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Publications of Edward Tower    :chronological  alphabetical  combined  bibtex listing:



  1. Sweeney, RJ; Tower, E; Willett, TD, Judging economic policy: Selected writings of Gottfried Haberler (January, 2021), pp. 1-246, ISBN 9780429703638 [doi]  [abs]
  2. Gilbert, J; Tower, E, Introduction to numerical simulation for trade theory and policy (January, 2012), pp. 1-295, World Scientific, ISBN 9789814390811 [doi]  [abs]
  3. E. Tower, Judging Economic Policy: Selected Writings of Gottfried Haberler, edited by Richard J. Sweeney, Edward Tower and Thomas D. Willett (1997), Boulder, Westview Press (238pp.)
  4. E. Tower and G. Pursell, On Shadow Pricing, World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 792 (January, 1986) (131 pp.)
  5. E. Tower, Effective Protection, Domestic Resource Cost and Shadow Prices: A General Equilibrium Perspective, World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 664 (September, 1984) (182 pp.)
  6. E. Tower, The Theory of Optimum Currency Areas and Exchange-Rate Flexibility, Special Paper in International Economics, No. 11 (May, 1976), Princeton University (98 pp.)

Papers Published

  1. E. Tower, Are GMO’s Predictions Prescient? Using them to predict Vanguard’s Mutual Fund Returns (October, 2010) [papers.cfm], [doi]
  2. William H. Kaempfer, Edward Tower and Thomas D. Willett, "Trade Protectionism", in The Encyclopedia of Public Choice, edited by Charles K. Rowley and Friedrich Schneider (October, 2003), pp. 550-576, Kluwer Academic Publishers [pdf]  [abs]
  3. Gretchen Phillips and E. Tower, "Labor PAC Campaign Contributions and NAFTA Legislators: Rhetoric or Retribution?", in Empirical Methods In International Trade: Essays in Honor of Mordechai E. Kreinin, edited by Michael Plummer (2004 forthcoming), Edward Elgar [pdf]  [abs]
  4. Omer Gokcekus, Justin Knowles and E. Tower, "Sweetening the Pot: How American Sugar Buys Protection", in The Political Economy of Trade, Aid and Foreign Investment Policies, edited by Devashish Mitra and Arvind Panagariiya (2004 forthcoming), Elsevier [html]  [abs]
  5. Kiyoun Han and E. Tower, "Cost Benefit Analysis of Foreign Aid for a Highly Distorted Economy: The Case of Sudan,", in Foreign Aid: New perspectives, Recent Economic Thought, edited by Kanhaya Gupta (1999), Kluwer Academic Publishers (series edited by William Darity, Jr. and Warren J. Samuels.)  [abs]

Papers Submitted

  1. Cassidy, AW; Tower, E; Wang, X, Manufacturing fetishism: The neo-mercantilist preoccupation with protecting manufacturing (January, 2015), pp. 137-175, World Scientific, ISBN 9789814520157 [doi]
  2. Tower, E, Strategic Asset Allocation in Practice: Using Vanguard Funds to Clone GMO’s Benchmark‐Free Allocation Fund (October, 2010) [papers.cfm]
  3. Tower, E, Are GMO’s Predictions Prescient? Using Them to Predict Vanguard’s Mutual Fund Returns, October 2010 (October, 2010)

Book Reviews

  1. W. Max Corden, Too Sensational: On the Choice of Exchange Rate Regimes, Southern Economic Journal, vol. 70 no. 2 (October, 2003), pp. 435-7
  2. Elroy Dimson, Paul Marsh and Mike Staunton, Triumph of the Optimists: 101 Years of Global Investment Returns, Kyklos, vol. 56 no. 2 (January, 2003), pp. 280-1, Princeton University Press

