
             than boys on all factors, but no age differences on the
             factors were found. Convergent and discriminant validity of
             the CNCEQ were supported. Results did not support the
             original subscales organized by type of cognitive distortion
             (e.g., catastrophizing, overgeneralizing). Findings
             indicated that the CNCEQ would be a useful clinical tool for
             assessing cognitive symptoms within relevant domains of
             functioning (e.g., social, academic) of depressed
             youth.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903297130},
   Key = {fds275097}
}

@article{fds275099,
   Author = {ME Domino and BJ Burns and J Mario and MA Reinecke and B Vitiello and EB
             Weller, CJ Kratochvil and DE May and NC Feeny and M Robins and MJ
             Hallin, SG Silva and JS March},
   Title = {Service use and costs of care for depressed adolescents: who
             uses and who pays?},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {826-836},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1537-4424},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20183666},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Depressive Disorder, Major
             • Female • Humans • Male • Mental Health
             Services • drug therapy* • economics* •
             utilization*},
   Abstract = {Major depressive disorder is common in adolescence and is
             associated with significant morbidity and family burden.
             Little is known about service use by depressed adolescents.
             The purpose of this article is to report the patterns of
             services use and costs for participants in the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study sample during the 3 months
             before randomization. Costs were assigned across three
             categories of payors: families, private insurance, and the
             public sector. We examined whether costs from payors varied
             by baseline covariates, such as age, gender, insurance
             status, and family income. The majority (71%) of depressed
             youth sought services during the 3-month period. Slightly
             more than one-fifth had contact with a behavioral health
             specialist. The average participant had just under $300 (SD
             = $437.67, range = $0-$3,747.71) in treatment-related costs,
             with most of these costs borne by families and private
             insurers.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1080/15374410903259023},
   Key = {fds275099}
}

@article{fds275069,
   Author = { Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)
             Team and J March and S Silva and J Curry and K Wells and J Fairbank and B
             Burns, M Domino and B Vitiello and J Severe and K Riedal and M Goldman and N Feeny and R Findling and S Stull and S Baab and EB Weller and M Robbins and RA Weller and N Jessani and B Waslick and M Sweeney and R Dublin and J
             Walkup, G Ginsburg and E Kastelic and H Koo and C Kratochvil and D May and R LaGrone and B Vaughan and AM Albano and GS Hirsch and E Podniesinki and A
             Chu, M Reincecke and B Leventhal and G Rogers and R Jacobs and S Pathak and J Wells and SA Lavanier and A Danielyan and P Rohde and A Simons and J
             Grimm, S Frank and G Emslie and B Kennard and C Hughes and TL Mayes and D
             Rosenberg, N Benazon and M Butkus and M Bartoi},
   Title = {The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS):
             outcomes over 1 year of naturalistic follow-up.},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1141-1149},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723787},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression
             Study (TADS) evaluates the effectiveness of fluoxetine,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and their combination in
             adolescents with major depressive disorder. The authors
             report effectiveness outcomes across a 1-year naturalistic
             follow-up period. METHOD: The randomized, controlled trial
             was conducted in 13 academic and community sites in the
             United States. Stages I, II, and III consisted of 12, 6, and
             18 weeks of acute, consolidation, and continuation
             treatment, respectively. Following discontinuation of TADS
             treatments at the end of stage III, stage IV consisted of 1
             year of naturalistic follow-up. The participants were 327
             subjects between the ages of 12 and 17 with a primary DSM-IV
             diagnosis of major depressive disorder. No TADS treatment
             was provided during the follow-up period; treatment was
             available in the community. The primary dependent measures,
             rated by an independent evaluator blind to treatment status,
             were the total score on the Children's Depression Rating
             Scale-Revised and the rate of response, defined as a rating
             of much or very much improved on the Clinical Global
             Impressions improvement measure. RESULTS: Sixty-six percent
             of the eligible subjects participated in at least one stage
             IV assessment. The benefits seen at the end of active
             treatment (week 36) persisted during follow-up on all
             measures of depression and suicidality. CONCLUSIONS: In
             contrast to earlier reports on short-term treatments, in
             which worsening after treatment is the rule, the longer
             treatment in the TADS was associated with persistent
             benefits over 1 year of naturalistic follow-up.},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08111620},
   Key = {fds275069}
}

@article{fds275103,
   Author = {DA Brent and LL Greenhill and S Compton and G Emslie and K Wells and JT
             Walkup, B Vitiello and O Bukstein and B Stanley and K Posner and BD
             Kennard, MF Cwik and A Wagner and B Coffey and JS March and M Riddle and T
             Goldstein, J Curry and S Barnett and L Capasso and J Zelazny and J
             Hughes, S Shen and SS Gugga and JB Turner},
   Title = {The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters study (TASA):
             predictors of suicidal events in an open treatment
             trial.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {987-996},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19730274},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Algorithms • Antidepressive Agents
             • Child • Cognitive Therapy* • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Depressive Disorder, Major •
             Dysthymic Disorder • Female • Humans •
             Interview, Psychological • Male • Personality
             Inventory • Recurrence • Suicide, Attempted •
             diagnosis • epidemiology • prevention & control
             • prevention & control* • psychology •
             psychology* • statistics & numerical data •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and
             attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression
             treated in an open treatment trial. METHOD: Adolescents who
             had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar
             depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given
             a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two participants
             withdrew before treatment assignment. The remaining 124
             youths received a specialized psychotherapy for suicide
             attempting adolescents (n = 17), a medication algorithm (n =
             14), or the combination (n = 93). The participants were
             followed up 6 months after intake with respect to rate,
             timing, and predictors of a suicidal event (attempt or acute
             suicidal ideation necessitating emergency referral).
             RESULTS: The morbid risks of suicidal events and attempts on
             6-month follow-up were 0.19 and 0.12, respectively, with a
             median time to event of 44 days. Higher self-rated
             depression, suicidal ideation, family income, greater number
             of previous suicide attempts, lower maximum lethality of
             previous attempt, history of sexual abuse, and lower family
             cohesion predicted the occurrence, and earlier time to
             event, with similar findings for the outcome of attempts. A
             slower decline in suicidal ideation was associated with the
             occurrence of a suicidal event. CONCLUSIONS: In this open
             trial, the 6-month morbid risks for suicidal events and for
             reattempts were lower than those in other comparable
             samples, suggesting that this intervention should be studied
             further. Important treatment targets include suicidal
             ideation, family cohesion, and sequelae of previous abuse.
             Because 40% of events occurred with 4 weeks of intake, an
             emphasis on safety planning and increased therapeutic
             contact early in treatment may be warranted.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b5dbe4},
   Key = {fds275103}
}

@article{fds275106,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and DE May and SG Silva and V Madaan and SE Puumala and JF
             Curry, J Walkup and H Kepley and B Vitiello and JS
             March},
   Title = {Treatment response in depressed adolescents with and without
             co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study.},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {519-527},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1557-8992},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19877976},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Attention Deficit Disorder with
             Hyperactivity • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive Disorder, Major
             • Female • Fluoxetine • Humans • Male
             • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic •
             Regression Analysis • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
             • Treatment Outcome • complications •
             complications* • methods* • therapeutic use*
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: In the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study (TADS), fluoxetine (FLX) and the combination of
             fluoxetine with cognitive-behavioral therapy (COMB) had
             superior improvement trajectories compared to pill placebo
             (PBO), whereas cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was not
             significantly different from PBO. Because
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major
             depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-exist, we examined
             whether ADHD moderated these outcomes in TADS. METHOD: A
             total of 439 adolescents with MDD, 12-17 years old, were
             randomized to FLX, CBT, COMB, or PBO. Random coefficients
             regression models examined depression improvement in 377
             depressed youths without ADHD and 62 with ADHD, including 20
             who were treated with a psychostimulant. RESULTS: Within the
             ADHD group, the improvement trajectories of the three active
             treatments were similar, all with rates of improvement
             greater than PBO. For those without ADHD, only COMB had a
             rate of improvement that was superior to PBO. CONCLUSIONS:
             Co-morbid ADHD moderated treatment of MDD. CBT alone or FLX
             alone may offer benefits similar to COMB in the treatment of
             MDD in youths with co-morbid MDD and ADHD, whereas
             monotherapy may not match the benefits of COMB for those
             without ADHD. The ADHD subgroup analysis presented in this
             paper is exploratory in nature because of the small number
             of youths with ADHD in the sample. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY:
             www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00006286. The TADS
             protocol and all of the TADS manuals are available on the
             Internet at https://trialweb.dcri.duke.edu/tads/index.html
             .},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2008.0143},
   Key = {fds275106}
}

@article{fds275110,
   Author = {RA Shelby and TJ Somers and FJ Keefe and SG Silva and DC McKee and L She and SJ Waters and I Varia and YB Riordan and VM Knowles and M Blazing and JA
             Blumenthal and P Johnson},
   Title = {Pain catastrophizing in patients with noncardiac chest pain:
             relationships with pain, anxiety, and disability.},
   Journal = {Psychosom Med},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {861-868},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737857},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the contributions of chest pain,
             anxiety, and pain catastrophizing to disability in 97
             patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) and to test
             whether chest pain and anxiety were related indirectly to
             greater disability via pain catastrophizing. METHODS:
             Participants completed daily diaries measuring chest pain
             for 7 days before completing measures of pain
             catastrophizing, trait anxiety, and disability. Linear path
             model analyses examined the contributions of chest pain,
             trait anxiety, and catastrophizing to physical disability,
             psychosocial disability, and disability in work, home, and
             recreational activities. RESULTS: Path models accounted for
             a significant amount of the variability in disability scales
             (R(2) = 0.35 to 0.52). Chest pain and anxiety accounted for
             46% of the variance in pain catastrophizing. Both chest pain
             (beta = 0.18, Sobel test Z = 2.58, p < .01) and trait
             anxiety (beta = 0.14, Sobel test Z = 2.11, p < .05)
             demonstrated significant indirect relationships with
             physical disability via pain catastrophizing. Chest pain
             demonstrated a significant indirect relationship with
             psychosocial disability via pain catastrophizing (beta =
             0.12, Sobel test Z = 1.96, p = .05). After controlling for
             the effects of chest pain and anxiety, pain catastrophizing
             was no longer related to disability in work, home, and
             recreational activities. CONCLUSIONS: Chest pain and anxiety
             were directly related to greater disability and indirectly
             related to physical and psychosocial disability via pain
             catastrophizing. Efforts to improve functioning in patients
             with NCCP should consider addressing pain
             catastrophizing.},
   Doi = {10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181b49584},
   Key = {fds275110}
}

@article{fds275131,
   Author = {JS March and B Vitiello},
   Title = {Benefits exceed risks of newer antidepressant medications in
             youth--maybe.},
   Journal = {Clin Pharmacol Ther},
   Volume = {86},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {355-357},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1532-6535},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19763113},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Behavior Therapy • Child • Clinical Trials
             as Topic • Humans • Mental Disorders •
             Placebo Effect • Risk Assessment • Serotonin
             Uptake Inhibitors • Suicide • adverse effects*
             • drug therapy* • therapeutic use •
             therapy},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1038/clpt.2009.172},
   Key = {fds275131}
}

@article{fds275153,
   Author = {B Vitiello and DA Brent and LL Greenhill and G Emslie and K Wells and JT
             Walkup, B Stanley and O Bukstein and BD Kennard and S Compton and B
             Coffey, MF Cwik and K Posner and A Wagner and JS March and M Riddle and T
             Goldstein, J Curry and L Capasso and T Mayes and S Shen and SS Gugga and JB
             Turner, S Barnett and J Zelazny},
   Title = {Depressive symptoms and clinical status during the Treatment
             of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {997-1004},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20854770},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Drug Resistance •
             Drug Therapy, Combination • Dysthymic Disorder •
             Female • Follow-Up Studies • Humans •
             Interview, Psychological • Male • Recurrence
             • Suicide, Attempted • diagnosis •
             epidemiology • prevention & control • prevention &
             control* • psychology • psychology* •
             statistics & numerical data • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the course of depression during the
             treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently
             attempted suicide. METHOD: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to
             18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a
             current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major
             depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating
             Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) score of 36 or higher, entered a
             6-month treatment with antidepressant medication,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy focused on suicide prevention,
             or their combination (Comb), at five academic sites.
             Treatment assignment could be either random or chosen by
             study participants. Intent-to-treat, mixed effects
             regression models of depression and other relevant ratings
             were estimated. Improvement and remission rates were
             computed with the last observation carried forward. RESULTS:
             Most patients (n = 104 or 84%) chose treatment assignment,
             and overall, three fourths (n = 93) received Comb. In Comb,
             CDRS-R declined from a baseline adjusted mean of 49.6 (SD
             12.3) to 38.3 (8.0) at week 12 and to 27.0 (10.1) at week 24
             (p < .0001), with a Clinical Global Impression -defined
             improvement rate of 58.0% at week 12 and 72.2% at week 24
             and a remission (CDRS-R ≤ 28) rate of 32.5% at week 12
             and 50.0% at week 24. The CDRS-R and the Scale for Suicidal
             Ideation scores were correlated at baseline (r = 0.43, p <
             .0001) and declined in parallel. CONCLUSIONS: When
             vigorously treated with a combination of medication and
             psychotherapy, adolescents with depression who have recently
             attempted suicide show rates of improvement and remission of
             depression that seem comparable to those observed in
             nonsuicidal adolescents with depression.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181b5db66},
   Key = {fds275153}
}

@article{fds275161,
   Author = {JS March and B Vitiello},
   Title = {Clinical messages from the Treatment for Adolescents With
             Depression Study (TADS).},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1118-1123},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {1535-7228},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19723786},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adolescent Behavior • Cognitive
             Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive
             Disorder, Major • Double-Blind Method • Female
             • Fluoxetine • Great Britain • Harm Reduction
             • Humans • Male • Multicenter Studies as
             Topic • Placebos • Randomized Controlled Trials as
             Topic • Research Design • Serotonin Uptake
             Inhibitors • Suicide • Treatment Outcome •
             adverse effects • drug effects • drug therapy
             • methods • prevention & control • psychology
             • statistics & numerical data* • therapeutic use*
             • therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to summarize the
             key clinical messages from the Treatment for Adolescents
             with Depression Study (TADS). METHODS: TADS is a National
             Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded randomized
             controlled trial designed to evaluate the relative
             effectiveness of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT), and the combination of fluoxetine plus CBT across
             acute treatment, maintenance treatment, and naturalistic
             follow-up periods among adolescents with major depressive
             disorder. RESULTS: Findings revealed that 6 to 9 months of
             combined fluoxetine plus CBT should be the modal treatment
             from a public health perspective as well as to maximize
             benefits and minimize harms for individual patients.
             CONCLUSION: The combination of fluoxetine and CBT appears to
             be superior to both CBT monotherapy and fluoxetine
             monotherapy as a treatment for moderate to severe major
             depressive disorder in adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.08101606},
   Key = {fds275161}
}

@article{fds275123,
   Author = {ME Domino and EM Foster and B Vitiello and CJ Kratochvil and BJ Burns and SG Silva and MA Reinecke and JS March},
   Title = {Relative cost-effectiveness of treatments for adolescent
             depression: 36-week results from the TADS randomized
             trial.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {711-720},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1527-5418},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19465880},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Child • Cognitive Therapy • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Cost-Benefit Analysis •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Double-Blind Method •
             Drug Costs • Female • Fluoxetine • Follow-Up
             Studies • Hospitalization • Humans • Male
             • Personality Assessment • Psychometrics •
             economics • economics* • statistics & numerical
             data • therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The cost-effectiveness of three active
             interventions for major depression in adolescents was
             compared after 36 weeks of treatment in the Treatment of
             Adolescents with Depression Study. METHOD: Outpatients aged
             12 to 18 years with a primary diagnosis of major depression
             participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at
             13 U.S. academic and community clinics from 2000 to 2004.
             Three hundred twenty-seven participants randomized to 1 of 3
             active treatment arms, fluoxetine alone (n = 109),
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 111) alone, or their
             combination (n = 107), were evaluated for a 3-month acute
             treatment and a 6-month continuation/maintenance treatment
             period. Costs of services received for the 36 weeks were
             estimated and examined in relation to the number of
             depression-free days and quality-adjusted life-years.
             Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were also generated.
             Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess treatment
             differences on the quality-adjusted life-years and
             cost-effectiveness measures. RESULTS: Cognitive-behavioral
             therapy was the most costly treatment component (mean $1,787
             [in monotherapy] and $1,833 [in combination therapy], median
             $1,923 [for both]). Reflecting higher direct and indirect
             costs associated with psychiatric hospital use, the costs of
             services received outside Treatment of Adolescents with
             Depression Study in fluoxetine-treated patients (mean
             $5,382, median $2,341) were significantly higher than those
             in participants treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (mean $3,102, median $1,373) or combination (mean $2,705,
             median $927). Accordingly, cost-effectiveness acceptability
             curves indicate that combination treatment is highly likely
             (>90%) to be more cost-effective than fluoxetine alone at 36
             weeks. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is not likely to be more
             cost-effective than fluoxetine. CONCLUSIONS: These findings
             support the use of combination treatment in adolescents with
             depression over monotherapy.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181a2b319},
   Key = {fds275123}
}

@article{fds275111,
   Author = {CC Lewis and AD Simons and SG Silva and P Rohde and DM Small and JL
             Murakami, RR High and JS March},
   Title = {The role of readiness to change in response to treatment of
             adolescent depression.},
   Journal = {J Consult Clin Psychol},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {422-428},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1939-2117},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19485584},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Child • Cognitive Therapy* • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Depressive Disorder •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Dysthymic Disorder •
             Female • Fluoxetine • Follow-Up Studies •
             Humans • Male • Motivation* • Personality
             Inventory • Psychometrics • diagnosis •
             psychology • statistics & numerical data •
             therapeutic use* • therapy • therapy*},
   Abstract = {The effect of readiness to change on treatment outcome was
             examined among 332 adolescents (46% male, 74% Caucasian),
             ages 12 through 17 years (M = 14.6, SD = 1.5), with major
             depressive disorder who were participating in the Treatment
             for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). TADS is a
             randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of
             fluoxetine (an antidepressant medication),
             cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and a pill
             placebo. An abbreviated Stages of Change Questionnaire was
             used to obtain 4 readiness to change scores:
             precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance.
             The association between each readiness score and depression
             severity across 12 weeks of acute treatment for depression,
             as measured by the Children's Depression Rating
             Scale--Revised, was examined. Although treatment response
             was not moderated by any of the readiness scores, baseline
             action scores predicted outcome: Higher action scores were
             associated with better outcome regardless of treatment
             modality. Furthermore, treatment effects were mediated by
             change in action scores during the first 6 weeks of
             treatment, with increases in action scores related to
             greater improvement in depression. Assessing readiness to
             change may have implications for tailoring treatments for
             depressed adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0014154},
   Key = {fds275111}
}

@article{fds275098,
   Author = {B Vitiello and SG Silva and P Rohde and CJ Kratochvil and BD Kennard and MA
             Reinecke, TL Mayes and K Posner and DE May and JS
             March},
   Title = {Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With
             Depression Study (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Clin Psychiatry},
   Volume = {70},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {741-747},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1555-2101},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19552869},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Diagnostic and Statistical
             Manual of Mental Disorders • Female • Fluoxetine
             • Humans • Irritable Mood • Male •
             Psychomotor Agitation • Questionnaires • Serotonin
             Uptake Inhibitors • Sleep Disorders • Suicide
             • diagnosis • epidemiology • epidemiology*
             • methods • psychology • psychology* •
             statistics & numerical data* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression
             Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether
             suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in
             treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or
             other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by
             clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased
             irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. METHOD:
             TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of
             pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439
             youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria).
             Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia
             Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients
             were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000
             and summer 2003. RESULTS: Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at
             least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events
             occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2)
             after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event
             timing for patients receiving medication versus those not
             receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment
             suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted
             for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms
             (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91)
             predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P
             < .05). Patients with suicidal events were on average still
             moderately ill prior to the event (mean +/- SD Clinical
             Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale score = 4.0 +/-
             1.3) and only minimally improved (mean +/- SD Clinical
             Global Impressions-Improvement scale score = 3.2 +/- 1.1).
             Events were not preceded by increased irritability,
             akathisia, sleep disturbance, or manic signs. Specific
             interpersonal stressors were identified in 73% of cases (N =
             44). Of the events, 55% (N = 24) resulted in overnight
             hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Most suicidal events occurred
             in the context of persistent depression and insufficient
             improvement without evidence of medication-induced
             behavioral activation as a precursor. Severity of self-rated
             suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms predicted
             emergence of suicidality during treatment. Risk for suicidal
             events did not decrease after the first month of treatment,
             suggesting the need for careful clinical monitoring for
             several months after starting treatment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275098}
}

@article{fds275115,
   Author = {BD Kennard and SG Silva and TL Mayes and P Rohde and JL Hughes and B
             Vitiello, CJ Kratochvil and JF Curry and GJ Emslie and MA Reinecke and JS March and TADS},
   Title = {Assessment of safety and long-term outcomes of initial
             treatment with placebo in TADS.},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {166},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {337-344},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1535-7228},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19147693},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive Disorder, Major
             • Drug Toxicity* • Female • Fluoxetine •
             Humans • Male • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors •
             Time Factors • Treatment Outcome • drug therapy
             • methods* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The authors examined whether initial assignment
             to receive placebo for 12 weeks followed by open active
             treatment as clinically indicated was associated with
             different levels of benefit and risk of harm across 36 weeks
             as compared with initial assignment to receive active
             treatments. METHOD: Adolescents with major depressive
             disorder (N=439) were randomly assigned to receive an
             initial 12 weeks of treatment with fluoxetine,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment
             with fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with
             placebo; those assigned to placebo received open active
             treatment as clinically indicated after 12 weeks of placebo.
             Assessments were conducted every 6 weeks for 36 weeks. The
             primary outcome measures were response and remission based
             on scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised
             and the Clinical Global Impression improvement subscale.
             RESULTS: At week 36, the response rate was 82% in the
             placebo/open group and 83% in the active treatment groups.
             The remission rate was 48% in the placebo/open group and 59%
             in the active treatment groups, a difference that approached
             statistical significance. Patients who responded to placebo
             generally retained their response. Those who did not respond
             to placebo subsequently responded to active treatment at the
             same rate as those initially assigned to active treatments.
             There were no differences between groups in rates of
             suicidal events, study retention, or symptom worsening.
             CONCLUSIONS: Remission rates at 9 months were lower in
             patients treated initially with placebo, but 3 months of
             placebo treatment was not associated with any harm or
             diminished response to subsequent treatment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08040487},
   Key = {fds275115}
}

@article{fds275118,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {The future of psychotherapy for mentally ill children and
             adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Child Psychol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {50},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {170-179},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1469-7610},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19220600},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Cognitive Therapy •
             Forecasting • Humans • Mental Disorders •
             Patient-Centered Care • Psychology • Psychotherapy
             • methods • methods* • standards •
             therapy* • trends • trends*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Given striking advances in translational
             developmental neuroscience and its convergence with
             developmental psychopathology and developmental
             epidemiology, it is now clear that mental illnesses are best
             thought of as neurodevelopmental disorders. This simple fact
             has enormous implications for the nature and organization of
             psychotherapy for mentally ill children, adolescents and
             adults. METHOD: This article reviews the 'trajectory' of
             psychosocial interventions in pediatric psychiatry, and
             makes some general predictions about where this field is
             heading over the next several decades. RESULTS: Driven
             largely by scientific advances in molecular, cellular and
             systems neuroscience, psychotherapy in the future will focus
             less on personal narratives and more on the developing
             brain. In place of disorders as intervention targets,
             modularized psychosocial treatment components derived from
             current cognitive-behavior therapies will target
             corresponding central nervous system (CNS) information
             processes and their functional behavioral consequences.
             Either preventive or rehabilitative, the goal of
             psychotherapy will be to promote development along typical
             developmental trajectories. In place of guilds,
             psychotherapy will be organized professionally much as
             physical therapy is organized today. As with other forms of
             increasingly personalized health care, internet-based
             delivery of psychotherapy will become commonplace.
             CONCLUSION: Informed by the new field of translational
             developmental neuroscience, psychotherapy in the future will
             take aim at the developing brain in a service delivery model
             that closely resembles the place and role of psychosocial
             interventions in the rest of medicine. Getting there will
             be, as they say, interesting.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.02034.x},
   Key = {fds275118}
}

@article{fds275034,
   Author = {EG Becker-Weidman and MA Reinecke and RH Jacobs and Z Martinovich and SG
             Silva and JS March},
   Title = {Predictors of hopelessness among clinically depressed
             youth},
   Journal = {Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {267-291},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1352-4658},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465809005207},
   Abstract = {Background: Factors that distinguish depressed individuals
             who become hopeless from those who do not are poorly
             understood. Method: In this study, predictors of
             hopelessness were examined in a sample of 439 clinically
             depressed adolescents participating in the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). The total score of
             the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) was used to assess
             hopelessness at baseline. Multiple regression and logistic
             regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the extent to
             which variables were associated with hopelessness and
             determine which cluster of measures best predicted
             clinically significantly hopelessness. Results: Hopelessness
             was associated with greater depression severity, poor social
             problem-solving, cognitive distortions, and family conflict.
             View of self, view of the world, internal attributional
             style, need for social approval, positive problem-solving
             orientation, and family problems consistently emerged as the
             best predictors of hopelessness in depressed youth.
             Conclusions: Cognitive and familial factors predict those
             depressed youth who have high levels of hopelessness. ©
             2009 British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive
             Psychotherapies.},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1352465809005207},
   Key = {fds275034}
}

@article{fds275054,
   Author = {BD Kennard and SG Silva and S Tonev and P Rohde and JL Hughes and B
             Vitiello, CJ Kratochvil and JF Curry and GJ Emslie and M Reinecke and J March},
   Title = {Remission and recovery in the treatment for adolescents with
             depression study (TADS): Acute and long-term
             outcomes},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {48},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {186-195},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176f9},
   Abstract = {Objective: We examine remission rate probabilities, recovery
             rates, and residual symptoms across 36 weeks in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS).
             Method: The TADS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 439
             adolescents with major depressive disorder to 12 weeks of
             treatment with fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy,
             their combination, or pill placebo. The pill placebo group,
             treated openly after week 12, was not included in the
             subsequent analyses. Treatment differences in remission
             rates and probabilities of remission over time are compared.
             Recovery rates in remitters at weeks 12 (acute phase
             remitters) and 18 (continuation phase remitters) are
             summarized. We also examined whether residual symptoms at
             the end of 12 weeks of acute treatment predicted later
             remission. Results: At week 36, the estimated remission
             rates for intention-to-treat cases were as follows:
             combination, 60%; fluoxetine, 55%; cognitive-behavioral
             therapy, 64%; and overall, 60%. Paired comparisons reveal
             that, at week 24, all active treatments converge on
             remission outcomes. The recovery rate at week 36 was 65% for
             acute phase remitters and 71% for continuation phase
             remitters, with no significant between-treatment differences
             in recovery rates. Residual symptoms at the end of acute
             treatment predicted failure to achieve remission at weeks 18
             and 36. Conclusions: Most depressed adolescents in all three
             treatment modalities achieved remission at the end of 9
             months of treatment. ©2009 by the American Academy of
             Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819176f9},
   Key = {fds275054}
}

@article{fds275119,
   Author = {M Shapiro and SG Silva and S Compton and A Chrisman and J
             DeVeaugh-Geiss, A Breland-Noble and D Kondo and J Kirchner and JS
             March},
   Title = {The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN):
             infrastructure development and lessons learned.},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {12},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1753-2000},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19320979},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health
             funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network
             (CAPTN) under the Advanced Center for Services and
             Intervention Research (ACSIR) mechanism. At the time, CAPTN
             was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and
             a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that
             CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable
             learning experience for the field." OBJECTIVE: To describe
             valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research
             network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations
             intended to decrease barriers to research participation.
             METHODS: The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the
             CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large,
             multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event
             reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety
             registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe
             adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included
             establishing structures for network organization and
             governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants
             and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and
             implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory
             compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human
             subjects protection training and IRB approval; and
             constructing an innovative electronic casa report form
             (eCRF) running on a web-based electronic data capture
             system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit
             trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others,
             the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). CONCLUSION: Given
             stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our
             experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based
             technologies for profiling investigators, investigator
             training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled
             to innovative approaches to network governance, data
             management and site management, can reduce the costs and
             burden and improve the feasibility of incorporating clinical
             research into routine clinical practice. Having successfully
             achieved its initial aim of constructing a network
             infrastructure, CAPTN is now a capable platform for large
             safety registries, pharmacogenetic studies, and randomized
             practical clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-3-12},
   Key = {fds275119}
}

@article{fds275120,
   Author = {JB Freeman and ML Choate-Summers and AM Garcia and PS Moore and JJ
             Sapyta, MS Khanna and JS March and EB Foa and ME
             Franklin},
   Title = {The Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Treatment Study
             II: rationale, design and methods.},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1753-2000},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19183470},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: This paper presents the rationale, design, and
             methods of the Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
             Treatment Study II (POTS II), which investigates two
             different cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) augmentation
             approaches in children and adolescents who have experienced
             a partial response to pharmacotherapy with a serotonin
             reuptake inhibitor for OCD. The two CBT approaches test a
             "single doctor" versus "dual doctor" model of service
             delivery. A specific goal was to develop and test an easily
             disseminated protocol whereby child psychiatrists would
             provide instructions in core CBT procedures recommended for
             pediatric OCD (e.g., hierarchy development, in vivo exposure
             homework) during routine medical management of OCD (I-CBT).
             The conventional "dual doctor" CBT protocol consists of 14
             visits over 12 weeks involving: (1) psychoeducation, (2),
             cognitive training, (3) mapping OCD, and (4) exposure with
             response prevention (EX/RP). I-CBT is a 7-session version of
             CBT that does not include imaginal exposure or
             therapist-assisted EX/RP. In this study, we compared 12
             weeks of medication management (MM) provided by a study
             psychiatrist (MM only) with two types of CBT augmentation:
             (1) the dual doctor model (MM+CBT); and (2) the single
             doctor model (MM+I-CBT). The design balanced elements of an
             efficacy study (e.g., random assignment, independent
             ratings) with effectiveness research aims (e.g., differences
             in specific SRI medications, dosages, treatment providers).
             The study is wrapping up recruitment of 140 youth ages 7-17
             with a primary diagnosis of OCD. Independent evaluators
             (IEs) rated participants at weeks 0,4,8, and 12 during acute
             treatment and at 3,6, and 12 month follow-up visits. TRIAL
             REGISTRATION: NCT00074815.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-3-4},
   Key = {fds275120}
}

@article{fds275151,
   Author = {AB Lewin and J Piacentini and CA Flessner and DW Woods and ME Franklin and NJ Keuthen and P Moore and M Khanna and JS March and DJ Stein and TLC-SAB},
   Title = {Depression, anxiety, and functional impairment in children
             with trichotillomania.},
   Journal = {Depress Anxiety},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {521-527},
   Year = {2009},
   ISSN = {1520-6394},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19016486},
   Keywords = {Achievement • Adolescent • Anxiety Disorders
             • Child • Comorbidity • Cross-Sectional
             Studies • Defense Mechanisms • Depressive Disorder
             • Female • Friends • Health Surveys •
             Humans • Internal-External Control* • Internet
             • Male • Personality Inventory • Self Concept
             • Social Adjustment* • Trichotillomania •
             diagnosis • epidemiology* • psychology},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM) remains understudied in
             children. Adult research suggests that TTM is accompanied by
             significant depression, anxiety, and functional impairment.
             The purpose of this study is to examine the occurrence of
             depression and anxiety in a relatively large sample of youth
             with TTM and the extent to which these symptoms mediate the
             relationship between TTM severity and associated impairment.
             METHODS: The study utilized data from the Child and
             Adolescent Trichotillomania Impact Project (CA-TIP), an
             internet-based sample of 133 youth aged 10-17 (inclusive)
             with TTM. RESULTS: Over 45% of children with TTM endorsed
             depressive symptoms and 40% endorsed anxiety symptoms in
             excess of one standard deviation (SD) above published
             community norms. More remarkably, 25% of our sample reported
             depressive and 20% reported anxiety symptoms in excess of 2
             SD above these norms. Older participants reported more
             symptoms of depression and anxiety than younger ones; age of
             onset (children with later onset), but not duration of
             illness, was predictive of higher reports of both depressive
             and anxiety symptoms. Neither depressive nor anxiety
             symptoms were related to pulling site. Depressive symptoms
             partially mediated the relationship between TTM severity and
             functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Based on an internet
             sample recruited from the homepage of the Trichotillomania
             Learning Center, data from this study suggests that symptoms
             of depression and anxiety may be pervasive among youth with
             TTM and likely impact functional impairment. Longitudinal
             studies using directly assessed samples are needed to
             replicate and extend these findings.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1002/da.20537},
   Key = {fds275151}
}

@article{fds275100,
   Author = {JT Walkup and AM Albano and J Piacentini and B Birmaher and SN Compton and JT Sherrill and GS Ginsburg and MA Rynn and J McCracken and B Waslick and S
             Iyengar, JS March and PC Kendall},
   Title = {Cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline, or a combination
             in childhood anxiety.},
   Journal = {N Engl J Med},
   Volume = {359},
   Number = {26},
   Pages = {2753-2766},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {1533-4406},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974308},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Anxiety Disorders • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Female • Humans • Male • Serotonin Uptake
             Inhibitors • Sertraline • Treatment Outcome •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric
             conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although
             cognitive behavioral therapy and selective
             serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in
             treating these disorders, little is known about their
             relative or combined efficacy. METHODS: In this randomized,
             controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages
             of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation
             anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social
             phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral
             therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a
             combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy,
             or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We
             administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety
             severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and
             12. RESULTS: The percentages of children who were rated as
             very much or much improved on the Clinician Global
             Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination
             therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy
             (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies
             were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was
             superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the
             Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar
             magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a
             greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which
             was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were
             superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and
             homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline
             group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide.
             There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness
             associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with
             sertraline. CONCLUSIONS: Both cognitive behavioral therapy
             and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children
             with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies
             had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number,
             NCT00052078.)},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJMoa0804633},
   Key = {fds275100}
}

