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Publications of Laura S. Richman    :chronological  alphabetical  by type listing:

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@article{fds342509,
   Author = {Richman, L and Pearson, J and Beasley, C and Stanifer,
             J},
   Title = {Addressing health inequalities in diverse, rural
             communities: An unmet need.},
   Journal = {Ssm Population Health},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {100398},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100398},
   Abstract = {Research on rural health needs to represent the diverse
             demographics of these regions by carefully considering the
             distinct characteristics, inequities, and stressors
             occurring in rural communities. Drawing from our own
             findings and other empirical investigations examining
             diverse rural communities, we propose several considerations
             to guide future endeavors toward more inclusive rural health
             research. These include population-health assessment tools
             that consider minority stress and intervention strategies
             designed to reflect both the environmental and
             socio-cultural contexts of rural residents.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100398},
   Key = {fds342509}
}

@article{fds341411,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Zucker, AN},
   Title = {Quantifying intersectionality: An important advancement for
             health inequality research.},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {226},
   Pages = {246-248},
   Year = {2019},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.036},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: Intersectionality is a powerful theoretical
             framework that is useful in describing the lived experiences
             of people with multiple marginalized statuses. By focusing
             on power and domination (e.g., racism, sexism), and the ways
             in which they are inextricably linked and mutually
             constructing, researchers can better understand experiences
             of all people, not just those with one or more master
             statuses. This framework is valuable in understanding how
             discrimination relates to health and in attempts to reduce
             health disparities. RATIONALE: Population health researchers
             have only recently begun to consider intersectionality in
             their theories and measurement (Bowleg, 2012), and have been
             hindered by the challenges of measuring and analyzing
             experiences of discrimination in intersectional ways. We
             need new methodological strategies to enable empirical
             research to catch up with theoretical advances. CONCLUSIONS:
             The pair of articles in this issue by Scheim and Bauer
             (2019), and Bauer and Scheim (2019), offer important new
             data collection instruments and data analytic strategies to
             advance our ability to measure discrimination
             intersectionally. When using these new tools, it is
             important to not lose track of the origins and historical
             underpinnings of intersectionality and to focus on the
             transformative goal of intersectionality to eradicate
             inequality.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.01.036},
   Key = {fds341411}
}

@article{fds337703,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Stock, M},
   Title = {Necessary considerations for a life course perspective on
             discrimination and health.},
   Journal = {Social Science and Medicine},
   Volume = {215},
   Pages = {163-166},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.08.005},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.08.005},
   Key = {fds337703}
}

@article{fds336091,
   Author = {Linnenbrink-Garcia, L and Perez, T and Barger, MM and Wormington, SV and Godin, E and Snyder, KE and Robinson, K and Sarkar, A and Richman, LS and Schwartz-Bloom, R},
   Title = {Repairing the Leaky Pipeline: A Motivationally Supportive
             Intervention to Enhance Persistence in Undergraduate Science
             Pathways.},
   Journal = {Contemporary Educational Psychology},
   Volume = {53},
   Pages = {181-195},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.03.001},
   Abstract = {The current study reports on the efficacy of a multi-faceted
             motivationally designed undergraduate enrichment summer
             program for supporting science, technology, engineering and
             math (STEM) persistence. Structural equation modeling was
             used to compare summer program participants (n = 186), who
             participated in the program between their first and second
             years in college, to a propensity score matched comparison
             sample (n = 401). Participation in the summer program
             positively predicted science motivation (self-efficacy, task
             value), assessed eight months after the end of the program
             (second year in college). The summer enrichment program was
             also beneficial for science persistence variables, as
             evidenced by significant direct and indirect effects of the
             program on science course completion during students' third
             year of college and students' intentions to pursue a science
             research career assessed during the third year of college.
             In general, the program was equally beneficial for all
             participants, but ancillary analyses indicated added
             benefits with respect to task value for students with
             relatively lower prior science achievement during the first
             year of college and with respect to subsequent science
             course taking for males. Implications for developing
             effective interventions to reduce the flow of individuals
             out of STEM fields and for translating motivational theory
             into practice are discussed.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.cedpsych.2018.03.001},
   Key = {fds336091}
}

@article{fds329145,
   Author = {Stock, ML and Gibbons, FX and Beekman, JB and Williams, KD and Richman,
             LS and Gerrard, M},
   Title = {Racial (vs. self) affirmation as a protective mechanism
             against the effects of racial exclusion on negative affect
             and substance use vulnerability among black young
             adults.},
   Journal = {J Behav Med},
   Volume = {41},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {195-207},
   Year = {2018},
   Month = {April},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-017-9882-7},
   Abstract = {Affirming one's racial identity may help protect against the
             harmful effects of racial exclusion on substance use
             cognitions. This study examined whether racial versus
             self-affirmation (vs. no affirmation) buffers against the
             effects of racial exclusion on substance use willingness and
             substance use word associations in Black young adults. It
             also examined anger as a potential mediator of these
             effects. After being included, or racially excluded by White
             peers, participants were assigned to a writing task:
             self-affirmation, racial-affirmation, or describing their
             sleep routine (neutral). Racial exclusion predicted greater
             perceived discrimination and anger. Excluded participants
             who engaged in racial-affirmation reported reduced perceived
             discrimination, anger, and fewer substance use cognitions
             compared to the neutral writing group. This relation between
             racial-affirmation and lower substance use willingness was
             mediated by reduced perceived discrimination and anger.
             Findings suggest racial-affirmation is protective against
             racial exclusion and, more generally, that ethnic based
             approaches to minority substance use prevention may have
             particular potential.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s10865-017-9882-7},
   Key = {fds329145}
}