Journal Articles

  1. McCarthy, JE; Tower, E, Static Indexing Beats Tactical Asset Allocation, Journal of Index Investing, vol. 11 no. 4 (March, 2021), pp. 41-52 [doi]  [abs]
  2. Li, C; Tower, E; Zhang, R, Alternative Measures of Mutual Fund Performance: Ranking DFA, Fidelity, and Vanguard, vol. 9 (January, 2020), pp. 417-476 [doi]  [abs]
  3. Li, C; Tower, E; Zhang, R, Evaluating the Changed Collection of Equity Mutual Funds for Vanguard Participants in the Duke University Retirement Plan (May, 2019)
  4. Li, C; Tower, E; Zhang, R, Vanguard versus Fidelity: Multidimensional Comparison of the Index Funds and ETFs of the Two Largest Mutual Fund Families, Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) Working Paper no. 283 (March, 2019)
  5. Wang, Y; Tower, E, Do Chinese Investors Get What They Don't Pay For? Expense Ratios, Loads, and the Returns to China's Open-End Mutual Funds, Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) no. 231 (October, 2016), pp. 29 pages  [abs]
  6. Tower, E, Transfers and Taxes: How Balancing the Budget with Distortionary Taxation Further Blesses the Recipient of a Transfer and Burdens the Donor (August, 2016)
  8. TOWER, EDWARD; YE, YIFANVICTOR, How Taxes and Real Wage Inflexibility Interact to Make Trade Deficits Addictive: The Tertiary and Quaternary Burdens and Benefits of a Transfer, The Singapore Economic Review, vol. 61 no. 02 (June, 2016), pp. 1640026-1640026, World Scientific Pub Co Pte Lt, ISSN 0217-5908 [doi]  [abs]
  9. Tower, E, Should the Equities in the North Carolina State Employees’ Pension Fund Be Indexed or Actively Managed?, Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) no. 210 (May, 2016), pp. 20 pages  [abs]
  10. Lim, H; Tower, E, Fundamental versus traditional indexation for international mutual funds: Evaluating dfa, wisdomtree, and rafi powershares (January, 2016), pp. 331-353 [doi]  [abs]
  11. Paskalev, Z; Yildirim, H, A Theory of Outsourced Fundraising: Why Dollars Turn into 'Pennies for Charity', Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) Working Paper, vol. 137 no. 189 (December, 2014), pp. 1-18, Elsevier BV [doi]  [abs]
  12. Tower, E; Barry, D; Stansky, E, GMO's Predictions: A Useful Guide for Investors? (June, 2014)  [abs]
  13. Tower, E, CAPE: Using Its Variants to Predict the Returns from Investing in the S&P 500 Index, Economic Research Initiatives at Duke (Erid) Working Paper no. 262 (September, 2013)
  14. Lim, H; Tower, E, Enhanced versus Traditional Indexation for International Mutual Funds: Evaluating DFA, WisdomTree and RAFI Powershares (June, 2013)
  15. Tower, E; Yang, C, Vanguard versus the Enhanced Indexers, DFA, RAFI, and WisdomTree: Is Traditional Indexation Passé? (November, 2012)
  16. Tower, E, Tobin’s Q Versus Cape versus Caper: Predicting Stock Market Returns Using Fundamentals and Momentum (December, 2011)
  17. Tower, E, Performance of Actively Managed versus Index Funds: The Vanguard Case (November, 2011), pp. 211-236, JOHN WILEY & SONS INC [doi]
  18. Tower, E, Classic and Enhanced Index Funds: Performance and Issues (November, 2011), pp. 237-264, JOHN WILEY & SONS INC [doi]
  19. Gilbert, J; Takahiko, T; Linananda, K; Tower, E; Tuncharoenlarp, A, The deadweight cost of war: An illustrative CGE, Economics of Peace and Security Journal, vol. 6 no. 2 (July, 2011), pp. 34-40  [abs]
  20. Tower, E, GMO versus Vanguard: Assessing the Performance of Comparable Funds (October, 2010) [papers.cfm]
  21. Tower, E; Yichong, Z, Vanguard Versus DFA & Wisdomtree, and the Value Added by Dan Wiener’s Independent Adviser for Vanguard Investors (November, 2009)
  22. Tower, E; Zheng, W, Ranking mutual fund families: Minimum expenses and maximum loads as markers for moral turpitude, International Review of Economics, vol. 55 no. 4 (October, 2008), pp. 315-350, Springer Nature, ISSN 1865-1704 [doi]  [abs]
  23. Tower, E, The encyclopedia of public choice., Public Choice, vol. 127 no. 3-4 (June, 2006), pp. 499-502, SPRINGER
  24. Gokcekus, O; Adams, M; Grabowski, H; Tower, E, How did the 2003 prescription drug re-importation bill pass the house?, Economics & Politics, vol. 18 no. 1 (March, 2006), pp. 27-45, WILEY, ISSN 0954-1985 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
  25. Reinker, KS; Tower, E, Are vanguard's managers good stock-pickers or style-pickers?, Journal of Portfolio Management, vol. 31 no. 3 (January, 2005), pp. 109-111, Institutional Investor Journals, ISSN 0095-4918 [doi]  [abs]
  26. Phillips, GA; Tower, E, Organized labor's campaign contributions after the NAFTA vote: Rhetoric or retribution? (December, 2004), pp. 169-186 [doi]