@article{fds275141,
   Author = {RH Jacobs and JB Klein and MA Reinecke and SG Silva and S Tonev and A
             Breland-Noble, Z Martinovich and CJ Kratochvil and AJ Rezac and J
             Jones and JS March},
   Title = {Ethnic Differences in Attributions and Treatment
             Expectancies for Adolescent Depression.},
   Journal = {Int J Cogn Ther},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {163-178},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1937-1209},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19169367},
   Abstract = {Studies suggest that ethnicity and socioeconomic factors may
             relate to differences in treatment expectancies and the
             attributions made for emotional or behavioral problems. We
             examined ethnic differences in (1) parents' attributions
             about the causes of adolescent behavioral and emotional
             problems and (2) treatment expectancies among 236 adolescent
             participants who enrolled in a 36-week randomized controlled
             trial for depression. Controlling for education and income,
             European American parents were more likely to endorse
             beliefs reflecting physical causes of depression than
             African American parents. There were no ethnic differences
             for beliefs reflecting external, familial, or community
             factors. Ethnic differences were observed in the treatment
             expectancies reported by parents, but not adolescents, with
             African American parents more likely than European Americans
             and Other minorities to endorse positive expectations for
             CBT. These findings may have implications for understanding
             discrepancies in mental health service use.},
   Language = {ENG},
   Doi = {10.1680/ijct.2008.1.2.163},
   Key = {fds275141}
}

@article{fds275116,
   Author = {ME Domino and BJ Burns and SG Silva and CJ Kratochvil and B Vitiello and MA
             Reinecke, J Mario and JS March},
   Title = {Cost-effectiveness of treatments for adolescent depression:
             results from TADS.},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {165},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {588-596},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1535-7228},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18413703},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Combined Modality Therapy
             • Cost-Benefit Analysis • Depressive Disorder,
             Major • Drug Therapy • Female • Fluoxetine
             • Humans • Male • Primary Health Care •
             Psychotherapy • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors •
             Treatment Outcome • drug therapy • economics
             • economics* • methods • methods* •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: While the evidence base for treatments for
             adolescent depression is building, little is known about the
             relative efficiency of such treatments. Treatment costs are
             a relevant concern given the competing demands on family and
             health care budgets. The authors evaluated the
             cost-effectiveness of three active treatments among
             adolescents with major depressive disorder. METHOD:
             Volunteers (N=439) ages 12 to 18 with a primary diagnosis of
             major depressive disorder participated in a randomized,
             controlled trial conducted at 13 U.S. academic and community
             clinics from 2000 to 2004. Subjects included those
             participants who did not drop out and had evaluable outcome
             and cost data at 12 weeks (N=369). Subjects were randomly
             assigned to 12 weeks of either fluoxetine alone (10-40
             mg/day), CBT alone, CBT combined with fluoxetine (10-40
             mg/day), or placebo (equivalent to 10-40 mg/day). Both
             placebo and fluoxetine were administered double-blind; CBT
             alone and CBT in combination with fluoxetine were
             administered unblinded. Societal cost per unit of
             improvement on the Children's Depression Rating
             Scale-Revised and cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY)
             were compared. RESULTS: Results ranged from an incremental
             cost over placebo of $24,000 per QALY for treatment with
             fluoxetine to $123,000 per QALY for combination therapy
             treatment. The cost-effectiveness ratio for CBT treatment
             was not evaluable due to negative clinical effects. The
             models were robust on a variety of assumptions. CONCLUSIONS:
             Both fluoxetine and combination therapy are at least as
             cost-effective in the short-term as other treatments
             commonly used in primary care (using a threshold of
             $125,000/QALY). Fluoxetine is more cost-effective than
             combination therapy after 12 weeks of treatment.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07101610},
   Key = {fds275116}
}

@article{fds275101,
   Author = {JH Krystal and CS Carter and D Geschwind and HK Manji and JS March and EJ
             Nestler, JK Zubieta and DS Charney and D Goldman and RE Gur and JA
             Lieberman, P Roy-Byrne and DR Rubinow and SA Anderson and S Barondes and KF Berman and J Blair and DL Braff and ES Brown, JR Calabrese and WA
             Carlezon, EH Cook and RJ Davidson and M Davis and R Desimone and WC
             Drevets, RS Duman and SM Essock and SV Faraone and R Freedman and KJ
             Friston, J Gelernter and B Geller and M Gill and E Gould and AA Grace and C
             Grillon, R Gueorguieva and AR Hariri and RB Innis and EG Jones and JE
             Kleinman, GF Koob and AD Krystal and E Leibenluft and DF Levinson and PR
             Levitt, DA Lewis and I Liberzon and BK Lipska, SR Marder and A
             Markou, GF Mason and CJ McDougle and BS McEwen and FJ McMahon and MJ
             Meaney, HY Meltzer and KR Merikangas and A Meyer-Lindenberg and K
             Mirnics, LM Monteggia and A Neumeister and CP O'Brien and MJ Owen and DS
             Pine, JL Rapoport and SL Rauch and TW Robbins and JF Rosenbaum and DR
             Rosenberg, CA Ross and AJ Rush and HA Sackeim and G Sanacora and AF
             Schatzberg, Y Shaham and LJ Siever and T Sunderland and LH Tecott and ME
             Thase, RD Todd and MM Weissman and R Yehuda and T Yoshikawa and EA Young and R McCandless},
   Title = {It is time to take a stand for medical research and against
             terrorism targeting medical scientists.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {63},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {725-727},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1873-2402},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18371494},
   Keywords = {Animal Experimentation* • Animal Rights • Animals
             • Attitude of Health Personnel* • Biomedical
             Research* • Crime • Ethics, Research • Humans
             • Primates • Research Personnel* • Terrorism
             • United States • prevention & control •
             prevention & control*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.03.005},
   Key = {fds275101}
}

@article{fds275102,
   Author = {P Rohde and SG Silva and ST Tonev and BD Kennard and B Vitiello and CJ
             Kratochvil, MA Reinecke and JF Curry and AD Simons and JS
             March},
   Title = {Achievement and maintenance of sustained response during the
             Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study continuation
             and maintenance therapy.},
   Journal = {Arch Gen Psychiatry},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {447-455},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1538-3636},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18391133},
   Keywords = {Achievement* • Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents,
             Second-Generation • Child • Cognitive Therapy*
             • Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive Disorder,
             Major • Female • Fluoxetine • Humans •
             Male • Patient Compliance • Prevalence •
             Single-Blind Method • Treatment Outcome •
             epidemiology • psychology • therapeutic use*
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study
             evaluated fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive behavioral therapy
             (CBT), and FLX/CBT combination (COMB) vs pill placebo in 439
             adolescents with major depressive disorder. Treatment
             consisted of 3 stages: (1) acute (12 weeks), (2)
             continuation (6 weeks), and (3) maintenance (18 weeks).
             OBJECTIVE: To examine rates of achieving and maintaining
             sustained response during continuation and maintenance
             treatments. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. Response
             was determined by blinded independent evaluators. SETTING:
             Thirteen US sites. PATIENTS: Two hundred forty-two FLX, CBT,
             and COMB patients in their assigned treatment at the end of
             stage 1. INTERVENTIONS: Stage 2 treatment varied based on
             stage 1 response. Stage 3 consisted of 3 CBT and/or
             pharmacotherapy sessions and, if applicable, continued
             medication. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sustained response was
             defined as 2 consecutive Clinical Global
             Impression-Improvement ratings of 1 or 2 ("full response").
             Patients achieving sustained response were classified on
             subsequent nonresponse status. RESULTS: Among 95 patients
             (39.3%) who had not achieved sustained response by week 12
             (29.1% COMB, 32.5% FLX, and 57.9% CBT), sustained response
             rates during stages 2 and 3 were 80.0% COMB, 61.5% FLX, and
             77.3% CBT (difference not significant). Among the remaining
             147 patients (60.7%) who achieved sustained response by week
             12, CBT patients were more likely than FLX patients to
             maintain sustained response through week 36 (96.9% vs 74.1%;
             P = .007; 88.5% of COMB patients maintained sustained
             response through week 36). Total rates of sustained response
             by week 36 were 88.4% COMB, 82.5% FLX, and 75.0% CBT.
             CONCLUSIONS: Most adolescents with depression who had not
             achieved sustained response during acute treatment did
             achieve that level of improvement during continuation and
             maintenance therapies. The possibility that CBT may help the
             subset of adolescents with depression who achieve early
             sustained response maintain their response warrants further
             investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov
             Identifier: NCT00006286.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.65.4.447},
   Key = {fds275102}
}

@article{fds275031,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {In reply},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {723-724},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   Key = {fds275031}
}

@article{fds275032,
   Author = {DM Small and AD Simons and P Yovanoff and SG Silva and CC Lewis and JL
             Murakami and J March},
   Title = {Depressed adolescents and comorbid psychiatric disorders:
             Are there differences in the presentation of
             depression?},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {1015-1028},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-008-9237-5},
   Abstract = {Patterns and correlates of comorbidity, as well as
             differences in manifest depressive profiles were
             investigated in a sample of depressed adolescents. A
             sub-sample of the youth were characterized as belonging to
             either a Pure depression group, an Internalizing group
             (depression and co-occurring internalizing disorders), or an
             Externalizing group (depression and co-occurring
             externalizing disorders). Item response theory (IRT) and
             differential item functioning (DIF) were used to assess
             whether the depressed adolescents from the different
             comorbidity groups presented with different depressive
             symptoms. Results indicated that the comorbidity groups were
             meaningfully distinct in terms of psychosocial correlates as
             well as showed differences in depressive symptom profiles as
             informed by DIF analyses. In particular, the comorbidity
             groups differed in terms of presentation of psychomotor
             changes and cognitive impairments. Implications for
             assessment are discussed. © 2008 Springer
             Science+Business Media, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10802-008-9237-5},
   Key = {fds275032}
}

@article{fds275033,
   Author = {J March},
   Title = {In Memory of Richard Todd},
   Journal = {Biological Psychiatry},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {e9},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.09.018},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2008.09.018},
   Key = {fds275033}
}

@article{fds275059,
   Author = {AK Roy and RA Vasa and M Bruck and K Mogg and BP Bradley and M Sweeney and RL
             Bergman, EB McClure-Tone and DS Pine and JT Walkup and E
             al},
   Title = {Attention bias toward threat in pediatric anxiety
             disorders},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1189-1196},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825ace},
   Abstract = {Objective: To examine attention bias toward threat faces in
             a large sample of anxiety-disordered youths using a
             well-established visual probe task. Method: Study
             participants included 101 children and adolescents (ages
             7-18 years) with generalized anxiety disorder, social
             phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder enrolled in a
             multisite anxiety treatment study. Nonanxious youths (n =
             51; ages 9-18 years) were recruited separately. Participants
             were administered a computerized visual probe task that
             presents pairs of faces portraying threat (angry), positive
             (happy), and neutral expressions. They pressed a response
             key to indicate the spatial location of a probe that
             replaced one of the faces on each trial. Attention bias
             scores were calculated from response times to probes for
             each emotional face type. Results: Compared to healthy
             youths, anxious participants demonstrated a greater
             attention bias toward threat faces. This threat bias in
             anxious patients did not significantly vary across the
             anxiety disorders. There was no group difference in
             attention bias toward happy faces. Conclusions: These
             results suggest that pediatric anxiety disorders are
             associated with an attention bias toward threat. Future
             research may examine the manner in which cognitive bias in
             anxious youths changes with treatment. ©2008 by the
             American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181825ace},
   Key = {fds275059}
}

@article{fds275149,
   Author = {PM Wehmeier and A Schacht and M Lehmann and RW Dittmann and SG Silva and JS March},
   Title = {Emotional well-being in children and adolescents treated
             with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder: findings from a patient, parent and physician
             perspective using items from the pediatric adverse event
             rating scale (PAERS).},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {11},
   Year = {2008},
   ISSN = {1753-2000},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18507848},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to measure
             changes in items on the Pediatric Adverse Event Rating Scale
             (PAERS) that relate to emotional well-being of children and
             adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
             (ADHD) during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24 weeks
             from the perspective of the patient, the parent, and the
             physician. METHODS: Patients aged 6-17 years with ADHD were
             treated with atomoxetine (target dose 1.2 mg/kg/day). In the
             two studies on which this secondary analysis is based the
             PAERS was used to assess the tolerability of atomoxetine in
             children and adolescents. This scale has a total of 48
             items. The ten items that reflect emotional well-being were
             selected to measure changes over time from a patient,
             parent, and physician perspective. RESULTS: 421 patients
             were treated with atomoxetine. 355 patients completed the
             8-week treatment period, and 260 patients completed the
             24-week treatment period. The ten items that reflect
             emotional well-being were grouped in five dimensions:
             depressed mood, self-harm, irritability/agitation,
             drowsiness, and euphoria. The scores of these dimensions
             decreased over time, both from a patient as well as from a
             parent and physician perspective. Only the dimension
             self-harm was extremely low at baseline and stayed low over
             time. The mean scores for the ten items depended on the
             rater perspective. CONCLUSION: The emotional well-being of
             children and adolescents with ADHD improved in terms of
             depressed mood, irritability/agitation, drowsiness, and
             euphoria during treatment with atomoxetine for up to 24
             weeks.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1186/1753-2000-2-11},
   Key = {fds275149}
}

@article{fds275138,
   Author = {B Vitiello and CJ Kratochvil and S Silva and J Curry and M Reinecke and S
             Pathak, B Waslick and CW Hughes and ED Prentice and DE May and JS
             March},
   Title = {Research knowledge among the participants in the Treatment
             for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1642-1650},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18030086},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Cognitive Therapy • Depressive
             Disorder, Major • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
             Mental Disorders • Female • Fluoxetine •
             Humans • Male • Questionnaires • Serotonin
             Uptake Inhibitors • diagnosis • drug therapy
             • methods* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We examined the extent to which parents and
             adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents
             With Depression Study (TADS) understood key aspects of the
             study. METHOD: TADS was a clinical trial comparing the
             effectiveness of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT), their combination, and placebo in 439 adolescents
             (12-17 years old) with major depressive disorder. Six weeks
             after starting treatment, adolescents and their parents were
             asked to complete a questionnaire about critical elements of
             the trial. RESULTS: Completion rate was 67.2% for
             adolescents (N = 295) and 73.6% for parents (N = 323). More
             than 90% of the completers knew of the main purpose of the
             trial, possible assignment to placebo, and their right to
             withdraw participation at any time. However, about one third
             overall (and 49% in the CBT group) described TADS as
             "education" rather than "research." Of 12 questions, the
             mean number of correct answers was 10.3 (SD 1.7) among
             adolescents and 11.2 (SD 1.2) among parents (p <.0001). The
             most frequently stated reason for TADS participation was the
             pursuit of high-quality care. CONCLUSIONS: Most parents and
             adolescents were well-informed research participants.
             Difficulties in appreciating the research nature of the
             trial, however, emerged, especially among participants
             assigned to psychotherapy. Parents were overall better
             informed than adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e318153f8c7},
   Key = {fds275138}
}

@article{fds275155,
   Author = {JS March and AR Entusah and M Rynn and AM Albano and KA
             Tourian},
   Title = {A Randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine ER versus
             placebo in pediatric social anxiety disorder.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1149-1154},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553467},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Anxiety Disorders • Child • Confidence
             Intervals • Cyclohexanols • Double-Blind Method
             • Female • Humans • Male • Pediatrics*
             • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales • Regression
             Analysis • Treatment Outcome • drug therapy*
             • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder, which occurs in 2% to
             5% of children and adolescents, is associated with
             significant distress and functional impairment. METHODS: The
             objective of the randomized, masked controlled trial
             conducted in 48 academic and community centers in the United
             States was to evaluate the efficacy of venlafaxine ER in
             children and adolescents with generalized social anxiety
             disorder. A volunteer sample of 293 outpatients, age 8 to
             17, who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder
             and were enrolled between February 2000 and March 2003
             participated. Venlafaxine ER or placebo was titrated from a
             starting dose of 37.5 mg to a maximum dose of 225 mg over 16
             weeks. The primary dependent measures were the Social
             Anxiety Scale, child or adolescent version (SAS-CA) and for
             responder analysis, a (dichotomized) Clinical Global
             Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) score. RESULTS: Compared
             with placebo, intent-to-treat random regression analyses
             indicated a statistically significant advantage for
             venlafaxine ER (p = .001) on the SAS-CA. On the CGI-I
             responder analysis, 56% (95% confidence interval [CI],
             47%-64%) of venlafaxine ER treated subjects responded, which
             was statistically superior to placebo (37% [95% CI,
             29%-45%]). Three venlafaxine ER and no placebo patients
             developed treatment-emergent suicidality; there were no
             completed suicides. CONCLUSIONS: Venlafaxine ER is an
             effective and reasonably well-tolerated treatment for
             generalized social anxiety disorder in children and
             adolescents. As with other antidepressants, careful clinical
             monitoring for adverse events, including treatment-emergent
             suicidality, is essential.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.02.025},
   Key = {fds275155}
}

@article{fds275172,
   Author = {SH Kollins and JS March},
   Title = {Advances in the pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {951-953},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17950067},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Central
             Nervous System Stimulants • Humans • drug therapy*
             • therapeutic use*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.08.009},
   Key = {fds275172}
}

@article{fds275140,
   Author = {KC Herman and R Ostrander and JT Walkup and SG Silva and JS
             March},
   Title = {Empirically derived subtypes of adolescent depression:
             latent profile analysis of co-occurring symptoms in the
             Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study
             (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Consult Clin Psychol},
   Volume = {75},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {716-728},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17907854},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation
             • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity •
             Cognitive Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Comorbidity • Depressive Disorder, Major •
             Fluoxetine • Follow-Up Studies • Humans •
             Internal-External Control • Personality Assessment
             • diagnosis • psychology • statistics &
             numerical data* • therapeutic use* • therapy
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {A latent profile analysis was conducted on the co-occurring
             symptoms of 423 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive
             disorder as part of the Treatment for Adolescents with
             Depression Study (TADS), a multisite, randomized treatment
             trial. The participants had a mean (SD) age of 14.6 (1.5)
             years; of the sample, 45.6% was male and 73.8% was white.
             Scores on the primary subscales of Conners' Parent Rating
             Scale--Revised were used as indicators in the analysis. Five
             classes of symptoms best described the clinical presentation
             of adolescents enrolled in the TADS. Of the adolescents in
             the sample, 80% were assigned to classes with clinically
             significant elevations on 1 or more subscales of the
             Children's Depression Rating Scale--Revised. The 5 classes
             met empirical criteria for distinctiveness and were
             validated against clinical diagnoses, child-rated symptoms,
             and clinician-rated functional impairment. The findings are
             consistent with prior studies that showed a high rate of
             co-occurring symptoms among depressed adolescents. The
             discussion focuses on understanding subtypes and comorbidity
             in adolescent depression as well as the implications for
             treatment and for prevention.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.716},
   Key = {fds275140}
}

@article{fds275170,
   Author = {JS March and S Silva and S Petrycki and J Curry and K Wells and J Fairbank and B Burns and M Domino and S McNulty and B Vitiello and J
             Severe},
   Title = {The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS):
             long-term effectiveness and safety outcomes.},
   Journal = {Arch Gen Psychiatry},
   Volume = {64},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1132-1143},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17909125},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Clinical Protocols • Cognitive
             Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy • Depressive
             Disorder, Major • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
             Mental Disorders • Double-Blind Method • Female
             • Fluoxetine • Humans • Male • Placebos
             • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales • Serotonin
             Uptake Inhibitors • Severity of Illness Index •
             Suicide • Time Factors • Treatment Outcome •
             United States • adverse effects • diagnosis •
             drug therapy • prevention & control • psychology
             • statistics & numerical data • therapeutic use*
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study
             evaluates the effectiveness of fluoxetine hydrochloride
             therapy, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and their
             combination in adolescents with major depressive disorder.
             OBJECTIVE: To report effectiveness outcomes across 36 weeks
             of randomized treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized,
             controlled trial conducted in 13 academic and community
             sites in the United States. Cognitive behavior and
             combination therapies were not masked, whereas
             administration of placebo and fluoxetine was double-blind
             through 12 weeks, after which treatments were unblinded.
             Patients assigned to placebo were treated openly after week
             12, and the placebo group is not included in these analyses
             by design. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-seven patients
             aged 12 to 17 years with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of major
             depressive disorder. INTERVENTIONS: All treatments were
             administered per protocol. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The
             primary dependent measures rated blind to treatment status
             by an independent evaluator were the Children's Depression
             Rating Scale-Revised total score and the response rate,
             defined as a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score
             of much or very much improved. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat
             analyses on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised
             identified a significant time x treatment interaction (P <
             .001). Rates of response were 73% for combination therapy,
             62% for fluoxetine therapy, and 48% for CBT at week 12; 85%
             for combination therapy, 69% for fluoxetine therapy, and 65%
             for CBT at week 18; and 86% for combination therapy, 81% for
             fluoxetine therapy, and 81% for CBT at week 36. Suicidal
             ideation decreased with treatment, but less so with
             fluoxetine therapy than with combination therapy or CBT.
             Suicidal events were more common in patients receiving
             fluoxetine therapy (14.7%) than combination therapy (8.4%)
             or CBT (6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: In adolescents with moderate to
             severe depression, treatment with fluoxetine alone or in
             combination with CBT accelerates the response. Adding CBT to
             medication enhances the safety of medication. Taking
             benefits and harms into account, combined treatment appears
             superior to either monotherapy as a treatment for major
             depression in adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpsyc.64.10.1132},
   Key = {fds275170}
}

@article{fds275126,
   Author = {JS March and P Szatmari and O Bukstein and A Chrisman and D Kondo and JD
             Hamilton, CM Kremer and CJ Kratochvil},
   Title = {AACAP 2005 Research Forum: speeding the adoption of
             evidence-based practice in pediatric psychiatry.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {1098-1110},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17712233},
   Keywords = {Child • Child Psychiatry • Education •
             Evidence-Based Medicine* • Humans • Practice
             Guidelines as Topic* • Research* • education
             • methods* • organization & administration •
             standards*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVES: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the
             Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum
             entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption
             of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry."
             METHOD: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption
             of EBP across five areas: EBP as the preferred heuristic for
             teaching research literacy, use of EBP in training programs,
             dissemination of EBP in clinical practice, EBP in
             partnership with industry, and EBP as a framework for
             developing practice guidelines. RESULTS: EBP provides an
             easy-to-understand method for accessing and evaluating the
             research literature and then applying this information to
             decisions about patient care. Although EBP has been gaining
             greater visibility in pediatric psychiatry, it is far from
             the preferred heuristic. To move the field toward fully
             embracing EBP will require greater understanding of what EBP
             is (and is not), educating mental health professionals in
             EBP skills, access to EBP resources, and a commitment to
             apply EBP to the conceptualization and design of research
             protocols and practice guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric
             psychiatry would benefit from a principled commitment to
             follow other areas of medicine in adopting
             EBP.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e318074eb48},
   Key = {fds275126}
}

@article{fds275145,
   Author = {SN Compton and CJ Kratochvil and JS March},
   Title = {Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and
             adolescents: an evidence-based medicine review.},
   Journal = {Pediatr Ann},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {586-598},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0090-4481},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17910206},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Anxiety Disorders • Child • Drug
             Therapy* • Evidence-Based Medicine* • Humans
             • United States • drug therapy*},
   Abstract = {These studies generally support the use of the SSRIs
             fluvoxamine, sertraline, and fluoxetine in the acute
             treatment of pediatric non-OCD anxiety disorders. Two large
             multicenter studies suggest a favorable outcome for
             paroxetine in the treatment of pediatric social anxiety
             disorder. Mixed results currently exist for the use of
             extended-release venlafaxine in the treatment of pediatric
             generalized anxiety disorder. In both of these latter
             studies, concerns with safety were present.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275145}
}

@article{fds275158,
   Author = {JN Epstein and D Rabiner and DE Johnson and DP Fitzgerald and A
             Chrisman, A Erkanli and KK Sullivan and JS March and P Margolis and EC
             Norton and CK Conners},
   Title = {Improving attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment
             outcomes through use of a collaborative consultation
             treatment service by community-based pediatricians: a
             cluster randomized trial.},
   Journal = {Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med},
   Volume = {161},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {835-840},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1072-4710},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17768282},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Child
             • Child Health Services • Cooperative Behavior
             • Female • Health Services Research • Humans
             • Male • Outcome Assessment (Health Care)* •
             Physician's Practice Patterns • Primary Health Care
             • Referral and Consultation • drug therapy •
             organization & administration • organization &
             administration* • standards* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test whether adoption of a collaborative
             consultative service model results in improved patient
             outcomes. DESIGN: Twelve pediatric practices were randomly
             assigned to receive access to collaborative consultative
             services or to a control group. SETTING: Community-based
             pediatric offices. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two pediatricians and
             their 377 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD). Intervention A collaborative consultative
             service promoting the use of titration trials and periodic
             monitoring during medication maintenance. Main Outcome
             Measure Physician practice behaviors and child ADHD
             symptomatology. RESULTS: Using self-report of pediatricians,
             the collaborative consultative service increased the use of
             evidence-based practices by pediatricians, but no difference
             in children's ADHD symptomatology was observed between the
             groups. However, many pediatricians did not fully use the
             collaborative consultative services. Those children who
             actually received collaborative consultative services showed
             significant behavioral improvement compared with children
             not receiving these services. CONCLUSIONS: When actually
             implemented by pediatricians, the collaborative consultative
             service appears to be an effective method for facilitating
             evidence-based treatment procedures for ADHD and use of
             these procedures appear to improve children's outcomes.
             Barriers to implementation of collaborative consultative
             service in pediatric practice need to be further
             understood.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpedi.161.9.835},
   Key = {fds275158}
}

@article{fds275129,
   Author = {BS Molina and K Flory and SP Hinshaw and AR Greiner and LE Arnold and JM
             Swanson, L Hechtman and PS Jensen and B Vitiello and B Hoza and WE
             Pelham, GR Elliott and KC Wells and HB Abikoff and RD Gibbons and S
             Marcus, CK Conners and JN Epstein and LL Greenhill and JS March and JH
             Newcorn, JB Severe and T Wigal},
   Title = {Delinquent behavior and emerging substance use in the MTA at
             36 months: prevalence, course, and treatment
             effects.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1028-1040},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667481},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Behavior Therapy • Child •
             Cognition Disorders • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Disease Progression • Female • Follow-Up Studies
             • Humans • Juvenile Delinquency • Male •
             Prevalence • Questionnaires • Substance-Related
             Disorders • Treatment Outcome • diagnosis •
             drug therapy • epidemiology • epidemiology* •
             methods* • statistics & numerical data* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare delinquent behavior and early
             substance use between the children in the Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA; N = 487) and
             those in a local normative comparison group (n = 272) at 24
             and 36 months postrandomization and to test whether these
             outcomes were predicted by the randomly assigned treatments
             and subsequent self-selected prescribed medications. METHOD:
             Most MTA children were 11 to 13 years old by 36 months.
             Delinquency seriousness was coded ordinally from multiple
             measures/reporters; child-reported substance use was binary.
             RESULTS: Relative to local normative comparison group, MTA
             children had significantly higher rates of delinquency
             (e.g., 27.1% vs. 7.4% at 36 months; p = .000) and substance
             use (e.g., 17.4% vs. 7.8% at 36 months; p = .001). Children
             randomized to intensive behavior therapy reported less
             24-month substance use than other MTA children (p = .02).
             Random effects ordinal growth models revealed no other
             effects of initial treatment assignment on delinquency
             seriousness or substance use. By 24 and 36 months, more days
             of prescribed medication were associated with more serious
             delinquency but not substance use. CONCLUSIONS:
             Cause-and-effect relationships between medication treatment
             and delinquency are unclear; the absence of associations
             between medication treatment and substance use needs to be
             re-evaluated at older ages. Findings underscore the need for
             continuous monitoring of these outcomes as children with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder enter
             adolescence.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e3180686d96},
   Key = {fds275129}
}

@article{fds275132,
   Author = {PS Jensen and LE Arnold and JM Swanson and B Vitiello and HB Abikoff and LL
             Greenhill, L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and WE Pelham and KC Wells and CK
             Conners, GR Elliott and JN Epstein and B Hoza and JS March and BS
             Molina, JH Newcorn and JB Severe and T Wigal and RD Gibbons and K
             Hur},
   Title = {3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {989-1002},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667478},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Attention Deficit Disorder with
             Hyperactivity • Attention Deficit and Disruptive
             Behavior Disorders • Central Nervous System Stimulants
             • Child • Cognitive Therapy • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Female • Follow-Up Studies
             • Humans • Male • National Institute of
             Mental Health (U.S.) • United States • diagnosis
             • drug therapy • epidemiology • methods*
             • psychology • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: In the intent-to-treat analysis of the Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA), the effects of
             medication management (MedMgt), behavior therapy (Beh),
             their combination (Comb), and usual community care (CC)
             differed at 14 and 24 months due to superiority of
             treatments that used the MTA medication algorithm
             (Comb+MedMgt) over those that did not (Beh+CC). This report
             examines 36-month outcomes, 2 years after treatment by the
             study ended. METHOD: For primary outcome measures
             (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and
             oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] symptoms, social skills,
             reading scores, impairment, and diagnostic status),
             mixed-effects regression models and orthogonal contrasts
             examined 36-month outcomes. RESULTS: At 3 years, 485 of the
             original 579 subjects (83.8%) participated in the follow-up,
             now at ages 10 to 13 years, (mean 11.9 years). In contrast
             to the significant advantage of MedMgt+Comb over Beh+CC for
             ADHD symptoms at 14 and 24 months, treatment groups did not
             differ significantly on any measure at 36 months. The
             percentage of children taking medication >50% of the time
             changed between 14 and 36 months across the initial
             treatment groups: Beh significantly increased (14% to 45%),
             MedMed+Comb significantly decreased (91% to 71%), and CC
             remained constant (60%-62%). Regardless of their treatment
             use changes, all of the groups showed symptom improvement
             over baseline. Notably, initial symptom severity, sex
             (male), comorbidity, public assistance, and parental
             psychopathology (ADHD) did not moderate children's 36-month
             treatment responses, but these factors predicted worse
             outcomes over 36 months, regardless of original treatment
             assignment. CONCLUSIONS: By 36 months, the earlier advantage
             of having had 14 months of the medication algorithm was no
             longer apparent, possibly due to age-related decline in ADHD
             symptoms, changes in medication management intensity,
             starting or stopping medications altogether, or other
             factors not yet evaluated.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3180686d48},
   Key = {fds275132}
}

@article{fds275142,
   Author = {P Szatmari and JS March},
   Title = {Clinical practice guidelines.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {939-940},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667469},
   Keywords = {Humans • Mental Disorders • Mental Health Services
             • Practice Guidelines as Topic* • diagnosis •
             standards • therapy*},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e318068fbdd},
   Key = {fds275142}
}

@article{fds275164,
   Author = {JM Swanson and SP Hinshaw and LE Arnold and RD Gibbons and S Marcus and K
             Hur, PS Jensen and B Vitiello and HB Abikoff and LL Greenhill and L
             Hechtman, WE Pelham and KC Wells and CK Conners and JS March and GR
             Elliott, JN Epstein and K Hoagwood and B Hoza and BS Molina and JH
             Newcorn, JB Severe and T Wigal},
   Title = {Secondary evaluations of MTA 36-month outcomes: propensity
             score and growth mixture model analyses.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1003-1014},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667479},
   Keywords = {Algorithms • Attention Deficit Disorder with
             Hyperactivity • Behavior Therapy • Central Nervous
             System Stimulants • Child • Combined Modality
             Therapy • Follow-Up Studies • Humans •
             Psychology • Severity of Illness Index • Time
             Factors • Treatment Outcome • diagnosis* •
             drug therapy • methods* • therapeutic use* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two hypotheses: that self-selection
             bias contributed to lack of medication advantage at the
             36-month assessment of the Multimodal Treatment Study of
             Children With ADHD (MTA) and that overall improvement over
             time obscured treatment effects in subgroups with different
             outcome trajectories. METHOD: Propensity score analyses,
             using baseline characteristics and severity of
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms at
             follow-up, established five subgroups (quintiles) based on
             tendency to take medication at the 36-month assessment.
             Growth mixture model (GMM) analyses were performed to
             identify subgroups (classes) with different patterns of
             outcome over time. RESULTS: All five propensity subgroups
             showed initial advantage of medication that disappeared by
             the 36-month assessment. GMM analyses identified
             heterogeneity of trajectories over time and three classes:
             class 1 (34% of the MTA sample) with initial small
             improvement followed by gradual improvement that produced
             significant medication effects; class 2 (52%) with initial
             large improvement maintained for 3 years and
             overrepresentation of cases treated with the MTA Medication
             Algorithm; and class 3 (14%) with initial large improvement
             followed by deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: We failed to confirm
             the self-selection hypothesis. We found suggestive evidence
             of residual but not current benefits of assigned medication
             in class 2 and small current benefits of actual treatment
             with medication in class 1.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3180686d63},
   Key = {fds275164}
}