@misc{fds338068,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Pascoe, E and Lattanner, M},
   Title = {Interpersonal discrimination and physical
             health},
   Pages = {203-218},
   Booktitle = {The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and
             Health},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {December},
   ISBN = {9780190243470},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190243470.001.0001},
   Abstract = {© Oxford University Press 2018. Interpersonal
             discrimination contributes to health inequalities for
             disadvantaged groups across numerous stigmatized identities.
             This effect has been found using cross-sectional,
             prospective, and experimental designs. Interpersonal
             discrimination has been associated with poor health across a
             wide range of mental health outcomes, including greater
             rates of depression, psychological distress, anxiety, and
             negative well-being, and also physical health outcomes such
             as hypertension, diabetes, respiratory problems,
             selfreported ill health, low birth weight, and
             cardiovascular disease. This chapter examines the
             relationship between interpersonal discrimination and
             health. It first reviews the literature, focusing on current
             best measurement practices, and then provides support for
             the theoretical model of the pathways by which interpersonal
             discrimination impacts health outcomes. The chapter then
             presents an updated meta-analysis that further supports the
             model and expands on types of discrimination and outcomes.
             It concludes with a discussion of directions for future
             research.},
   Doi = {10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190243470.001.0001},
   Key = {fds338068}
}

@article{fds326831,
   Author = {Lattanner, MR and Richman, LS},
   Title = {Effect of Stigma and Concealment on Avoidant-Oriented
             Friendship Goals},
   Journal = {Journal of Social Issues},
   Volume = {73},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {379-396},
   Editor = {Cook, JE and Quinn, DM},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {June},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josi.12222},
   Abstract = {© 2017 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social
             Issues In this research, we propose a hypothesized model
             that outlines pathways by which stigma impacts interpersonal
             behavior within close relationships through
             avoidant-oriented friendship goals. We also examine how
             stigma concealment moderates the extent to which these
             avoidant goals are activated. In Study 1, among people with
             mental illness (PWMI), the relationship between internalized
             stigma and self-silencing was mediated by avoidant-oriented
             friendship goals. In Study 2, experimentally making
             stigmatized identity salient increased the endorsement of
             avoidant-oriented friendship goals, particularly for people
             relatively high in concealment. Collectively, these studies
             highlight a social dilemma encountered by PWMI; what may be
             adaptive regulatory responses to stigmatization can motivate
             behavior that has negative effects in close
             relationships.},
   Doi = {10.1111/josi.12222},
   Key = {fds326831}
}

@article{fds339928,
   Author = {Jonas, KJ and Cesario, J and Alger, M and Bailey, AH and Bombari, D and Carney, D and Dovidio, JF and Duffy, S and Harder, JA and van Huistee,
             D and Jackson, B and Johnson, DJ and Keller, VN and Klaschinski, L and LaBelle, O and LaFrance, M and M. Latu and I and Morssinkhoff, M and Nault,
             K and Pardal, V and Pulfrey, C and Rohleder, N and Ronay, R and Richman,
             LS and Mast, MS and Schnabel, K and Schröder-Abé, M and Tybur,
             JM},
   Title = {Power poses–where do we stand?},
   Journal = {Comprehensive Results in Social Psychology},
   Volume = {2},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {139-141},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23743603.2017.1342447},
   Doi = {10.1080/23743603.2017.1342447},
   Key = {fds339928}
}

@article{fds313462,
   Author = {Pascoe, EA and Richman, LS and Kort, D},
   Title = {Validation of the Food-Linked Virtual Response
             task.},
   Journal = {J Health Psychol},
   Volume = {22},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-119},
   Year = {2017},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1359-1053},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11795 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {This research validates a computerized dietary selection
             task (Food-Linked Virtual Response or FLVR) for use in
             studies of food consumption. In two studies, FLVR task
             responses were compared with measures of health
             consciousness, mood, body mass index, personality, cognitive
             restraint toward food, and actual food selections from a
             buffet table. The FLVR task was associated with variables
             which typically predict healthy decision-making and was
             unrelated to mood or body mass index. Furthermore, the FLVR
             task predicted participants' unhealthy selections from the
             buffet, but not overall amount of food. The FLVR task is an
             inexpensive, valid, and easily administered option for
             assessing momentary dietary decisions.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1359105315595452},
   Key = {fds313462}
}

@article{fds318743,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L and Blodorn, A and Major, B},
   Title = {An identity-based motivational model of the effects of
             perceived discrimination on health-related
             behaviors},
   Journal = {Group Processes & Intergroup Relations},
   Volume = {19},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {415-425},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {July},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430216634192},
   Doi = {10.1177/1368430216634192},
   Key = {fds318743}
}

@article{fds313459,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Martin, J and Guadagno, J},
   Title = {Stigma-Based Rejection and the Detection of Signs of
             Acceptance},
   Journal = {Social Psychological and Personality Science},
   Volume = {7},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {53-60},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Year = {2016},
   Month = {January},
   ISSN = {1948-5506},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11793 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {© 2015, The Author(s) 2015. After people experience social
             rejection, one tactic to restore a sense of belonging is to
             selectively attend to and readily perceive cues that connote
             acceptance. The multimotive model of responses to rejection
             suggests that contextual features of the rejection are
             important determinants of how people are motivated to
             respond. According to this model, when rejection is
             construed as pervasive and chronic, people will be less
             likely to adopt strategies that promote belonging. Across
             two studies, we found that chronic rejection—in the
             context of stigmatization—predicted a slower response time
             to smiling faces and less recognition of affiliation-related
             words as compared to a nonstigmatized control group. These
             results suggest that, unlike more transitory forms of
             rejection, stigmatization leads to slower detection of signs
             of acceptance. These responses may hinder belonging repair
             and thus have important negative implications for health and
             well-being.},
   Doi = {10.1177/1948550615598376},
   Key = {fds313459}
}

@article{fds313461,
   Author = {Utamsingh, PD and Richman, LS and Martin, JL and Lattanner, MR and Chaikind, JR},
   Title = {Heteronormativity and practitioner-patient
             interaction.},
   Journal = {Health Commun},
   Volume = {31},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {566-574},
   Year = {2016},
   ISSN = {1041-0236},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11794 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Heteronormativity is the presumption of heterosexuality as
             the default sexual orientation and can result in
             discrimination against the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB)
             population. This study serves as one of the first
             experimental studies to examine heteronormative perceptions
             in communication and their effects on practitioner-patient
             relationships. LGB participants were randomly assigned to
             read either heteronormative or non-heteronormative vignettes
             of a doctor-patient interaction. They then indicated how
             much health-relevant information they would disclose to the
             doctor in the vignette and their level of trust in the
             doctor. In the heteronormative condition, participants were
             less likely to disclose health-relevant information to the
             doctor in the vignette and were less trustful of the doctor
             as compared to those in the non-heteronormative condition.
             These results have important health implications, as lack of
             disclosure and trust may prevent people from getting needed
             care and prevent doctors from giving the best health advice
             possible. The results of this study provide further evidence
             that there is a need for more education for all health care
             professionals to feel comfortable while respectfully
             communicating with and treating patients who do not identify
             as heterosexual in order to ensure the best health care
             experience.},
   Doi = {10.1080/10410236.2014.979975},
   Key = {fds313461}
}