  27. Gokcekus, O; Phillips, JJ; Tower, E, School choice: Money, race, and congressional voting on vouchers, Public Choice, vol. 119 no. 1-2 (January, 2004), pp. 241-254, Springer Nature [doi]  [abs]
  28. Reinker, KS; Tower, E, Index fundamentalism revisited, Journal of Portfolio Management, vol. 30 no. 4 (January, 2004), pp. 37-50+4, ISSN 0095-4918 [doi]  [abs]
  29. Gokcekus, O; Phillips, JJ; Tower, E, "School Choice: Money, Race and Congressional Voting on Vouchers", Public Choice, vol. 119 no. 1 (2004), pp. 20  [abs]
  30. Harney, M; Tower, E, "Rational Pessimism: Predicting Equity Returns by Tobin's q and Price/Earnings Ratios", The Journal of Investing, vol. 12 no. 2 (Fall, 2003), pp. 58-69  [abs]
  31. Reinker, KS; Tower, E, "Index Fundamentalism Revisited", Journal of Portfolio Management, vol. 30 no. 4 (Summer, 2003), pp. 31, ISSN 0095-4918  [abs]
  32. Reinker, KS; Tower, E, "Predicting Equity Returns for 37 Countries: Tweeking the Gordon Formula", Journal of Investing, vol. 13 no. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 21 pp.  [abs]
  33. Gokcekus, O; Tower, E, "An Efficiency Enhancing Minimum Wage", Journal of Policy Reform, vol. 7 no. 2 (Spring, 2003), pp. 22pp. [html]  [abs]
  34. Kaempfer, WH; Tower, E; Willett, TD, "The Employment Maximizing Import Quota Under Domestic Monopoly", Journal of International Logistics and Trade, vol. 1 no. 1 (2003), pp. 22 [pdf]  [abs]
  35. Cvijanovic, V; Mikic, M; Tower, E, "Evaluating Croatian Equities", Zagreb Journal of Economics, vol. 7 no. 10 (2003), pp. 73-88 [html]  [abs]
  36. Gibbs, R; Gokcekus, O; Tower, E, "Is Talk Cheap? Buying Congressional Testimony with Campaign Contributions", Journal of Policy Reform, vol. 5 no. 3 (December, 2002), pp. 127-132, Blackwell [html]  [abs]
  37. Gilbert, J; Tower, E, Protectionism, labor mobility, and immiserizing growth in developing economics, Economics Letters, vol. 75 no. 1 (March, 2002), pp. 135-140, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0165-1765 [doi]  [abs]
  38. Conway, P; Csaplar, W; Tower, E, "How to Encourage Exports Without a Budgetary Cost: Comment on Wang and Tsai", Revista Internzaionale De Science Economiche E Commercialli (International Review of Economics and Business", vol. 47 no. 4 (December, 2000), pp. 701-704  [abs]
  39. Tower, E; Gilbert, J, A golden jubilee note on Graaff's optimum tariff structures, History of Political Economy, vol. 32 no. 3 (Fall, 2000), pp. 421-436, Duke University Press [doi]  [abs]
  40. Gilbert, J; Tower, E, Import Quotas, Foreign Capital and Income Distribution: Comment, The American Economist, vol. 42 no. 2 (Fall, 1998), pp. 90-93 [doi]  [abs]
  41. Grimes, M; Tower, E, The Optimum Minimum Wage When Labor Services are Taxed, International Review of Economics and Business (June, 1998), pp. 1-9
  42. Gokcekus, O; Tower, E, Does Trade liberalization benefit young and old alike?, Review of International Economics, vol. 6 no. 1 (January, 1998), pp. 50-58, WILEY, ISSN 0965-7576 [doi]  [abs]
  43. Park, D; Tower, E, The Commodity Creating Tariff and Other Paradoxes, International Review of Economics and Business (December, 1997), pp. 831-835
  44. Gokcekus, O; Tower, E, Can a Periodic Voluntary Export Restraint Raise Importing Country Welfare?, Journal of Economic Integration (December, 1997), pp. 485-504
  45. Gokcekus, O; Tower, E, The Effects of Import Quotas on National Welfare: Comment, Southern Economic Journal, vol. 64 no. 2 (October, 1997), pp. 584-584, JSTOR, ISSN 0038-4038 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  46. Baker, A; Gross, F; Tower, E, Super 301 trade sanctions: An empirical investigation of the wood products case, The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 8 no. 1 (Spring, 1997), pp. 39-55, Elsevier BV, ISSN 1062-9408 [doi]  [abs]
  47. Tower, E, Yucel on Reducing U.S. Vulnerability to Oil Supply Shocks: Comment, Southern Economic Journal (April, 1996), pp. 1093-1095
  48. Pinsky, L; Tower, E, Temporary duty suspension in the United States, The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 6 no. 1 (Spring, 1995), pp. 17-36, Elsevier BV, ISSN 1062-9408 [doi]  [abs] [author's comments]
  49. Tower, E, Separability: The One Principal and SerW>us Defect of Bickerdike's and Edgeworth's Elasticity Approach to Balance-of-Payments Adjustment Problems?, History of Political Economy, vol. 25 no. 3 (Fall, 1993), pp. 493-497, Duke University Press, ISSN 0018-2702 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  50. Tower, E, Do the U.S. and China Discriminate against One Another's Goods?, Asian Profile (April, 1993), pp. 101-112