@article{fds275174,
   Author = {JM Swanson and GR Elliott and LL Greenhill and T Wigal and LE Arnold and B
             Vitiello, L Hechtman and JN Epstein and WE Pelham and HB Abikoff and JH
             Newcorn, BS Molina and SP Hinshaw and KC Wells and B Hoza and PS Jensen and RD Gibbons and K Hur and A Stehli and M Davies and JS March and CK Conners and M Caron and ND Volkow},
   Title = {Effects of stimulant medication on growth rates across 3
             years in the MTA follow-up.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1015-1027},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17667480},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity •
             Behavior Therapy • Central Nervous System Stimulants
             • Child • Combined Modality Therapy • Female
             • Follow-Up Studies • Humans • Male •
             Severity of Illness Index • Time Factors •
             diagnosis • drug therapy • methods* •
             therapeutic use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant
             medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase
             of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD.
             METHOD: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on
             patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline,
             14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65),
             newly medicated (n = 88), consistently medicated (n = 70),
             and inconsistently medicated (n = 147). Analysis of variance
             was used to evaluate effects of subgroup and assessment time
             on measures of relative size (z scores) obtained from growth
             norms. RESULTS: The subgroup x assessment time interaction
             was significant for z height (p <.005) and z weight (p
             <.0001), due primarily to divergence of the newly medicated
             and the not medicated subgroups. These initially
             stimulant-naïve subgroups had z scores significantly >0
             at baseline. The newly medicated subgroup showed decreases
             in relative size that reached asymptotes by the 36-month
             assessment, when this group showed average growth of 2.0 cm
             and 2.7 kg less than the not medicated subgroup, which
             showed slight increases in relative size. CONCLUSIONS:
             Stimulant-naïve school-age children with Combined type
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were, as a group,
             larger than expected from norms before treatment but show
             stimulant-related decreases in growth rates after initiation
             of treatment, which appeared to reach asymptotes within 3
             years without evidence of growth rebound.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e3180686d7e},
   Key = {fds275174}
}

@article{fds275159,
   Author = {DE May and MJ Hallin and CJ Kratochvil and SE Puumala and LS Smith and MA
             Reinecke, SG Silva and EB Weller and B Vitiello and A Breland-Noble and JS March},
   Title = {Factors associated with recruitment and screening in the
             Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study
             (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {801-810},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17581444},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Depressive Disorder •
             Female • Humans • Interviews as Topic • Male
             • Mass Screening* • Odds Ratio • Patient
             Selection* • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
             • Research Design • diagnosis* • methods
             • psychology • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine factors associated with eligibility
             and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment
             methods. METHOD: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were
             telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person
             evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents
             With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,
             controlling for site, examined whether sex, age, race, or
             source of recruitment was associated with eligibility,
             providing written consent, or randomization. Efficiency was
             calculated from the number of completed telephone screens
             per each enrolled participant. RESULTS: Older adolescents
             were less likely to be eligible at telephone screening (odds
             ratio [OR] 0.81). Regardless of race, eligible adolescents
             who were referred by a professional had higher odds of
             presenting in-person for consent (OR 1.56). African
             Americans had statistically lower odds of providing consent
             (OR 0.67), particularly if recruited by advertisement (OR
             0.54). Females were more likely to be diagnosed with major
             depressive disorder (OR 1.69). No significant differences
             were found between randomized participants and eligible
             adolescents who withdrew from the study before
             randomization. CONCLUSIONS: These findings underscore the
             importance of using multiple strategies to recruit
             adolescents for clinical trial participation and enhancing
             sensitivity to cultural variations, especially when reaching
             out to depressed African Americans.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/CHI.0b013e3180582019},
   Key = {fds275159}
}

@article{fds275114,
   Author = {DE May and CJ Kratochvil and SE Puumala and SG Silva and AJ Rezac and MJ
             Hallin, MA Reinecke and B Vitiello and EB Weller and S Pathak and AD
             Simons and JS March},
   Title = {A manual-based intervention to address clinical crises and
             retain patients in the Treatment of Adolescents With
             Depression Study (TADS).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {573-581},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17450048},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Crisis Intervention •
             Dangerous Behavior • Depressive Disorder, Major •
             Emergency Services, Psychiatric* • Female • Health
             Promotion* • Humans • Male • Manuals as
             Topic* • Patient Compliance* • Questionnaires
             • methods* • psychology* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To describe a manual-based intervention to
             address clinical crises and retain participants in the
             Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).
             METHOD: The use of adjunct services for attrition prevention
             (ASAP) is described for adolescents (ages 12-17 years)
             during the 12-week acute treatment in TADS, from 2000 to
             2003. Logistic regression, controlling for site, was used to
             predict use. RESULTS: Of 439 enrolled participants, 17.8% (n
             = 78) used ASAP primarily for suicidality or worsening of
             depression. Of these, 46.2% continued in their assigned
             treatment through week 12, 47.4% received out-of-protocol
             treatment but continued participating in assessments, and
             10.3% withdrew consent, including 3 who terminated treatment
             and withdrew consent on the same date. ASAP use did not
             differ between treatments (p =.97) and typically occurred
             early in treatment. At the end of the 12 weeks, 37.2% of
             participants using ASAP remained in their assigned
             treatment, although 80.8% continued participating in
             assessments. ASAP was associated with, at baseline, a higher
             severity of depression (p <.01), substance use (p <.01), and
             precontemplation level of change (p <.02). CONCLUSIONS: ASAP
             may be useful to retain adolescent participants and as a
             safety intervention in placebo-controlled trials. In
             clinical practice ASAP-like procedures may be useful to
             encourage adherence in patients engaging in long-term
             treatment. Clinical trial registration information-URL:
             http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier:
             NCT00006286.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/chi.0b013e3180323342},
   Key = {fds275114}
}

@article{fds275169,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and BS Vaughan and ML Mayfield-Jorgensen and JS March and SH Kollins and DW Murray and H Ravi and LL Greenhill and LA Kotler and N
             Paykina, P Biggins and J Stoner},
   Title = {A pilot study of atomoxetine in young children with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {17},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {175-185},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17489712},
   Keywords = {Adrenergic Uptake Inhibitors • Age Factors •
             Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Child
             • Child, Preschool • Feasibility Studies •
             Female • Humans • Male • Pilot Projects
             • Propylamines • Severity of Illness Index •
             Treatment Outcome • adverse effects • drug
             therapy* • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the
             effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine during acute
             treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
             in 5 and 6 year olds. METHOD: Twenty two children (male n =
             19, 86%) with ADHD were treated with atomoxetine for 8 weeks
             in a three-site, open-label pilot study. Dosing was
             flexible, with titration to a maximum of 1.8 mg/kg per day.
             Parent education on behavior management was provided as part
             of each pharmacotherapy visit. RESULTS: Subjects
             demonstrated a mean decrease of 20.68 points (SD = 12.80, p
             < 0.001)) on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV-RS) total
             score, 10.18 (SD = 7.48, p < 0.001) on the inattentive
             subscale and 10.50 (SD = 7.04, p < 0.001) on the
             hyperactive/impulsive subscale. Clinical Global
             Impression-Severity (CGI-S) was improved in 82% of the
             children (95% CI, 66-98%) and Children's Global Assessment
             (CGAS) scores improved 18.91 points on average (SD = 12.20,
             p < 0.001). The mean final dose of atomoxetine was 1.25
             mg/kg per day (SD = 0.35 mg/kg per day). Mood lability was
             the most commonly reported adverse event (n = 12, 54.5%).
             Eleven subjects (50%) reported decreased appetite and a mean
             weight loss of 1.04 kg (SD = 0.80 kg) (p < 0.001) was
             observed for the group. Vital sign changes were mild and not
             clinically significant. There were no discontinuations due
             to adverse events or lack of efficacy. CONCLUSION:
             Atomoxetine was generally effective for reducing core ADHD
             symptoms in the 5 and 6 year olds in this open-label
             study.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2007.0143},
   Key = {fds275169}
}

@article{fds275165,
   Author = {JS March and ME Franklin and H Leonard and A Garcia and P Moore and J
             Freeman and E Foa},
   Title = {Tics moderate treatment outcome with sertraline but not
             cognitive-behavior therapy in pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {61},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {344-347},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17241830},
   Keywords = {Acute Disease • Adolescent • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy* • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Female • Humans • Male • Obsessive-Compulsive
             Disorder • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales •
             Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • Sertraline • Tic
             Disorders • Tourette Syndrome • drug therapy
             • drug therapy* • psychology • therapeutic
             use* • therapy*},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The presence of a comorbid tic disorder may
             predict a poorer outcome in the acute treatment of pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: Using data
             from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded
             Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) that compared
             cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), medical management with
             sertraline (SER), and the combination of CBT and SER (COMB),
             to pill placebo (PBO) in children and adolescents with OCD,
             we asked whether the presence of a comorbid tic disorder
             influenced symptom reduction on the Children's Yale-Brown
             Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) after 12 weeks of
             treatment. RESULTS: Fifteen percent (17 of 112) of patients
             exhibited a comorbid tic disorder. In patients without tics,
             results replicated previously published intent-to-treat
             outcomes: COMB > CBT > SER > PBO. In patients with a
             comorbid tic disorder, SER did not differ from PBO, while
             COMB remained superior to CBT and CBT remained superior to
             PBO. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to CBT outcomes, which are not
             differentially impacted, tic disorders appear to adversely
             impact the outcome of medication management of pediatric
             OCD. Children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive
             disorder and a comorbid tic disorder should begin treatment
             with cognitive-behavior therapy alone or the combination of
             cognitive-behavior therapy plus a serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsych.2006.09.035},
   Key = {fds275165}
}

@article{fds275072,
   Author = {K Gersing and B Burchett and J March and T Ostbye and KR
             Krishnan},
   Title = {Predicting antipsychotic use in children.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacol Bull},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {116-124},
   Year = {2007},
   ISSN = {0048-5764},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18007573},
   Abstract = {UNLABELLED: Psychotropic medications are increasingly being
             used by children and adolescents. In an earlier report, we
             noted that boys were receiving atypical antipsychotics more
             frequently than were girls, (70% of the claims). Since
             diagnosis was not available in the data, we were unable to
             ascertain the reasons for this. In the present analysis, we
             examined a large clinical mental health database to
             ascertain the reason for antipsychotic use.We evaluated the
             extent to which race, gender, age and type of diagnosis
             accounted for atypical antipsychotic use in children.
             METHODS: The authors used an anonymous clinical database
             created at Duke University Medical Center. The database is
             based on the clinical document of care in the Department of
             Psychiatry. The data are de-identified per HIPAA guidelines
             and has an IRB exemption for use in clinical research.
             Patients analyzed were seen from 1999 to 2005 and were below
             the age of 18 at the time of clinical care. A total 3,268
             patients, with a total of 7,701 visits comprise the analysis
             sample. Age, gender, race, and diagnosis were extracted as
             predictors of use of atypical antipsychotics. RESULTS: Males
             and older children were also more likely to use an atypical.
             African Americans were slightly more likely to use an
             atypical than whites. Patients whose diagnoses were
             classified as either psychotic or internalizing were also
             more likely to use an antipsychotic. CONCLUSION: The
             underlying reasons for the high level of use of atypicals in
             boys and in African Americans need to be investigated
             further.},
   Key = {fds275072}
}

@article{fds275027,
   Author = {KC Wells and TC Chi and SP Hinshaw and JN Epstein and L Pfiffner and M
             Nebel-Schwalm, EB Owens and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and CK Conners and GR Elliott and LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and B Hoza and PS Jensen and J
             March, JH Newcorn and WE Pelham and JB Severe and J Swanson and B
             Vitiello and T Wigal},
   Title = {Treatment-related changes in objectively measured parenting
             behaviors in the multimodal treatment study of children with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.},
   Journal = {J Consult Clin Psychol},
   Volume = {74},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {649-657},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16881772},
   Abstract = {The present study examined treatment outcomes for
             objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
             Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and
             socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type
             (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited at 6
             sites in the United States and Canada and randomly assigned
             to 1 of 4 treatment groups for 14 months of active
             intervention: medication management (MedMgt), intensive
             behavior therapy, combination of the 2 (Comb), or a
             community-treated comparison (CC). Baseline and
             posttreatment laboratory observations of parent-child
             interactions were coded by observers blind to treatment
             condition. Comb produced significantly greater improvements
             in constructive parenting than did MedMgt or CC, with effect
             sizes approaching medium for these contrasts. Treatment
             effects on child behaviors were not significant. The authors
             discuss the importance of changes in parenting behavior for
             families of children with ADHD and the need for reliable and
             objective measures in evaluating treatment
             outcome.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-006X.74.4.649},
   Key = {fds275027}
}

@article{fds275026,
   Author = {JN Epstein and CK Conners and AS Hervey and ST Tonev and LE Arnold and HB
             Abikoff, G Elliott and LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and K Hoagwood and SP
             Hinshaw, B Hoza and PS Jensen and JS March and JH Newcorn and WE Pelham and JB Severe and JM Swanson and K Wells and B Vitiello and T Wigal and MTA
             Cooperative Study Group},
   Title = {Assessing medication effects in the MTA study using
             neuropsychological outcomes.},
   Journal = {J Child Psychol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {47},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {446-456},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0021-9630},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16671928},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: While studies have increasingly investigated
             deficits in reaction time (RT) and RT variability in
             children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
             (ADHD), few studies have examined the effects of stimulant
             medication on these important neuropsychological outcome
             measures. METHODS: 316 children who participated in the
             Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA)
             completed the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT) at
             the 24-month assessment point. Outcome measures included
             standard CPT outcomes (e.g., errors of commission, mean hit
             reaction time (RT)) and RT indicators derived from an
             Ex-Gaussian distributional model (i.e., mu, sigma, and tau).
             RESULTS: Analyses revealed significant effects of medication
             across all neuropsychological outcome measures. Results on
             the Ex-Gaussian outcome measures revealed that stimulant
             medication slows RT and reduces RT variability. CONCLUSIONS:
             This demonstrates the importance of including analytic
             strategies that can accurately model the actual
             distributional pattern, including the positive skew.
             Further, the results of the study relate to several
             theoretical models of ADHD.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01469.x},
   Key = {fds275026}
}

@article{fds275047,
   Author = {J DeVeaugh-Geiss and J March and M Shapiro and PJ Andreason and G
             Emslie, LM Ford and L Greenhill and D Murphy and E Prentice and R
             Roberts, S Silva and JM Swanson and B van Zwieten-Boot and B
             Vitiello, KD Wagner and B Mangum},
   Title = {Child and adolescent psychopharmacology in the new
             millennium: a workshop for academia, industry, and
             government.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {261-270},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16540810},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To give academic researchers, government
             officials, and industry scientists an opportunity to assess
             the state of pediatric psychopharmacology and identify
             challenges facing professionals in the field. METHOD:
             Increased federal spending and the introduction of pediatric
             exclusivity led to large increases in pediatric
             psychopharmacology research in the 1990s. Despite the
             increase in research, concerns exist about methods and
             incentives for making new medications available for use in
             pediatric psychiatric disorders. In recognition of these
             concerns, the Duke Clinical Research Institute held a
             roundtable in September 2004. Participants from the National
             Institutes of Health, regulatory agencies, academia, and the
             pharmaceutical industry spoke about the effects of
             government regulations such as the U.S. Food and Drug
             Administration Modernization Act and the Pediatric Research
             Equity Act on pediatric research from academic, clinical,
             and industry perspectives, and bioethical considerations of
             such research. CONCLUSIONS: To ensure development of new
             drugs for treating psychiatric disorders in children and
             adolescents, we must address the challenges posed by the
             regulatory environment governing pediatric
             psychopharmacology research. Strategies were identified for
             improving the evidence base for psychopharmacologic
             interventions in youth before widespread use and for more
             effectively defining a research agenda for the
             future.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000194568.70912.ee},
   Key = {fds275047}
}

@article{fds275162,
   Author = {JS March and BJ Klee and CM Kremer},
   Title = {Treatment benefit and the risk of suicidality in
             multicenter, randomized, controlled trials of sertraline in
             children and adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {91-102},
   Year = {2006},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16553531},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Double-Blind Method •
             Humans • Mental Disorders • Multicenter Studies as
             Topic* • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic* •
             Risk Factors • Sertraline • Suicide* •
             Treatment Outcome • adverse effects • drug therapy
             • epidemiology • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the balance
             between the benefits of treatment and the risk of
             suicidality in children and adolescents in multicenter,
             randomized, controlled trials of sertraline versus placebo.
             METHOD: The published literature was searched for
             multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of
             sertraline for pediatric mental disorders. Four trials were
             identified: Two (pooled) in pediatric major depressive
             disorder (MDD; Wagner 2003) and two in obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD; March et al. 1998; POTS Team 2004). Using
             intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis populations, the authors
             calculated the number needed to treat (NNT) for response and
             remission and the number needed to harm (NNH) for
             suicidality, and their ratio, for each clinical trial.
             RESULTS: NNTs ranged from 2 to 10, indicating clinically
             meaningful benefits. Benefit was greater for OCD than for
             MDD, and for adolescents as compared with children in MDD.
             No age effect was apparent for OCD. Suicidality was reported
             in 8 patients (5 assigned to sertraline and 3 assigned to
             placebo). All but 1 (a placebo-treated patient in the Pfizer
             OCD trial) were enrolled in the sertraline MDD trial. The
             NNH for suicidality in MDD was 64. Treatment emergent
             suicidality was more common in children (NNH 28.7) than in
             adolescents (NNH 706.3). Because no patient developed
             suicidality in sertraline-treated OCD patients, the NNH for
             sertraline in OCD approaches infinity. CONCLUSIONS: With the
             stipulation that doctor and patient preferences necessarily
             play a critical role in the choice of treatment, NNT to NNH
             ratios indicate a positive benefit-to-risk ratio for
             sertraline in adolescents with MDD and in patients of all
             ages with OCD.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2006.16.91},
   Key = {fds275162}
}

@article{fds275023,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and B Vitiello and J Walkup and G Emslie and BD Waslick and EB Weller and WJ Burke and JS March},
   Title = {Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pediatric
             depression: Is the balance between benefits and risks
             favorable?},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {16},
   Number = {1-2},
   Pages = {11-24},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cap.2006.16.11},
   Abstract = {Recent controversies surrounding the use of selective
             serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have highlighted the
             need to reassess potential benefits, as well as potential
             risks of this class of medications in the treatment of
             pediatric depression. The recent availability of data from
             meta-analyses of published and unpublished antidepressant
             trials, epidemiological studies, and the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) has facilitated a
             reanalysis of this risk/benefit relationship. Despite
             reviewing similar data, various regulatory agencies have
             arrived at rather disparate conclusions regarding the data,
             resulting in continued controversy. Although all groups
             appear to agree that careful assessment, education regarding
             risks, and closer monitoring are essential for SSRIs, only
             the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.K.
             Medicine and Health Care Products Regulatory Agency maintain
             that an acceptable risk/benefit relationship exists for
             fluoxetine. The European Medicines Agency concluded that the
             SSRIs should not be used in the treatment of depression in
             children and adolescents. The authors of this review have
             taken into consideration many of these same data and offer a
             critical discussion of the pros and cons of SSRIs in
             pediatric depression. The authors have concluded that
             SSRIs-in particular, fluoxetine-do have a role in the
             treatment of pediatric depression.},
   Doi = {10.1089/cap.2006.16.11},
   Key = {fds275023}
}

@article{fds275024,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Dr. March replies [2]},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {383-384},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000207317.69141.58},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000207317.69141.58},
   Key = {fds275024}
}

@article{fds275025,
   Author = {AE Layne and GA Bernstein and JS March},
   Title = {Teacher awareness of anxiety symptoms in
             children},
   Journal = {Child Psychiatry and Human Development},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {383-392},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0009-398X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-006-0009-6},
   Abstract = {The present study aimed to determine which anxiety symptoms
             in children are associated with teacher awareness and
             whether teacher awareness differs according to student age
             and gender. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children
             (MASC) was completed by 453 second through fifth grade
             students and teachers nominated the three most anxious
             students in their classrooms. A multivariate analysis of
             variance was conducted with MASC scale scores as the
             dependent variables. Children identified by teachers as
             anxious had significantly higher levels of overall anxiety,
             physiological anxiety, social anxiety, and separation
             anxiety. Overall, teacher awareness did not differ based on
             student age or gender. © Springer Science+Business Media,
             Inc. 2006.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10578-006-0009-6},
   Key = {fds275025}
}

@article{fds275028,
   Author = {J March and S Silva and B Vitiello},
   Title = {The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS):
             Methods and message at 12 weeks},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1393-1403},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000237709.35637.c0},
   Abstract = {Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the
             Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is
             intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and
             longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for
             adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical
             management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT), FLX and CBT combined (COMB), and clinical
             management with placebo (PBO). We previously reported that
             COMB and FLX were more effective in reducing depression than
             CBT or PBO after 12 weeks of acute treatment. In this
             special section of the Journal, separate articles extend
             these findings to the impact of TADS treatments on
             remission, speed of response, function and quality of life,
             predictors of outcome, and safety during the first 12 weeks
             of treatment. To set the stage for the special section, we
             briefly review the rationale, design, and methods of the
             TADS; describe the TADS sample to which the TADS findings
             generalize; using all of the currently available data,
             summarize the intent-to-treat outcomes across multiple
             endpoints at 12 weeks; and consider the public health value
             of the TADS findings in the context of design decisions and
             methodological limitations of the TADS, including some that
             may have advantaged the combined treatment condition.
             Reflecting the ordering of effect sizes at week 12-COMB
             (0.98) &gt; FLX (0.68) &gt; CBT (-0.03)-combined treatment
             proved superior to PBO on 15 of 16 endpoints, to CBT on 14
             of 16 endpoints, and to FLX on 8 of 16 endpoints, whereas
             FLX was superior to CBT on 8 of 14 and to PBO on 7 of 16
             measures. CBT did not differ from PBO on any measure.
             Despite the fact that suicidality improved markedly across
             all of the treatment conditions, suicidal events were twice
             as common in patients treated with FLX alone than with COMB
             or CBT alone, perhaps indicating that CBT protects against
             suicidal events. Thus, combined treatment appears to
             accelerate recovery relative to CBT and, for some outcomes,
             FLX alone, while minimizing the risk of suicidality relative
             to FLX alone. Taking benefit and risk into account, we
             conclude that the combination of FLX and CBT appears
             superior to either monotherapy as a treatment for moderate
             to severe major depressive disorder in adolescents.
             Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000237709.35637.c0},
   Key = {fds275028}
}

@article{fds275029,
   Author = {B Vitiello and P Rohde and S Silva and K Wells and C Casat and B Waslick and A
             Simons, M Reinecke and E Weller and C Kratochvil and E
             al},
   Title = {Functioning and quality of life in the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1419-1426},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000242229.52646.6e},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test whether 12-week treatment of major
             depression improved the level of functioning, global health,
             and quality of life of adolescents. METHOD: The Treatment
             for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite,
             randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination
             (COMB), or clinical management with placebo in 439
             adolescents with major depression. Functioning was measured
             with the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), global
             health with the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for
             Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA), and quality of life with
             the Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction
             Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q). Random-effects regression models
             were applied to the data. RESULTS: Compared with placebo,
             COMB was effective on the CGAS (p &lt; .0001), HoNOSCA (p
             &lt; .05), and PQ-LES-Q (p &lt; .001), whereas fluoxetine
             was superior to placebo on the CGAS only (p &lt; .05). COMB
             was superior to fluoxetine on the CGAS (p &lt; .05) and
             PQ-LES-Q (p = .001). Fluoxetine was superior to CBT on the
             CGAS (p &lt; .01). CBT monotherapy was not statistically
             different from the placebo group on any of the measures
             assessed. Treatment effects were mediated by improvement in
             depressive symptoms measured on the Child Depression Rating
             Scale-Revised. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of fluoxetine
             and CBT was effective in improving functioning, global
             health, and quality of life in depressed adolescents.
             Fluoxetine monotherapy improved functioning. Copyright 2006
             © American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000242229.52646.6e},
   Key = {fds275029}
}

@article{fds275030,
   Author = {G Emslie and C Kratochvil and B Vitiello and S Silva and T Mayes and S
             McNulty, E Weller and B Waslick and C Casat and J Walkup and E
             al},
   Title = {Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS):
             Safety results},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1440-1455},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000240840.63737.1d},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric,
             and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated
             with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy
             (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO).
             METHOD: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs)
             collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic
             measures for specific physical and psychiatric symptoms.
             Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were systematically
             assessed by self- and clinician reports. Suicidal events
             were also reanalyzed by the Columbia Group and expert raters
             using the Columbia-Classification Algorithm for Suicidal
             Assessment used in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
             reclassification effort. RESULTS: Depressed adolescents
             reported high rates of physical symptoms at baseline, which
             improved as depression improved. Sedation, insomnia,
             vomiting, and upper abdominal pain occurred in at least 2%
             of those treated with FLX and/or COMB and at twice the rate
             of placebo. The rate of psychiatric AEs was 11% in FLX, 5.6%
             in COMB, 4.5% in PBO, and 0.9% in CBT. Suicidal ideation
             improved overall, with greatest improvement in COMB.
             Twenty-four suicide-related events occurred during the
             12-week period: 5 patients (4.7%) in COMB, 10 (9.2%) in FLX,
             5 (4.5%) in CBT, and 3 (2.7%) in placebo. Statistically,
             only FLX had more suicide-related events than PBO (p =.0402,
             odds ratio (OR) = 3.7, 95% CI 1.00-63.7). Only five actual
             attempts occurred (2 COMB, 2 FLX, 1 CBT, 0 PBO). There were
             no suicide completions. CONCLUSIONS: Different methods for
             eliciting AEs produce different results. In general, as
             depression improves, physical complaints and suicidal
             ideation decrease in proportion to treatment benefit. In
             this study, psychiatric AEs and suicide-related events are
             more common in FLX-treated patients. COMB treatment may
             offer a more favorable safety profile than medication alone
             in adolescent depression. Copyright 2006 © American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000240840.63737.1d},
   Key = {fds275030}
}

@article{fds275051,
   Author = {C Kratochvil and G Emslie and S Silva and S McNulty and J Walkup and J
             Curry, M Reinecke and B Vitiello and P Rohde and N Feeny and C Casat and S
             Pathak, E Weller and D May and T Mayes and M Robins and J
             March},
   Title = {Acute time to response in the Treatment for Adolescents with
             Depression Study (TADS)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1412-1418},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000237710.73755.14},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the time to response for both
             pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). METHOD:
             Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major
             depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX),
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination
             (COMB), or pill placebo (PBO). Defining response as very
             much improved or much improved on the Clinical Global
             Impression- Improvement Scale (CGI-I), survival analyses
             using Cox proportional hazards models, and Kaplan-Meier
             curves were conducted to evaluate time to first response and
             time to stable response for subjects receiving
             pharmacotherapy (COMB, FLX, PBO) as well as for subjects
             receiving CBT (COMB, CBT). Direct comparisons between
             pharmacotherapy and CBT were not made because of differences
             in visit schedules. RESULTS: Based on pharmacotherapist
             CGI-I scores, COMB and FLX showed faster onset of benefit
             than PBO on time to response and time to stable response (p
             &lt; .001), and COMB was faster than FLX on time to stable
             response (p = .034). The probability of sustained early
             response was approximately threefold greater for COMB than
             PBO, twofold greater for FLX than PBO, and 1.5-fold greater
             for COMB than FLX. On the psychotherapist CGI-I scores, both
             first response and stable response occurred faster in COMB
             than CBT (p &lt; .001), with a probability of sustained
             early response approximately threefold greater for COMB than
             CBT. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute treatment of depressed
             adolescents, FLX and COMB accelerate response relative to
             PBO, and COMB accelerates response relative to CBT alone.
             Copyright 2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000237710.73755.14},
   Key = {fds275051}
}

@article{fds275052,
   Author = {J Curry and P Rohde and A Simons and S Silva and B Vitiello and C
             Kratochvil, M Reinecke and N Feeny and K Wells and S Pathak and E
             Weller, D Rosenberg and B Kennard and M Robins and G Ginsburg and J
             March},
   Title = {Predictors and moderators of acute outcome in the Treatment
             for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1427-1439},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000240838.78984.e2},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors and moderators of response
             to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439)
             randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral
             therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical
             management with pill placebo in the Treatment for
             Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). METHOD: Potential
             baseline predictors and moderators were identified by a
             literature review. The outcome measure was a week 12
             predicted score derived from the Children's Depression
             Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). For each candidate moderator
             or predictor, a general linear model was conducted to
             examine main and interactive effects of treatment and the
             candidate variable on the CDRS-R predicted scores. RESULTS:
             Adolescents who were younger, less chronically depressed,
             higher functioning, and less hopeless with less suicidal
             ideation, fewer melancholic features or comorbid diagnoses,
             and greater expectations for improvement were more likely to
             benefit acutely than their counterparts. Combined treatment,
             under no condition less effective than monotherapy, was more
             effective than fluoxetine for mild to moderate depression
             and for depression with high levels of cognitive distortion,
             but not for severe depression or depression with low levels
             of cognitive distortion. Adolescents from high-income
             families were as likely to benefit from CBT alone as from
             combined treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Younger and less severely
             impaired adolescents are likely to respond better to acute
             treatment than older, more impaired, or multiply comorbid
             adolescents. Family income level, cognitive distortions, and
             severity of depression may help clinicians to choose among
             acute interventions, but combined treatment proved robust in
             the presence of moderators. Copyright 2006 © American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000240838.78984.e2},
   Key = {fds275052}
}

@article{fds275053,
   Author = {B Kennard and S Silva and B Vitiello and J Curry and C Kratochvil and A
             Simons, J Hughes and N Feeny and E Weller and M Sweeney and M Reinecke and S Pathak and G Ginsburg and G Emslie and J March},
   Title = {Remission and residual symptoms after short-term treatment
             in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study
             (TADS)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {45},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1404-1411},
   Year = {2006},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000242228.75516.21},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth
             participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With
             Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that
             randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder
             (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX),
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination
             (COMB), or clinical management with pill placebo (PBO).
             METHOD: Using an end-of-treatment Children's Depression
             Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) total score of 28 or below as
             the criterion for remission, rates of remission were
             examined with logistic regression, controlling for site.
             Loss of MDD diagnosis and residual symptoms in responders
             (defined as Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I)
             score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) were
             also examined across treatment groups. RESULTS: After 12
             weeks of treatment, 102 (23%) of 439 youths had reached
             remission. The remission rate was significantly higher in
             the COMB group (37%) relative to the other treatment groups
             (FLX, 23%; CBT, 16%; PBO, 17%), with odds ratios of 2.1 for
             COMB versus FLX, 3.3 for COMB versus CBT, and 3.0 for COMB
             versus PBO. In addition, 71% of subjects across treatment
             groups no longer met criteria for MDD at the end of acute
             treatment. Fifty percent of the youths who responded by
             CGI-I criteria continued to have residual symptoms, such as
             sleep or mood disturbances, fatigue, and poor concentration.
             CONCLUSIONS: The combination of FLX and CBT was superior to
             both monotherapy and PBO in terms of remission rates, but
             overall rates of remission remain low and residual symptoms
             are common at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. Copyright
             2006 © American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000242228.75516.21},
   Key = {fds275053}
}

@article{fds275121,
   Author = {JS March and SG Silva and S Compton and M Shapiro and R Califf and R
             Krishnan},
   Title = {The case for practical clinical trials in
             psychiatry.},
   Journal = {Am J Psychiatry},
   Volume = {162},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {836-846},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0002-953X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15863782},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adult • Bias (Epidemiology) •
             Child • Clinical Protocols • Clinical Trials as
             Topic • Evidence-Based Medicine • Humans •
             Mental Disorders • Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
             • Patient Selection • Psychiatry • Quality
             Assurance, Health Care • Randomized Controlled Trials
             as Topic • Reproducibility of Results • Research
             Design • Research Support as Topic • economics
             • methods* • standards • therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Clinical trials in psychiatry frequently fail to
             maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, or,
             stated differently, available evidence is not perceived by
             clinicians (and other decision makers) as sufficiently
             relevant to clinical practice, thereby diluting its impact.
             To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability,
             researchers must conduct clinical trials designed to meet
             the needs of clinicians and others who are making decisions
             about patients' care. The authors present the case for
             psychiatry's adoption of the practical clinical trials
             model, which is widely used in research in other areas of
             medicine. METHOD: The authors outline the characteristics
             and scope of practical clinical trials, give examples of
             practical clinical trials, and discuss the challenges of
             using the practical clinical trials model in psychiatry,
             including issues of funding. RESULTS: Practical clinical
             trials, which are intended to provide generalizable answers
             to important clinical questions without bias, are
             characterized by eight key features: a straightforward
             clinically relevant question, a representative sample of
             patients and practice settings, sufficient power to identify
             modest clinically relevant effects, randomization to protect
             against bias, clinical uncertainty regarding the outcome of
             treatment at the patient level, assessment and treatment
             protocols that enact best clinical practices, simple and
             clinically relevant outcomes, and limited subject and
             investigator burden. CONCLUSIONS: To implement the practical
             clinical trials model in psychiatry will require stable
             funding for network construction and maintenance plus
             methodological innovation in governance and trial selection,
             assessment, treatment, data management, site management, and
             data analytic procedures.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1176/appi.ajp.162.5.836},
   Key = {fds275121}
}