@article{fds253582,
   Author = {Jackson, B and Richman, LS and LaBelle, O and Lempereur, MS and Twenge,
             JM},
   Title = {Experimental Evidence That Low Social Status is Most Toxic
             to Well-being When Internalized.},
   Journal = {Self and Identity},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {157-172},
   Year = {2015},
   Month = {March},
   ISSN = {1529-8868},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11797 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {What makes low social status toxic to well-being? To
             internalize social status is to believe the self is
             responsible for it. We hypothesized that the more people
             internalize low subjective social status, the more their
             basic psychological needs are thwarted. Experiment 1
             randomly assigned participants to imagine themselves in low,
             middle, or high social status and assessed their subjective
             social status internalization by independent ratings. The
             more participants internalized low status, the more they
             reported their basic psychological needs were thwarted. This
             effect did not appear among their higher status
             counterparts. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these
             findings using a behavioral manipulation of subjective
             social status and a self-report measure of internalization.
             We discuss implications for basic and action
             research.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15298868.2014.965732},
   Key = {fds253582}
}

@article{fds313460,
   Author = {Godin, EA and Wormington, SV and Perez, T and Barger, MM and Snyder, KE and Richman, LS and Schwartz-Bloom, R and Linnenbrink-Garcia,
             L},
   Title = {A Pharmacology-Based Enrichment Program for Undergraduates
             Promotes Interest in Science.},
   Journal = {Cbe Life Sciences Education},
   Volume = {14},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {ar40},
   Year = {2015},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11796 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {There is a strong need to increase the number of
             undergraduate students who pursue careers in science to
             provide the "fuel" that will power a science and
             technology-driven U.S. economy. Prior research suggests that
             both evidence-based teaching methods and early undergraduate
             research experiences may help to increase retention rates in
             the sciences. In this study, we examined the effect of a
             program that included 1) a Summer enrichment 2-wk minicourse
             and 2) an authentic Fall research course, both of which were
             designed specifically to support students' science
             motivation. Undergraduates who participated in the
             pharmacology-based enrichment program significantly improved
             their knowledge of basic biology and chemistry concepts;
             reported high levels of science motivation; and were likely
             to major in a biological, chemical, or biomedical field.
             Additionally, program participants who decided to major in
             biology or chemistry were significantly more likely to
             choose a pharmacology concentration than those majoring in
             biology or chemistry who did not participate in the
             enrichment program. Thus, by supporting students' science
             motivation, we can increase the number of students who are
             interested in science and science careers.},
   Doi = {10.1187/cbe.15-02-0043},
   Key = {fds313460}
}

@article{fds253580,
   Author = {Southwell, B and Ronneberg, K and Shen, K and Jorgens, E and Hazel, J and Alemu, R and Ross, J and Richman, L and Vermeer, D},
   Title = {Energy information engagement among the poor: Predicting
             participation in a free workshop},
   Journal = {Energy Research and Social Science},
   Volume = {4},
   Number = {C},
   Pages = {21-22},
   Publisher = {Elsevier BV},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {2214-6296},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11799 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Although one
             option for increasing low-income consumer knowledge
             regarding household energy use is the development of free or
             low-cost educational workshops, exactly how to promote
             attendance for such workshops remains an open question. Here
             we briefly outline results from a set of in-depth interviews
             with applicants to the Low-Income Energy Assistance Program
             in Durham County, NC, USA. Models predicting intended
             attendance at workshops or community meetings suggested that
             factors such as utility costs, social norms, perceived
             ability to plan ahead, and perceived accessibility of energy
             information all matter more than one's general attitude
             toward energy workshop attendance. Many respondents
             expressed interest in energy education materials and faced
             challenging utility costs, but meeting attendance appears to
             be constrained by the everyday life obstacles of the
             poor.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.erss.2014.08.003},
   Key = {fds253580}
}

@article{fds313458,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Hatzenbuehler, ML},
   Title = {A Multilevel Analysis of Stigma and Health: Implications for
             Research and Policy},
   Journal = {Policy Insights From the Behavioral and Brain
             Sciences},
   Volume = {1},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {213-221},
   Publisher = {SAGE Publications},
   Editor = {Fiske, ST},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {2372-7322},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11807 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {© The Author(s) 2014. This article reviews research on
             stigma and discrimination—at both the interpersonal and
             societal levels—faced by disadvantaged groups. Research on
             interpersonal discrimination primarily concerns
             discrimination that is perceived and directly experienced
             (e.g., discrimination in employment and health care),
             whereas research on societal discrimination focuses on broad
             societal factors (e.g., institutional policies, social
             attitudes). We review evidence across numerous fields of
             study that rely on several types of research designs, which
             indicate that both forms of stigma and discrimination
             demonstrably contribute to health inequalities for
             disadvantaged groups such as racial and ethnic minorities
             and lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations. These adverse
             health outcomes range from maladaptive physiological stress
             responses in a laboratory setting to premature mortality at
             a population level. The science on stigma and discrimination
             applies to policy issues in education, same-sex marriage,
             and health care delivery. Some current policies increase the
             experience of stigma. We argue that more holistic social
             policies can recognize the psychosocial factors that
             contribute to well-being, thereby reducing social
             inequalities in health.},
   Doi = {10.1177/2372732214548862},
   Key = {fds313458}
}