  51. Simmons, P; Tower, E, Market Power and Buffer Stocks: Erratum, The Economic Record (March, 1993), pp. 107
  52. Tower, E, On Domestic Resource Cost, Journal of International Economic Integration (Spring, 1992), pp. 20-44
  53. E. Tower, On the Symmetry between Effective Tariffs and Value Added Subsidies, in Industrial Policy and International Trade, Volume 62 in Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis, edited by Victor Canto and J. Kimball Dietrich (1992), pp. 95-124, JAI Press
  54. Canto, V; Kaempfer, WH; Tower, E, On the Validity of the Lerner Neutrality and Symmetry Theorems in The Presence of Non-Traded Goods, Contemporary Studies in Economic and Financial Analysis, vol. 62 no. 87 (1992), pp. 125?28
  55. Christian Weber with Edward Tower, Empirical Models of the Effects of U.S. Protectionism: A Survey of the Recent Literature, Inaugural Issue, North American Review of Economics and Finance, vol. 1 no. 1 (Spring, 1990), pp. 163-79
  56. Weber, C; Tower, E, Empirical models of the effects of United States protection: A survey of recent literature, North American Review of Economics and Finance, vol. 1 no. 1 (January, 1990), pp. 163-179, Elsevier BV, ISSN 1042-752X [doi]  [abs]
  57. Loo, T; Tower, E, Agricultural liberalization, welfare, revenue and nutrition in developing countries, Agricultural Trade Liberalization (January, 1990), pp. 307-341  [abs]
  58. GANG, IN; TOWER, E, Allocating Jobs under a Minimum Wage: Queues vs. Lotteries, Economic Record, vol. 66 no. 3 (January, 1990), pp. 186-194, WILEY, ISSN 0013-0249 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]  [abs]
  59. Copeland, B; Tower, E; Webb, M, Quota Wars and Tariff Wars, Oxford Economic Papers (October, 1989), pp. 774-788
  60. Copeland, B; Tower, E; Webb, M, On negotiated quotas, tariffs, and transfers, Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 41 no. 1 (January, 1989), pp. 774-788, ISSN 0030-7653 [doi]
  61. Kaempfer, WH; Tower, E; Willett, TD, Performance-Contingent Protection, Economics and Politics, vol. 1 no. 3 (1989), pp. 261-275, WILEY [doi]  [abs]
  62. Tower, E, Excise Tax Evasion: Comment on Panagariya and Narayana, Public Finance no. 3 (1989), pp. 506-509
  63. Tower, BE; Christiansen, RE, A Model of the Effect of a Fertilizer Subsidy on Income Distribution and Efficiency in Malawi, Eastern Africa Economic Review (December, 1988)
  64. Tower, E, On the Dispersion of Optimum Tariffs on Goods with Fixed World Prices, International Review of Economics and Business (April, 1988), pp. 407-412
  65. Tower, E, Explaining the Yeh Paradox: A Comment, Eastern Economic Journal (April, 1988), pp. 189-192
  66. Gang, IN; Tower, E, The Stahl-Alexeev paradox: A note, Journal of Economic Theory, vol. 44 no. 1 (January, 1988), pp. 189-191, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-0531 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
  67. Csaplar, WW; Tower, E, Trade and industrial policy under oligopoly: Comment, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 103 no. 3 (January, 1988), pp. 599-602, Oxford University Press (OUP), ISSN 0033-5533 [doi]
  68. E. Tower and T. D. Willett, Enforceability and the Resolution of International Jurisdictional Conflicts: Comments on Abbott, Atwood and Ordover, in Symposium on Conflicts of Jurisdiction: 'Extraterritoriality of Economic Legislation', Law and Contemporary Policy, edited by Pamela Gann (Summer, 1987), pp. 189-96
  69. Tower, E; Pursell, GG, On Shadow Pricing Foreign Exchange, Non-Traded Goods and Labor in a Simple General Equilibrium Model, Oxford Economic Papers (June, 1987), pp. 318-332
  70. Tower, E; Pursell, GG; Han, K, Shadow Pricing in a Specific-Factors Model: Comment, The Canadian Journal of Economics, vol. 20 no. 2 (May, 1987), pp. 399-399, JSTOR, ISSN 0008-4085 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  71. Gan, KP; Tower, E, A general equilibrium cost- benefit approach to policy reform and project evaluation in Malaysia., The Singapore Economic Review, vol. 32 no. 1 (January, 1987), pp. 46-61  [abs]
  72. Tosini, SC; Tower, E, The textile bill of 1985: The determinants of congressional voting patterns, Public Choice, vol. 54 no. 1 (January, 1987), pp. 19-25, Springer Nature, ISSN 0048-5829 [doi]  [abs]
  73. Pursell, G; Tower, E, DRC criteria. Comment on Lucas, Journal of Development Economics, vol. 26 no. 1 (January, 1987), pp. 163-167, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0304-3878 [doi]  [abs]