@article{fds275136,
   Author = {JS March and A Chrisman and A Breland-Noble and K Clouse and R D'Alli and H
             Egger, P Gammon and M Gazzola and A Lin and C Mauro and A Rana and H Ravi and M Srirama and H Su and G Thrall and P van de Velde and Duke Pediatric
             Psychiatry EBM Seminar Team},
   Title = {Using and teaching evidence-based medicine: the Duke
             University child and adolescent psychiatry
             model.},
   Journal = {Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {273-ix},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {1056-4993},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15694786},
   Keywords = {Academic Medical Centers • Adolescent • Adolescent
             Health Services • Adolescent Psychiatry • Child
             • Child Health Services • Child Psychiatry •
             Evidence-Based Medicine • Humans • Mental Health
             Services • Teaching • United States •
             education* • methods • methods* •
             organization & administration • organization &
             administration*},
   Abstract = {Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as a set of
             processes that facilitate the conscientious, explicit, and
             judicious integration of individual clinical expertise with
             the best available external clinical evidence from
             systematic research in making decisions about the care of
             individual patients. EBM focuses not only on grading the
             strength of the evidence but also on the processes and tools
             that are necessary for clinicians to continually upgrade
             their knowledge and skills for those problems encountered in
             daily practice. This article, authored by members of the
             Duke Pediatric Psychiatry EBM Seminar Team, (1) describes
             EBM as applied to the training of child and adolescent
             psychiatrists in the Division of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry at Duke University
             Medical Center; (2) presents a simplified discussion of EBM
             as a technology for training and patient care; (3) discusses
             the basic principles and procedures for teaching EBM in the
             setting of a multidisciplinary training program; and (4)
             briefly mentions two training and research initiatives that
             are furthered by incorporating EBM.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.chc.2004.05.001},
   Key = {fds275136}
}

@article{fds275015,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Review: a pooled long term persistence rate of 40% for
             childhood OCD is lower than previously expected.},
   Journal = {Evid Based Ment Health},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {6},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671497},
   Key = {fds275015}
}

@article{fds275012,
   Author = {B Hoza and AC Gerdes and S Mrug and SP Hinshaw and WM Bukowski and JA Gold and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and CK Conners and GR Elliott and E
             al},
   Title = {Peer-assessed outcomes in the multimodal treatment study of
             children with attention deficit hyperactivity
             disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent
             Psychology},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {74-86},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1537-4416},
   Abstract = {Peer-assessed outcomes were examined at the end of treatment
             (14 months after study entry) for 285 children (226 boys, 59
             girls) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
             who were rated by their classmates (2,232 classmates total)
             using peer sociometric procedures. All children with ADHD
             were participants in the Multimodal Treatment Study of
             Children with ADHD (MTA). Treatment groups were compared
             using the orthogonal treatment contrasts that accounted for
             the largest amount of variance in prior MTA outcome
             analyses: Medication Management + Combined Treatment versus
             Behavior Therapy + Community Care; Medication Management
             versus Combined Treatment; Behavior Therapy versus Community
             Care. There was little evidence of superiority of any of the
             treatments for the peer-assessed outcomes studied, although
             the limited evidence that emerged favored treatments
             involving medication management. Post hoc analyses were used
             to examine whether any of the four treatment groups yielded
             normalized peer relationships relative to randomly
             selected-classmates. Results indicated that children from
             all groups remained significantly impaired in their peer
             relationships.},
   Key = {fds275012}
}

@article{fds275014,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and A Simons and B Vitiello and J Walkup and G Emslie and D
             Rosenberg and JS March},
   Title = {A multisite psychotherapy and medication trial for depressed
             adolescents: Background and benefits},
   Journal = {Cognitive and Behavioral Practice},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {159-165},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1077-7229},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(05)80021-5},
   Abstract = {The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)
             is an NIMH-supported multisite clinical trial that compares
             the. effectiveness of a depression-specific cognitive
             behavioral therapy (CBT), medication management with
             fluoxetine (FLX), the combination of CBT and FLX (COMB), and
             medical management with pill placebo (PBO). TADS was
             specifically designed as a comprehensive effectiveness
             study, able to answer clinically meaningful questions by
             including a broad and representative sample of depressed
             teens, delivering treatment at both tertiary medical centers
             and community clinics, and assessing functional as well as
             symptomatic outcomes. This report supports the importance of
             conducting clinical trials in youth with depression to
             bridge the gap between science and practice. Copyright ©
             2005 by Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. All
             rights of reproduction in any form reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1077-7229(05)80021-5},
   Key = {fds275014}
}

@article{fds275016,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and KD Wagner and G Emslie and J
             March},
   Title = {Pharmacological management of treatment-resistant pediatric
             depression},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {198-200},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200502000-00013},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200502000-00013},
   Key = {fds275016}
}

@article{fds275017,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Authors of TADS study reply to letter raising concerns
             [2]},
   Journal = {British Medical Journal},
   Volume = {330},
   Number = {7493},
   Pages = {730-731},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7493.730-b},
   Doi = {10.1136/bmj.330.7493.730-b},
   Key = {fds275017}
}

@article{fds275018,
   Author = {JS March and S Silva and S Petrycki and B Dubicka and P
             Ramchandani},
   Title = {Fluoxetine plus cognitive behavioural therapy was most
             effective for adolescents with major depressive
             disorder},
   Journal = {Evidence-Based Medicine},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {46-},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebm.10.2.46},
   Doi = {10.1136/ebm.10.2.46},
   Key = {fds275018}
}

@article{fds275019,
   Author = {H Abikoff and J McGough and B Vitiello and J McCracken and M Davies and J
             Walkup, M Riddle and M Oatis and L Greenhill and A Skrobala and E
             al},
   Title = {Sequential pharmacotherapy for children with comorbid
             attention-deficit/ hyperactivity and anxiety
             disorders},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {418-427},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000155320.52322.37},
   Abstract = {Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
             is often accompanied by clinically significant anxiety, but
             few empirical data guide treatment of children meeting full
             DSM-IV criteria for ADHD and anxiety disorders (ADHD/ANX).
             This study examined the efficacy of sequential
             pharmacotherapy for ADHD/ANX children. Method: Children, age
             6 to 17 years, with ADHD/ANX were titrated to optimal
             methylphenidate dose and assessed along with children who
             entered the study on a previously optimized stimulant.
             Children with improved ADHD who remained anxious were
             randomly assigned to 8 weeks of double-blind stimulant +
             fluvoxamine (STIM/FLV) or stimulant + placebo (STIM/PL).
             Primary efficacy measures were the Swanson, Nolan, Atkins,
             and Pelham IV Parent and Teacher Rating Scale ADHD score and
             the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale total score. ADHD, ANX,
             and overall Clinical Global Impressions- Improvement scores
             were also obtained. Results: Of the 32 medication-naïve
             children openly treated with methylphenidate, 26 (81%)
             improved as to ADHD. Twenty-five children entered the
             randomized trial. Intent-to-treat analysis indicated no
             differences between the STIM/FLV (n = 15) and STIM/PL groups
             on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale or Clinical Global
             impressions-improvement- defined responder rate. Medications
             in both arms were well tolerated. Conclusions: Children with
             ADHD/ANX have a response rate to stimulants for ADHD that is
             comparable with that of children with general ADHD. The
             benefit of adding FLV to stimulants for ANX remains
             unproven. ©2005 by the American Academy of Child and
             Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000155320.52322.37},
   Key = {fds275019}
}

@article{fds275020,
   Author = {A Weintrob and JS March},
   Title = {Placebo use [2] (multiple letters)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {624-625},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000162578.07277.9f},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000162578.07277.9f},
   Key = {fds275020}
}

@article{fds275021,
   Author = {L Hechtman and J Etcovitch and R Platt and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and JH
             Newcorn, B Hoza and SP Hinshaw and HC Kraemer and E
             al},
   Title = {Does multimodal treatment of ADHD decrease other
             diagnoses?},
   Journal = {Clinical Neuroscience Research},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {5-6},
   Pages = {273-282},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1566-2772},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnr.2005.09.007},
   Abstract = {Comorbid conditions in children with attention deficit
             hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequent and can affect
             treatment response and life course. From the multimodal
             treatment study of ADHD (MTA), we examined the persistence
             or development of conditions other than ADHD, e.g.
             oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD),
             anxiety, depression, and learning disorder (LD) in 576
             children, age 7-9 years, diagnosed rigorously with ADHD, who
             were randomly assigned to four different treatments for 14
             months. The treatment groups were medication management
             alone (MedMgt), behavioral treatment alone (Beh), the
             combination (Comb), and community comparison routine care
             (CC). For the sample as a whole, we found significant
             decreases from baseline to 14 months in diagnoses of ODD,
             CD, and anxiety disorder but not LD or mood disorder. The CC
             group developed significantly more new ODD and retained more
             baseline ODD than the Comb or MedMgt groups. There were no
             significant treatment group differences for specific other
             conditions. Only the Comb group was significantly better
             than the CC group in reducing total number of disorders and
             impairment at 14 months in subjects with multiple conditions
             at baseline. Well-titrated and monitored stimulant
             medication can decrease ODD and possibly prevent future CD.
             Combined treatment may be required for the most disturbed
             children with ADHD who have multiple disorders and severe
             impairment. © 2005 Association for Research in Nervous
             and Mental Disease. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
             reserved.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cnr.2005.09.007},
   Key = {fds275021}
}

@article{fds275022,
   Author = {S Pathak and CJ Kratochvil and GM Rogers and S Silva and B Vitiello and EB
             Weller and JS March},
   Title = {Comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy,
             fluoxetine, and their combination in depressed adolescents:
             Initial lessons from the treatment for adolescents with
             depression study},
   Journal = {Current Psychiatry Reports},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {429-434},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {1523-3812},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11920-005-0063-y},
   Abstract = {Adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD), their
             families and clinicians experience significant challenges
             when weighing the potential risks versus benefits of
             available choices in the treatment of MDD. Although MDD is
             highly prevalent in adolescents and is associated with
             marked suffering, impairment and risk of suicide, the
             scientific data regarding the safety and efficacy of
             treatments for pediatric depression are limited. Controlled
             clinical trials have provided support for the use of
             psychotherapy and fluoxetine for the treatment of pediatric
             depression, but until recently no information on the
             comparative efficacy of these recommended interventions
             alone or in combination was available. The Treatment for
             Adolescents with Depression Study provides a very important
             therapeutic advance in the field by convincingly showing
             that combination treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy
             and fluoxetine has the best benefit to risk ratio for
             adolescents with moderate to severe depression, and is
             superior to monotherapy. Moreover, the study results confirm
             that fluoxetine alone is effective in the treatment of
             depressed adolescents. Copyright © 2005 by Current
             Science Inc.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s11920-005-0063-y},
   Key = {fds275022}
}

@article{fds275057,
   Author = {H Chabrol and DA Brent and J Curry and SN Compton and JS
             March},
   Title = {CBT versus supportive therapy for depression [1] (multiple
             letters)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {841-843},
   Year = {2005},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000170555.00551.37},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000170555.00551.37},
   Key = {fds275057}
}

@article{fds275068,
   Author = {J March and S Silva and S Petrycki and J Curry and K Wells and J Fairbank and B Burns and M Domino and S McNulty and B Vitiello and J Severe and C Casat and J Kolker and K Riedal and M Goldman and N Feeny and R Findling and S Stull and N McNamara and E Weller and M Robins and R Weller and N Jessani and B
             Waslick, M Sweeney and R Kandel and D Schoenholz and J Walkup and G
             Ginsburg, E Kastelic and H Koo and C Kratochvil and D May and R LaGrone and M Harrington and AM Albano and G Hirsch and T Knibbs and E Capili and M
             Reinecke, B Leventhal and C Nageotte and G Rogers and S Pathak and J
             Wells, S Arszman and A Danielyan and A Simons and P Rohde and J Grimm and L
             Nguyen, G Emslie and B Kennard and C Hughes and M Ruberu and D
             Rosenberg, N Benazon and M Butkus and M Bartoi and G Clarke and D Brent and G Koch},
   Title = {The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS):
             Demographic and clinical characteristics},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {44},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {28-40},
   Year = {2005},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000145807.09027.82},
   Abstract = {Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression
             Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored
             by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short-
             and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for
             adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine,
             cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and,
             acutely, pill placebo. This report describes the demographic
             and clinical characteristics of the sample and addresses
             external validity. Method: Participants are 439 adolescents,
             aged 12-17 years inclusively, with a primary DSM-IV
             diagnosis of current major depressive disorder. Baseline
             data are summarized and compared with those from national
             samples and previous trials. Results: The sample composition
             is 54.4% girls, 73.8% white, 12.5% African American, and
             8.9% Hispanic. The mean Child Depression Rating
             Scale-Revised total score is 60.1 (SD = 10.4, range 45-98)
             with 86.0% experiencing their first major depressive
             episode. The most common concurrent diagnoses are
             generalized anxiety disorder (15.3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (13.7%), oppositional defiant disorder (13.2%),
             social phobia (10.7%), and dysthymia (10.5%). Demographic
             results are consistent with data from national samples and
             large psychopharmacology trials involving depressed
             adolescents. Conclusions: The Treatment for Adolescents With
             Depression Study provides a large, diverse, and
             representative sample of depressed adolescents that
             highlights the complexity of major depressive disorder in
             adolescents and provides a rich source for explicating the
             effects of moderator and mediator variables on baseline
             psychopathology and treatment outcome.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000145807.09027.82},
   Key = {fds275068}
}

@article{fds275173,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated
             With Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): implications for
             clinical practice.},
   Journal = {Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med},
   Volume = {158},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {927-929},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {1072-4710},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15351762},
   Keywords = {Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System • Behavioral
             Symptoms • Child • Child Welfare • Child,
             Preschool • Cognition Disorders • Humans •
             Physician's Practice Patterns • Polysaccharides,
             Bacterial* • Psychomotor Performance •
             Streptococcal Infections* • complications •
             epidemiology* • microbiology* • physiology •
             psychology},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1001/archpedi.158.9.927},
   Key = {fds275173}
}

@article{fds275009,
   Author = {J March and S Silva and S Petrycki and J Curry and K Wells and J Fairbank and B Burns and M Domino and S McNulty and B Vitiello and J Severe and Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)
             Team},
   Title = {Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their
             combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for
             Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) randomized
             controlled trial.},
   Journal = {JAMA},
   Volume = {292},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {807-820},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15315995},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: Initial treatment of major depressive disorder in
             adolescents may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
             or a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). However,
             little is known about their relative or combined
             effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of 4
             treatments among adolescents with major depressive disorder.
             DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled
             trial of a volunteer sample of 439 patients between the ages
             of 12 to 17 years with a primary Diagnostic and Statistical
             Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of
             major depressive disorder. The trial was conducted at 13 US
             academic and community clinics between spring 2000 and
             summer 2003. INTERVENTIONS: Twelve weeks of (1) fluoxetine
             alone (10 to 40 mg/d), (2) CBT alone, (3) CBT with
             fluoxetine (10 to 40 mg/d), or (4) placebo (equivalent to 10
             to 40 mg/d). Placebo and fluoxetine alone were administered
             double-blind; CBT alone and CBT with fluoxetine were
             administered unblinded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Children's
             Depression Rating Scale-Revised total score and, for
             responder analysis, a (dichotomized) Clinical Global
             Impressions improvement score. RESULTS: Compared with
             placebo, the combination of fluoxetine with CBT was
             statistically significant (P =.001) on the Children's
             Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Compared with fluoxetine
             alone (P =.02) and CBT alone (P =.01), treatment of
             fluoxetine with CBT was superior. Fluoxetine alone is a
             superior treatment to CBT alone (P =.01). Rates of response
             for fluoxetine with CBT were 71.0% (95% confidence interval
             [CI], 62%-80%); fluoxetine alone, 60.6% (95% CI, 51%-70%);
             CBT alone, 43.2% (95% CI, 34%-52%); and placebo, 34.8% (95%
             CI, 26%-44%). On the Clinical Global Impressions improvement
             responder analysis, the 2 fluoxetine-containing conditions
             were statistically superior to CBT and to placebo.
             Clinically significant suicidal thinking, which was present
             in 29% of the sample at baseline, improved significantly in
             all 4 treatment groups. Fluoxetine with CBT showed the
             greatest reduction (P =.02). Seven (1.6%) of 439 patients
             attempted suicide; there were no completed suicides.
             CONCLUSION: The combination of fluoxetine with CBT offered
             the most favorable tradeoff between benefit and risk for
             adolescents with major depressive disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.292.7.807},
   Key = {fds275009}
}

@article{fds275008,
   Author = {J March and C Kratochvil and G Clarke and W Beardslee and A Derivan and G
             Emslie, EP Green and J Heiligenstein and S Hinshaw and K Hoagwood and P
             Jensen, P Lavori and H Leonard and J McNulty and MA Michaels and A
             Mossholder, T Osher and T Petti and E Prentice and B Vitiello and K
             Wells},
   Title = {AACAP 2002 research forum: placebo and alternatives to
             placebo in randomized controlled trials in pediatric
             psychopharmacology.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1046-1056},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266201},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The use of placebo in the pediatric age group has
             come under increasing scrutiny. At the 2002 Annual Meeting
             of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
             the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a research
             forum. The purpose was to identify challenges and their
             solutions regarding the use of placebo in randomized
             controlled trials in pediatric psychopharmacology. METHOD:
             Workgroups focused on problems and solutions in five areas:
             ethics and human subjects, research design and statistics,
             partnering with consumers, U.S. Food and Drug Administration
             and pharmaceutical industry perspectives, and psychosocial
             treatments. RESULTS: In many but not all circumstances,
             inclusion of a placebo control is essential to meet the
             scientific goals of treatment outcome research. Innovative
             research designs; involvement of consumers in planning and
             implementing research; flexibility by industry, academia,
             the National Institutes of Health, and regulatory agencies
             acting in partnership; and concomitant use of evidence-based
             psychosocial services can and should assist in making
             placebo-controlled trials acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Properly
             designed placebo-controlled trials remain necessary,
             ethical, and feasible.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000129606.83206.77},
   Key = {fds275008}
}

@article{fds275125,
   Author = {SN Compton and JS March and D Brent and AM Albano and R Weersing and J
             Curry},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and
             depressive disorders in children and adolescents: an
             evidence-based medicine review.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {930-959},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15266189},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Anxiety Disorders • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy* • Controlled Clinical Trials as
             Topic • Depressive Disorder • Evidence-Based
             Medicine* • Humans • diagnosis • psychology
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the
             cognitive-behavioral treatment of children and adolescents
             with anxiety and depressive disorders within the conceptual
             framework of evidence-based medicine. METHOD: The
             psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically
             searched for controlled trials applying cognitive-behavioral
             treatment to pediatric anxiety and depressive disorders.
             RESULTS: For both anxiety and depression, substantial
             evidence supports the efficacy of problem-specific
             cognitive-behavioral interventions. Comparisons with
             wait-list, inactive control, and active control conditions
             suggest medium to large effects for symptom reduction in
             primary outcome domains. CONCLUSIONS: From an evidence-based
             perspective, cognitive-behavioral therapy is currently the
             treatment of choice for anxiety and depressive disorders in
             children and adolescents. Future research in this area will
             need to focus on comparing cognitive-behavioral
             psychotherapy with other treatments, component analyses, and
             the application of exportable protocol-driven treatments to
             divergent settings and patient populations.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275125}
}

@article{fds275006,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Review: clomipramine is more effective than SSRIs for
             paediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.},
   Journal = {Evid Based Ment Health},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {50},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15107346},
   Key = {fds275006}
}

@article{fds275152,
   Author = {JS March and SG Silva and S Compton and G Anthony and J DeVeaugh-Geiss and R Califf and R Krishnan},
   Title = {The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network
             (CAPTN).},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {515-518},
   Year = {2004},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15100557},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adolescent Psychiatry* • Child •
             Child Psychiatry* • Clinical Trials as Topic* •
             Cooperative Behavior • Evidence-Based Medicine •
             Humans • Information Services* • Mental Disorders
             • Psychotropic Drugs • drug therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The current generation of clinical trials in
             pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical
             utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its
             impact. METHOD: To attain maximum clinical relevance and
             acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials
             Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the
             practical clinical trials model widely used in other areas
             of medicine. RESULTS: CAPTN, a collaborative effort of the
             Duke Clinical Research Institute and the American Academy of
             Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, will conduct large, simple
             "practical" trials that provide generalizable answers to
             important clinical questions without bias. "Large" in this
             case means the random allocation of thousands of patients in
             hundreds of clinical centers to different treatments as they
             are delivered in community settings. "Simple" means that the
             number and type of data elements (and, hence, subject and
             investigator burden) is small and straightforward so as not
             to discourage provider or patient participation and to
             maximize the number of subjects per dollar spent.
             CONCLUSION: With 200 to 400 child and adolescent
             psychiatrists each participating in two or three practical
             clinical trials over 4 years, CAPTN promises to advance both
             the evidence base and research capacity in child and
             adolescent psychiatry.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200405000-00004},
   Key = {fds275152}
}

@article{fds275002,
   Author = {P Barrett and L Healy-Farrell and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral family treatment of childhood
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: A controlled
             trial},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {46-62},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200401000-00014},
   Abstract = {Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1)
             individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT);
             (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the
             treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
             Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in
             Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents
             with OCD who were randomized to individual CBFT, group CBFT,
             or a 4- to 6-week waitlist control condition. Children were
             assessed before and after treatment and at 3 months and 6
             months following the completion of treatment using
             diagnostic interviews, symptom severity interviews, and
             self-report measures. Parental distress, family functioning,
             sibling distress, and levels of accommodation to OCD demands
             were also assessed. Active treatment involved a manualized
             14-week cognitive-behavioral protocol, with parental and
             sibling components. Results: By an evaluable patient
             analysis, statistically and clinically significant
             pretreatment-to-posttreatment change occurred in OCD
             diagnostic status and severity across both individual and
             group CBFT, with no significant differences in improvement
             ratings between these conditions. There were no significant
             changes across measures for the waitlist condition.
             Treatment gains were maintained up to 6 months of follow-up.
             Conclusions: Contrary to previous findings and expectations,
             group CBFT is as effective in reducing OCD symptoms for
             children and adolescents as individual treatment. Findings
             support the efficacy and durability of CBFT in treating
             childhood OCD. ©2003 by the American Academy of Child and
             Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200401000-00014},
   Key = {fds275002}
}

@article{fds275004,
   Author = {KD Wagner and P Ambrosini and M Rynn and J March},
   Title = {Sertraline reduced the severity of patients' depressive
             symptoms in major depressive disorder},
   Journal = {Evidence-Based Medicine},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {46-},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebm.9.2.46},
   Doi = {10.1136/ebm.9.2.46},
   Key = {fds275004}
}

@article{fds275005,
   Author = {LE Arnold and S Chuang and M Davies and HB Abikoff and CK Conners and GR
             Elliott, LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and E
             al},
   Title = {Nine Months of Multicomponent Behavioral Treatment for ADHD
             and Effectiveness of MTA Fading Procedures},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-51},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JACP.0000007579.61289.31},
   Abstract = {We examined 9-month data from the 14-month NIMH Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (the MTA) as a further
             check on the relative effect of medication (MedMgt) and
             behavioral treatment (Beh) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD) while Beh was still being delivered at
             greater intensity than at 14-month endpoint, and conversely
             as a check on the efficacy of the MTA behavioral
             generalization/maintenance procedures. Intention-to-treat
             analysis at 9 months showed essentially the same results as
             at 14 months, after Beh had been completely faded; MedMgt
             and the combination (Comb) of medication and Beh were
             significantly superior to Beh and community care (CC) for
             ADHD and oppositional-defiant (ODD) symptoms, with mixed
             results for social skills and internalizing symptoms. All
             treatment-group differences examined as changes in slopes
             from 9 to 14 months were nonsignificant (we found general
             improvement for all groups). Slopes from baseline to 9
             months correlated highly (r &gt; .74, p &lt; .0001) with
             slopes from baseline to 14 months for all groups. The time
             function from baseline to 14 months showed a significant
             linear, but not quadratic, trend for the main outcome
             measure (a composite of parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and
             ODD symptoms) for all groups. Findings suggest that in
             contrast to the hypothesized deterioration in the relative
             benefit of Beh between 9 and 14 months (after completion of
             fading), the MTA Beh generalization and maintenance
             procedures implemented through 9 months apparently yielded
             continuing improvement through 14 months, with preservation
             of the relative position of Beh compared to other treatment
             strategies.},
   Doi = {10.1023/B:JACP.0000007579.61289.31},
   Key = {fds275005}
}

@article{fds275007,
   Author = {AT Derivan and BL Leventhal and J March and M Wolraich and JM
             Zito},
   Title = {The ethical use of placebo in clinical trials involving
             children},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {169-174},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/1044546041649057},
   Abstract = {The authors reviewed various statements describing the
             ethical use of placebo-controls in clinical trials involving
             minors. Attention was focused upon the Guidelines for the
             Ethical Conduct of Studies to Evaluate Drugs in Pediatric
             Populations, published by the American Academy of Pediatrics
             (AAP) (Kaufman et al. 1995). A brief review of certain key
             documents and a possible expansion of the guidelines are
             presented. Specifically, it is recommended that a review and
             update of guidelines for the use of placebo-controlled
             trials in children be undertaken by a working group
             comprised of stakeholders, including academic clinical and
             research professionals, bioethicists, consumers, members of
             key government agencies, and the pharmaceutical
             industry.},
   Doi = {10.1089/1044546041649057},
   Key = {fds275007}
}

@article{fds275010,
   Author = {NC Feeny and EB Foa and KRH Treadwell and J March},
   Title = {Posttraumatic stress disorder in youth: A critical review of
             the cognitive and behavioral treatment outcome
             literature},
   Journal = {Professional Psychology: Research and Practice},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {466-476},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0735-7028},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.35.5.466},
   Abstract = {What treatments work for children who have posttraumatic
             stress disorder (PTSD)? Perhaps more important, what else do
             clinicians need to learn? In this article, the authors focus
             on treatment research in the area of trauma and PTSD in
             youth, in an attempt to highlight the clinical implications
             of such work and to identify the areas in which additional
             research is needed. Overall, there is emerging evidence that
             a variety of cognitive and behavioral programs are effective
             in treating youth with PTSD. In spite of such evidence,
             additional research is needed to shore up the scientific
             base for effective clinical practice with these youth.
             Psychologists working with traumatized youth will find this
             article a useful update on the state of evidence for
             cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of
             PTSD.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0735-7028.35.5.466},
   Key = {fds275010}
}

@article{fds275011,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavior therapy, sertraline, and their
             combination for children and adolescents with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: The pediatric OCD treatment
             study (POTS) randomized controlled trial},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {292},
   Number = {16},
   Pages = {1969-1976},
   Year = {2004},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.292.16.1969},
   Abstract = {Content: The empirical literature on treatment of
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and
             adolescents supports the efficacy of short-term OCD-specific
             cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) or medical management with
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, little is
             known about their relative and combined efficacy. Objective:
             To evaluate the efficacy of CBT alone and medical management
             with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline
             alone, or CBT and sertraline combined, as initial treatment
             for children and adolescents with OCD. Design, Setting, and
             Participants: The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study, a balanced,
             masked randomized controlled trial conducted in 3 academic
             centers in the United States and enrolling a volunteer
             outpatient sample of 112 patients aged 7 through 17 years
             with a primary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
             Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of OCD and a Children's
             Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) score of 16
             or higher. Patients were recruited between September 1997
             and December 2002. Interventions: Participants were randomly
             assigned to receive CBT alone, sertraline alone, combined
             CBT and sertraline, or pill placebo for 12 weeks. Main
             Outcome Measures: Change in CY-BOCS score over 12 weeks as
             rated by an independent evaluator masked to treatment
             status; rate of clinical remission defined as a CY-BOCS
             score less than or equal to 10. Results: Ninety-seven of 112
             patients (87%) completed the full 12 weeks of treatment.
             Intent-to-treat random regression analyses indicated a
             statistically significant advantage for CBT alone (P=.003),
             sertraline alone (P=.007), and combined treatment (P=.001)
             compared with placebo. Combined treatment also proved
             superior to CBT alone (P=.008) and to sertraline alone
             (P=.006), which did not differ from each other. Site
             differences emerged for CBT and sertraline but not for
             combined treatment, suggesting that combined treatment is
             less susceptible to setting-specific variations. The rate of
             clinical remission for combined treatment was 53.6% (95%
             confidence interval [CI], 36%-70%); for CBT alone, 39.3%
             (95% CI, 24%-58%); for sertraline alone, 21.4% (95% CI,
             10%-40%); and for placebo, 3.6% (95% CI, 0%-19%). The
             remission rate for combined treatment did not differ from
             that for CBT alone (P=.42) but did differ from sertraline
             alone (P=.03) and from placebo (P&lt;.001). CBT alone did
             not differ from sertraline alone (P=.24) but did differ from
             placebo (P=.002), whereas sertraline alone did not (P=.10).
             The 3 active treatments proved acceptable and well
             tolerated, with no evidence of treatment-emergent harm to
             self or to others. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with
             OCD should begin treatment with the combination of CBT plus
             a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or CBT
             alone.},
   Doi = {10.1001/jama.292.16.1969},
   Key = {fds275011}
}

@article{fds275013,
   Author = {D Antonuccio and D Burns and A Rifkin and W Rifkin and BJ Carroll and JA
             Bridge, DA Brent and JS March},
   Title = {Adolescents with depression [1] (multiple
             letters)},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Medical Association},
   Volume = {292},
   Number = {21},
   Pages = {2577-2579},
   Year = {2004},
   Key = {fds275013}
}

@article{fds275065,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and B Vitiello and P Fisher and J Levine and M Davies and H
             Abikoff, AK Chrisman and S Chuang and RL Findling and J March and L
             Scahill, J Walkup and MA Riddle},
   Title = {Comparison of increasingly detailed elicitation methods for
             the assessment of adverse events in pediatric
             psychopharmacology},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {43},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1488-1496},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000142668.29191.13},
   Abstract = {Objective: To improve the gathering of adverse events (AEs)
             in pediatric psychopharmacology by examining the value and
             acceptability of increasingly detailed elicitation methods.
             Method: Trained clinicians administered the Safety
             Monitoring Uniform Report Form (SMURF) to 59 parents and
             outpatients (mean age ± SD = 11.9 ± 3.2 years) in
             treatment, with 36% on stimulants, 29% on selective
             serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, 10% on both, and 25% on
             other drug combinations. The SMURF included a brief general
             inquiry, a drug-specific inquiry, and a comprehensive body
             system review (BSR). Results: SMURF administration took 24.6
             ± 13.9 minutes (median, 21). The BSR took 15.5 ± 8.1
             minutes (median, 14) longer (p &lt; .0001) than the general
             inquiry (4.3 ± 5.4 minutes) and the drug-specific inquiry
             (4.2 ± 2.9 minutes). The general inquiry elicited 48 AEs,
             the drug-specific inquiry elicited 16 additional AEs, and
             the BSR 129 additional AEs. Of all the clinically relevant
             AEs elicited by the SMURF (n = 36), 19 (53%) were elicited
             by the BSR. The BSR length and detail were acceptable to
             parents but not to clinicians. Conclusions: The BSR elicited
             additional clinically significant AEs that had been missed
             with less detailed methods. Parents, but not clinicians,
             rated satisfaction and acceptability of the BSR as good.
             © 2004 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.chi.0000142668.29191.13},
   Key = {fds275065}
}

@article{fds275137,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and LL Greenhill and JS March and WJ Burke and BS
             Vaughan},
   Title = {The role of stimulants in the treatment of preschool
             children with attention-deficit hyperactivity
             disorder.},
   Journal = {CNS Drugs},
   Volume = {18},
   Number = {14},
   Pages = {957-966},
   Year = {2004},
   ISSN = {1172-7047},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15584766},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity • Central
             Nervous System Stimulants • Child, Preschool •
             Clinical Trials as Topic • Humans • Practice
             Guidelines as Topic • diagnosis • drug therapy*
             • psychology • therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {The symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
             (ADHD) can have an early onset, beginning before the age of
             6 years. Despite the significant number of preschool-aged
             children that can be diagnosed with ADHD, there are limited
             controlled data available on the pharmacological
             interventions being increasingly used in this population. A
             1990 review showed that 34% of paediatricians and 15% of
             family physicians had prescribed psychostimulant medications
             to preschoolers with ADHD, and pharmacoepidemiological
             studies indicate growing use of stimulants in preschoolers
             during the 1990s. Unfortunately, only six controlled trials,
             with a total enrollment of less than 200 children, have been
             conducted using these drugs in preschoolers. While these
             small studies provide some evidence of benefit from the use
             of methylphenidate in preschoolers with ADHD, more data are
             critically needed. Practice parameters developed by the
             American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry and the
             American Academy of Pediatrics provide some guidance
             regarding the diagnosis and treatment of young children with
             ADHD, but are mainly based upon research in children of
             primary-school age. The ongoing PATS (Preschool ADHD
             Treatment Study), funded by the National Institute of Mental
             Health, will provide important clinical guidance for
             diagnostic considerations and intervention strategies for
             children with ADHD aged 3-5 years. Pending the release of
             data from the PATS study, clinicians must rely on
             developmental assessment skills, available standardised
             rating instruments, reports about the child from multiple
             informants, and knowledge of the risks and benefits of
             available pharmacological and behavioural treatments, in
             order to treat preschool children with ADHD
             effectively.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275137}
}

@article{fds275113,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and B Vitiello and MA Riddle and P Fisher and E Shockey and JS
             March, J Levine and J Fried and H Abikoff and JM Zito and JT McCracken and RL Findling and J Robinson and TB Cooper and M Davies and E Varipatis and MJ Labellarte and L Scahill and JT Walkup and L Capasso and J
             Rosengarten},
   Title = {Review of safety assessment methods used in pediatric
             psychopharmacology.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {627-633},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921469},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
             • Child • Child, Preschool • Clinical Trials
             as Topic* • Drug Therapy • Female • Humans
             • Male • Pediatrics* • Psychopharmacology*
             • Psychotropic Drugs • Quality Assurance, Health
             Care • Safety • adverse effects* •
             methods},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Elicitation is an essential and critical step in
             ascertaining adverse events (AEs). This report reviews
             elicitation methods used in published clinical trials of
             psychopharmacological agents in children. METHOD: Pediatric
             psychopharmacology reports were reviewed for safety methods
             in the Medline database. Studies were included if they were
             published 1980 or later, provided data on AEs, and described
             the ascertainment methodology used for determining them.
             RESULTS: A review of 196 pediatric psychopharmacology
             articles depicting safety assessments in clinical studies
             over the past 22 years revealed that there was no common
             method used for eliciting or reporting AE data. CONCLUSION:
             The current inconsistency in safety data ascertainment is a
             major limitation that likely impairs the ability to promptly
             and accurately identify drug-induced AEs. Research on how
             best to standardize safety methods should be considered a
             priority in pediatric psychopharmacology.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.CHI.0000046841.56865.37},
   Key = {fds275113}
}