@article{fds253585,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Lattanner, MR},
   Title = {Self-regulatory processes underlying structural stigma and
             health.},
   Journal = {Social Science & Medicine},
   Volume = {103},
   Pages = {94-100},
   Year = {2014},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0277-9536},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11798 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {In this article, we examine self-regulatory processes that
             are initiated by structural stigma. To date, the literature
             on self-regulation as a mechanism that underlies stigma and
             health outcomes has focused primarily on harmful
             health-related behaviors that are associated with perceived
             discrimination. Numerous studies find that when people
             experience discrimination, they are more likely to engage in
             behaviors that pose risks for health, such as overeating and
             substance use. However, a large body of literature also
             finds that low power - which is also a chronic, though often
             more subtle, experience for stigmatized groups - is
             associated with a heightened activation of inhibitory
             processes. This inhibition system has wide-ranging
             influences on cognition, behavior, and affect. We provide an
             overview of these two literatures, examine synergies, and
             propose potential implications for measurement and research
             design.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.12.029},
   Key = {fds253585}
}

@article{fds253588,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Boynton, MH and Costanzo, P and Banas,
             K},
   Title = {Interactive Effects of Discrimination and Racial Identity on
             Alcohol-Related Thoughts and Use},
   Journal = {Basic and Applied Social Psychology},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {396-407},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0197-3533},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000321687100007&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Abstract = {The interrelationships among racial discrimination, non
             race-based rejection, racial identity (RI), and alcohol
             cognitions and use were assessed in this research. In Study
             1, individuals who experienced overt discrimination and who
             were high in RI were less likely than those low in RI to
             meet criteria for alcohol abuse disorder. In Study 2,
             discrimination and rejection were causally related to a
             faster reaction time in a lexical decision task to
             alcohol-related concepts as compared to neutral words,
             especially for those low in RI. Implications of
             discrimination and rejection on substance use and other
             risky health behaviors are discussed. © 2013 Copyright
             Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.},
   Doi = {10.1080/01973533.2013.803966},
   Key = {fds253588}
}

@article{fds329146,
   Author = {Boynton, MH and Richman, LS},
   Title = {WHY ETHNIC IDENTITY AND EXPERIENCES OF DISCRIMINATION MATTER
             TO ETHNIC MINORITY HEALTH DECISION-MAKING: A DAILY DIARY
             STUDY OF SUBSTANCE USE AND NUTRITION USING
             MTURK},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {45},
   Pages = {S60-S60},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2013},
   Month = {March},
   Key = {fds329146}
}

@misc{fds200494,
   Author = {L. Richman},
   Title = {The Multi Motive Model of Rejection},
   Pages = {pp. 43-54},
   Booktitle = {In DeWall (Ed.), Handbook of Social Exclusion},
   Publisher = {Oxford University Press.},
   Address = {New York: NY},
   Year = {2013},
   Key = {fds200494}
}

@article{fds253592,
   Author = {L.S. Richman and Jonassaint, CR and Ashley-Koch, A and Whitfield, KE and Hoyle, RH and Richman, LS and Siegler, IC and Royal, CD and Williams,
             R},
   Title = {The serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5HTTLPR)
             moderates the effect of adolescent environmental conditions
             on self-esteem in young adulthood: a structural equation
             modeling approach.},
   Journal = {Biol Psychol},
   Volume = {91},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {111-119},
   Year = {2012},
   Month = {September},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22659377},
   Abstract = {Here we examine the effects of both self-reported and
             independent observer-reported environmental risk indices,
             the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5HTTLPR)
             polymorphism, and their interaction on self-esteem. This
             trait was assessed during early and mid adolescence (mean
             age=14 and 16.5, respectively) and young adulthood (mean
             age=21.8) in a prospective cohort of 1214 unrelated
             participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
             (Add Health). Using structural equation modeling we
             identified a gene-environment (G×E) interaction using
             observer-report but not self-report measures of
             environmental stress exposure during adolescence: 5HTTLPR
             genotype and observer-reports of home and neighborhood
             quality (HNQ) during adolescence interacted to predict
             self-esteem levels in young adulthood (p<.004). Carriers of
             the s allele who lived in poor HNQ conditions during
             adolescence reported lower self-esteem in young adulthood
             than those with a good HNQ during adolescence. In contrast,
             among individuals with the l/l genotype, adolescent HNQ did
             not predict adulthood self-esteem. Genes may moderate the
             effect of adolescent environmental conditions on adulthood
             self-esteem.},
   Doi = {10.1016/j.biopsycho.2012.05.004},
   Key = {fds253592}
}

@article{fds253593,
   Author = {Richman, LS and vanDellen, M and Wood, W},
   Title = {How women cope: Being a numerical minority in a
             male-dominated profession},
   Journal = {Journal of Social Issues},
   Volume = {67},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {492-509},
   Publisher = {WILEY},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-4537},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11804 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Women who have academic careers in engineering have
             successfully navigated the social identity threats that
             prevent many other women from feeling that they belong in
             science, technology, engineering, and math fields. In this
             research, we examined what factors may be related to
             resilience in these academic environments. Female academics
             in engineering and nonengineering fields watched a
             fictitious conference video depicting either an unbalanced
             ratio of men to women or a balanced ratio. Subjective
             measures of identity threat were collected. Past experience
             with discrimination, positive experience with female role
             models, family support, and general social support were
             associated with a greater sense of belonging to or desire to
             participate in the conference. These variables all buffered
             negative responding to social identity threat. Implications
             are discussed for understanding resilience to social
             identity threat, particularly among women in engineering. ©
             2011 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social
             Issues.},
   Doi = {10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01711.x},
   Key = {fds253593}
}

@article{fds253594,
   Author = {Pascoe, EA and Richman, LS},
   Title = {Effect of discrimination on food decisions},
   Journal = {Self and Identity},
   Volume = {10},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {396-406},
   Publisher = {Informa UK Limited},
   Year = {2011},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {1529-8868},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11805 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {This research examined effects of discrimination on food
             decisions. In Study 1, reflecting upon past experiences of
             discrimination, as compared to a neutral topic, caused an
             increased desire to consume unhealthy foods. In Study 2,
             participants received a negative evaluation from a biased or
             fair grader. Past experiences with discrimination moderated
             how people responded to the feedback. Those participants who
             had infrequent past experiences with discrimination were
             most likely to endorse unhealthy food options after
             receiving the biased evaluation. Those who scored high on
             past discrimination were unaffected by experimental
             condition and endorsed similar numbers of healthy and
             unhealthy food options after receiving the evaluative
             feedback. When offered an actual snack, those who accepted
             one were more likely to choose an unhealthy option following
             discrimination, regardless of past discrimination level.
             These results suggest that discrimination may be affecting
             self-regulatory capacity in regard to food choices. © 2010
             Psychology Press.},
   Doi = {10.1080/15298868.2010.526384},
   Key = {fds253594}
}