  74. Lucas, REB; Pursell, G; Tower, E, Resolution Ex ante versus ex post DRC's and the possibility of negative shadow prices, Journal of Development Economics, vol. 26 no. 1 (January, 1987), pp. 173-174, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0304-3878 [doi]
  75. TOWER, E, INTERNATIONAL-TRADE REGIMES AND PRIVATE PROPERTY-RIGHTS - COMMENT, Contemporary Policy Issues, vol. 5 no. 2 (1987), pp. 13-15, WILEY [doi]
  76. Gang, IN; Tower, E, Differential Cash-in-Advance Constraints: A Good Reason for Protection in LDCS?, Eastern Africa Economic Review (December, 1986), pp. 193-195
  77. Hartigan, JC; Tower, E, The leontief question: A Cobb-Douglas approach to simulating the U.S. income distribution in Autarky, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 122 no. 4 (December, 1986), pp. 677-689, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]
  78. Feldman, DH; Tower, E, Optimal destabilizing speculation or why the optimum tariff may oscillate, De Economist, vol. 134 no. 3 (September, 1986), pp. 368-377, Springer Nature, ISSN 0013-063X [doi]  [abs]
  79. Feldman, DH; Tower, E, The Welfare Economics of an Unstable Real Exchange Rate, Southern Economic Journal, vol. 52 no. 3 (January, 1986), pp. 607-607, JSTOR, ISSN 0038-4038 (lead article.) [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  80. TOWER, E, INDUSTRIAL POLICY IN LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 4 no. 1 (January, 1986), pp. 23-35, WILEY, ISSN 0735-0007 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  81. Daniel, BC; Fried, H; Tower, E, Adjustment Speeds under Tariffs and Quotas in a Monetary Model of Balance of Payments, Journal of International Economics (May, 1985), pp. 373-380
  82. Appleyard, DR; Field, AJ; Tower, E, Further Analysis of the Effects of Offshore Assembly Provisions on the US Tariff Structure, Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 12 no. 4 (April, 1985), pp. 62-65, Emerald, ISSN 0144-3585 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]  [abs]
  83. Daniel, BC; Fried, HO; Tower, E, On the dynamic non-equivalence of tariffs and quotas in the monetary model of the balance of payments: Comment, Journal of International Economics, vol. 18 no. 3-4 (January, 1985), pp. 373-379, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [doi]  [abs]
  84. Fried, H; Tower, E, On Using a Single Tariff to Exploit Market Power on Many Traded Goods, Economia Internazionale (1985), pp. 318-322
  85. Feldman, DH; Tower, E, Profitable Destabilizing Speculation as Intertemporal Price Discrimination, The American Economist, vol. 28 no. 2 (Fall, 1984), pp. 60-63 (Errata, Spring 1985, 84.) [doi]
  86. Tower, E, On the functional relationship between distortions and welfare, Atlantic Economic Journal, vol. 12 no. 1 (March, 1984), pp. 65-66, Springer Nature, ISSN 0197-4254 [doi]
  87. Feldman, DH; Tower, E, Welfare gain from a stable exchange rate: Comment, Atlantic Economic Journal, vol. 12 no. 2 (January, 1984), pp. 65, Springer Nature, ISSN 0197-4254 [doi]
  89. TOWER, E, ON A QUICK AND DIRTY APPROACH TO ESTIMATING 2ND BEST OPTIMUM TARIFFS, Rivista Internazionale Di Scienze Economiche E Commerciali, vol. 31 no. 3 (1984), pp. 212-219, ISSN 0035-6751 [Gateway.cgi]
  90. Tower, E, Some Empirical Results on Trade and National Prosperity: Comment on Kindleberger, Cato Journal (Winter, 1983), pp. 639-644
  91. Tower, E, Making the Best Use of Trade Restrictions in the Presence of Foreign Market Power, Journal of International Economics (November, 1983), pp. 456-473
  92. Eaton, J; Grossman, G; Kaempfer, WH; Tower, E, On the Lerner Symmetry Theorem under Monopoly: Comment [on Ray], Quarterly Journal of Economics (August, 1983), pp. 529-537
  93. Tower, E, On the best use of trade controls in the presence of foreign market power, Journal of International Economics, vol. 15 no. 3-4 (January, 1983), pp. 349-365, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [doi]  [abs]
  94. Hartigan, JC; Tower, E, Trade Policy and the American Income Distribution, The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 64 no. 2 (May, 1982), pp. 261-261, JSTOR, ISSN 0034-6535 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  95. Kaempfer, WH; Tower, E, The balance of payments approach to trade tax symmetry theorems, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 118 no. 1 (March, 1982), pp. 148-165, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]
  96. Tower, E, Buffer stocks are better stabilizers than quotas, Journal of International Economics, vol. 11 no. 1 (January, 1981), pp. 113-115, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