@article{fds275124,
   Author = {B Vitiello and MA Riddle and LL Greenhill and JS March and J Levine and RJ
             Schachar, H Abikoff and JM Zito and JT McCracken and JT Walkup and RL
             Findling, J Robinson and TB Cooper and M Davies and E Varipatis and MJ
             Labellarte, L Scahill and L Capasso},
   Title = {How can we improve the assessment of safety in child and
             adolescent psychopharmacology?},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {634-641},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921470},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
             • Child • Child, Preschool • Female •
             Humans • Male • Psychopharmacology* •
             Psychotropic Drugs • Randomized Controlled Trials as
             Topic • adverse effects • standards*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To identify approaches to improving methods for
             assessing tolerability and safety of psychotropic
             medications in children and adolescents. METHOD: Strengths
             and limitations of current methodology were reviewed and
             possible alternatives examined. RESULTS: Research on the
             validity of safety evaluation has been extremely limited. No
             evidence-based "gold standard" exists. Clinical trials
             remain the best design to establish causality, but sample
             size limitations prevent the detection of infrequent, though
             serious, adverse events. Other designs, such as cohort and
             case-control studies, and approaches, such as mining of
             large databases, must be considered. CONCLUSION: The current
             lack of methodological standardization across studies
             prevents generalizations and meta-analyses. Because the
             issues relevant to drug safety are diverse, a variety of
             methodological approaches and instruments are needed. It is,
             however, possible to adopt standard basic definitions of
             adverse events, degree of severity, ascertainment methods,
             and recording procedures, as a common "core," to which more
             specific assessment instruments can be added. Systematic
             empirical testing and validation of safety methodology is
             needed.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.CHI.0000046840.90931.36},
   Key = {fds275124}
}

@article{fds275135,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and B Vitiello and H Abikoff and J Levine and JS March and MA
             Riddle, L Capasso and TB Cooper and M Davies and P Fisher and RL
             Findling, J Fried and MJ Labellarte and JT McCracken and D McMahon and J
             Robinson, A Skrobala and L Scahill and E Varipatis and JT Walkup and JM Zito},
   Title = {Developing methodologies for monitoring long-term safety of
             psychotropic medications in children: report on the NIMH
             conference, September 25, 2000.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {651-655},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921472},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Child, Preschool •
             Clinical Trials as Topic • Congresses as Topic* •
             Female • Humans • Long-Term Care* • Male
             • National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.) •
             Psychopharmacology • Psychotropic Drugs • Research
             Design* • Safety • United States • adverse
             effects • methods • methods*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To improve the methods for long-term assessment
             of drug-associated side effects and advance knowledge of the
             safety profile of psychotropic medications in children and
             adolescents. METHOD: A multidisciplinary, interactive
             workshop was hosted by the National Institute of Mental
             Health (NIMH) and the Research Units on Pediatric
             Psychopharmacology network. Participants were experts in
             child and adolescent psychiatry, psychopharmacology,
             pharmacoepidemiology, and statistics from academia, the
             pharmaceutical industry, the Food and Drug Administration
             (FDA), and the NIMH. Evaluation of drug safety was examined
             from five perspectives: research design and methods,
             industry, regulatory requirements, bioethics, and practice
             settings. For each of these areas, special emphasis was
             placed on identifying barriers and generating solutions.
             RESULTS: A major obstacle is the lack of standardization of
             the methods used for collecting safety data. The limitations
             of both randomized clinical trials and passive postmarketing
             surveillance in assessing long-term safety were recognized.
             The need to consider alternative approaches, such as
             registries and trend analysis of population-based databases,
             was highlighted. Recommendations were proposed together with
             possible approaches to implementation. CONCLUSIONS: A
             concerted effort by academic researchers, industry, FDA,
             practitioners, and NIMH is needed to standardize methods and
             lay the foundations for systematic research on the long-term
             safety of psychotropic medications in children.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.CHI.0000046842.56865.EC},
   Key = {fds275135}
}

@article{fds275134,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Acute stress disorder in youth: a multivariate prediction
             model.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {53},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {809-816},
   Year = {2003},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12725973},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Child, Preschool •
             Humans • Models, Psychological* • Multivariate
             Analysis • Predictive Value of Tests • Risk
             Factors • Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute •
             psychology*},
   Abstract = {There is little empirical support for the diagnosis of acute
             stress disorder (ASD) in children and adolescents. Most
             reports treat ASD as "provisional posttraumatic stress
             disorder (PTSD)" (meaning that children evidence ASD on the
             way to a formal diagnosis of PTSD), while speculating on
             factors that might moderate or mediate the transformation of
             ASD into PTSD. This report briefly reviews the literature on
             ASD in the context of presenting a testable, multivariate
             model for understanding acute stress responses in
             youth.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275134}
}

@article{fds275000,
   Author = {EB Owens and SP Hinshaw and LE Arnold and DP Cantwell and G Elliott and L
             Hechtman, PS Jensen and JH Newcorn and JB Severe and B Vitiello and E
             al},
   Title = {Which treatment for whom for ADHD? Moderators of treatment
             response in the MTA},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {540-552},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.540},
   Abstract = {Using receiver operating characteristics, the authors
             examined outcome predictors (variables associated with
             outcome regardless of treatment) and moderators (variables
             identifying subgroups with differential treatment
             effectiveness) in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children
             with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; MTA).
             Treatment response was determined using parent- and
             teacher-reported ADHD and oppositional defiant symptoms,
             with levels near or within the normal range indicating
             excellent response. Among 9 baseline child and family
             characteristics, none predicted but 3 moderated treatment
             response. In medication management and combined treatments,
             parental depressive symptoms and severity of child ADHD were
             associated with decreased rates of excellent response; when
             these 2 characteristics were present, below-average child IQ
             was an additional moderator. No predictors or moderators
             emerged for behavioral and community comparison treatments.
             The authors discuss conceptual and clinical implications of
             research on treatment moderators.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.540},
   Key = {fds275000}
}

@article{fds275001,
   Author = {CA Galanter and GA Carlson and PS Jensen and LL Greenhill and M Davies and W Li and SZ Chuang and GR Elliott and LE Arnold and JS March and E
             al},
   Title = {Response to Methylphenidate in Children with Attention
             Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Manic Symptoms in the
             Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention
             Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Titration
             Trial},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {123-136},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   Abstract = {Objective: Recent reports raise concern that children with
             attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and some
             manic symptoms may worsen with stimulant treatment. This
             study examines the response to methylphenidate in such
             children. Methods: Data from children participating in the
             1-month methylphenidate titration trial of the Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children with ADHD were reanalyzed by
             dividing the sample into children with and without some
             manic symptoms. Two "mania proxies" were constructed using
             items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children
             (DISC) or the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Treatment
             response and side effects are compared between participants
             with and without proxies. Results: Thirty-two (11%) and 29
             (10%) participants fulfilled criteria for the CBCL mania
             proxy and DISC mania proxy, respectively. Presence or
             absence of either proxy did not predict a greater or lesser
             response or side effects. Conclusion: Findings suggest that
             children with ADHD and manic symptoms respond robustly to
             methylphenidate during the first month of treatment and that
             these children are not more likely to have an adverse
             response to methylphenidate. Further research is needed to
             explore how such children will respond during long-term
             treatment. Clinicians should not a priori avoid stimulants
             in children with ADHD and some manic symptoms.},
   Key = {fds275001}
}

@article{fds275003,
   Author = {LE Arnold and M Elliott and L Sachs and HC Kraemer and HB Abikoff and CK
             Conners, LL Greenhill and SP Hinshaw and PS Jensen and E
             al},
   Title = {Effects of ethnicity on treatment attendance, stimulant
             response/dose, and 14-month outcome in ADHD},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {71},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {713-727},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.4.713},
   Abstract = {From the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder - a randomized
             clinical trial of 579 children ages 7-9 years receiving 14
             months of medication management, behavioral treatment,
             combination, or community care - the authors matched each
             African American and Latino participant with randomly
             selected Caucasian participants of same sex, treatment
             group, and site. Although Caucasian children were
             significantly less symptomatic than African American and
             Latino children on some ratings, response to treatment did
             not differ significantly by ethnicity after controlling for
             public assistance. Ethnic minority families cooperated with
             and benefited significantly from combination (multimodal)
             treatment (d = 0.36. compared with medication). This
             incremental gain withstood statistical control for mother's
             education, single-parent status, and public assistance.
             Treatment for lower socioeconomic status minority children,
             especially if comorbid, should combine medication and
             behavioral treatment.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0022-006X.71.4.713},
   Key = {fds275003}
}

@article{fds275063,
   Author = {DG Kondo and AK Chrisman and JS March},
   Title = {An evidence-based medicine approach to combined treatment
             for ADHD in children and adolescents.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacol Bull},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {7-23},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0048-5764},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14608237},
   Abstract = {Psychiatrists need to update their skills to incorporate
             advances in psychiatric practice and to do so "at the
             bedside."To this end, evidence-based medicine (EBM), which
             is widely used as an educational heuristic in other areas
             medicine and has begun to make inroad in psychiatry training
             programs, provides practical methods to access, evaluate,
             and interpret the medical literature regarding disease
             causation, prognosis, diagnostic tests, and treatment
             strategies.With respect to treatment, EBM asserts the
             primacy of randomized, controlled trials for demonstrating
             efficacy, and, in some cases, the use of meta-analytic or
             systematic literature reviews conducted according to
             pre-specified criteria. Using the common clinical problem of
             when and how to combine drug and psychosocial interventions
             at the level of the individual patient, this article
             illustrates the principles of EBM as they pertain to how
             best to combine drug and psychosocial treatments for
             children and adolescents with ADHD.},
   Key = {fds275063}
}

@article{fds275067,
   Author = {J March and S Silva and S Petrycki and J Curry and K Wells and J Fairbank and B Burns and M Domino and B Vitiello and J Severe and C Casat and J Kolker and N Feeny and R Findling and S Stull and S Baab and B Waslick and M Sweeney and L Kentgen and R Kandel and J Walkup and G Ginsburg and E Kastelik and H
             Koo, C Kratochvil and D May and R LaGrone and M Harrington and AM
             Albano, G Hirsch and T Knibbs and E Capili and M Reinecke and B
             Leventhal, C Nageotte and G Rogers and S Pathak and F Sallee and E
             Cottingham, J Wells and P Rohde and A Simons and J Grimm and K
             Hadjiyannakis, E Weller and M Robins and R Weller and N Jessani and G
             Emslie, B Kennard and C Hughes and M Ruberu and N Benazon and D
             Rosenberg, M Butkus and M Bartoi and G Clarke and D Brent and G
             Koch},
   Title = {Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS):
             Rationale, design, and methods},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {42},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {531-542},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CHI.0000046839.90931.0D},
   Abstract = {Objectives: A rapidly growing empirical literature on the
             treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in youth
             supports the efficacy of short-term treatment with
             depression-specific cognitive-behavioral therapy or
             medication management with a selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor. These studies also identify a substantial
             probability of partial response and of relapse, which might
             be addressed by more intensive, longer-term treatments.
             Method: Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health,
             the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)
             is a multicenter, randomized, masked effectiveness trial
             designed to evaluate the short-term (12-week) and long-term
             (36-week) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents
             with MDD: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their
             combination, and, acutely, pill placebo. A volunteer sample
             of 432 subjects aged 12-17 years (inclusive) with a primary
             DSM-IV diagnosis of MDD who are broadly representative of
             patients seen in clinical practice will enter the study. The
             primary dependent measures rated blindly by an independent
             evaluator are the Children's Depression Rating Scale and,
             for responder analysis, a dichotomized Clinical Global
             Impressions- Improvement score. Consistent with an
             intent-to-treat analysis, all patients, regardless of
             treatment status, return for all scheduled assessments.
             Results: This report describes the design of the trial, the
             rationale for the design choices made, and the methods used
             to carry out the trial. Conclusion: When completed, TADS
             will improve our understanding of how best to initiate
             treatment for adolescents with MDD.},
   Doi = {10.1097/01.CHI.0000046839.90931.0D},
   Key = {fds275067}
}

@article{fds275076,
   Author = {L Amaya-Jackson and V Reynolds and MC Murray and G McCarthy and A
             Nelson, MS Cherney and R Lee and E Foa and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Pediatric Posttraumatic
             Stress Disorder: Protocol and Application in School and
             Community Settings},
   Journal = {Cognitive and Behavioral Practice},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {204-213},
   Year = {2003},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229(03)80032-9},
   Abstract = {This paper describes a multimodality trauma treatment
             protocol (MMTT) for children and adolescents with PTSD.
             Based upon empirically validated cognitive-behavioral
             methods of treating PTSD in adults and anxiety and
             aggression in children, MMTT was developed as a group
             intervention administered in schools to treat children and
             adolescents exposed to single-incident trauma resulting in
             PTSD. In this paper, the protocol development and outcome
             data are described, followed by a detailed overview of the
             protocol. Attention is given to clinical implications for
             both school and community mental health center application
             of the protocol.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S1077-7229(03)80032-9},
   Key = {fds275076}
}

@article{fds275087,
   Author = {P Barrett and L Healy and JS March},
   Title = {Behavioral avoidance test for childhood obsessive-compulsive
             disorder: A home-based observation},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {57},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {80-100},
   Year = {2003},
   Abstract = {Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most
             debilitating of the anxiety disorders. As our knowledge
             about this childhood condition continues to grow, there is a
             need for controlled treatment-outcome trials with precise
             assessments that are sensitive to treatment change, to guide
             the development of effective interventions. To evaluate the
             efficacy of a treatment protocol, it is necessary to have
             reliable and sensitive measures of OCD symptoms, including
             measures of obsessions, compulsions, and related levels of
             distress and avoidance. Whilst structured diagnostic
             interviews, semistructured clinical interviews, and
             self-report measures have been widely used in the assessment
             of childhood OCD, related levels of behavioral distress and
             avoidance have not been measured in treatment-outcome
             trials. This study investigated the sensitivity of a
             behavioral avoidance test (BAT), conducted in the home
             environment, in assessing treatment-outcome effects for
             children and adolescents with OCD following a 14-week
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) family intervention, in
             comparison to children in an 8-week "waitlist" control
             group. The results of the current study strongly support the
             sensitivity of a standardized BAT in assessing
             treatment-related changes in children and adolescents with
             OCD. Implications and future directions for research are
             discussed.},
   Key = {fds275087}
}

@article{fds275127,
   Author = {M Franklin and E Foa and JS March},
   Title = {The pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder treatment study:
             rationale, design, and methods.},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {13 Suppl 1},
   Pages = {S39-S51},
   Year = {2003},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12880499},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Child • Data Interpretation,
             Statistical • Humans • Multicenter Studies as
             Topic • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder •
             Psychiatric Status Rating Scales • Quality Assurance,
             Health Care • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
             • Research Design • drug therapy • psychology
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), which has a prevalence
             of 1 in 200 in children and adolescents, carries with it
             significant functional morbidity. A growing empirical
             literature supports the efficacy of short-term treatment
             with OCD-specific cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) or
             medication management with a selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor. These and other studies also identify a
             substantial probability of partial response and, possibly,
             differences in durability when treatment is discontinued
             between medication and CBT. The Pediatric OCD Treatment
             Study is a multicenter, randomized, masked clinical trial
             designed to evaluate the relative benefit and durability of
             four treatments for children and adolescents with OCD:
             sertraline, CBT, combination of sertraline and CBT, and pill
             placebo. Stage 1 (12 weeks) is a balanced randomized
             comparison of these four treatments. Responders at the end
             of stage 1 advance to 4 months of open follow-up in their
             assigned arm during which all treatment is discontinued. At
             the end of stage 2 (if not before), nonresponders to any
             treatment at the end of stage 1, any patient relapsing in
             stage 2, and all stage 1 placebo patients receive open
             treatment that is tailored to the patient's needs. A
             volunteer sample of 120 subjects between the ages of 7 and
             17 inclusive with a primary Diagnostic and Statistical
             Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) diagnosis of OCD
             enters the study. All patients, regardless of responder
             status, return for all scheduled assessments. This report
             describes the design of the trial, the rationale for the
             design choices made, and the methods used to carry out the
             trial.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/104454603322126331},
   Key = {fds275127}
}

@article{fds275154,
   Author = {EJ Costello and DS Pine and C Hammen and JS March and PM Plotsky and MM
             Weissman, J Biederman and HH Goldsmith and J Kaufman and PM
             Lewinsohn, M Hellander and K Hoagwood and DS Koretz and CA Nelson and JF Leckman},
   Title = {Development and natural history of mood disorders.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychiatry},
   Volume = {52},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {529-542},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0006-3223},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12361667},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Age Factors • Child •
             Evidence-Based Medicine • Humans • Mood Disorders
             • National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.) •
             Practice Guidelines as Topic • Research •
             Treatment Outcome • United States • diagnosis
             • economics • education • epidemiology*
             • therapy • trends*},
   Abstract = {To expand and accelerate research on mood disorders, the
             National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) developed a
             project to formulate a strategic research plan for mood
             disorder research. One of the areas selected for review
             concerns the development and natural history of these
             disorders. The NIMH convened a multidisciplinary Workgroup
             of scientists to review the field and the NIMH portfolio and
             to generate specific recommendations. To encourage a
             balanced and creative set of proposals, experts were
             included within and outside this area of research, as well
             as public stakeholders. The Workgroup identified the need
             for expanded knowledge of mood disorders in children and
             adolescents, noting important gaps in understanding the
             onset, course, and recurrence of early-onset unipolar and
             bipolar disorder. Recommendations included the need for a
             multidisciplinary research initiative on the pathogenesis of
             unipolar depression encompassing genetic and environmental
             risk and protective factors. Specifically, we encourage the
             NIMH to convene a panel of experts and advocates to review
             the findings concerning children at high risk for unipolar
             depression. Joint analyses of existing data sets should
             examine specific risk factors to refine models of
             pathogenesis in preparation for the next era of
             multidisciplinary research. Other priority areas include the
             need to assess the long-term impact of successful treatment
             of juvenile depression and known precursors of depression,
             in particular, childhood anxiety disorders. Expanded
             knowledge of pediatric-onset bipolar disorder was identified
             as a particularly pressing issue because of the severity of
             the disorder, the controversies surrounding its diagnosis
             and treatment, and the possibility that widespread use of
             psychotropic medications in vulnerable children may
             precipitate the condition. The Workgroup recommends that the
             NIMH establish a collaborative multisite multidisciplinary
             Network of Research Programs on Pediatric-Onset Bipolar
             Disorder to achieve a better understanding of its causes,
             course, treatment, and prevention. The NIMH should develop a
             capacity-building plan to ensure the availability of trained
             investigators in the child and adolescent field. Mood
             disorders are among the most prevalent, recurrent, and
             disabling of all illnesses. They are often disorders of
             early onset. Although the NIMH has made important strides in
             mood disorders research, more data, beginning with at-risk
             infants, children, and adolescents, are needed concerning
             the etiology and developmental course of these disorders. A
             diverse program of multidisciplinary research is recommended
             to reduce the burden on children and families affected with
             these conditions.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275154}
}

@article{fds275104,
   Author = {H Abikoff and LE Arnold and JH Newcorn and GR Elliott and L Hechtman and JB
             Severe, T Wigal and C Shapiro and DP Cantwell and CK Conners and LL
             Greenhill, SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and PS Jensen and HC Kraemer and JS
             March, WE Pelham and JM Swanson and B Vitiello and KC
             Wells},
   Title = {Emergency/Adjunct services and attrition prevention for
             randomized clinical trials in children: the MTA manual-based
             solution.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {498-504},
   Year = {2002},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12014781},
   Keywords = {Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity •
             Behavior Therapy • Bias (Epidemiology) • Central
             Nervous System Stimulants • Child • Combined
             Modality Therapy • Emergency Services, Psychiatric*
             • Female • Guidelines as Topic* • Humans
             • Male • Multicenter Studies as Topic •
             Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care) • Patient
             Dropouts • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic •
             Referral and Consultation* • statistics & numerical
             data* • therapeutic use • therapy*},
   Abstract = {Treatment studies in child and adolescent psychiatry are
             increasingly characterized by long-term, multisite,
             randomized clinical trials (RCTs). During the course of
             these RCTs it is common for clinical exigencies to emerge
             that require rapid, direct intervention. The challenge is to
             provide clinically appropriate responses that do not
             contaminate the delivery, distinctness, and interpretation
             of the treatments under investigation. In multisite studies,
             the problem is compounded by the need to minimize cross-site
             differences in the delivery of adjunct treatments. Such
             minimization requires fully operationalized and manual-based
             procedures for clinically mandated intervention. The NIMH
             Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of
             Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
             (ADHD)--"the MTA"--is a long-term multisite collaborative
             study in which children with ADHD were randomly assigned to
             either medication management, behavioral treatment, the
             combination, or community-comparison assessment and
             referral. In designing its study, the MTA developed a
             manual-based set of procedures (the MTA Adjunct Services and
             Attrition Prevention [ASAP] Manual) for situations not
             covered by the protocol treatments. The majority of cases
             requiring adjunct services fell into two major categories:
             (1) crisis/emergent situations and (2) imminent risk of
             attrition. This report describes the ASAP guidelines for
             dealing with cases that required adjunct services that the
             MTA Steering Committee adopted before initiating the trial.
             Although the manual-based guidelines are especially
             applicable to multisite RCTs, many of the procedures in the
             ASAP Manual can apply to any treatment study in
             children.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200205000-00006},
   Key = {fds275104}
}

@article{fds274997,
   Author = {R Rieppi and LL Greenhill and RE Ford and S Chuang and M Wu and M Davies and HB Abikoff and LE Arnold and CK Conners and GR Elliott and E
             al},
   Title = {Socioeconomic Status as a Moderator of ADHD Treatment
             Outcomes},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {269-277},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200203000-00006},
   Abstract = {Objective: To explore whether socioeconomic status (SES)
             variables moderate treatment response of
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to
             medication management (MedMgt), behavioral treatment (Beh),
             combined intervention (Comb), and routine community care
             (CC). Method: The MTA Cooperative Group's intent-to-treat
             (ITT) analyses were repeated, covarying for composite
             Hollingshead SES, education, occupation, income, and marital
             status. Results: Individual SES variables were more
             informative than the composite Hollingshead Index. Treatment
             response of children from less educated households
             paralleled ITT outcomes: no significant difference was found
             between Comb and MedMgt (both better than Beh and CC) for
             core ADHD symptoms. However, children from more educated
             families showed superior reduction of ADHD symptoms with
             Comb. For oppositional-aggressive symptoms, children from
             blue-collar, lower SES households benefited most from Comb,
             whereas those from white-collar, higher SES homes generally
             showed no differential treatment response. Household income
             and marital status failed to influence outcomes. Controlling
             for treatment attendance attenuated the moderating effects
             of the SES variables only for MedMgt. Conclusions:
             Investigators are encouraged to use independent SES
             variables for maximal explanation of SES effects. Clinicians
             should prioritize target symptoms and consider the mediating
             role of treatment adherence when determining an ADHD
             patient's optimal intervention plan.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200203000-00006},
   Key = {fds274997}
}

@article{fds274998,
   Author = {HB Abikoff and PS Jensen and LLE Arnold and B Hoza and L Hechtman and S
             Pollack, D Martin and J Alvir and JS March and S Hinshaw and E
             al},
   Title = {Observed classroom behavior of children with ADHD:
             Relationship to gender and comorbidity},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {349-359},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015713807297},
   Abstract = {Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in
             the observed classroom behavior of children with attention
             deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403
             boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7-10, was compared (a) to
             observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex,
             and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD
             deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15/16 and
             13/16 categories, respectively. Compared to comparison
             girls, girls with ADHD had relatively high rates of verbal
             aggression to children. Boys with ADHD engaged in more
             rule-breaking and externalizing behaviors than did girls
             with ADHD, but the sexes did not differ on more "neutral,"
             unobtrusive behaviors. The sex differences are consistent
             with notions of why girls with ADHD are identified and
             referred later than boys. Contrary to hypothesis, the
             presence of comorbid anxiety disorder (ANX) was not
             associated with behavioral suppression; yet, as
             hypothesized, children with a comorbid disruptive behavior
             disorder (DBD) had higher rates of rule-breaking, and
             impulsive and aggressive behavior, than did children with
             ADHD alone and those with ADHD+ANX. Elevated rates of ADHD
             behaviors were also observed in children with comorbid DBD,
             indicating that these behaviors are truly present and
             suggesting that reports of higher ADHD ratings in this
             subgroup are not simply a consequence of negative halo
             effects and rater biases.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1015713807297},
   Key = {fds274998}
}

@article{fds274999,
   Author = {JM Swanson and LE Arnold and B Vitiello and HB Abikoff and KC Wells and WE
             Pelham, JS March and SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and JN Epstein and E
             al},
   Title = {Response to commentary on the multimodal treatment study of
             ADHD (MTA): Mining the meaning of the MTA},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {327-332},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015709706388},
   Abstract = {In the December 2000 issue of the Journal of Abnormal Child
             Psychology, we published a set of papers presenting
             secondary analyses of the Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD
             (MTA), and R. A. Barkley (2000) provided a commentary. A
             critique of the design of the study (MTA Cooperative Group,
             1999) was presented based on a theoretical perspective of a
             "behavioral inhibition" deficit that has been hypothesized
             as the core deficit of ADHD (R. A. Barkley, 1997). The
             commentary questioned the design and analysis of the MTA in
             terms of (1) the empirical criteria for selection of
             components of behavioral (Beh) intervention, (2) the
             effectiveness of the Beh intervention, (3) the methods for
             analyses at the group and individual level, (4) implications
             of the MTA findings for clinical practice, (5) the role of
             genetics in response to treatment, and (6) the lack of a
             nontreatment control group. In this response, we relate the
             content of the papers to the commentary, (1) by reviewing
             the selection criteria for the Beh treatment, as outlined by
             K. C. Wells, W. E. Pelham, et al. (2000), (2) by addressing
             the myth that the MTA Beh treatment was ineffective (Pelham,
             1999), (3) by describing the use of analyses at the level of
             the individual participant, as presented by J. S. March et
             al. (2000) and W. E. Pelham et al. (2000) as well as
             elsewhere by J. M. Swanson et al. (2001) and C. K. Conners
             et al. (2001), (4) by relating some of the suggestions from
             the secondary analyses about clinically relevant factors
             such as comorbidity (as presented by J. S. March et al.,
             2000) and family and parental characteristics (as presented
             by B. Hoza et al., 2000, S. P. Hinshaw et al., 2000, and K.
             C. Wells, J. N. Epstein, et al., 2000), (5) by discussing
             the statistical concept of heritability and the lack of a
             significant difference in the presence of ADHD symptoms in
             parents of the MTA families compared to parents in the
             classmate-control families (as presented by J. N. Epstein,
             et al., 2000), and (6) by acknowledging that an ethically
             necessary weakness of the MTA design is that it did not
             include a no-treatment control group. We discuss the use of
             secondary analyses to suggest how, when, and for what
             subgroups effectiveness of the Beh treatment may have been
             manifested. Finally, we invite others to use the large and
             rich data set that will soon be available in the public
             domain, to perform secondary analyses to mine the meaning of
             the MTA and to evaluate theories of ADHD and response to
             treatments.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1015709706388},
   Key = {fds274999}
}

@article{fds275084,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Combining medication and psychosocial treatments: An
             evidence-based medicine approach},
   Journal = {International Review of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {155-163},
   Year = {2002},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540260220132671},
   Abstract = {In a perfectly evidence-based world, selecting an
             appropriate treatment regimen for the anxious child from
             among the many possible options would be reasonably
             straightforward. In the complex world of clinical practice,
             choices are rarely so clear-cut. Many experts recommend the
             combination of medication and psychosocial treatment as
             offering the best chance of normalization. Despite a lack of
             supporting evidence, valid reasons for combining treatment
             include the presence of comorbidity and the propensity of
             single treatments to yield partial response. Within the
             conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine (EBM), this
             article provides a conceptual framework for how to combine
             drug and psychosocial treatments at the level of the
             individual patient.},
   Doi = {10.1080/09540260220132671},
   Key = {fds275084}
}

@article{fds275085,
   Author = {CJ Kratochvil and MJ Harrington and WJ Burke and JS
             March},
   Title = {Pharmacotherapy of childhood anxiety disorders.},
   Journal = {Current psychiatry reports},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {264-269},
   Year = {2002},
   Abstract = {Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric
             disorders of childhood, yet limited data is available
             regarding the use of psychotropic medications for these
             conditions. Until recently, much of the data on the
             pharmacologic treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders has
             consisted of case reports and small open-label studies, with
             the exception of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder
             (OCD), which has had a comparatively rich literature
             consisting of several double blind trials. This void has
             been lessening, however, with four double blind,
             placebo-controlled studies published in the past year alone.
             Although the majority of pharmacologic studies of pediatric
             anxiety continue to focus on the treatment of OCD,
             additional reports on treatment of generalized anxiety
             disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and
             separation anxiety disorder have recently been published.
             This article will review significant pharmacologic studies
             published in the prior year, and the role of pharmacotherapy
             in the treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders.},
   Key = {fds275085}
}

@article{fds275086,
   Author = {J Walkup and H Abikoff and S Hack and B Klee and RL Bergman and D Lynn and J
             McCracken, J March and P Gammon and J Robinson and E
             al},
   Title = {Treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders: An open-label
             extension of the research units on pediatric
             psychopharmacology anxiety study},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {175-188},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   Abstract = {Background: An 8-week placebo-controlled study, the Research
             Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology Anxiety Study,
             documented beneficial effects of fluvoxamine in the
             treatment of pediatric social anxiety, separation anxiety,
             or generalized anxiety disorders. Following completion of
             this study, participants were invited to enter a 6-month
             open-label treatment phase designed to examine three issues:
             (a) long-term maintenance of response in fluvoxamine
             responders, (b) acute response to fluoxetine in fluvoxamine
             nonresponders, and (c) acute response to fluvoxamine in
             placebo nonresponders. Methods: Participants aged 6-17 years
             meeting criteria for social anxiety, separation anxiety, or
             generalized anxiety disorders previously treated in an
             8-week placebo-controlled trial (n = 128) were offered open
             treatment. Changes in symptoms of anxiety during open
             treatment were assessed in three groups: (a) fluvoxamine
             responders maintained on fluvoxamine, (b) fluvoxamine
             nonresponders changed to fluoxetine, and (c) placebo
             nonresponders changed to fluvoxamine. Response was defined
             based on Clinical Global Impression criteria. Results:
             During 6 months of continued open treatment, anxiety
             symptoms remained low in 33 of 35 (94%) subjects who
             initially responded to fluvoxamine. Among 14 fluvoxamine
             nonresponders switched to fluoxetine, anxiety symptoms
             appeared significantly improved in 10 (71%) subjects.
             Finally, among 48 placebo nonresponders, 27 (56%) showed
             clinically significant improvement in anxiety on
             fluvoxamine. Conclusion: The current findings concerning
             extended treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders are only
             preliminary, because treatment was uncontrolled. Results
             suggest that an initial fluvoxamine response is likely to be
             retained with continued treatment, that some fluvoxamine
             nonresponders may respond to fluoxetine, and that some
             placebo nonresponders may respond to fluvoxamine.},
   Key = {fds275086}
}

@article{fds275163,
   Author = {L Giulino and P Gammon and K Sullivan and M Franklin and E Foa and R Maid and JS March},
   Title = {Is parental report of upper respiratory infection at the
             onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder suggestive of
             pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated
             with streptococcal infection?},
   Journal = {J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {12},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-164},
   Year = {2002},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12188984},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Autoimmune Diseases • Caregivers*
             • Chi-Square Distribution • Child • Female
             • Humans • Male • Obsessive-Compulsive
             Disorder • Parents • Respiratory Tract Infections
             • Retrospective Studies • Streptococcal Infections
             • Streptococcus pyogenes* • complications* •
             diagnosis},
   Abstract = {The diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric
             disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS)
             requires a prospectively determined association between
             group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection and
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorder.
             Screening for GABHS infection imposes a significant burden
             on both patient and clinician. To heighten the index of
             suspicion for PANDAS, it would be useful to know if
             parent-reported upper respiratory infection (URI) is
             associated with PANDAS symptoms or associated
             characteristics. Eighty-three consecutive, clinically
             referred patients aged 6 to 17 years with a primary
             diagnosis of OCD and their primary caregivers were asked
             about URI signs and symptoms at the time of OCD onset,
             PANDAS symptoms, OCD and tic symptoms, comorbidity, and
             putative PANDAS risk factors. Specific inquiry regarding URI
             symptoms proved more informative than general inquiry. In
             the URI present versus URI absent group, more patients
             experienced a sudden rather than insidious onset of
             symptoms. Additionally, more patients with a URI plus sudden
             onset exhibited a comorbid tic disorder. Until validated
             biomarkers permit retrospective diagnosis, a history that
             OCD began around the time of a URI should clue the clinician
             to look prospectively for PANDAS. Additional research is
             required to define the boundaries of PANDAS and to develop
             psychometrically reliable and valid diagnostic
             strategies.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1089/104454602760219199},
   Key = {fds275163}
}