@article{fds253591,
   Author = {Stanton, MV and Jonassaint, CR and Bartholomew, FB and Edwards, C and Richman, L and DeCastro, L and Williams, R},
   Title = {The association of optimism and perceived discrimination
             with health care utilization in adults with sickle cell
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the National Medical Association},
   Volume = {102},
   Number = {11},
   Pages = {1056-1063},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {1943-4693},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141295},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of perceived
             discrimination, optimism, and their interaction on health
             care utilization among African American adults with sickle
             cell disease (SCD). METHODS: Measures of optimism and
             perceived discrimination were obtained in 49 African
             American SCD patients. Multiple regression analyses
             controlling for sex and age tested effects of optimism and
             perceived discrimination on the number of emergency
             department visits (ED) and number and duration of
             hospitalizations over the past year. RESULTS: A perceived
             discrimination-optimism interaction was associated with
             number of emergency departments visits (b = .29, p = .052),
             number of hospitalizations (b = .36, p = .019), and duration
             of hospitalizations (b = .30, p = .045) such that those with
             high perceived discrimination/high optimism had the greatest
             health care utilization. CONCLUSIONS: African American SCD
             patients with high perceived discrimination/high optimism
             had greater health care utilization than patients who
             reported either low perceived discrimination or low
             optimism. This study suggests that patient personality and
             coping styles should be considered when evaluating the
             effects of stress on SCD-related outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1016/s0027-9684(15)30733-1},
   Key = {fds253591}
}

@article{fds304731,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L and Pek, J and Pascoe, E and Bauer,
             DJ},
   Title = {The effects of perceived discrimination on ambulatory blood
             pressure and affective responses to interpersonal stress
             modeled over 24 hours.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {403-411},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019045},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: This research examined the impact of perceived
             discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and daily
             level affect during social interaction. DESIGN: For 24 hrs,
             adult Black and White participants wore an ABP monitor and
             completed palm pilot diary entries about their social
             interactions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean level and
             time-trend trajectories of blood pressure and heart rate
             were examined as well as mean level measures of positive and
             negative affect after stressful and nonstressful social
             interactions. RESULTS: Analyses showed that, after
             controlling for important covariates, perceived
             discrimination predicted the slopes of both wake and
             nocturnal ABP responses, with those who reported more
             discrimination having steeper daytime trajectories for
             systolic and diastolic blood pressure and less nighttime
             dipping in heart rate over time as compared to those who had
             reported relatively infrequent discrimination. High levels
             of perceived discrimination were also related to positive
             and negative affective responses after stressful encounters.
             CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, regardless of race,
             perceived discrimination is related to cardiovascular and
             affective responses that may increase vulnerability to
             pathogenic processes.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0019045},
   Key = {fds304731}
}

@article{fds313463,
   Author = {Pascoe, E and Richman, LS},
   Title = {TIRED OF PREJUDICE: THE SELF-REGULATORY EFFECT OF
             DISCRIMINATION ON HEALTH-RELATED BEHAVIORS},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {39},
   Pages = {18-18},
   Publisher = {SPRINGER},
   Year = {2010},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://gateway.webofknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcApp=PARTNER_APP&SrcAuth=LinksAMR&KeyUT=WOS:000275841700069&DestLinkType=FullRecord&DestApp=ALL_WOS&UsrCustomerID=47d3190e77e5a3a53558812f597b0b92},
   Key = {fds313463}
}

@article{fds253595,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Pek, J and Pascoe, E and Bauer, D},
   Title = {The Effects of Perceived Discrimination on Ambulatory Blood
             Pressure and Affective Responses to Interpersonal Stress
             Modeled Over 24 Hours.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Volume = {29},
   Number = {403-411},
   Pages = {403-411},
   Year = {2010},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11806 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Objective: This research examined the impact of perceived
             discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and daily
             level affect during social interaction. Design: For 24 hrs,
             adult Black and White participants wore an ABP monitor and
             completed palm pilot diary entries about their social
             interactions. Main Outcome Measures: Mean level and
             time-trend trajectories of blood pressure and heart rate
             were examined as well as mean level measures of positive and
             negative affect after stressful and nonstressful social
             interactions. Results: Analyses showed that, after
             controlling for important covariates, perceived
             discrimination predicted the slopes of both wake and
             nocturnal ABP responses, with those who reported more
             discrimination having steeper daytime trajectories for
             systolic and diastolic blood pressure and less nighttime
             dipping in heart rate over time as compared to those who had
             reported relatively infrequent discrimination. High levels
             of perceived discrimination were also related to positive
             and negative affective responses after stressful encounters.
             Conclusions: These results suggest that, regardless of race,
             perceived discrimination is related to cardiovascular and
             affective responses that may increase vulnerability to
             pathogenic processes. © 2010 American Psychological
             Association.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0019045},
   Key = {fds253595}
}

@article{fds253596,
   Author = {Stanton, MV and Jonassaint, CR and Bartholomew, FB and Edwards, C and Richman, LS and DeCastro, L and Williams, RB},
   Title = {Optimism and perceived discrimination interact to predict
             health care utilization in adults with sickle cell
             disease.},
   Journal = {Journal of the National Medical Association},
   Year = {2010},
   Key = {fds253596}
}