  97. Allen, DL; Lewis, L; Tower, E, "U.S. Concessions in the Kennedy Round and Short Run Labor Adjustment Costs: Still Further Evidence, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Business (Fall, 1980), pp. 107-110
  98. Hillman, AL; Tower, E; Fishelson, G, On Water in the Quota, The Canadian Journal of Economics, vol. 13 no. 2 (May, 1980), pp. 310-310, JSTOR, ISSN 0008-4085 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  99. John Stuart Mill, Supplementary Comment (on Borcherding and Silverberg], Journal of Political Economy (February, 1980), pp. 208 (suggested by W. H. Kaempfer and E. Tower.)
  100. Kennedy, P; Tower, E, Dynamic Adjustment in an IS-LM Framework, Eastern Economic Journal (January, 1980), pp. 53-58
  101. Kennedy, P; Tower, E, Excess Demand in the IS-LM Model, Eastern Economic Journal, vol. 6 no. 1 (January, 1980), pp. 53-56
  102. E. Tower, Effective Market Classification, The New Cambridge School of Economic Policy and the Choice between Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, in Flexible Exchange Rates and the Balance of Payments: Essays in Memory of Egon Sohmen, edited by John S. Chipman and Charles P. Kindleberger (1980), pp. 231-56, Amsterdam: North-Holland
  103. Tower, E, The Choice between a Tariff and a Quota: Comment [on Vastrup], Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. heft 4 no. 3 (1980), pp. 580-581 [doi]
  104. Tower, E, The geometry of community indifference curves, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 115 no. 4 (December, 1979), pp. 680-700, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]  [abs]
  105. Dutton, J; Tower, E, Effective Protection and Market Distortions: Comment, Review of Economic Studies (July, 1979), pp. 561-563
  106. Tower, E, Notes on the Dynamics of Optimum Tariff Policy, Revista Internazionale Di Scienze Economiche E Commerciali (January, 1979), pp. 84-89
  107. Pedersson, G; Tower, E, On the long and short run relationship between the forward rate and the interest parity, Journal of Macroeconomics, vol. 1 no. 1 (Winter, 1979), pp. 65-77, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0164-0704 [doi]  [abs]
  108. Tower, E, Profit control in New Zealand*, New Zealand Economic Papers, vol. 13 no. 1 (January, 1979), pp. 1-23, Informa UK Limited, ISSN 0077-9954 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  109. Tower, E, Economic imperialism and resource nationalism. Comment on Kemp and Ohyama, Journal of International Economics, vol. 9 no. 3 (January, 1979), pp. 423-427, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [doi]  [abs]
  110. E. Tower, Comment on Jacob Dreyer's 'Countervailing Foreign Use of Monopoly Power', in Challenges to a Liberal International Economic Order, edited by R. Amacher, G. Haberler and T. D. Willett (1979), pp. 369-77, American Enterprise Institute
  111. Tower, E, The Optimum Incentive-Schedule Tariff, The Canadian Journal of Economics, vol. 11 no. 4 (November, 1978), pp. 726-726, JSTOR, ISSN 0008-4085 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  112. Tower, E; Sheer, A; Baas, HJ, Alternative Optimum Tariff Strategies as Devices for Transferring Real Income, Southern Economic Journal, vol. 45 no. 1 (July, 1978), pp. 18-18, JSTOR, ISSN 0038-4038 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  113. TOWER, E, EFFECTIVE PROTECTION OF CANADIAN EXPORTING INDUSTRY - FURTHER COMMENT, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Business, vol. 18 no. 4 (Winter, 1978), pp. 102-105, ISSN 0033-5797 (Erratum, Winter 1979.) [Gateway.cgi]
  114. Tower, E, Inelastic offer curves, stability and the difference between tariffs and quotas, Atlantic Economic Journal, vol. 5 no. 3 (December, 1977), pp. 64-67, Springer Nature, ISSN 0197-4254 [doi]
  115. Tower, E, Dynamic Stability and the Choice Between Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, The Economic Journal, vol. 87 no. 345 (March, 1977), pp. 81-81, Oxford University Press (OUP), ISSN 0013-0133 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  116. Tower, E, Ranking the optimum tariff and the maximum revenue tariff, Journal of International Economics, vol. 7 no. 1 (January, 1977), pp. 73-79, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [repository], [doi]
  117. Sweeney, RJ; Tower, E; Willett, TD, The ranking of alternative tariff and quota policies in the presence of domestic monopoly, Journal of International Economics, vol. 7 no. 4 (January, 1977), pp. 349-362, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