@article{fds275146,
   Author = {JS March and B Vitiello},
   Title = {Advances in paediatric neuropsychopharmacology: an
             overview.},
   Journal = {Int J Neuropsychopharmacol},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {141-147},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {1461-1457},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11466164},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Autoimmunity • Child •
             Depressive Disorder, Major • Humans • Mental
             Disorders • National Institutes of Health (U.S.) •
             Neuropharmacology • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
             • Panic Disorder • Pediatrics •
             Psychopharmacology • Psychotropic Drugs • Sleep
             Disorders • Streptococcal Infections • United
             States • drug therapy • drug therapy* •
             immunology • microbiology • psychology •
             therapeutic use* • trends*},
   Abstract = {This Special Section of Int J Neuropsychopharmacol
             highlights current progress in paediatric
             neuropsychopharmacology. Combining critical reviews and, in
             some cases, new data, specific topics include: biological
             findings in major depression, sleep dysregulation in
             depressed youth, cardiovascular and ventilatory
             dysregulation in panic disorder, paediatric autoimmune
             neuropsychiatric disorder associated with strep (PANDAS),
             age of onset as a subtype marker in tic and
             obsessive--compulsive disorders (OCD), functional and
             pharmaconeuroanatomy of OCD and the behavioural
             pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate. In this introductory
             section, these articles are placed in the context of the
             state-of-the field and, more specifically, within the
             framework of recent NIMH initiatives in paediatric
             neuropsychopharmacology.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1017/S1461145701002346},
   Key = {fds275146}
}

@article{fds275064,
   Author = {SN Compton and PJ Grant and AK Chrisman and PJ Gammon and VL Brown and JS March},
   Title = {Sertraline in children and adolescents with social anxiety
             disorder: an open trial.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {564-571},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {May},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11349701},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: The aim of this open-label study was to assess
             the therapeutic benefits, response pattern, and safety of
             sertraline in children with social anxiety disorder. METHOD:
             Fourteen outpatient subjects with a primary Axis I diagnosis
             of social anxiety disorder were treated in an 8-week open
             trial of sertraline. Diagnostic and primary outcome measures
             included the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for
             Children, Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI), Social
             Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children, and a
             standardized behavioral avoidance test. RESULTS: As measured
             by the CGI (Improvement subscale), 36% (5/14) of subjects
             were classified as treatment responders and 29% (4/14) as
             partial responders by the end of the 8-week trial. A
             significant clinical response appeared by week 6.
             Self-report and behavioral measures showed significant
             clinical improvement into normal range across all domains
             measured. The mean dose of sertraline was 123.21+/-37.29 mg
             per day. Sertraline was generally well tolerated.
             CONCLUSION: In open treatment, sertraline resulted in
             significant improvement in symptoms of childhood social
             anxiety disorder. Absolute response rates varied depending
             on rating scales used. Findings from this study are
             sufficiently strong to warrant a future multisite,
             randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of
             sertraline for treatment of childhood social anxiety
             disorder.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200105000-00016},
   Key = {fds275064}
}

@article{fds275168,
   Author = {JS March and M Franklin and A Nelson and E Foa},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder.},
   Journal = {J Clin Child Psychol},
   Volume = {30},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {8-18},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {0047-228X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11294080},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Behavior Therapy • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy • Conditioning, Operant •
             Extinction, Psychological • Humans •
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Prognosis • Risk
             Factors • Treatment Outcome • diagnosis •
             methods* • psychology • therapy*},
   Abstract = {Discusses the cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for
             pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Over the past
             15 years, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy has emerged as
             the psychosocial treatment of choice for OCD across
             lifespan. Unlike other psychotherapies that have been
             applied usually unsuccessfully to OCD, cognitive-behavioral
             treatment (CBT) presents a logically consistent and
             compelling relationship between the disorder, the treatment,
             and the specified outcome. Nevertheless, despite a consensus
             that CBT is usually helpful, clinicians routinely complain
             that patients will not comply with behavioral treatments and
             parents routinely complain that clinicians are poorly
             trained in CBT, with the result that many if not most
             children and adolescents are denied access to effective
             psychosocial treatment. This unfortunate situation may be
             avoidable, given an increased understanding regarding the
             implementation of CBT in children and adolescents with OCD.
             To this end, we review the principles and the practical
             aspects of the cognitive-behavioral treatment of OCD in
             youth, move on to discuss empirical studies supporting the
             use of CBT in the pediatric age group, and conclude by
             discussing directions for future research.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1207/S15374424JCCP3001_3},
   Key = {fds275168}
}

@article{fds275074,
   Author = {CK Conners and JN Epstein and JS March and A Angold and KC Wells and J
             Klaric, JM Swanson and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and GR Elliott and LL
             Greenhill, L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and PS Jensen and HC
             Kraemer, JH Newcorn and WE Pelham and JB Severe and B Vitiello and T
             Wigal},
   Title = {Multimodal treatment of ADHD in the MTA: an alternative
             outcome analysis.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {159-167},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11211364},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To conduct a post hoc investigation of the
             utility of a single composite measure of treatment outcome
             for the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment
             Study of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
             Disorder (MTA) at 14 months postbaseline. BACKGROUND:
             Examination of multiple measures one at a time in the main
             MTA intent-to-treat outcome analyses failed to detect a
             statistically significant advantage of combined treatment
             (Comb) over medication management (MedMgt). A measure that
             increases power and precision using a single outcome score
             may be a useful alternative to multiple outcome measures.
             METHOD: Factor analysis of baseline scores yielded two
             "source factors" (parent and teacher) and one "instrument
             factor" (parent-child interactions). A composite score was
             created from the average of standardized parent and teacher
             measures. RESULTS: The composite was internally consistent
             (alpha = .83), reliable (test-retest over 3 months = 0.86),
             and correlated 0.61 with clinician global judgments. In an
             intent-to-treat analysis, Comb was statistically
             significantly better than all other treatments, with effect
             sizes ranging from small (0.28) versus MedMgt, to moderately
             large (0.70) versus a community comparison group.
             CONCLUSIONS: A composite of ADHD variables may be an
             important tool in future treatment trials with ADHD and may
             avoid some of the statistical limitations of multiple
             measures.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200102000-00010},
   Key = {fds275074}
}

@article{fds275088,
   Author = {ED Levin and CK Conners and D Silva and W Canu and J
             March},
   Title = {Effects of chronic nicotine and methylphenidate in adults
             with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.},
   Journal = {Exp Clin Psychopharmacol},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {83-90},
   Year = {2001},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {1064-1297},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11519638},
   Abstract = {Acute nicotine treatment has been found to reduce symptoms
             of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults (E. D.
             Levin, C. K. Conners, et al., 1996). In this study, chronic
             nicotine effects were compared with placebo and
             methylphenidate. Acute and chronic nicotine treatment
             significantly attenuated the rise in hit reaction time
             standard error over session blocks on the Conners Continuous
             Performance Test (C. K. Conners et al., 1996). Acute
             nicotine significantly reduced severity of clinical symptoms
             on the Clinical Global Impressions scale (National Institute
             of Mental Health, 1985). Nicotine caused a significant
             decrease in self-report of depressive mood as measured by
             the Profile of Mood States test (D. M. McNair, M. Lorr, & L.
             F. Droppleman, 1981). This small study (40 participants)
             provided evidence that nicotine treatment can reduce
             severity of attentional deficit symptoms and produce
             improvement on an objective computerized attention
             task.},
   Key = {fds275088}
}

@article{fds138665,
   Title = {Sahoo T, Goenaga-Diaz E, Serebreiiskii IG, Thomas JW, Kotova
             E, Cuellar JG, Peloquin JM, Golemis E, Beitinjaneh F, Green
             ED, Johnson EW, and Marchuk DA. Computational and
             experimental analyses reveal previously undetected coding
             exons of the KRIT1 (CCM1) gene. Genomics, 71:123-126,
             2001.},
   Year = {2001},
   Key = {fds138665}
}

@article{fds274990,
   Author = {ME Franklin and DF Tolin and JS March and EB Foa},
   Title = {Treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: A case
             example of intensive cognitive-behavioral therapy involving
             exposure and ritual prevention},
   Journal = {Cognitive and Behavioral Practice},
   Volume = {8},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {297-304},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {The development of effective pharmacotherapies for pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has improved the
             clinical prognosis for children and adolescents who suffer
             from the disorder. Recent pilot work has also suggested that
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) involving exposure and
             ritual prevention (EX/RP) may prove particularly helpful in
             ameliorating OCD symptoms in children and adolescents. The
             application of intensive CBT of a 12-year-old boy with
             severe and unusual OCD symptoms is illustrated here. Case
             material is presented, illustrating the design and
             implementation of CBT involving EX/RP; recommendations to
             guide clinical decision making regarding session frequency,
             concomitant medication use, and maintenance of treatment
             gains are provided. Copyright © 2001 by Association for
             Advancement of Behavior.},
   Key = {fds274990}
}

@article{fds274991,
   Author = {PS Jensen and SP Hinshaw and JM Swanson and LL Greenhill and CK Conners and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and G Elliott and L Hechtman and E
             al},
   Title = {Findings from the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD
             (MTA): Implications and applications for primary care
             providers},
   Journal = {Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {60-73},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0196-206X},
   Abstract = {In 1992, the National Institute of Mental Health and 6 teams
             of investigators began a multisite clinical trial, the
             Multimodal Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity
             Disorder (MTA) study. Five hundred seventy-nine children
             were randomly assigned to either routine community care (CC)
             or one of three study-delivered treatments, all lasting 14
             months. The three MTA treatments-monthly medication
             management (usually methylphenidate) following weekly
             titration (MedMgt), intensive behavioral treatment (Beh),
             and the combination (Comb)-were designed to reflect known
             best practices within each treatment approach. Children were
             assessed at four time points in multiple outcome. Results
             indicated that Comb and MedMgt interventions were
             substantially superior to Beh and CC interventions for
             attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. For other
             functioning domains (social skills, academics, parent-child
             relations, oppositional behavior, anxiety/depression),
             results suggested slight advantages of Comb over single
             treatments (MedMgt, Beh) and community care. High quality
             medication treatment characterized by careful yet adequate
             dosing, three times daily methylphenidate administration,
             monthly follow-up visits, and communication with schools
             conveyed substantial benefits to those children that
             received it. In contrast to the overall study findings that
             showed the largest benefits for high quality medication
             management (regardless of whether given in the MedMgt or
             Comb group), secondary analyses revealed that Comb had a
             significant incremental effect over MedMgt (with a small
             effect size for this comparison) when categorical indicators
             of excellent response and when composite outcome measures
             were used. In addition, children with parent-defined
             comorbid anxiety disorders, particularly those with
             overlapping disruptive disorder comorbidities, showed
             preferential benefits to the Beh and Comb interventions.
             Parental attitudes and disciplinary practices appeared to
             mediate improved response to the Beh and Comb
             interventions.},
   Key = {fds274991}
}

@article{fds274992,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and JM Swanson and B Vitiello and M Davies and W Clevenger and M Wu and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and OG Bukstein and CK Conners and E
             al},
   Title = {Impairment and deportment responses to different
             methylphenidate doses in children with ADHD: The MTA
             titration trial},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {180-187},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objective: Results of the NIMH Collaborative Multisite
             Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention-
             Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA) were analyzed to
             determine whether a double-blind, placebo-controlled
             methylphenidate (MPH) titration trial identified the best
             MPH dose for each child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder (ADHD). Method: Children with ADHD assigned to MTA
             medication treatment groups (n = 289) underwent a controlled
             28-day titration protocol that administered different MPH
             doses (placebo, low, middle, and high) on successive days.
             Results: A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed
             main effects for MPH dose with greater effects on teacher
             ratings of impairment and deportment (F 3 = 100.6, n = 223,
             p = .0001; effect sizes 0.8-1.3) than on parent ratings of
             similar endpoints (F 3 = 55.61, n = 253, p = .00001; effect
             sizes 0.4-0.6). Dose did not interact with period, dose
             order, comorbid diagnosis, site, or treatment group.
             Conclusions: The MTA titration protocol validated the
             efficacy of weekend MPH dosing and established a total daily
             dose limit of 35 mg of MPH for children weighing less than
             25 kg. It replicated previously reported MPH response rates
             (77%), distribution of best doses (10-50 mg/day) across
             subjects, effect sizes on impairment and deportment, as well
             as dose-related adverse events.},
   Key = {fds274992}
}

@article{fds274993,
   Author = {B Vitiello and JB Severe and LL Greenhill and LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and OG Bukstein and GR Elliott and L Hechtman and PS Jensen and E
             al},
   Title = {Methylphenidate dosage for children with ADHD over time
             under controlled conditions: Lessons from the
             MTA},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {188-196},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objectives: To examine the trajectory of methylphenidate
             (MPH) dosage over time, following a controlled titration,
             and to ascertain how accurately the titration was able to
             predict effective long-term treatment in children with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method:
             Using the 14-month-treatment database of the NIMH
             Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of
             Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
             (MTA), the outcome of the initial placebo-controlled,
             double-blind, randomized daily switch titration of MPH was
             compared with the subsequent maintenance pharmacotherapy.
             Children received monthly monitoring visits and, when
             needed, medication adjustments. Results: Of the 198 children
             for whom MPH was the optimal treatment at titration (mean
             ± SD dose: 30.5 ± 14.2 mg/day), 88% were still taking
             MPH at the end of maintenance (mean dose 34.4 ± 13.3
             mg/day), Titration-determined dose and end-of-maintenance
             dose were significantly correlated (r = 0.52-0.68). Children
             receiving combined pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment
             ended maintenance on a lower dose (31.1 ± 11.7 mg/day)
             than did children receiving pharmacotherapy only (38,1 ±
             14.2 mg/day). Of the 230 children for whom titration
             identified an optimal treatment, 17% continued both the
             assigned medication and dosage throughout maintenance. The
             mean number of pharmacological changes per child was 2.8
             ± 1.8 (SD), and time to first change was 4.7 months ±
             0.3 (SE). Conclusions: For most children, initial titration
             found a dose of MPH in the general range of the effective
             maintenance dose, but did not prevent the need for
             subsequent maintenance adjustments. For optimal
             pharmacological treatment of ADHD, both careful initial
             titration and ongoing medication management are
             needed.},
   Key = {fds274993}
}

@article{fds274994,
   Author = {JM Swanson and HC Kraemer and SP Hinshaw and LE Arnold and CK Conners and HB Abikoff and W Clevenger and M Davies and GR Elliott and LL Greenhill and E al},
   Title = {Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA:
             Success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at
             the end of treatment},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {168-179},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objectives: To develop a categorical outcome measure related
             to clinical decisions and to perform secondary analyses to
             supplement the primary analyses of the NIMH Collaborative
             Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA). Method:
             End-of-treatment status was summarized by averaging the
             parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms on the
             Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV (SNAP-IV) scale, and
             low symptom-severity ("Just a Little") on this continuous
             measure was set as a clinical cutoff to form a categorical
             outcome measure reflecting successful treatment. Three
             orthogonal comparisons of the treatment groups (combined
             treatment [Comb], medication management [MedMgt], behavioral
             treatment [Beh], and community comparison [CC]) evaluated
             hypotheses about the MTA medication algorithm ("Comb +
             MedMgt versus Beh + CC"), multimodality superiority ("Comb
             versus MedMgt"), and psychosocial substitution ("Beh versus
             CC"). Results: The summary of SNAP-IV ratings across sources
             and domains increased the precision of measurement by 30%.
             The secondary analyses of group differences in success rates
             (Comb = 68%; MedMgt = 56%; Beh = 34%; CC = 25%) confirmed
             the large effect of the MTA medication algorithm and a
             smaller effect of multimodality superiority, which was now
             statistically significant (p &lt; .05). The psychosocial
             substitution effect remained negligible and nonsignificant.
             Conclusion: These secondary analyses confirm the primary
             findings and clarify clinical decisions about the choice
             between multimodal and unimodal treatment with
             medication.},
   Key = {fds274994}
}

@article{fds274995,
   Author = {PS Jensen and SP Hinshaw and HC Kraemer and N Lenora and JH Newcorn and HB
             Abikoff, JS March and LE Arnold and DP Cantwell and E
             al},
   Title = {ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: Comparing
             comorbid subgroups},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {147-158},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objectives: Previous research has been inconclusive whether
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), when
             comorbid with disruptive disorders (oppositional defiant
             disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]), with the
             internalizing disorders (anxiety and/or depression), or with
             both, should constitute separate clinical entities.
             Determination of the clinical significance of potential ADHD
             + internalizing disorder or ADHD + ODD/CD syndromes could
             yield better diagnostic decision-making, treatment planning,
             and treatment outcomes. Method: Drawing upon cross-sectional
             and longitudinal information from 579 children (aged 7-9.9
             years) with ADHD participating in the NIMH Collaborative
             Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA),
             investigators applied validational criteria to compare ADHD
             subjects with and without comorbid internalizing disorders
             and ODD/CD. Results: Substantial evidence of main effects of
             internalizing and externalizing comorbid disorders was
             found. Moderate evidence of interactions of parent-reported
             anxiety and ODD/CD status were noted on response to
             treatment, indicating that children with ADHD and anxiety
             disorders (but no ODD/CD) were likely to respond equally
             well to the MTA behavioral and medication treatments.
             Children with ADHD-only or ADHD with ODD/CD (but without
             anxiety disorders) responded best to MTA medication
             treatments (with or without behavioral treatments), while
             children with multiple comorbid disorders (anxiety and
             ODD/CD) responded optimally to combined (medication and
             behavioral) treatments. Conclusions: Findings indicate that
             three clinical profiles, ADHD co-occurring with
             internalizing disorders (principally parent-reported anxiety
             disorders) absent any concurrent disruptive disorder (ADHD +
             ANX), ADHD co-occurring with ODD/CD but no anxiety (ADHD +
             ODD/CD), and ADHD with both anxiety and ODD/CD (ADHD + ANX +
             ODD/CD) may be sufficiently distinct to warrant
             classification as ADHD subtypes different from "pure" ADHD
             with neither comorbidity. Future clinical, etiological, and
             genetics research should explore the merits of these three
             ADHD classification options.},
   Key = {fds274995}
}

@article{fds274996,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and B Vitiello and H Abikoff and J Levine and JS March and MA
             Riddle, L Capasso and T Cooper and M Davies and P Fisher and E
             al},
   Title = {Improving the methods for evaluating the safety of
             psychotropic medications in children and
             adolescents},
   Journal = {Current Therapeutic Research - Clinical and
             Experimental},
   Volume = {62},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {873-884},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0011-393X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0011-393X(01)80092-8},
   Abstract = {Background: Given the considerable importance of drug safety
             in children and adolescents and the potential effects of
             psychotropic medications on growth rates and developing
             central neurotransmitter systems, there is a need for valid
             methods for detecting possible drug-induced adverse events
             during prolonged exposure. Objectives: The aims of this
             study were to discuss challenges involved in the collection
             of safety information on psychotropic medications when
             administered to children and adolescents and suggest methods
             for improving existing approaches. Methods: Current methods
             for collecting and assessing safety data during pediatric
             psychopharmacological trials are critiqued and possible
             alternatives reviewed. Results: Methods used for collecting
             and assessing drug safety data remain less sophisticated
             than efficacy evaluations. Multisite trials, although
             demonstrating statistical power to detect placebo/active
             drug differences, remain too small to detect infrequent but
             serious drug-related adverse events. Other active
             surveillance approaches, such as long-duration follow-up
             studies and clinical epidemiological studies, using
             case-control, cohort designs, or trend analysis of
             population-based treatment data must be used. Conclusions:
             Research is needed to standardize the basic ascertainment
             approaches, definitions of adverse events, lists of
             preferred terms, and recording procedures to a common core
             battery. A possible approach to developing and testing these
             procedures is proposed. Then more detailed lists of
             drug-related adverse events can be added, which can be study
             specific. The increasing use of psychotropic medications in
             youths should be accompanied by increased efforts to
             standardize the ascertainment of drug-related adverse
             events.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0011-393X(01)80092-8},
   Key = {fds274996}
}

@article{fds275056,
   Author = {DS Pine and JT Walkup and MJ Labellarte and MA Riddle and L Greenhill and R
             Klein, M Davies and M Sweeney and H Abikoff and S Hack and E
             al},
   Title = {Fluvoxamine for the treatment of anxiety disorders in
             children and adolescents},
   Journal = {New England Journal of Medicine},
   Volume = {344},
   Number = {17},
   Pages = {1279-1285},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0028-4793},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200104263441703},
   Abstract = {Background: Drugs that selectively inhibit serotonin
             reuptake are effective treatments for adults with mood and
             anxiety disorders, but limited data are available on the
             safety and efficacy of serotonin-reuptake inhibitors in
             children with anxiety disorders. Methods: We studied 128
             children who were 6 to 17 years of age; who met the criteria
             for social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, or
             generalized anxiety disorder; and who had received
             psychological treatment for three weeks without improvement.
             The children were randomly assigned to receive fluvoxamine
             (at a maximum of 300 mg per day) or placebo for eight weeks
             and were evaluated with rating scales designed to assess the
             degree of anxiety and impairment. Results: Children in the
             fluvoxamine group had a mean (±SD) decrease of 9.7±6.9
             points in symp toms of anxiety on the Pediatric Anxiety
             Rating Scale (range of possible scores, 0 to 25, with higher
             scores indicating greater anxiety), as compared with a
             decrease of 3.1±4.8 points among children in the placebo
             group (P&lt;0.001). On the Clinical Global
             Impressions-Improvement scale, 48 of 63 children in the
             fluvoxamine group (76 percent) had a response to the
             treatment, as indicated by a score of less than 4, as
             compared with 19 of 65 children in the placebo group (29
             percent, P±0.001). Five children in the fluvoxamine group
             (8 percent) discontinued treatment because of adverse
             events, as compared with one child in the placebo group (2
             percent). Conclusions: Fluvoxamine is an effective treatment
             for children and adolescents with social phobia, separation
             anxiety disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright
             © 2001 Massachusetts Medical Society.},
   Doi = {10.1056/NEJM200104263441703},
   Key = {fds275056}
}

@article{fds275082,
   Author = {TL Waters and PM Barrett and JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral family treatment of childhood
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: Preliminary
             findings},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychotherapy},
   Volume = {55},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {372-387},
   Year = {2001},
   Abstract = {The effectiveness of a 14-week cognitive-behavioral family
             treatment protocol for childhood obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD) was piloted using a volunteer sample of seven
             children aged 10-14 years. The primary outcome measures were
             diagnostic status, symptom severity, and global functioning
             which were assessed at pre- and post-treatment, and at
             three-month followup. A series of self-report measures
             assessing obsessive-compulsive symptomatology, depression,
             and family factors were also completed at pre- and
             post-treatment. The results indicated that six participants
             no longer met criteria for OCD at post-treatment, with a
             mean reduction of 60% in symptom severity. Self-reported
             obsessive-compulsive symptomatology and family involvement
             in the disorder also significantly decreased across time.
             The findings support the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral
             treatment with a structured family component for childhood
             OCD. Further research investigating the comparative efficacy
             of treatment with and without family involvement is
             warranted.},
   Key = {fds275082}
}

@article{fds275083,
   Author = {EH Cook and KD Wagner and JS March and J Biederman and P Landau and R
             Wolkow and M Messig},
   Title = {Long-term sertraline treatment of children and adolescents
             with obsessive-compulsive disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {40},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1175-1181},
   Year = {2001},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of
             sertraline in the long-term treatment of pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: Children (6-12
             years; n=72) and adolescents (13-18 years; n=65) with
             DSM-III-R-defined OCD who had completed a 12-week,
             double-blind, placebo-controlled sertraline study were given
             open-label sertraline 50 to 200 mg/day in this 52-week
             extension study. Concomitant psychotherapy was allowed
             during the extension study. Outcome was evaluated by the
             Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS),
             National Institute of Mental Health Global
             Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and Clinical Global Impression
             Severity (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) scores. Results:
             Significant improvement (p&lt;.0001) was demonstrated on all
             four outcome parameters on an intent-to-treat analysis for
             the overall study population (n=132), as well as the child
             and the adolescent samples. At endpoint, 72% of children and
             61% of adolescents met response criteria (&gt;25% decrease
             in CY-BOCS and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2). Significant
             (p&lt;.05) improvements were also demonstrated from the
             extension study baseline to endpoint on all outcome
             parameters in those patients who received sertraline during
             the 12-week, double-blind acute study. Long-term sertraline
             treatment was well tolerated, and there were no
             discontinuations due to changes in vital signs, laboratory
             values, or electrocardiograms. Conclusion: Sertraline
             (50-200 mg/day) was effective and generally well tolerated
             in the treatment of childhood and adolescent OCD for up to
             52 weeks. Improvement was seen with continued
             treatment.},
   Key = {fds275083}
}

@article{fds274986,
   Author = {KC Wells and JN Epstein and SP Hinshaw and CK Conners and J Klaric and HB
             Abikoff, A Abramowitz and LE Arnold and G Elliott and LL Greenhill and L
             Hechtman, B Hoza and PS Jensen and JS March and W Pelham and L Pfiffner and J Severe and JM Swanson and B Vitiello and T Wigal},
   Title = {Parenting and family stress treatment outcomes in attention
             deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an empirical analysis
             in the MTA study.},
   Journal = {J Abnorm Child Psychol},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {543-553},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11104316},
   Abstract = {Parenting and family stress treatment outcomes in the MTA
             study were examined. Male and female (579), 7-9-year-old
             children with combined type Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
             Disorder (ADHD), were recruited at six sites around the
             United States and Canada, and randomly assigned to one of
             four groups: intensive, multi-faceted behavior therapy
             program alone (Beh); carefully titrated and monitored
             medication management strategy alone (MedMgt); a
             well-integrated combination of the two (Comb); or a
             community comparison group (CC). Treatment occurred over 14
             months, and assessments were taken at baseline, 3, 9, and 14
             months. Parenting behavior and family stress were assessed
             using parent-report and child-report inventories. Results
             showed that Beh alone, MedMgt alone, and Comb produced
             significantly greater decreases in a parent-rated measure of
             negative parenting, Negative/Ineffective Discipline, than
             did standard community treatment. The three MTA treatments
             did not differ significantly from each other on this domain.
             No differences were noted among the four groups on positive
             parenting or on family stress variables. Results are
             discussed in terms of the theoretical and empirically
             documented importance of negative parenting in the symptoms,
             comorbidities and long-term outcomes of ADHD.},
   Key = {fds274986}
}

@article{fds274988,
   Author = {KC Wells and WE Pelham and RA Kotkin and B Hoza and HB Abikoff and A
             Abramowitz, LE Arnold and DP Cantwell and CK Conners and R Del
             Carmen and G Elliott and LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and E Hibbs and SP
             Hinshaw, PS Jensen and JS March and JM Swanson and E
             Schiller},
   Title = {Psychosocial treatment strategies in the MTA study:
             rationale, methods, and critical issues in design and
             implementation.},
   Journal = {J Abnorm Child Psychol},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {483-505},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11104313},
   Abstract = {The Collaborative Multimodal Treatment Study of Children
             with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the
             MTA, is the first multisite, cooperative agreement treatment
             study of children, and the largest psychiatric/psychological
             treatment trial ever conducted by the National Institute of
             Mental Health. It examines the effectiveness of Medication
             vs. Psychosocial treatment vs. their combination for
             treatment of ADHD and compares these experimental arms to
             each other and to routine community care. In a parallel
             group design, 579 (male and female) ADHD children, aged 7-9
             years, 11 months, were randomly assigned to one of the four
             experimental arms, and then received 14 months of prescribed
             treatment (or community care) with periodic reassessments.
             After delineating the theoretical and empirical rationales
             for Psychosocial treatment of ADHD, we describe the MTA's
             Psychosocial Treatment strategy applied to all children in
             two of the four experimental arms (Psychosocial treatment
             alone; Combined treatment). Psychosocial treatment consisted
             of three major components: a Parent Training component, a
             two-part School Intervention component, and a child
             treatment component anchored in an intensive Summer
             Treatment Program. Components were selected based on
             evidence of treatment efficacy and because they address
             comprehensive symptom targets, settings, comorbidities, and
             functional domains. We delineate key conceptual and
             logistical issues faced by clinical researchers in design
             and implementation of Psychosocial research with examples of
             how these issues were addressed in the MTA
             study.},
   Key = {fds274988}
}

@article{fds275147,
   Author = {JS March and JM Swanson and LE Arnold and B Hoza and CK Conners and SP
             Hinshaw, L Hechtman and HC Kraemer and LL Greenhill and HB Abikoff and LG Elliott and PS Jensen and JH Newcorn and B Vitiello and J Severe and KC
             Wells and WE Pelham},
   Title = {Anxiety as a predictor and outcome variable in the
             multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD
             (MTA).},
   Journal = {J Abnorm Child Psychol},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {527-541},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11104315},
   Keywords = {Anxiety • Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
             • Central Nervous System Stimulants • Child •
             Combined Modality Therapy • Comorbidity • Conduct
             Disorder • Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) •
             Diagnosis, Differential • Female • Humans •
             Male • Negativism • Odds Ratio • Predictive
             Value of Tests • Prognosis • Psychiatric Status
             Rating Scales • Socioenvironmental Therapy* •
             Treatment Outcome • drug therapy • epidemiology
             • psychology • psychology* • therapeutic use*
             • therapy*},
   Abstract = {Initial moderator analyses in the Multimodal Treatment Study
             of Children with ADHD (MTA) suggested that child anxiety
             ascertained by parent report on the Diagnostic Interview
             Schedule for Children 2.3 (DISC Anxiety) differentially
             moderated the outcome of treatment. Left unanswered were
             questions regarding the nature of DISC Anxiety, the impact
             of comorbid conduct problems on the moderating effect of
             DISC Anxiety, and the clinical significance of DISC Anxiety
             as a moderator of treatment outcome. Thirty-three percent of
             MTA subjects met DSM-III-R criteria for an anxiety disorder
             excluding simple phobias. Of these, two-thirds also met
             DSM-III-R criteria for comorbid oppositional-defiant or
             conduct disorder whereas one-third did not, yielding an odds
             ratio of approximately two for DISC Anxiety, given conduct
             problems. In this context, exploratory analyses of baseline
             data suggest that DISC Anxiety may reflect parental
             attributions regarding child negative affectivity and
             associated behavior problems (unlike fearfulness),
             particularly in the area of social interactions, another
             core component of anxiety that is more typically associated
             with phobic symptoms. Analyses using hierarchical linear
             modeling (HLM) indicate that the moderating effect of DISC
             Anxiety continues to favor the inclusion of psychosocial
             treatment for anxious ADHD children irrespective of the
             presence or absence of comorbid conduct problems. This
             effect, which is clinically meaningful, is confined
             primarily to parent-reported outcomes involving disruptive
             behavior, internalizing symptoms, and inattention; and is
             generally stronger for combined than unimodal treatment.
             Contravening earlier studies, no adverse effect of anxiety
             on medication response for core ADHD or other outcomes in
             anxious or nonanxious ADHD children was demonstrated. When
             treating ADHD, it is important to search for comorbid
             anxiety and negative affectivity and to adjust treatment
             strategies accordingly.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275147}
}

@article{fds275055,
   Author = {SN Compton and AH Nelson and JS March},
   Title = {Social phobia and separation anxiety symptoms in community
             and clinical samples of children and adolescents.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1040-1046},
   Year = {2000},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10939233},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine the developmental progression and
             pattern of self-reported symptoms of social phobia (SP) and
             separation anxiety (SA) in community (n = 2,384) and
             clinical (n = 217) samples of children and adolescents,
             using a cross-sectional method. METHOD: Subjects were
             cross-classified by age, gender, and race. Using mean scores
             on the SP and SA subscales of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children, 4 categories of children were
             established: HighSP/HighSA, HighSP/LowSA, LowSP/HighSA, and
             LowSP/LowSA. Data were analyzed using a generalized logit
             model. RESULTS: Community sample: Preadolescents and females
             reported more symptoms of HighSP/HighSA and LowSP/HighSA
             than adolescents and males. White children reported more
             symptoms of HighSP/LowSA, while the opposite pattern was
             found among African-American children. Clinical sample:
             Similar to the community sample, preadolescents reported
             more symptoms of HighSP/HighSA. However, clinical males
             reported more symptoms of LowSP/HighSA than clinical
             females. CONCLUSIONS: In general, adolescents endorsed more
             symptoms of SP and fewer symptoms of SA than preadolescent
             children. Irrespective of age, white children endorsed more
             symptoms of SP and fewer symptoms of SA than
             African-American children. In the community sample,
             preadolescent boys endorsed more symptoms of SA and fewer
             symptoms of SP, suggesting a possible referral
             bias.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-200008000-00020},
   Key = {fds275055}
}