@article{fds253599,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Kubzansky, LD and Maselko, J and Ackerson, LK and Bauer,
             M},
   Title = {The relationship between mental vitality and cardiovascular
             health.},
   Journal = {Psychol Health},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {919-932},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {October},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20205036},
   Abstract = {Past measurement of vitality has included both emotional and
             physical components. Since aspects of physical vitality such
             as fatigue can be indicative of physical illness, the
             usefulness of existing measures of vitality to predict
             health is limited. This research was designed to examine the
             psychometric properties of a new Mental Vitality Scale and
             to test its associations with measures of cardiovascular
             health over the course of 2 years. The measure of mental
             vitality was administered in a two-part study using three
             different samples. In part 1, the reliability and validity
             of the scale was assessed with a student and a clinic
             sample. In part 2, medical data on mental and physical
             health were abstracted over a two-year period from 1041
             patient records from a multi-specialty medical practice, and
             mental vitality assessed through a mailed questionnaire. The
             findings indicate that the Mental Vitality Scale is a valid
             and reliable questionnaire for measuring this construct.
             Mental vitality was also associated with reduced odds of
             several cardiovascular outcomes and prospective analyses
             suggest that mental vitality may serve a protective function
             in the development of cardiovascular disease. The results
             lend support for the importance of mental vitality as a
             construct that may be relevant for considering resilience in
             relation to cardiovascular disease.},
   Doi = {10.1080/08870440802108926},
   Key = {fds253599}
}

@article{fds253600,
   Author = {Pascoe, EA and Smart Richman and L},
   Title = {Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic
             review.},
   Journal = {Psychological Bulletin},
   Volume = {135},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {531-554},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0033-2909},
   url = {http://hdl.handle.net/10161/11809 Duke open
             access},
   Abstract = {Perceived discrimination has been studied with regard to its
             impact on several types of health effects. This
             meta-analysis provides a comprehensive account of the
             relationships between multiple forms of perceived
             discrimination and both mental and physical health outcomes.
             In addition, this meta-analysis examines potential
             mechanisms by which perceiving discrimination may affect
             health, including through psychological and physiological
             stress responses and health behaviors. Analysis of 134
             samples suggests that when weighting each study's
             contribution by sample size, perceived discrimination has a
             significant negative effect on both mental and physical
             health. Perceived discrimination also produces significantly
             heightened stress responses and is related to participation
             in unhealthy and nonparticipation in healthy behaviors.
             These findings suggest potential pathways linking perceived
             discrimination to negative health outcomes.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0016059},
   Key = {fds253600}
}

@article{fds253601,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L and Leary, MR},
   Title = {Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and
             other forms of interpersonal rejection: a multimotive
             model.},
   Journal = {Psychological Review},
   Volume = {116},
   Number = {2},
   Pages = {365-383},
   Year = {2009},
   Month = {April},
   ISSN = {0033-295X},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19348546},
   Abstract = {This article describes a new model that provides a framework
             for understanding people's reactions to threats to social
             acceptance and belonging as they occur in the context of
             diverse phenomena such as rejection, discrimination,
             ostracism, betrayal, and stigmatization. People's immediate
             reactions are quite similar across different forms of
             rejection in terms of negative affect and lowered
             self-esteem. However, following these immediate responses,
             people's reactions are influenced by construals of the
             rejection experience that predict 3 distinct motives for
             prosocial, antisocial, and socially avoidant behavioral
             responses. The authors describe the relational, contextual,
             and dispositional factors that affect which motives
             determine people's reactions to a rejection experience and
             the ways in which these 3 motives may work at
             cross-purposes. The multimotive model accounts for the
             myriad ways in which responses to rejection unfold over time
             and offers a basis for the next generation of research on
             interpersonal rejection.},
   Doi = {10.1037/a0015250},
   Key = {fds253601}
}

@article{fds253597,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L and Pek, J and Pascoe, E},
   Title = {The Effects of Race, Past Discrimination, and Time on
             Ambulatory Blood Pressure Modeled Over 24-hours},
   Journal = {Health Psychology},
   Year = {2009},
   Abstract = {Objective: This research examined the impact of perceived
             discrimination on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and
             daily-level affect during social interaction. Design: For 24
             hours, adult African American and Caucasian participants
             wore an ABP monitor and completed palm pilot diary entries
             about their social interactions. Main Outcome Measures: Mean
             level and time-trend trajectories of blood pressure and
             heart rate were examined as well as mean level measures of
             positive and negative affect following stressful and
             nonstressful social interactions. Results: Analyses showed
             that, after controlling for important covariates, perceived
             discrimination predicted the slopes of both wake and
             nocturnal ABP responses, with those who reported more
             discrimination having steeper daytime trajectories for
             systolic and diastolic blood pressure and less nighttime
             dipping in heart rate over time as compared to those who had
             reported relatively infrequent discrimination. High levels
             of perceived discrimination were also related to positive
             and negative affective responses following stressful
             encounters. Conclusions: These results suggest that,
             regardless of race, perceived discrimination is related to
             cardiovascular and affective responses that may increase
             vulnerability to pathogenic processes.},
   Key = {fds253597}
}

@article{fds253602,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Jonassaint, C},
   Title = {The effects of race-related stress on cortisol reactivity in
             the laboratory: implications of the Duke lacrosse
             scandal.},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Volume = {35},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {105-110},
   Year = {2008},
   Month = {February},
   ISSN = {0883-6612},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18347910},
   Abstract = {BACKGROUND: The experience of race-related stressors is
             associated with physiological stress responses. However,
             much is unknown still about the complex relationship between
             how race-related stressors are perceived and experienced and
             potential moderators such as strength of racial identity.
             PURPOSE: This research examines the impact of a real-life
             stressor and strength of race identity on physiological
             responses to a social evaluative threat induced in the
             laboratory. METHODS: Salivary cortisol measures were
             collected throughout a stressor protocol. African-American
             participants were also randomized to one of two conditions
             designed to promote either racial identification or student
             identification, before the experimental task. Unexpectedly,
             a highly publicized real-life racial stressor, the Duke
             Lacrosse (LaX) scandal, occurred during the course of the
             data collection. This allowed for pre-post LaX comparisons
             to be made on cortisol levels. RESULTS: These comparisons
             showed that across both priming conditions, participants
             post-LaX had highly elevated cortisol levels that were
             nonresponsive to the experimental stress task, while their
             pre-LaX counterparts had lower cortisol levels that
             exhibited a normal stress response pattern. Furthermore,
             this effect of LaX was significantly moderated by gender,
             with women having lower mean cortisol levels pre-LaX but
             significantly greater cortisol levels than all other groups
             post-LaX. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that recent
             exposure to race-related stress can have a sustained impact
             on physiological stress responses for African
             Americans.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-007-9013-8},
   Key = {fds253602}
}