  118. R. E. Shields, E. Tower and T. D. Willett, Revaluation Can Be Inflationary: An Analysis of Demand Shifts in a Policy Dilemma Model, in The Effects of Exchange-Rate Adjustments, edited by Peter B. Clark, et al. (1977), pp. 62-69, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office
  119. Kemp, MC; Tower, E, On the Shape of the Trade Indifference Curve: Rejoinder to Batra, American Economic Review (September, 1976), pp. 709 (with errata, AER, March 1977, 255.) [repository]
  120. Tower, E, The Estimation of the Cost of Adjustment to External Disequilibria: Comment, Review of Economics and Statistics (August, 1976), pp. 382-383
  121. Tower, E, The Optimum Tariff Retaliation and Autarky, Eastern Economic Journal, vol. 3 no. 2 (April, 1976), pp. 72-75
  122. Tower, E, Money demand and the terms of trade, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 111 no. 4 (December, 1975), pp. 623-633, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]
  123. Tower, E, The Optimum Quota and Retaliation, Review of Economic Studies, vol. 42 no. 4 (October, 1975), pp. 623-623, Oxford University Press (OUP), ISSN 0034-6527 [Gateway.cgi], [doi]
  124. Tower, E, On the functional relationship between tariffs and welfare, Journal of International Economics, vol. 5 no. 2 (January, 1975), pp. 189-199, Elsevier BV, ISSN 0022-1996 [repository], [doi]  [abs]
  125. KEMP, MC; TOWER, E, NONTRADED GOODS, FACTOR MARKET DISTORTIONS, AND GAINS FROM TRADE - COMMENT, American Economic Review, vol. 65 no. 1 (1975), pp. 249-250, ISSN 0002-8282 [Gateway.cgi]
  126. TOWER, E, MAXIMUM REVENUE TARIFF, Malayan Economic Review, vol. 20 no. 2 (1975), pp. 33-37, ISSN 0047-5599 (reprinted with fewer errors, April 1976, 104- 11.) [Gateway.cgi]
  127. Tower, E, Exchange-Rate Change and Foreign Portfolio Investment, Economia Internazionale (August, 1974), pp. 564-571
  128. Tower, E; Courtney, MM, Exchange Rate Flexibility and Macroeconomic Stability, Review of Economics and Statistics (May, 1974), pp. 215-224
  129. Ross, R; Tower, E, More on the neutrality of forward market intervention, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 109 no. 4 (December, 1973), pp. 701-703, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]
  130. Tower, E, Commercial Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, Quarterly Journal of Economics (August, 1973), pp. 436-454 [repository]
  131. Dean, JW; Tower, E, More on Internal and External Balance in an Almost Classical World, Western Economic Journal, vol. 11 no. 2 (June, 1973), pp. 232-237 (and "Rejoinder," in the same issue, p. 240.) [doi]
  132. DEAN, JW; TOWER, E, REJOINDER, Economic Inquiry, vol. 11 no. 2 (January, 1973), pp. 240-240, WILEY [doi]
  133. Tower, E, Monetary and Fiscal Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates in the Inter-Run, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, vol. 877-96 (November, 1972)
  134. Tower, E, The Short-Run Effects of Monetary and Fiscal Policy under Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, Economic Record, vol. 48 no. 3 (September, 1972), pp. 411-423, WILEY [doi]
  135. Tower, E, Monetary and Fiscal Policy in a World of Capital Mobility: A Respecification, Review of Economic Studies, vol. 39 no. 3 (July, 1972), pp. 251-262, Oxford University Press (OUP) [doi]
  136. Tower, E; Willett, TD, More on Official Versus Market Financing of Payments Deficits and the Optimal Pricing of International Reserves, Kyklos, vol. fasc. 3 no. 3 (1972), pp. 537-552, WILEY [doi]
  137. Tower, E, More on the Welfare Cost of Inflationary Finance, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking (November, 1971), pp. 850-860
  138. Willett, TO; Tower, E, THE WELFARE ECONOMICS OF INTERNATIONAL ADJUSTMENT, in The Journal of Finance, The Journal of Finance, vol. 26 no. 2 (January, 1971), pp. 287-302, WILEY [doi]
  139. Willett, TD; Tower, E, Currency areas and exchange-rate flexibility, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 105 no. 1 (September, 1970), pp. 48-65, Springer Nature, ISSN 0043-2636 [doi]
  140. T. D. Willett and E. Tower, The Concept of Optimum Currency Areas and the Choice between Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates, in Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates: The Burgenstock Papers, edited by Fred Bergsten, et al. (1970), pp. 407-15, Princeton University Press
  141. Stein, JL; Tower, E, The Short-Run Stability of the Foreign Exchange Market, Review of Economics and Statistics (May, 1967), pp. 173-185 [repository]
  142. Leontief, WW; Morgan, A; Polenske, K; Simpson, D; Tower, E, The Economic Impact - Industrial and Regional - of an Arms Cut, Review of Economics and Statistics (August, 1965), pp. 217-241 [repository]