@article{fds274987,
   Author = {SP Hinshaw and EB Owens and KC Wells and HC Kraemer and HB Abikoff and LE
             Arnold, CK Conners and G Elliott and LL Greenhill and E
             al},
   Title = {Family processes and treatment outcome in the MTA:
             Negative/ineffective parenting practices in relation to
             multimodal treatment},
   Journal = {Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {555-568},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005183115230},
   Abstract = {To elucidate processes underlying therapeutic change in a
             large-scale randomized clinical trial, we examined whether
             alterations in self-reported parenting practices were
             associated with the effects of behavioral, medication, or
             combination treatments on teacher-reported outcomes
             (disruptive behavior, social skills, internalizing symptoms)
             in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
             (ADHD). Participants were 579 children with Combined-type
             ADHD, aged 7-9.9 years, in the Multimodal Treatment Study of
             Children with ADHD (MTA). We uncovered 2 second-order
             factors of parenting practices, entitled Positive
             Involvement and Negative/Ineffective Discipline. Although
             Positive Involvement was not associated with amelioration of
             the school-based outcome measures, reductions in
             Negative/Ineffective Discipline mediated improvement in
             children's social skills at school. For families showing the
             greatest reductions in Negative/Ineffective Discipline,
             effects of combined medication plus behavioral treatment
             were pronounced in relation to regular community care.
             Furthermore, only in combination treatment (and not in
             behavioral treatment alone) was decreased
             Negative/Ineffective Discipline associated with reduction in
             children's disruptive behavior at school. Here, children in
             families receiving combination treatment who showed the
             greatest reductions in Negative/Ineffective Discipline had
             teacher-reported disruptive behavior that was essentially
             normalized. Overall, the success of combination treatment
             for important school-related outcomes appears related to
             reductions in negative and ineffective parenting practices
             at home; we discuss problems in interpreting the temporal
             sequencing of such process-outcome linkages and the means by
             which multimodal treatment may be mediated by psychosocial
             processes related to parenting.},
   Doi = {10.1023/A:1005183115230},
   Key = {fds274987}
}

@article{fds274989,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Imipramine plus cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) was more
             effective than placebo plus CBT in adolescents with comorbid
             anxiety and depression who refused to attend school:
             Commentary},
   Journal = {Evidence-Based Mental Health},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {107-},
   Year = {2000},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.3.4.107},
   Doi = {10.1136/ebmh.3.4.107},
   Key = {fds274989}
}

@article{fds275160,
   Author = {JS March and K Sullivan},
   Title = {Test-retest reliability of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children.},
   Journal = {J Anxiety Disord},
   Volume = {13},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {349-358},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0887-6185},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10504106},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • African Americans • Age Factors
             • Anxiety Disorders • Child • Child
             Psychology • European Continental Ancestry Group •
             Female • Humans • Male • Psychiatric Status
             Rating Scales • Psychometrics • Reproducibility of
             Results • Sex Factors • diagnosis* •
             ethnology • methods* • psychology* •
             standards*},
   Abstract = {We examined the test-retest reliability of the
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) in a
             school-based sample of children and adolescents. One
             classroom at each grade from 3 to 12 was randomly selected
             to participate. Teachers were trained to administer the MASC
             at baseline and again 3 weeks later. The intraclass
             correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to estimate stability
             of the MASC over time. For both single case and mean ICCs,
             the MASC exhibited satisfactory to excellent stability
             across all factors and subfactors. Stability was unaffected
             by age or gender, but was lower for African American than
             Caucasian subjects. Satisfactory test-retest reliability
             also was demonstrated for two empirically derived subscales,
             the MASC-10 and Anxiety Index.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275160}
}

@article{fds274981,
   Author = {TE Wilens and J Biederman and JS March and R Wolkow and CS Fine and RB
             Millstein, SV Faraone and D Geller and TJ Spencer},
   Title = {Absence of cardiovascular adverse effects of sertraline in
             children and adolescents},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {573-577},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objective: In a 12 week, placebo-controlled,
             parallel-design, multicenter study of sertraline for
             obsessive-compulsive disorder in 107 children and 80
             adolescents, the authors prospectively assessed
             cardiovascular effects to doses of sertraline of ≤200
             mg/day. Method: Vital signs (blood pressure and heart rate)
             and electrocardiograph parameters (ECGs) were systematically
             evaluated at baseline and again throughout treatment.
             Results: There were no clinically significant cardiovascular
             adverse events in any of the subjects enrolled in the study.
             Moreover, compared with baseline and placebo, sertraline
             treatment at an average dose of 167 mg did not result in any
             clinically meaningful changes in any ECG indices (PR, QRS,
             and QTc intervals), cardiac rhythm, blood pressure, or heart
             rate. Conclusions: These prospectively derived results
             support the cardiovascular safety of sertraline at doses up
             to 200 mg in children and adolescents.},
   Key = {fds274981}
}

@article{fds274982,
   Author = {MA Riddle and GA Bernstein and EH Cook and HL Leonard and JS March and JM Swanson},
   Title = {Anxiolytics, adrenergic agents, and naltrexone},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {38},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {546-556},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objective: To review extant data on the efficacy and safety
             of anxiolytic medications (benzodiazepines, buspirone, and
             other serotonin 1A agonists), adrenergic agents
             (β-blockers and α 2-adrenergic agonists clonidine and
             guanfacine), and the opiate antagonist naltrexone that have
             been used to treat various psychopathologies in children and
             adolescents. To identify critical gaps in our current
             knowledge about these agents and needs for further research.
             Method: All available controlled trials of these medications
             in children and adolescents published in English through
             1997 were reviewed. In addition, selected uncontrolled
             studies are included. Results: The major finding, that there
             are virtually no controlled data that support the efficacy
             of most of these drugs for the treatment of psychiatric
             disorders in children and adolescents, is both surprising
             and unfortunate. For some drugs, e.g., buspirone and
             guanfacine, this is because no controlled studies have been
             carried out in children and/or adolescents. For other drugs,
             e.g., clonidine and naltrexone, most of the
             placebo-controlled studies have failed to demonstrate
             efficacy. Conclusions: The strongest recommendations for
             controlled studies of safety and efficacy in children and
             adolescents can be given for the following drugs:
             benzodiazepines for acute anxiety; buspirone (and newer
             serotonin 1A agonists as they become available) for anxiety
             and depression; β-blockers for aggressive dyscontrol;
             guanfacine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; and
             naltrexone for hyperactivity, inattention and aggression in
             autistic disorder.},
   Key = {fds274982}
}

@article{fds274983,
   Author = {J Swanson and M Lerner and J March and FM Gresham},
   Title = {Assessment and intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder in the schools: Lessons from the MTA
             study},
   Journal = {Pediatric Clinics of North America},
   Volume = {46},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {993-1009},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {0031-3955},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70168-1},
   Abstract = {The MTA experience provides several lessons that may have
             clinical relevance. First, the MTA study identified six key
             instruments (see Table 1) that clinicians may want to use,
             but even on these instruments discrepancies in parent and
             teacher sources should be expected. We believe that
             unnoticed or unresolved discrepancies may be important
             factors contributing to the 'disconnect' identified by the
             Consensus Conference Panel. Based on the MTA experience, we
             recommend a telephone call to the child's teacher,
             specifically to inquire about any discrepancy in the 'source
             by domain' summary, as an efficient way to make a meaningful
             connection '... between developmental or educational
             (school-based) assessments and health-related (medical
             practice-based) services' for children with ADHD. Second,
             evaluation of pharmacologic intervention in the MTA study
             confirmed that teachers' reports are crucial for documenting
             efficacy, whereas parent reports are crucial for documenting
             side effects. Based on the MTA experience, we recommend
             frequent telephone contact with the teacher specifically to
             inquire about the peak effects and dissipation of effects of
             medication that are expected to occur during the school
             hours as a way to improve'... communication between
             diagnosticians and those who implement and monitor treatment
             in the schools'.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0031-3955(05)70168-1},
   Key = {fds274983}
}

@article{fds274984,
   Author = {JS March and C Conners and G Arnold and J Epstein and J Parker and S
             Hinshaw, H Abikoff and B Molina and K Wells and J Newcorn and E
             al},
   Title = {The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC):
             Confirmatory factor analysis in a pediatric ADHD
             sample},
   Journal = {Journal of Attention Disorders},
   Volume = {3},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {85-89},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1087-0547},
   Abstract = {While considerable attention has been paid to discriminating
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity and anxiety disorders, there
             are as yet no published confirmatory factor analytic studies
             of any self-report anxiety scale in ADHD youth. The
             Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) is a
             39-item, 4-point Likert self-report scale that robustly
             represents the factor structure of anxiety in children aged
             8 to 18 years. Using confirmatory factor analytic methods,
             the present paper reports a replication of the four-factor
             measurement model for the MASC in a large sample of ADHD
             youth aged 7 to 10 years. The fit indices proved to be
             comparable to those obtained in the MASC clinical and
             non-clinical (normative) samples. Clinically, therefore,
             this report strengthens confidence that the MASC is a valid
             measure of anxiety in diverse populations. With respect to
             research, it provides supporting evidence that results
             obtained using the MASC in the MTA and other research
             studies reflect valid estimates of anxiety in those samples.
             Copyright © Multi-Health Systems Inc.,
             1999.},
   Key = {fds274984}
}

@article{fds274985,
   Author = {J March},
   Title = {CBT plus parental anxiety management was more effective when
             the child and parent(s) were anxious: Commentary},
   Journal = {Evidence-Based Mental Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {76-},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1362-0347},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ebmh.2.3.76},
   Doi = {10.1136/ebmh.2.3.76},
   Key = {fds274985}
}

@article{fds275075,
   Author = {CL Donnelly and L Amaya-Jackson and JS March},
   Title = {Psychopharmacology of pediatric posttraumatic stress
             disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology},
   Volume = {9},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {203-220},
   Year = {1999},
   ISSN = {1044-5463},
   Abstract = {Objective: To review the current knowledge of
             pharmacotherapy in the treatment of Posttraumatic Stress
             Disorder (PTSD) as it applies to children and adolescents
             and to provide a rational approach to medication use in
             Pediatric PTSD. Method: The literature on the
             psychopharmacology of Pediatric PTSD is reviewed.
             Additionally, literature is reviewed on the neurobiological
             systems presumptively involved in trauma as well as studies
             in the pharmacology of adult PTSD, as they pertain to the
             treatment of Pediatric PTSD. Results: There are too few
             studies in the current Pediatric PTSD literature to confirm
             treatment recommendations. Downward extrapolation from the
             adult literature combined with an understanding of the
             neurobiology of PTSD and its comorbid conditions may serve
             as the basis for a rational pharmacotherapy of PTSD in
             childhood. The effectiveness of targeting pharmacological
             agents at PTSD symptom clusters and associated comorbid
             conditions remains to be verified in controlled clinical
             trials. Conclusions: The state of psychopharmacology for
             Pediatric PTSD is in its earliest stages. While there are
             insufficient numbers of controlled pharmacological trials to
             make firm recommendations, the field requires a starting
             point for a rational psychopharmacological approach.
             Pharmacotherapy may provide symptom relief of both the
             debilitating primary symptoms and the comorbid conditions in
             children suffering from PTSD.},
   Key = {fds275075}
}

@article{fds275144,
   Author = {JS March and J Biederman and R Wolkow and A Safferman and J Mardekian and EH Cook and NR Cutler and R Dominguez and J Ferguson and B Muller and R
             Riesenberg, M Rosenthal and FR Sallee and KD Wagner and H
             Steiner},
   Title = {Sertraline in children and adolescents with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder: a multicenter randomized
             controlled trial.},
   Journal = {JAMA},
   Volume = {280},
   Number = {20},
   Pages = {1752-1756},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0098-7484},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9842950},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Antidepressive Agents • Child •
             Double-Blind Method • Female • Humans • Male
             • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • Psychological
             Tests • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • Sertraline
             • Treatment Outcome • drug therapy* •
             therapeutic use*},
   Abstract = {CONTEXT: The serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the treatment
             of choice for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder;
             however, empirical support for this assertion has been
             weaker for children and adolescents than for adults.
             OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the
             selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline
             hydrochloride in children and adolescents with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder. DESIGN: Randomized,
             double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. PATIENTS: One
             hundred eighty-seven patients: 107 children aged 6 to 12
             years and 80 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years randomized to
             receive either sertraline (53 children, 39 adolescents) or
             placebo (54 children, 41 adolescents). SETTING: Twelve US
             academic and community clinics with experience conducting
             randomized controlled trials. INTERVENTION: Sertraline
             hydrochloride was titrated to a maximum of 200 mg/d during
             the first 4 weeks of double-blind therapy, after which
             patients continued to receive this dosage of medication for
             8 more weeks. Control patients received placebo. MAIN
             OUTCOME MEASURES: The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive
             Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), the National Institute of Mental
             Health Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NIMH GOCS), and
             the NIMH Clinical Global Impressions of Severity of Illness
             (CGI-S) and Improvement (CGI-I) rating scales. RESULTS: In
             intent-to-treat analyses, patients treated with sertraline
             showed significantly greater improvement than did
             placebo-treated patients on the CY-BOCS (adjusted mean,
             -6.8vs -3.4, respectively; P=.005), the NIMH GOCS (-2.2 vs
             -1.3, respectively; P=.02), and the CGI-I (2.7 vs 3.3,
             respectively; P=.002) scales. Significant differences in
             efficacy between sertraline and placebo emerged at week 3
             and persisted for the duration of the study. Based on CGI-I
             ratings at end point, 42% of patients receiving sertraline
             and 26% of patients receiving placebo were very much or much
             improved. Neither age nor sex predicted response to
             treatment. The incidence of insomnia, nausea, agitation, and
             tremor were significantly greater in patients receiving
             sertraline; 12 (13%) of 92 sertraline-treated patients and 3
             (3.2%) of 95 placebo-treated patients discontinued
             prematurely because of adverse medical events (P=.02). No
             clinically meaningful abnormalities were apparent on vital
             sign determinations, laboratory findings, or
             electrocardiographic measurements. CONCLUSION: Sertraline
             appears to be a safe and effective short-term treatment for
             children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive
             disorder.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275144}
}

@article{fds275050,
   Author = {ED Levin and CK Conners and D Silva and SC Hinton and WH Meck and J March and JE Rose},
   Title = {Transdermal nicotine effects on attention.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology (Berl)},
   Volume = {140},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {135-141},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9860103},
   Abstract = {Nicotine has been shown to improve attentiveness in smokers
             and attenuate attentional deficits in Alzheimer's disease
             patients, schizophrenics and adults with
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current
             study was conducted to determine whether nicotine
             administered via transdermal patches would improve
             attentiveness in non-smoking adults without attentional
             deficits. The subjects underwent the nicotine and placebo
             exposure in a counterbalanced double-blind manner. Measures
             of treatment effect included the Profile of Mood States
             (POMS), Conners' computerized Continuous Performance Test
             (CPT) of attentiveness and a computerized interval-timing
             task. The subjects were administered a 7 mg/day nicotine
             transdermal patch for 4.5 h during a morning session.
             Nicotine significantly increased self-perceived vigor as
             measured by the POMS test. On the CPT, nicotine
             significantly decreased the number of errors of omission
             without causing increases in either errors of commission or
             correct hit reaction time. Nicotine also significantly
             decreased the variance of hit reaction time and the
             composite measure of attentiveness. This study shows that,
             in addition to reducing attentional impairment, nicotine
             administered via transdermal patches can improve
             attentiveness in normal adult non-smokers.},
   Key = {fds275050}
}

@article{fds275073,
   Author = {EJ Costello and A Angold and J March and J Fairbank},
   Title = {Life events and post-traumatic stress: the development of a
             new measure for children and adolescents.},
   Journal = {Psychol Med},
   Volume = {28},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {1275-1288},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0033-2917},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9854269},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: A new interview measure of life events and
             post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been developed for
             children and adolescents aged 9 through 17, for use in both
             epidemiological and clinical studies. It includes 'high
             magnitude' events associated with PTSD as well as other 'low
             magnitude' events. METHOD: The interview is designed as a
             module of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment,
             an interviewer-based interview conducted with parent and
             child separately by trained lay interviewers. The module
             includes: (1) questions about a wide range of events; (2) a
             screen for key PTSD symptoms (painful recall, avoidance,
             hypervigilance); and (3) a detailed interview on all PTSD
             symptoms, including onset, duration, severity and
             co-morbidity. A test-retest reliability study was conducted
             with 58 parents and children, who were interviewed twice by
             different interviewers. RESULTS: Intraclass correlations
             were 0.72 (child) and 0.83 (parent) for high magnitude
             events, and 0.62 (child) and 0.58 (parent) for low magnitude
             events. Kappa coefficients ranged from high for violence and
             sexual abuse to low for child reports of serious accidents
             and natural disasters. The reliability of the PTSD screen
             symptoms was fair to excellent (kappa = 0.40-0.79), and
             reliability of PTSD symptoms in those who passed the screen
             was excellent (ICC = 0.94-0.99). Compared with a general
             population sample (N = 1015), the clinic-referred subjects
             and their parents were twice as likely to report a traumatic
             event and, depending on the event, up to 25 times as likely
             to report symptoms of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: The results support
             the reliability and discriminant validity of the
             measure.},
   Key = {fds275073}
}

@article{fds275112,
   Author = {JS March and L Amaya-Jackson and MC Murray and A
             Schulte},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and
             adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a
             single-incident stressor.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {585-593},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {June},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9628078},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Analysis of Variance • Behavior
             Therapy • Child • Cognitive Therapy • Female
             • Humans • Internal-External Control • Male
             • Psychotherapy, Brief • Stress Disorders,
             Post-Traumatic • methods • methods* •
             therapy*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a group-administered
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (CBT) protocol for
             pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after a
             single-incident stressor. METHOD: After a school-wide
             selection-to-treatment procedure conducted in two elementary
             and two junior high schools, children and adolescents with
             DSM-IV PTSD by structured interview were entered into an
             18-week, group-administered CBT protocol using a single case
             across time and setting experimental design. Assessments of
             PTSD, anxiety, depression, trait anger, locus of control,
             and disruptive behavior were conducted at baseline,
             posttreatment, and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS:
             Experimental control across time (staggered start date) and
             setting (school and age) was demonstrated. Fourteen of 17
             subjects completed treatment. Of these, 8 (57%) no longer
             met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD immediately after treatment; 12
             (86%) of 14 were free of PTSD at 6-month follow-up. On
             intent-to-treat analyses, treatment produced a robust
             beneficial effect posttreatment on the Clinician-Administered
             PTSD Scale-Child and Adolescent Version, with additional
             improvement accruing at follow-up (p < .001). Improvements
             of a similar magnitude were seen for depression (p < .001),
             anxiety (p < .001), and anger (p < .005). Locus of control
             remained external from pre- to posttreatment but became
             strongly internal at follow-up (p < .001). CONCLUSION: More
             clinical trials are required to confirm that CBT is a safe,
             acceptable, and effective treatment for PTSD in children and
             adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199806000-00008},
   Key = {fds275112}
}

@article{fds274978,
   Author = {JN Epstein and JS March and CK Conners and DL Jackson},
   Title = {Racial differences on the Conners Teacher Rating
             Scale.},
   Journal = {J Abnorm Child Psychol},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {109-118},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9634133},
   Abstract = {Factor congruence and mean differences on the Conners
             Teacher Rating Scale were assessed across African-American
             and Caucasian school children. Factor analyses conducted
             separately by gender revealed similar factors across races
             for males and females. The main differences in factor
             structure within gender were the presence of an Antisocial
             factor in black males and an Inattention factor in white
             females. Across both males and females, teachers tended to
             rate black children higher than white children on factors
             relating to externalizing behaviors. Whether mean
             differences are a result of teacher bias or actual
             behavioral differences in the classroom needs further
             research.},
   Key = {fds274978}
}

@article{fds275156,
   Author = {JS March and JF Curry},
   Title = {Predicting the outcome of treatment.},
   Journal = {J Abnorm Child Psychol},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {39-51},
   Year = {1998},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0091-0627},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9566545},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Adolescent Psychiatry* • Anxiety
             Disorders • Child • Child Psychiatry* •
             Decision Making • Forecasting • Humans •
             Models, Statistical • Psychotherapy • Research
             Design • Treatment Outcome • therapy* •
             trends • trends*},
   Abstract = {The clinical question--"Which treatment(s) for which
             patients with what set of subgrouping characteristics
             working by what mechanism(s)?"--rests at the heart of
             differential therapeutics. Experimentally, this question
             reduces to a test of how well we can predict the outcome of
             treatment using the treatment conditions plus other
             moderating and mediating variables. Reflecting the
             discussions held at a recent National Institute of Mental
             Health (NIMH) conference on psychosocial treatments, and
             using pediatric anxiety disorders as a case in point, we
             discuss the problem of prediction in treatment outcome
             studies from the standpoint of definition of terms, using
             the general linear model of prediction. We also outline
             types of studies that may be useful in testing potential
             predictors, and put forward a possible matrix of predictor
             variables as currently implemented in an NIMH-funded
             treatment outcome study of pediatric obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD). We conclude by making specific suggestions
             for implementing a broader approach to the study of
             predictors.},
   Language = {eng},
   Key = {fds275156}
}

@article{fds274977,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and D Pine and J March and B Birmaher and M
             Riddle},
   Title = {Assessment issues in treatment research of pediatric anxiety
             disorders: What is working, what is not working, what is
             missing, and what needs improvement},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology Bulletin},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {155-164},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0048-5764},
   Abstract = {Reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the rating scales
             for anxiety disorders makes it possible to select
             appropriate measures for use in a multisite treatment study
             of children and adolescents with DSM-IV-diagnosed anxiety
             disorders. Categorical diagnosis for study inclusion is
             provided by the K-SADS-PL, which has strong published
             psychometrics for anxiety disorders. Broadband symptom
             ratings of diverse pediatric psychiatric disorder can be
             obtained at baseline by the parent-scored Child Behavior
             Checklist. Anxiety symptom monitoring may be provided by the
             use of two psychometrically strong self-report measures, the
             MASC and the SCARED. Weekly global ratings are provided by
             the CGI whose scale points have been enhanced by detailed
             anchors; in addition, the raters all trained on practice
             vignettes to calibrate their scoring. Clinician-based
             ratings of the patient's anxiety symptoms can be carded out
             in adolescent patients using the HAM-A. The newly developed
             Children's Anxiety Rating Scale promises to cover the full
             pediatric age range as a clinician-based anxiety rating
             instrument, but must first be subjected to formal
             psychometric and treatment sensitivity evaluation.},
   Key = {fds274977}
}

@article{fds274979,
   Author = {RA King and H Leonard and J March and W Bernet and JE Dunne and M Adair and V
             Arnold, RS Benson and O Bukstein and J Kinlan and E
             al},
   Title = {Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of
             children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive
             disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {10 SUPPL.},
   Pages = {27S-45S},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {These practice parameters describe the assessment and
             treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder based on a
             detailed literature review and expert consultation.
             Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a disorder of heterogeneous
             origin characterized by intrusive thoughts or compulsive
             urges or behaviors that are distressing, time-consuming, or
             functionally impairing. In children and adolescents, the
             disorder often is accompanied by a wide range of
             comorbidity, including mood, anxiety, attentional, and
             learning difficulties, and/or tic disorder. These parameters
             describe the relevant areas of assessment, especially
             symptomatology, onset, and course, other associated
             psychopathology, and developmental, family, and medical
             history (including postinfectious onset or exacerbations).
             Two modalities have been systematically assessed and
             empirically shown to ameliorate core symptoms:
             cognitive-behavioral therapy (primarily exposure/response
             prevention) and serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication.
             Data regarding the indications, efficacy, and implementation
             of these modalities are reviewed. Because OCD frequently
             occurs in the context of other psychopathology and adaptive
             difficulties, additional individual and family
             psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and educational
             interventions often are necessary. Treatment planning
             guidelines are provided.},
   Key = {fds274979}
}

@article{fds274980,
   Author = {RA King and H Leonard and J March and W Bernet and JE Dunne and M Adair and V
             Arnold, RS Benson and O Bukstein and J Kinlan and E
             al},
   Title = {Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and
             treatment of children and adolescents with
             obsessive-compulsive disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {37},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1110-1116},
   Year = {1998},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {This summary provides an overview of the assessment,
             differential diagnosis, and treatment recommendations
             contained in the Practice Parameters for the Assessment and
             Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-
             Compulsive Disorder. OCD is a disorder of heterogeneous
             origin characterized by intrusive thoughts or compulsive
             urges or behaviors that are distressing, time-consuming, or
             functionally impairing. In children and adolescents, the
             disorder often is accompanied by a wide range of
             comorbidity. Two modalities have been systematically
             assessed and empirically shown to ameliorate the core
             symptoms of OCD: cognitive-behavioral therapy (primarily
             exposure/response prevention) and serotonin reuptake
             inhibitor medication. Additional individual and family
             psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, and educational
             interventions often are necessary.},
   Key = {fds274980}
}

@article{fds275081,
   Author = {JN Epstein and CK Conners and D Erhardt and JS March and JM
             Swanson},
   Title = {Asymmetrical hemispheric control of visual-spatial attention
             in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Neuropsychology},
   Volume = {11},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {467-473},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0894-4105},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9345690},
   Abstract = {As neuropsychological mechanisms for attention have been
             hypothesized to be located in the right hemisphere of the
             brain, several investigators have begun to conceptualize
             attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related
             attentional deficits as involving right-hemispheric
             abnormalities. The authors evaluated and compared adult
             patients diagnosed with ADHD with a non-ADHD group of
             patients using a chronometric visual-spatial attention task
             that is sensitive to hemispheric differences in efficiency
             of information processing. Reaction times across different
             cuing conditions, cue-target delays, and visual fields were
             assessed. When participants' attention was misdirected with
             cues in the right visual field and attention had to be
             switched to a target on the left visual field, there was a
             longer delay among ADHD adults than non-ADHD adults,
             specifically when the interval between the cue and target
             was 800 ms as compared with 100 ms. This specific pattern of
             dysfunction was interpreted as a difficulty with maintaining
             attention possibly associated with anterior attention
             mechanisms in the right hemisphere.},
   Key = {fds275081}
}

@article{fds203048,
   Author = {JS March and L Amaya-Jackson and R Terry and P Costanzo},
   Title = {Posttraumatic symptomatology in children and adolescents
             after an industrial fire.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {1080-8},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {August},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199708000-00015},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Analysis of Variance • Chi-Square
             Distribution • Child • Comorbidity • Factor
             Analysis, Statistical • Female • Fires* •
             Health Surveys • Humans • Male • North
             Carolina • Regression Analysis • Sampling Studies
             • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic • epidemiology
             • etiology • psychology*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This investigation evaluated the extent and
             nature of posttraumatic symptomatology (PTS) in children and
             adolescents 9 months after an industrial fire at the
             imperial Foods chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, North
             Carolina, caused extensive loss of life. METHODS: Using a
             PTS self-report measure plus self- and teacher reports of
             comorbid symptoms the authors surveyed 1,019 fourth- to
             ninth-grade students in the community where the fire
             occurred. RESULTS: Three factors comprising PTS were
             identified: reexperiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal.
             Reexperiencing and avoidance were positively correlated;
             hyperarousal proved weakly correlated with reexperiencing,
             perhaps because exposure was largely indirect. Using a T
             score cutoff of 65 on the reexperiencing factor as
             indicative of PTS 9.7% of subjects met criteria for PTS;
             11.9% met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
             using DSM-III-R PTSD criteria. Degree of exposure was the
             most powerful predictor of PTS. Race (African-American) and
             gender (female) posed significant risk factors for PTS.
             Self-reported internalizing symptoms and teacher-reported
             externalizing symptoms were positively predicted by
             intercurrent PTS, and independently of PTS, by degree of
             exposure. Comorbid symptoms showed interesting interactions
             with exposure, race, and gender. Lack of self-attributed
             personal efficacy predicted PTS but did not moderate the
             effects of race or gender on PTS risk. CONCLUSIONS: This
             study, which used a population-based sampling strategy,
             strengthens and extends findings from earlier literature on
             pediatric PTSD in showing that (1) PTS and comorbid
             internalizing and externalizing symptoms rise in direct
             proportion to degree of exposure; (2) gender and race show
             variable effects on risk for PTS and comorbid symptoms; and
             (3) comorbid symptoms are positively correlated with PTS and
             may represent primary outcomes of traumatic exposure in
             their own right.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199708000-00015},
   Key = {fds203048}
}

@article{fds203079,
   Author = {JS March and JD Parker and K Sullivan and P Stallings and CK
             Conners},
   Title = {The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC):
             factor structure, reliability, and validity.},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {554-65},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Analysis of Variance • Anxiety •
             Child • Cross-Sectional Studies • Factor Analysis,
             Statistical • Female • Humans • Male •
             North Carolina • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
             • Psychometrics • Reproducibility of Results
             • Sex Factors • diagnosis* • methods* •
             psychology* • standards • standards*},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To describe the history, factor structure,
             reliability, and validity of the Multidimensional Anxiety
             Scale for Children (MASC). METHODS: In two separate
             school-based population studies, principal-components factor
             analysis was used, first, to test a theory-driven factor
             structure, and second, to develop an empirically derived
             factor structure for the MASC. In a separate study using a
             clinical population, test-retest reliability at 3 weeks and
             3 months, interrater concordance, and convergent and
             divergent validity were examined. RESULTS: The final version
             of the MASC consists of 39 items distributed across four
             major factors, three of which can be parsed into two
             subfactors each. Main and subfactors include (1) physical
             symptoms (tense/restless and somatic/autonomic), (2) social
             anxiety (humiliation/rejection and public performance
             fears), (3) harm avoidance (perfectionism and anxious
             coping), and (4) separation anxiety. The MASC factor
             structure, which presumably reflects the in the vivo
             structure of pediatric anxiety symptoms, is invariant across
             gender and age and shows excellent internal reliability. As
             expected, females show greater anxiety on all factors and
             subfactors than males. Three-week and 3-month test-retest
             reliability was satisfactory to excellent. Parent-child
             agreement was poor to fair. Concordance was greatest for
             easily observable symptom clusters and for mother-child over
             father-child or father-mother pairs. Shared variance with
             scales sampling symptom domains of interest was highest for
             anxiety, intermediate for depression, and lowest for
             externalizing symptoms, indicating adequate convergent and
             divergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The MASC is a promising
             self-report scale for assessing anxiety in children and
             adolescents.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199704000-00019},
   Key = {fds203079}
}

@article{fds138630,
   Title = {March J, Amaya-Jackson L and Pyoos R (in press): Pediatric
             post-traumatic stress disorder, in Weiner J (ed): Textbook
             of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Washington,DC:American
             Psychiatric Press},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds138630}
}

@article{fds138631,
   Title = {Penn JV, March JS and Leonard, HL (in press).
             Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents.
             In Dickstein L: Annual Review of Psychiatry: OCD Accross the
             Lifecycle, M. Pato (ed), 16: APA Press, Washington,
             DC},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds138631}
}

@article{fds138661,
   Title = {Davidson, J., & March, J. (in press). Traumatic stress
             disorders. In A. Tasman, J. Kay, & J. Lieberman (Eds.),
             Psychiatry . Philadelphia: Saunders. March, J., & Mulle, K.
             (in press). Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for
             obsessive-compulsive disorder. In E. Hibbs & P. Jensen
             (Eds.), Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent
             Disorders: Empirically Based Approaches . Washington:
             American Psychological Press.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds138661}
}

@article{fds138662,
   Title = {March, J., Leonard, H., & Swedo, S. (in press).
             Neuropsychiatry of pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder.
             In E. Coffey & R. Brumback (Eds.), Textbook of Pediatric
             Neuropsychiatry . Washington: APA Press.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds138662}
}

@article{fds138663,
   Title = {March, J., & Albano, A. (in press). Assessment of anxiety in
             children and adolescents. In T. Olendick (Ed.), Annual
             Review of Psychology. Washington: American Pychological
             Association Press.},
   Year = {1997},
   Key = {fds138663}
}

@article{fds274970,
   Author = {SP Hinshaw and JS March and H Abikoff and LE Arnold and DP Cantwell and CK
             Conners, GR Elliott and J Halperin and LL Greenhill and LT Hechtman and E al},
   Title = {Comprehensive assessment of childhood attention-deficit
             hyperactivity disorder in the context of a multisite,
             multimodal clinical trial},
   Journal = {Journal of Attention Disorders},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {217-234},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1087-0547},
   Abstract = {As the largest randomized clinical trial conducted by the
             National Institute of Mental Health, the Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) will yield data
             on a diverse sample of 576 7.0- to 9.9-year-old children
             with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),
             Combined type, regarding the relative and combined
             effectiveness of psychosocial and pharmacologic
             interventions. After delineating key challenges posed by
             such a multisite investigation, we describe the MTA's
             multiple-gating procedures for recruitment, screening, and
             diagnosis of a diverse sample. We then discuss the
             cross-domain assessment battery for tracking the sample
             before, during, and after 14 months of active intervention.
             Throughout, we emphasize the guiding principles that shaped
             pertinent decision making. Highlighted are issues of
             psychometric adequacy; dimensional vs. categorical
             measurement; multi-method, multi-agent, and multi-domain
             coverage; plotting of individual trajectories of development
             and change; respondent bias and burden; appraisal of
             treatment processes as well as outcomes; and construction of
             composite indices. Copyright © Multi-Health Systems Inc.,
             1997.},
   Key = {fds274970}
}

@article{fds274972,
   Author = {JN Epstein and NA Goldberg and CK Conners and JS
             March},
   Title = {The effects of anxiety on continuous performance test
             functioning in an ADHD clinic sample},
   Journal = {Journal of Attention Disorders},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {45-52},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1087-0547},
   Abstract = {Several research studies have reported that the performance
             of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
             (ADHD) on continuous performance tests (CPTs) is affected by
             comorbid anxiety. However, the specific anxiety
             domains/symptoms that affect CPT performance as well as the
             particular CPT performance measures have been inconsistent
             across studies. The present study examines CPT performance
             in 158 ADHD clinic-referred children using measures derived
             from signal detection theory. Regression analyses are
             conducted to examine whether any of the anxiety domains from
             the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)
             account for variance on CPT performance measures. The main
             finding of these analyses is that physiological anxiety
             appears to increase response inhibition, whereas cognitive
             anxiety appears to decrease response inhibition. This
             finding suggests that physiological anxiety alone may be
             responsible for increased response inhibition/decreased
             impulsivity in children with comorbid anxiety. These results
             are interpreted in the context of Gray's model of a
             behavioral inhibition system. Copyright © Multi-Health
             Systems Inc., 1997.},
   Key = {fds274972}
}