@article{fds329147,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Jonassaint, C},
   Title = {The Effects of Race-related Stress on Cortisol Reactivity in
             the Laboratory: Implications of the Duke Lacrosse
             Scandal},
   Journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
   Pages = {1-6},
   Year = {2008},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12160-007-9013-8},
   Abstract = {Background: The experience of race-related stressors is
             associated with physiological stress responses. However,
             much is unknown still about the complex relationship between
             how race-related stressors are perceived and experienced and
             potential moderators such as strength of racial identity.
             Purpose: This research examines the impact of a real-life
             stressor and strength of race identity on physiological
             responses to a social evaluative threat induced in the
             laboratory. Methods: Salivary cortisol measures were
             collected throughout a stressor protocol. African-American
             participants were also randomized to one of two conditions
             designed to promote either racial identification or student
             identification, before the experimental task. Unexpectedly,
             a highly publicized real-life racial stressor, the Duke
             Lacrosse (LaX) scandal, occurred during the course of the
             data collection. This allowed for pre-post LaX comparisons
             to be made on cortisol levels. Results: These comparisons
             showed that across both priming conditions, participants
             post-LaX had highly elevated cortisol levels that were
             nonresponsive to the experimental stress task, while their
             pre-LaX counterparts had lower cortisol levels that
             exhibited a normal stress response pattern. Furthermore,
             this effect of LaX was significantly moderated by gender,
             with women having lower mean cortisol levels pre-LaX but
             significantly greater cortisol levels than all other groups
             post-LaX. Conclusions: These results suggest that recent
             exposure to race-related stress can have a sustained impact
             on physiological stress responses for African Americans. ©
             2008 The Society of Behavioral Medicine.},
   Doi = {10.1007/s12160-007-9013-8},
   Key = {fds329147}
}

@article{fds253604,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Bennett, GG and Pek, J and Siegler, I and Williams,
             RB},
   Title = {Discrimination, dispositions, and cardiovascular responses
             to stress.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {675-683},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {November},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18020838},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that past exposure to
             discrimination may influence perceptions of, and
             physiological responses to, new challenges. The authors
             examined how race and trait levels of hostility and optimism
             interact with past exposure to discrimination to predict
             physiological reactivity and recovery during an anger recall
             task. DESIGN: A community sample of 165 normotensive Black
             and White adults participated in an anger recall task while
             having their cardiovascular function monitored. MAIN OUTCOME
             MEASURES: Blood pressure and heart rate indicators of
             physiological reactivity and recovery. RESULTS AND
             CONCLUSION: Participants had higher reactivity and slower
             recovery to the anger recall task when they had high past
             discrimination, low cynicism, or high optimism. The pattern
             of effects was similar for both racial groups, but Blacks
             had more acute reactivity and slower recovery than Whites.
             These results are consistent with the perspective of
             discrimination as a chronic stressor that is related to
             acute stress responses, particularly for
             Blacks.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.26.6.675},
   Key = {fds253604}
}

@article{fds253605,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Kohn-Wood, LP and Williams, DR},
   Title = {The role of discrimination and racial identity for mental
             health service utilization},
   Journal = {Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {8},
   Pages = {960-981},
   Publisher = {Guilford Publications},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {October},
   ISSN = {0736-7236},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2007.26.8.960},
   Abstract = {Several reports have documented different patterns in mental
             health service utilization among ethnic minority groups,
             particularly for Black Americans, in comparison to Whites.
             In this research, we examined individual variables that may
             underlie these differences, focusing on experiences of
             discrimination and racial identity. We used a community
             sample of over 1,000 White and Black American adults
             residing in a large Midwestern metropolitan area. Results
             showed that discrimination or unfair treatment was
             marginally associated with increased utilization for Black
             Americans after controlling for age, gender and
             psychological distress, but prior to taking SES and identity
             into account. For Black Americans, those with high racial
             identity who experienced discrimination reported a lower
             probability of utilization in comparison to those with low
             racial identity. For White Americans, only gender and
             psychological distress were associated with utilization.
             Results are discussed in terms of the functions that racial
             identity may play for Black Americans in the context of
             health seeking behaviors.},
   Doi = {10.1521/jscp.2007.26.8.960},
   Key = {fds253605}
}

@article{fds253603,
   Author = {Gurmankin Levy and A and Maselko, J and Bauer, M and Richman, L and Kubzansky, L},
   Title = {Why do people with an anxiety disorder utilize more
             nonmental health care than those without?},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {26},
   Number = {5},
   Pages = {545-553},
   Year = {2007},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.26.5.545},
   Abstract = {OBJECTIVE: It is unclear why nonmental healthcare
             utilization is greater among those with psychological
             problems. The authors examined healthcare utilization in HMO
             patients to determine whether greater utilization in anxiety
             disorder (AD) patients was explained by anxiety symptoms
             (increasing sensitivity to physical symptoms) or comorbid
             illness (causing greater need for services). DESIGN:
             Patients were randomly selected from the database of a
             multi-specialty practice and 1,041 completed a survey
             assessing psychological symptoms, health behaviors, and
             demographics. Anxiety symptoms were assessed by
             questionnaire and the presence of an AD was determined from
             the medical chart. Healthcare encounters and medication use
             were abstracted from medical charts and HMO claims data.
             MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Healthcare utilization. RESULTS: Both
             AD and anxiety symptoms predicted utilization, but symptoms
             were not associated with utilization in a model that also
             included AD. Comorbid illness was significantly associated
             with utilization independent of AD and somewhat reduced the
             strength of the AD-utilization association. The results were
             replicated in comparison of those with any psychiatric
             disorder to those without. CONCLUSION: Among those with AD,
             greater utilization is not explained by anxiety symptoms but
             is partly explained by greater comorbid illness. Further
             study is needed to understand excess healthcare utilization
             among AD patients.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.26.5.545},
   Key = {fds253603}
}

@misc{fds140299,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L.},
   Title = {Threatened Egotism Theory of Aggression},
   Booktitle = {Encyclopedia of Social Psychology},
   Publisher = {Sage},
   Address = {Thousand Oaks, CA},
   Editor = {R. F. Baumeister and K. Vohs},
   Year = {2007},
   Key = {fds140299}
}