Chapters in Books

  1. Li, C; Tower, E; Zhang, R, Alternative measures of mutual fund performance: Ranking DFA, fidelity, and vanguard, in Handbook Of Applied Investment Research (January, 2020), pp. 417-476, ISBN 9789811222634 [doi]  [abs]
  2. Willett, TD; Tower, E, The concept of optimum currency areas and the choice between fixed and flexible exchange rates, in Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates (January, 2015), pp. 407-415, ISBN 1400867274
  3. Phillips, GA; Tower, E, Organized labor’s campaign contributions after the NAFTA vote: Rhetoric or retribution?, in Empirical Methods in International Trade: Essays in Honor of Mordechai Kreinin (January, 2004), pp. 169-186, ISBN 9781843768388 [doi]
  4. E. Tower, On Shadow Prices, Effective Protection, and Domestic Resource Cost, in Companion to Economic Thought, Chapter 30, edited by David Greenaway, Michael Bleaney and Ian Steward (1991), pp. 614-33, Routledge (Reprinted in A Guide to Modern Economics, Routledge, 1996.)
  5. T.Loo and E. Tower, Agricultural Liberalization, Welfare, Revenue and Nutrition in LDCS, in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, Chapter 11, edited by Ian Golden and Odin Knudsen (June, 1990), pp. 307-42, OECD/World Bank (Also published in French.)
  6. T. Loo and E. Tower, Agricultural Protectionism and the Less Developed Countries: The Relationship Between Agricultural Prices, Debt Servicing Capacities and the Need for Development Aid, in Tax Reform in Less Developed Countries, Chapter 2, edited by Andrew B. Stoeckel, David Vincent and Sandy Cuthbertson (1989), pp. 64-93, Duke University Press (Summarized on p. 59 of The Economist, June 4, 1988.)
  7. E. Tower and T. Loo, On Using Computable General Equilibrium Models to Facilitate Tax, Tariff and Other Policy Reforms in Less Developed Countries, in Tax Reform in Less Developed Countries, Chapter 11, edited by Malcolm S. Gillis (1989), pp. 391-416, Duke University Press
  8. P. L. Brock and E. Tower, Economic Liberalization in Less Developed Countries: Guidelines from the Empirical Evidence and Clarification of the Theory, in Economic Reform and Stabilization in Latin America, Chapter 2, edited by Connolly and C. Gonzalez-Vega (1987), pp. 19-44 (proceedings of a conference held in March 1985 in Santo Domingo.)

Reading Lists

  1. E. Tower, Economics Reading Lists, Course Outlines, Exams, Puzzles and Problems, 4th Edition (a 25-volume set) (September, 1995), Chapel Hill, Eno River Press (6765 pp.)
  2. E. Tower, Current Issues in International and Development Economics, Development I: Reading Lists (1995), pp. 244-45, Eno River Press
  3. E. Tower, Protection in Applied General Equilibrium Models: A Progression of Simple GAMS Programs to Illustrate Fundamental Issues in Tariff Policy, International Economics Reading Lists (1995), pp. 276-277, Eno River Press
  4. E. Tower, Intermediate Macroeconomics as a Lab Course, Macroeconomics Reading Lists (1995), pp. 209-219, Eno River Press
  5. E. Tower, Economics Reading Lists, Course Outlines, Exams, Puzzles and Problems, 3rd edition (a 25-volume set) (August, 1990), Durham, Eno River Press (6259 pp.)
  6. E. Tower, Economics Reading Lists, Course Outlines, Exams, Puzzles and Problems, 2nd edition (a 25-volume set) (August, 1985), Durham, Eno River Press (5023 pp.)
  7. E. Tower, Economics Reading Lists, Course Outlines, Exams, Puzzles and Problems (a 25-volume set of teaching materials from leading scholars and universities) (October, 1981), Durham, Eno River Press (5404 pp.)
  8. E. Tower, Economics Reading Lists and Course Outlines (a 15-volume set of reading lists by leading economists) (July, 1980), Durham, Eno River Press (2149 pp.)


  1. E. Tower, "January Theories", Barron's (January 8, 2001), pp. 42
  2. E. Tower, The January Barometer, Barron's (February 7, 2000), pp. 58
  3. E. Tower, A Tobacco Grab, The (Raleigh) News and Observer, (letter to the editor) (December 3, 1998)
  4. E. Tower, A Proper Trade Formula, International Herald Tribune (May 19, 1994) (Letter to the Editor.)

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