@article{fds274973,
   Author = {HL Leonard and J March and KC Rickler and AJ Allen},
   Title = {Pharmacology of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
             in children and adolescents},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {36},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {725-736},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199706000-00008},
   Abstract = {Objective: To review the pharmacology of a new class of
             medications, the potent selective serotonin reuptake
             inhibitors (SSRIs), what is known about their metabolism in
             children and adolescents, and the practical clinical
             implications of such. Method: Articles were retrieved
             through Index Medicus searches for articles published during
             the past 10 years on the SSRIs and on pediatric
             pharmacology. Results: More than 300 articles were reviewed.
             Pharmacological data, derived from relevant adult
             literature, were summarized and extrapolated to children and
             from the limited pediatric literature. The SSRIs represent a
             new class of antidepressants with distinct advantages in
             their side effect profile and their broad therapeutic index
             over that seen with the tricyclic antidepressants. Their
             advantage of few anticholinergic side effects and limited
             cardiovascular toxicities are particularly relevant for the
             pediatric population. The SSRIs are metabolized via the
             hepatic cytochrome isoenzyme P450 system, and potential
             drug-drug interactions are reviewed. Conclusions: The SSRIs
             appear to offer advantages over the tricyclic
             antidepressants. Unfortunately, pharmacokinetic data are
             tacking, and systematic studies of safety and efficacy in
             the pediatric age group are limited. Preliminary reports are
             encouraging, but further study is required.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199706000-00008},
   Key = {fds274973}
}

@article{fds274974,
   Author = {R Frost and G Steketee and N Amir and M Bouvard and C Carmin and DA Clark and J Cottraux and J Eisen and P Emmelkamp and E Foa and E
             al},
   Title = {Cognitive assessment of obsessive-compulsive
             disorder},
   Journal = {Behaviour Research and Therapy},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {667-681},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0005-7967},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00017-X},
   Abstract = {Recent theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
             emphasize the importance of cognitive contents (beliefs and
             appraisals) and cognitive processes in the etiology and
             maintenance of OCD. In order to evaluate these theories and
             to assess the mechanisms of treatment-related change, it is
             necessary to develop measures of the relevant cognitive
             contents and processes. Several scales have been developed,
             although many are unpublished and there is a great deal of
             overlap among measures. The purpose of the present article
             is to describe the progress of an international group of
             investigators who have commenced a coordinated effort to
             develop a standardized set of cognitive measures. This
             article describes the theoretical bases and clinical
             importance of such an endeavor, and the proceedings of the
             working group meetings are summarized. Several methods of
             assessment are reviewed, including idiographic methods,
             information processing paradigms, and self-report measures.
             The working group is currently developing and evaluating
             self-report measures of appraisals about intrusions, and
             self-report measures of OC-related beliefs. Consensus
             ratings indicated that 6 belief domains are likely to be
             important in OCD. These are beliefs pertaining to: (1)
             inflated responsibility; (2) overimportance of thoughts; (3)
             excessive concern about the importance of controlling one's
             thoughts; (4) overestimation of threat; (5) intolerance of
             uncertainty; and (6) perfectionism.},
   Doi = {10.1016/S0005-7967(97)00017-X},
   Key = {fds274974}
}

@article{fds274975,
   Author = {LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and DP Cantwell and CK Conners and GR Elliott and LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and PS Jensen and E al},
   Title = {NIMH collaborative multimodal treatment study of children
             with ADHD (MTA): Design, methodology, and protocol
             evolution},
   Journal = {Journal of Attention Disorders},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {141-158},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {1087-0547},
   Abstract = {The steering committee of the collaborative six-site
             Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (the MTA) had to
             develop a common protocol consistent with public health
             goals and with scientific and clinical state of the art.
             With the aid of statistical, educational, and public health
             consultation, the steering committee balanced the stated
             objectives of the RFA against budgetary, clinical, ethical,
             and logistical practicalities. Two primary questions will be
             addressed: (1) What is the relative long-term effectiveness
             of excellent medication vs. excellent behavioral treatment
             vs. the combination? (2) What is the relative long-term
             effectiveness of each of these state-of-the art intense
             treatments vs. routine community care? In a parallel-group
             design, 576 children (96 at each site) age 7-9 in grades 1-4
             are thoroughly assessed in multiple domains from multiple
             informants and randomized to 4 treatment conditions: a
             medication-alone strategy, a psychosocial-treatment-alone
             strategy, a combination strategy, and community comparison
             (assessment and referral). The first three groups are
             treated for 14 months and all are re-assessed periodically
             for 24 months. Each treatment strategy is multi-component,
             with compromises between clinical flexibility and cross-site
             uniformity supported by a multi-tiered supervisory/fidelity
             structure, including 10 manuals, weekly teleconference
             panels, site visits, circuit-riding consultants, and
             feedback loops from therapists and supervisors to the
             steering committee about clinical realities. The resulting
             data should not only answer the primary questions above, but
             also support secondary data analyses about the effect of
             comorbidity, sex, SES, and other subject characteristics on
             treatment outcome. The MTA should both provide conclusions
             useful to the practicing clinician and define questions for
             the next generation of investigations. Copyright ©
             Multi-Health Systems Inc., 1997.},
   Key = {fds274975}
}

@article{fds274976,
   Author = {LE Arnold and HB Abikoff and DP Cantwell and CK Conners and G Elliott and LL Greenhill and L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and E
             al},
   Title = {National Institute of Mental Health Collaborative Multimodal
             Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (the MTA): Design
             challenges and choices},
   Journal = {Archives of General Psychiatry},
   Volume = {54},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {865-870},
   Year = {1997},
   ISSN = {0003-990X},
   Abstract = {The Collaborative Multimodal Treatment Study of Children
             With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the
             MTA, is the first child multisite cooperative agreement
             treatment study of children conducted by the National
             Institute of Mental Health. Rockville, Md. It examines the
             long-term effectiveness of medication vs behavioral
             treatment vs both for treatment of ADHD and compares
             state-of-the-art treatment with routine community care. In a
             parallel-groups design, 576 children (age, 7-9 years) with
             ADHD (96 at each site) are thoroughly assessed and
             randomized to 4 conditions: (1) medication alone, (2)
             psychosocial treatment alone. (3) the combination of both,
             (4) or community comparison. The first 3 groups are treated
             for 14 months and all are reassessed periodically for 24
             months. Designers met the following challenges: framing
             clinically relevant primary questions; defining the target
             population; choice, intensity, and integration and
             combination of treatments for fair comparisons; combining
             scientific controls and standardization with clinical
             flexibility; and implementing a controlled clinical trial in
             a nonclinical setting (school) controlled by others.
             Innovative solutions included extensive decision algorithms
             and manualized adaptations of treatments to speCifiC
             needs.},
   Key = {fds274976}
}

@article{fds275148,
   Author = {JS March and HL Leonard},
   Title = {Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: a
             review of the past 10 years.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1265-1273},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8885580},
   Keywords = {Adolescent • Autoimmune Diseases • Child •
             Cognitive Therapy • Combined Modality Therapy •
             Comorbidity • Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive
             Disorders • Humans • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
             • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors • Streptococcal
             Infections • Streptococcus pyogenes •
             complications • diagnosis • diagnosis* •
             epidemiology • therapeutic use •
             therapy},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on pediatric
             obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from the perspective of
             information relevant to American Board of Psychiatry and
             Neurology recertification in child and adolescent
             psychiatry. METHOD: The clinical and research literatures
             were systematically searched or articles that address the
             diagnosis and treatment of pediatric OCD. RESULTS: Drawing
             from the literature and their own clinical experience, the
             authors note that (1) OCD is a common neuropsychiatric
             disorder; (2) comorbidity is common, especially with tic,
             attention-deficit, anxiety, and affective disorders; (3) OCD
             following group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection may
             define an autoimmune sub-grouping calling for
             immunomodulatory treatments; and (4) OCD-specific
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy with
             a serotonin reuptake inhibitor define the psychotherapeutic
             and pharmacotherapeutic treatments of choice, respectively.
             CONCLUSION: Child psychiatrists should be familiar with the
             differential diagnosis and treatment of OCD.},
   Language = {eng},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199610000-00012},
   Key = {fds275148}
}

@article{fds275049,
   Author = {ED Levin and CK Conners and E Sparrow and SC Hinton and D Erhardt and WH
             Meck, JE Rose and J March},
   Title = {Nicotine effects on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity
             disorder.},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacology (Berl)},
   Volume = {123},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {55-63},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0033-3158},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8741955},
   Abstract = {Several lines of evidence suggest that nicotine may be
             useful in treating the symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
             Disorder (ADHD). The current study was an acute,
             placebo-controlled double-blind experiment to determine
             whether nicotine might be useful as an alternative treatment
             of adults with ADHD symptomatology. Six smokers and 11
             nonsmokers who were outpatient referrals for ADHD were
             diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria. Measures of treatment effect
             included the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale,
             Hopkins' symptom check list (SCL-90-R), the Profile of Mood
             States (POMS), Conners' computerized Continuous Performance
             Test (CPT), the Stroop test, and an interval-timing task.
             The smokers underwent overnight deprivation from smoking and
             were given a 21 mg/day nicotine skin patch for 4.5 h during
             a morning session. The nonsmokers were given a 7 mg/day
             nicotine skin patch for 4.5 h during a morning session.
             Active and placebo patches were given in a counter-balanced
             order approximately 1 week apart. Nicotine caused a
             significant overall nicotine-induced improvement on the CGI.
             This effect was significant when only the nonsmokers were
             considered, which indicated that it was not due merely to
             withdrawal relief. Nicotine caused significantly increased
             vigor as measured by the POMS test. Nicotine caused an
             overall significant reduction in reaction time (RT) on the
             CPT, as well as, with the smokers, a significant reduction
             in another index of inattention, variability in reaction
             time over trial blocks. Nicotine improved accuracy of time
             estimation and lowered variability of time-estimation
             response curves. Because improvements occurred among
             nonsmokers, the nicotine effect appears not to be merely a
             relief of withdrawal symptoms. It is concluded that nicotine
             deserves further clinical trials with ADHD.},
   Key = {fds275049}
}

@article{fds138628,
   Title = {Levin, E., Conners, C., Sparrow, E., Hinton, S., Erhardt,
             D., Meck, W., Rose, J., & March, J. (1996). Nicotine effects
             on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
             Psychopharmacology, 123, 55-63.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138628}
}

@article{fds138629,
   Title = {March J, Parker J, Sullivan K, Stallings S, Conners CK (in
             press). The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children
             (MASC): Factor structure, reliability and validity. J Amer
             Acad of Ch Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138629}
}

@article{fds138652,
   Title = {March, J., Wells, K., & Conners, C. (1996).
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Part II.
             Treatment. Journal of practical psychiatry and behavioral
             health, 1, 219-228.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138652}
}

@article{fds138653,
   Title = {Conners, C., Levin, E., Sparrow, E., Hinton, S., Erhardt,
             D., Meck, W., Rose, J., & March, J. (1996). Nicotine and
             attention in adult ADHD. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 32,
             67-73.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138653}
}

@article{fds138654,
   Title = {Conners, C., March, J., Erhardt, D., & Butcher, T. (1996).
             Assessment of attention-deficit disorders. Journal of
             Psychoeducational Assessment, 32:186-205. Leonard H, March
             J, Allen A and Swedo S (in press): Serotonin reuptake
             inhibitors I: Pharmacology, Journal of the American Academy
             of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138654}
}

@article{fds138655,
   Title = {Greenhill, L., Abikoff, H., Arnold, L., Cantwell, D.,
             Conners, C., Wells, K., Elliott, G., Hechtman, L., Hinshaw,
             S., Hoza , B., Jensen, P., March, J., Newcorn, J., Pelham,
             W., Severe, J., Swanson, J., & Vitiello, B. (in press).
             Medication treatment strategies in the MTA study: relevance
             to clinicians and researchers. Journal of the American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138655}
}

@article{fds138656,
   Title = {March J & Leonard H (in press): Obsessive-compulsive
             disorder in children and adolescents: a review of the past
             ten years, Journal of the American Academy of Child and
             Adolescent Psychiatry},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138656}
}

@article{fds138657,
   Title = {March J, Amaya-Jackson L, Terry R, Costanzo P(in press):
             Post-traumatic stress symptomatology in children and
             adolescents after an industrial fire, J Amer Acad of Ch
             Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138657}
}

@article{fds138658,
   Title = {March J & Mulle K (publication expected, Spring, 1996): A
             Guide to Cognitive- Behavioral Psychotherapy for Children
             and Adolescents with Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder, New
             York: Guilford Press},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138658}
}

@article{fds138659,
   Title = {March, J., & Albano, A. (1996). Assessment of anxiety in
             children and adolescents. In M. Oldham (Ed.), Annual Review
             of Psychiatry (Vol. XVI, pp. 35-88). Washington: American
             Psychiatric Press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138659}
}

@article{fds138660,
   Title = {Davidson, J., Foa, E., Blank, A., Brett, E., Fairbank, J.,
             Green, B., Herman, J., Keane, T., Kilpartick, D., March, J.,
             McNally, R., Pitman, R., Resnick, H., & Rothbaum, B. (1996).
             Posttraumatic stress disorder. In T. Widiger, A. Frances, H.
             Pincus, M. Ross, M. First, & W. Davis (Eds.), DSM-IV
             Sourcebook (Vol. 2, pp. 577-605). Washington: APA
             Press.},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds138660}
}

@article{fds274969,
   Author = {JS March and K Wells and CK Conners},
   Title = {Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Part II. Treatment
             strategies},
   Journal = {Journal of Practical Psychiatry and Behavioral
             Health},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {23-32},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {1076-5417},
   Abstract = {In the second half of this two-part article, the authors
             review the current state of knowledge about the treatment of
             attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the
             lifespan. They first discuss general principles of
             pharmacotherapy for ADHD and then review the use of the
             psychostimulants, as well as nonstimulant medications, for
             ADHD. A strong case is made for including psychosocial
             interventions in any treatment plan in order to address the
             complex set of treatment targets that characterize the
             typical patient with ADHD. The authors review the types of
             psychosocial interventions that have been found most
             effective in ADHD, focusing especially on parent training
             and pedagogical/behavioral school interventions. The article
             concludes with a discussion of how to combine
             psychopharmacological treatments and psychosocial
             interventions most effectively and how to treat ADHD
             patients whose conditions are complicated by comorbid
             disorders. Copyright ©Williams &amp; Wilkins, Waverly
             Inc.,.},
   Key = {fds274969}
}

@article{fds274971,
   Author = {LL Greenhill and HB Abikoff and LE Arnold and DP Cantwell and CK
             Conners, G Elliott and L Hechtman and SP Hinshaw and B Hoza and PS
             Jensen and E al},
   Title = {Medication treatment strategies in the MTA study: Relevance
             to clinicians and researchers},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {10},
   Pages = {1304-1313},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Abstract = {Objective: Clinicians have difficulty applying drug research
             findings to clinical practice, because research protocols
             use methods different from those used in daily office
             practice settings. Method: To design a medication protocol
             for a multisite clinical trial involving 576 children with
             attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while
             maintaining relevance to clinical practice, investigators
             from the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment
             Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity
             Disorder (MTA study) developed novel medication strategies.
             These were designed to work either in a monomodal or
             multimodal format and to ensure standard approaches are used
             across diverse sites. Each child randomized to medication
             (projected N = 288) is individually titrated to his or her
             'best' methylphenidate dose and has individual ADHD symptoms
             monitored. Decision rules were developed to guide 'best
             dose' selection, dose changes, medication changes, the
             management of side effects, and integration with
             psychosocial treatments. Conclusions: The MTA study uses a
             controlled method to standardize the identification of each
             child's 'best' methylphenidate dose in a national, multisite
             cooperative treatment program. Although the titration
             protocol is complex, the study's individual dosing approach
             and algorithms for openly managing ADHD children's
             medication over time will be of interest to clinicians in
             office practice.},
   Key = {fds274971}
}

@article{fds275048,
   Author = {CK Conners and ED Levin and E Sparrow and SC Hinton and D Erhardt and WH
             Meck, JE Rose and J March},
   Title = {Nicotine and attention in adult attention deficit
             hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).},
   Journal = {Psychopharmacol Bull},
   Volume = {32},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {67-73},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0048-5764},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8927677},
   Abstract = {Nicotine, like the psychostimulants methylphenidate and
             dextroamphetamine, acts as an indirect dopamine agonist and
             improves attention and arousal. Adults and adolescents with
             attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) smoke much
             more frequently than normal individuals or those with other
             psychiatric conditions, perhaps as a form of self-medication
             for ADHD symptoms. Nicotine might therefore have some value
             as a treatment for ADHD. The present study is an acute
             double-blind crossover administration of nicotine and
             placebo with smokers (n = 6) and nonsmokers (n = 11)
             diagnosed with adult ADHD. The drug was delivered via a
             transdermal patch at a dosage of 7 mg/day for nonsmokers and
             21 mg/day for smokers. Results indicate significant
             clinician-rated global improvement, self-rated vigor and
             concentration, and improved performance on chronometric
             measures of attention and timing accuracy. Side effects were
             minimal. These acute results indicate the need for a longer
             clinical trial and a comparison with other stimulants in
             adult ADHD treatment.},
   Key = {fds275048}
}

@article{fds275080,
   Author = {SW Heimann and JS March},
   Title = {SSRI-induced mania [3]},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {4-},
   Year = {1996},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   Key = {fds275080}
}

@article{fds274968,
   Author = {JS March and HL Leonard and SE Swedo},
   Title = {Neuropsychiatry of obsessive-compulsive disorder in children
             and adolescents.},
   Journal = {Compr Ther},
   Volume = {21},
   Number = {9},
   Pages = {507-512},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0098-8243},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8565438},
   Abstract = {Physicians understanding of the pathobiobiology, diagnosis,
             and treatment of OCD in children and adolescents closely
             resembles that for OCD in adults. Moreover, it is now clear
             that OCD is a neurobehavioral disorder involving
             dysregulation in links between cortical and subcortical
             circuitry that is substantially influenced by serotonergic
             neurotransmission. Although current treatments are not
             generally curative, given a correct diagnosis and the
             skillful combination of pharmacotherapy with a serotonin
             reuptake inhibitor and focused cognitive-behavioral
             psychotherapy, most children can be helped to resume a
             normal developmental trajectory.},
   Key = {fds274968}
}

@article{fds275079,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and
             adolescents with OCD: a review and recommendations for
             treatment.},
   Journal = {J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Volume = {34},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {7-18},
   Year = {1995},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {0890-8567},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7860461},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To critically review the published literature on
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive
             disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. METHOD: The
             psychiatric and psychological literature was systematically
             searched for "studies" applying cognitive-behavioral
             principles to children and adolescents with OCD. RESULTS:
             Thirty-two investigations, most of them single case reports,
             were identified. Despite manifold differences in terminology
             and theoretical framework, all but one showed some benefit
             for cognitive-behavioral interventions. Graded exposure and
             response prevention form the core of treatment; anxiety
             management training and OCD-specific family interventions
             may play an adjunctive role. Poor compliance, inadequately
             documented and inconsistently applied treatment, and lack of
             exportability were recurrent problems. CONCLUSIONS: Abundant
             clinical and emerging empirical evidence suggest that
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, alone or in combination
             with pharmacotherapy, is an effective treatment for OCD in
             children and adolescents. Future research in this area will
             need to focus on comparisons of cognitive-behavioral
             psychotherapy to other treatments, on component analyses,
             and on the application of exportable protocol-driven
             treatments to divergent patient populations.},
   Doi = {10.1097/00004583-199501000-00008},
   Key = {fds275079}
}

@article{fds138623,
   Title = {March, J., & Mulle, K. (1995). Manualized
             cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive
             disorder in childhood: a preliminary single case study.
             Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9(2), 175-184.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138623}
}

@article{fds138624,
   Title = {March, J., Leonard, H., & Swedo, S. (1995). Neuropsychiatry
             of obsessive- compulsive disorder in children and
             adolescents. Comprehensive Therapy, 21(9),
             507-512.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138624}
}

@article{fds138625,
   Title = {March, J., Wells, K., & Conners, C. (1995).
             Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Part I. Assessment
             and diagnosis. Journal of Practical Psychiatry and
             Behavioral Health, 2, 23-32.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138625}
}

@article{fds138626,
   Title = {Amaya-Jackson, L., & March, J. (1995). Posttraumatic stress
             disorder. In J. March (Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in Children
             and Adolescents (pp. 276-300). New York:
             Guilford.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138626}
}

@article{fds138627,
   Title = {Stallings, P., & March, J. (1995). Assessment of Anxiety in
             Children and Adolescents. In J. March (Ed.), Anxiety
             Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 125-147). New
             York: Guilford.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138627}
}

@article{fds138632,
   Title = {March, J. (1995). Anxiety Disorders in Children and
             Adolescents. New York: Guilford Press March, J., Leonard, H.
             (in press), Obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of the
             past ten years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and
             Adolescent Psychiatry},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138632}
}

@article{fds138633,
   Title = {March, J., Mulle, K. (1995), Manualized cognitive-behavioral
             psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in
             childhood: a preliminary single case study. Journal of
             Anxiety Disorders. 9(2): 175-184},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138633}
}

@article{fds138644,
   Title = {March, J. S. (1995). Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for
             children and adolescents with OCD: A review and
             recommendations for treatment. Journal of the American
             Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(1),
             7-18.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138644}
}

@article{fds138645,
   Title = {Amaya-Jackson, L. (1995). Post-traumatic stress disorder in
             adolescents. Adolescent Medicine, 6(2), 251-270.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138645}
}

@article{fds138646,
   Title = {March, J., Conners, C., Erhardt, D., & Johnston, H. (1995).
             Pharmacotherapy of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
             In J. Jefferson & J. Greist (Eds.), Psychiatric Clinics of
             North America: Annual of Drug Therapy (Vol. 2, pp. 187-213).
             Philadelphia: Saunders.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138646}
}

@article{fds138647,
   Title = {Leonard, H., Swedo, S., March, J., & Rapoport, J. (1995).
             Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In G. Gabbard (Ed.),
             Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders (Vol. 1, pp. 301-314).
             Washington: American Psychiatric Press.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138647}
}

@article{fds138648,
   Title = {March, J., Leonard, H., & Swedo, S. (1995). Pharmacotherapy
             of Obsessive- Compulsive Disorder. In M. Riddle (Ed.), Child
             Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Pharmacotherapy (pp.
             217-236). New York: Saunders.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138648}
}

@article{fds138649,
   Title = {Hooper, S. R., & March, J. S. (1995). Neuropsychology. In J.
             March (Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents
             (pp. 35-60). New York: Guilford Press.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138649}
}

@article{fds138650,
   Title = {March, J. S., Leonard, H. L., & Swedo, S. E. (1995).
             Obsessive-compulsive disorder. In J. March (Ed.), Anxiety
             Disorders in Children and Adolescents (pp. 251-275). New
             York: Guilford Press.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138650}
}

@article{fds138651,
   Title = {March, J. S., Mulle, K., Stallings, P., Erhardt, D., &
             Conners, C. K. (1995). Organizing an anxiety disorders
             clinic. In J. March (Ed.), Anxiety Disorders in Children and
             Adolescents (pp. 420-435). New York: Guildord
             Press.},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138651}
}

@article{fds138664,
   Title = {March, J., Leonard, H., Swedo, S. (1995). Pharmacotherapy of
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. In M. Riddle (Ed.), Child
             Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Pharmacotherapy (pp.
             217-236). New York: Saunders},
   Year = {1995},
   Key = {fds138664}
}

@article{fds138621,
   Title = {Adams, G. B., Waas, G. A., March, J. S., & Smith, M. C.
             (1994). Obsessive compulsive disorder in children and
             adolescents: The role of the school psychologist in
             identification, assessment, and treatment. School Psychology
             Quarterly, 9(4), 274-294.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138621}
}

@article{fds138622,
   Title = {March J (ed) (1994): Anxiety Disorders in Children and
             Adolescents, New York: Guilford Press},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138622}
}

@article{fds138634,
   Title = {March, J., Mulle, K., Herbel, B. (1994), Behavioral
             Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents With
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial of a New
             Protocol Driven Treatment Package. Journal of the American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 33(3):
             333-341},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138634}
}

@article{fds138639,
   Title = {Maletic, V., March, J., & Johnston, H. (1994). Child and
             Adolescent Psychopharmacology. In J. Jefferson & J. Greist
             (Eds.), Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Annual of Drug
             Therapy (Vol. 1, pp. 101-124). Philadelphia:
             Saunders.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138639}
}

@article{fds138640,
   Title = {March, J., Mulle, K., & Herbel, B. (1994). Behavioral
             Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents With
             Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An Open Trial of a New
             Protocol Driven Treatment Package. Journal of the American
             Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(3),
             333-341.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138640}
}

@article{fds138641,
   Title = {March, J., & Amaya-Jackson, L. (1994). Post-traumatic stress
             disorder in children and adolescents. PTSD Research
             Quarterly, 4(4), 1-7.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138641}
}

@article{fds138642,
   Title = {March, J., & Mulle, K. (1994). How I Ran OCD Off My Land: A
             Guide to Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapy for Children and
             Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Currently
             distributed by the OC Foundation March, J. (1996). Manual
             for the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC).
             Toronto: MultiHealth Systems.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138642}
}

@article{fds138643,
   Title = {Conners, C., Wells, K., March, J., & Fiore, C. (1994).
             Methodological issues in the multimodal treatment of the
             disruptive behavior disorders. In L. Greenhill (Ed.),
             Psychiatric Clinics of North America: Disruptive Behavior
             Disorders (pp. 361-378). Philadelphia: Saunders.},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds138643}
}

@article{fds138618,
   Title = {March, J. (1993). What Constitutes a Stressor? The
             \"Criterion A\" Issue. In J. Davidson & E. Foa (Eds.),
             Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: DSM-IV and Beyond (pp.
             37-54). Wasington DC: American Psychiaric Press,
             Inc},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds138618}
}

@article{fds138620,
   Title = {Foa E, March J: Behavioral psychotherapy for OCD. In (ed
             Greist J, Jefferson J): Diagnosis and treatment of OCD.
             Ciba-Geigy, 1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds138620}
}

@article{fds138636,
   Title = {Johnston H, Swift W, March J: High dose tricyclic therapy in
             children: A case report and commentary. Journal of Child and
             Adolescent Psychopharamcology 3: 115-125,
             1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds138636}
}

@article{fds138637,
   Title = {Amaya-Jackson L, March J: Post-traumatic stress disorder in
             children and adolescents. In (ed Leonard H): Anxiety
             Disorders. Philadelphia, Sanders, 1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds138637}
}

@article{fds138638,
   Title = {March J, Amaya-Jackson L: Post-traumatic stress disorder in
             children and adolescents, PTSD Research Quarterly, National
             Center for PTSD Research Quarterly, National Center for
             PTSD, White River Junction VT: Veterans Admnistration 4 (4):
             1-7, 1993.},
   Year = {1993},
   Key = {fds138638}
}

@article{fds274966,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Fluoxetine and fluvoxamine in PTSD [7]},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {149},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {413-},
   Year = {1992},
   Key = {fds274966}
}

@article{fds274965,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Posttraumatic stress in the emergency setting},
   Journal = {Emergency Care Quarterly},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {74-81},
   Year = {1991},
   Abstract = {In summary, extremely violent events, whether natural or
             human in origin, are unfortunately all too common. EMS
             workers encounter persons potentially traumatized by such
             events in the course of their normal duties. EMS personnel
             are thus in an excellent position to minimize psychologic
             morbidity following exposure to extreme stressors by
             implementing an early intervention strategy. Early
             intervention depends on an understaning of the trauma
             response, accurate differential diagnosis, careful risk
             assessment prior to triage, brief psychotherapeutic
             interventions in the EMS setting, and psychiatric
             consultation or follow-up when indicated. Skillful
             intercession by knowledgeable EMS personnel can
             substantially minimize posttraumatic psychiatric
             morbidity.},
   Key = {fds274965}
}

@article{fds274962,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {The nosology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder},
   Journal = {Journal of Anxiety Disorders},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {61-82},
   Year = {1990},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0887-6185(90)90024-4},
   Abstract = {Since its introduction as a diagnostic category in DSM-III,
             Posttraumatic Stress Disorder has been the subject of
             continuing nosologic disagreement. Two theoretical
             perspectives-one emphasizing traumatic imagery, the other
             conditioned anxiety-subtly permeate the field. A sizable
             empirical database has also accrued. These contributions are
             discussed in the context of nosologic arguments endorsing
             the theoretical construct and the applicability of the
             DSM-III-R criteria set.},
   Doi = {10.1016/0887-6185(90)90024-4},
   Key = {fds274962}
}

@article{fds274963,
   Author = {JS March and KA Kobak and JW Jefferson and J Mazza and JH
             Greist},
   Title = {A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluvoxamine
             versus imipramine in outpatients with major
             depression},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {200-202},
   Year = {1990},
   Abstract = {The authors employed a double-blind, placebo-controlled
             design to investigate the effectiveness of fluvoxamine
             versus imipramine in 54 outpatients with moderate major
             depression. Fluvoxamine proved superior to placebo but not
             to imipramine on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression
             and the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale.
             Nausea and hyperarousal were the most common side effects in
             the fluvoxamine-treated patients.},
   Key = {fds274963}
}

@article{fds274964,
   Author = {JH Greist and JW Jefferson and R Rosenfeld and LD Gutzmann and JS March and NE Barklage},
   Title = {Clomipramine and obsessive compulsive disorder: A
             placebo-controlled double-blind study of 32
             patients},
   Journal = {Journal of Clinical Psychiatry},
   Volume = {51},
   Number = {7},
   Pages = {292-297},
   Year = {1990},
   Abstract = {Thirty-two nondepressed patients with obsessive impulsive
             disorder were randomly assigned to treatment with
             clomipramine (N=16) or placebo (N=16) in a 10 week
             double-blind study. Of the 15 patients who received at least
             3 weeks of clomipramine treatment, 11 (73%) improved, 5
             (33%) improved by more than 50%, and none worsened.
             Clomipramine treatment was associated with statistically
             significant improvement on several measures of obsessive
             compulsive symptoms. Side effects were more frequent and
             severe with clomipramine than with placebo. Although most
             patients tolerated clomipramine well, 3 discontinued
             treatment because of side effects.},
   Key = {fds274964}
}

@article{fds275077,
   Author = {JS March and RL Moon and H Johnston},
   Title = {Fluoxetine-TCA interaction},
   Journal = {Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent
             Psychiatry},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {985-986},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds275077}
}

@article{fds275078,
   Author = {JS March},
   Title = {Sleep disturbance in PTSD},
   Journal = {American Journal of Psychiatry},
   Volume = {147},
   Number = {12},
   Pages = {1697-},
   Year = {1990},
   Key = {fds275078}
}

@article{fds274960,
   Author = {JS March and LD Gutzman and JW Jefferson and JH
             Greist},
   Title = {Serotonin and treatment in obsessive-complusive
             disorder},
   Journal = {Psychiatric Developments},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {1-18},
   Year = {1989},
   Abstract = {Recognized since the Middle Ages, and clearly described for
             more than 100 years, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
             continues to intrigue and challenge mental health
             professionals. Recent evidence has implicated dysfunctional
             serotonergic neurotransmission in OCD. This review
             summarizes the evidence favoring a serotonergic hypothesis
             for OCD followed by a more detailed discussion of the
             implications the hypothesis holds for treatment.},
   Key = {fds274960}
}

@article{fds274961,
   Author = {JS March and H Johnston and JH greist},
   Title = {Obsessive-compulsive disorder},
   Journal = {American Family Physician},
   Volume = {39},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {175-182},
   Year = {1989},
   Abstract = {Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder complain of
             anxiety-producing intrusive thoughts and/or perform
             repetitive, anxiety-reducing rituals. A combination of
             behavior therapy and drug therapy is generally beneficial in
             this relatively common disorder. Behavior therapy consists
             of exposing patients to anxiety-provoking situations and
             helping them avoid ritualistic responses. Drug therapy
             appears to work by blocking serotonin reuptake in the
             brain.},
   Key = {fds274961}
}

@article{fds274959,
   Author = {CH Avery and J March and RH Brook},
   Title = {An assessment of the adequacy of self-care by adult
             asthmatics},
   Journal = {Journal of Community Health},
   Volume = {5},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {167-180},
   Year = {1980},
   ISSN = {0094-5145},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01323989},
   Abstract = {Little is known about how individuals who have chronic
             disease actually manage their symptoms. This study involving
             a community-based population of 157 adult asthmatics
             assesses their ability to take care of their disease and to
             alter their behavior following a change in symptoms.
             Multiple techniques (interview, direct observation, and
             diary) were used to determine their behavior with respect to
             medications and physician use; these were then compared with
             criteria defining the requisite level of a behavior to
             reduce symptoms. Of the population assessed, 66% had no
             bronchodilator medication at home, 24% used an inhaler
             ineffectively, and 68% did not see a physician regularly.
             When faced with increasing symptoms, at least 40% of the
             asthmatics did not perform three basic and appropriate
             behaviors in medication use and physician contact. If
             physicians and other health care providers could decrease
             the frequency of these inappropriate self-care behaviors, it
             could result in improved health. © 1980 Human Sciences
             Press.},
   Doi = {10.1007/BF01323989},
   Key = {fds274959}
}

@article{fds138619,
   Title = {March, J., Parker, J., Sullivan, K., Stallings, P., Conners,
             C. (in press), The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for
             Children (MASC): Factor structure, reliability and validity.
             J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry},
   Key = {fds138619}
}

@article{fds138635,
   Title = {March, J., Amaya-Jackson, L., Costanzo, P., Terry, R. (in
             press), Post-traumatic stress in children and adolescents
             after an industrial fire. Journal of the American Academy of
             Child and Adolescent Psychiatry},
   Key = {fds138635}
}


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