@misc{fds49269,
   Author = {Shelton, J.N. and Smart Richman and L.},
   Title = {Self-affirmation Theory},
   Series = {2nd},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {MacMillan Reference},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds49269}
}

@misc{fds44560,
   Author = {Smart Richman and L.},
   Title = {Life Events and Stress},
   Series = {2nd Edition},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {MacMillan},
   Year = {2006},
   Key = {fds44560}
}

@article{fds253598,
   Author = {Richman, LS and Kubzansky, L and Maselko, J and Kawachi, I and Choo, P and Bauer, M},
   Title = {Positive emotion and health: going beyond the
             negative.},
   Journal = {Health Psychology : Official Journal of the Division of
             Health Psychology, American Psychological
             Association},
   Volume = {24},
   Number = {4},
   Pages = {422-429},
   Year = {2005},
   Month = {July},
   ISSN = {0278-6133},
   url = {http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045378},
   Abstract = {This study examined the relationships between positive
             emotions and health. Two positive emotions were considered,
             hope and curiosity, in conjunction with 3
             physician-diagnosed disease outcomes: hypertension, diabetes
             mellitus, and respiratory tract infections. Medical data
             were abstracted over a 2-year period from 1,041 patient
             records from a multispecialty medical practice, and emotions
             were assessed through a mailed questionnaire. Across 3
             disease outcomes, higher levels of hope were associated with
             a decreased likelihood of having or developing a disease.
             Higher levels of curiosity were also associated with
             decreased likelihood of hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
             Results suggest that positive emotion may play a protective
             role in the development of disease.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0278-6133.24.4.422},
   Key = {fds253598}
}

@misc{fds44559,
   Author = {Shelton, J.N. and Smart Richman and L},
   Title = {Self-affirmation Theory},
   Series = {(2nd edition).},
   Booktitle = {International Encyclopedia of the Social
             Sciences},
   Publisher = {MacMillan},
   Year = {2005},
   Key = {fds44559}
}

@misc{fds39742,
   Author = {Smart, L. and Wegner, D. M..},
   Title = {The hidden costs of hidden stigma},
   Booktitle = {The Social Psychology of Stigma},
   Publisher = {New York: Guilford Press},
   Editor = {Kleck, R. E. and Heatherton, T. F. and Hull, J.
             G.},
   Year = {2000},
   Key = {fds39742}
}

@article{fds253610,
   Author = {Smart, L and Wegner, DM},
   Title = {Covering up what can't be seen: concealable stigma and
             mental control.},
   Journal = {Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
   Volume = {77},
   Number = {3},
   Pages = {474-486},
   Year = {1999},
   Month = {September},
   ISSN = {0022-3514},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.77.3.474},
   Abstract = {In these studies the authors examined the effects of
             concealing a stigma in a social interaction relevant to the
             stigma. An interview paradigm called for undergraduate
             female participants who either did or did not have eating
             disordered characteristics to play the role of someone who
             did or did not have an eating disorder (ED) while answering
             stigma-relevant questions. The data suggest that the
             participants who concealed their stigmas become preoccupied
             with the control of stigma-relevant thoughts. In Study 1,
             participants with an ED who role-played not having an ED
             exhibited more secrecy, suppression, and intrusive thoughts
             of their ED and more projection of ED-related thoughts onto
             the interviewer than did those with an ED who role-played
             someone with an ED or those without an ED who role-played
             someone without an ED. This finding was replicated in Study
             2, and the authors found both increasing accessibility of
             ED-related words among those participants with concealed
             stigmas during the interview and high levels of
             accessibility following the interview.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-3514.77.3.474},
   Key = {fds253610}
}

@article{fds253609,
   Author = {Wegner, DM and Smart, L},
   Title = {Deep cognitive activation: a new approach to the
             unconscious.},
   Journal = {Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology},
   Volume = {65},
   Number = {6},
   Pages = {984-995},
   Year = {1997},
   Month = {December},
   ISSN = {0022-006X},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-006x.65.6.984},
   Abstract = {Deep cognitive activation occurs when a thought is so
             accessible as to have measurable effects on behavior or
             judgement, but is yet not consciously reportable. This state
             of mind has unique properties mimicking some characteristics
             of the psychoanalytic unconscious, but following
             theoretically from a consideration of processes of cognitive
             activation. The sources and consequences of deep cognitive
             activation are examined, with a view toward understanding
             how this state is implicated in the assessment, etiology,
             and treatment of psychopathology.},
   Doi = {10.1037//0022-006x.65.6.984},
   Key = {fds253609}
}

@article{fds253607,
   Author = {Baumeister, RF and Smart, L and Boden, JM},
   Title = {Relation of threatened egotism to violence and aggression:
             the dark side of high self-esteem.},
   Journal = {Psychological Review},
   Volume = {103},
   Number = {1},
   Pages = {5-33},
   Year = {1996},
   Month = {January},
   url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.103.1.5},
   Abstract = {Conventional wisdom has regarded low self-esteem as an
             important cause of violence, but the opposite view is
             theoretically viable. An interdisciplinary review of
             evidence about aggression, crime, and violence contradicted
             the view that low self-esteem is an important cause.
             Instead, violence appears to be most commonly a result of
             threatened egotism--that is, highly favorable views of self
             that are disputed by some person or circumstance. Inflated,
             unstable, or tentative beliefs in the self's superiority may
             be most prone to encountering threats and hence to causing
             violence. The mediating process may involve directing anger
             outward as a way of avoiding a downward revision of the
             self-concept.},
   Doi = {10.1037/0033-295x.103.1.5},
   Key = {fds253607}
}

@article{fds253608,
   Author = {Smart, L and Wegner, DM},
   Title = {Strength of will},
   Journal = {Psychological Inquiry},
   Volume = {7},
   Pages = {79-83},
   Year = {1996},
   Key = {fds253608}
}

@article{fds253606,
   Author = {Lester, N and Smart, L and Baum, A},
   Title = {Measuring coping flexibility in the general
             population},
   Journal = {Psychology & Health},
   Volume = {9},
   Pages = {409-424},
   Year = {1994},
   Key = {fds253606}
}


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